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# Astronomical formulae

Formulas compiled by Frank Sorensen 2002-2003. Last changed 2004-10-19. All page- or equation numbers refer to Carroll & Ostlie: "An introduction to modern astronomy", Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. 1996 Equations without numbers or references are from my own notes.

Side 1 af 36

Constants

Radiation constant The speed of light Gravitational constant Plancks constant Boltzmann's constant Luminosity of the sun Epoch correction Mass of electron Mass of Hydrogen atom Mass of proton Mass of sun Absolute bolometric magnitude of the sun Epoch correction Period of the Earth Universal gas constant Rydberg constant Stefan-Boltsman constant = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Cross section for Thompson electron scattering =

Side 2 af 36

Variables

acceleration Area Average distance from the sun Semimajor axis in ellipse Semimajor axis of object 1 (known) Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown) Centripetal acceleration Interstellar extinction coefficient Semimajor axis of reduced mass Angle subtended by semimajor axis Right ascension Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known) Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown) Apparent blue magnitude Semiminor axis in ellipse Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T Bolometric correction Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume Ionization energy Aperture Distance [cm] Distance [AU] Distance [pc] Absorptionline spreading Differential vertical optical depth Differential optical depth Declination Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum Change in right ascension Proper motion Change in declination Change in wave length Time interval Differential intensity

Side 3 af 36

Differential Luminosity Differential mass interval Differential mass interval inside star Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient Differential radiation pressure Differential heat interval Differential radius interval Differential distance Differential entropy interval Differential temperature interval Differential time interval Differential speed interval Differential volume interval Differential hydrogen mass fraction Eccentricity Total mechanical energy of system Energy of a photon Energy generation rate Energy generation rate due to gravity Focal ratio Force Radient Flux Flux of object 1 (known) Flux of object 2 (unknown) Focal length of eyepiece Focal length Focal length of objective Radiation pressure Flux at surface Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet Ratio of specific heats Adiabatic limit Pressure scale height Projection angle Initial intensity at wave length lambda Intensity at wavelength lambda Emission coefficient Kinetic energy Side 4 af 36 .

Opacity Opacity at wavelength lambda Luminosity Steplength Luminosity of object 1 (known) Luminosity of object 2 (unknown) Maximum radiative luminosity Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy Wavelength Wavelength of maximum intensity Observed wavelength Wavelength at rest Angular magnification Bolometric absolute magnitude Bolometric apparent magnitude Main quantum state number Total mass of star/planet/atom/object Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known) Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known) Mass of object 1 (known) Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Mass of object 2 (unknown) Average mass of gas particle Absolute blue magnitude Jeans mass Mass inside radius Absolute ultraviolet magnitude Absolute visual magnitude Mean molecular weight Proper motion Reduced mass Main quantum state number Number of atoms pr cm^3 Number of illuminated lines in the grating Number of particles/atoms Number of steps Order of diffraction lines Side 5 af 36 .

Time difference in years (Epoch) Total number density pr volume Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm) Number of atoms in ionization state i Index of refraction at wavelength lambda Number of particles moving at the speed v Frequency Momentum Paralax in arcseconds Period Pressure Pressure of free electrons Radiation pressure Nuclear energy generated pr particle Orbit radius Radius of/inside star/planet Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known) Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known) Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown) Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown) Distance at aphelion Jeans radius Distance at perihelion Density Distance traveled Synodic period Cross section for bound-free photoionization Collision cross section Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin) Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Optical depth of 21 cm line center Optical depth Incident angle Smallest angular seperation Apparent ultraviolet magnitude Inclination of rotational axis Internal energy Potential energy Side 6 af 36 .

Apparent visual magnitude Orbital velocity Speed Speed of stellar wind Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system Velocity at aphelion Rotational speed at equator Escape velocity Most probable speed Velocity at perihelion Radial velocity of object 1 (known) Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown) Radial velocity Root mean-squared speed of particles Tangential velocity Hydrogen Mass fraction Helium mass fraction Metal mass fraction Redshift Partition function Side 7 af 36 .

p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass Side 8 af 36 .16) Stefan-Boltsman equation Average distance from the sun Eq. p0030 (2.35) a Keplers 3rd law Eq. p0030 (2. p0077 (3. p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 Eq.6) Distance at aphelion Eq.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Eq.31) Orbital velocity at perihelion Orbital velocity at aphelion Semimajor axis in ellipse Eq. p0051 (2.Formulas acceleration Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law Area Eq. p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem Eq. p0052 (2.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq. p0074 (3.5) Distance at perihelion Eq. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis Semimajor axis of object 1 (known) Eq. p0050 (2. p0073 (3.30) Eq.

2) Change in right ascension by epoch Eq.Centripetal acceleration Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index Semiminor axis in ellipse Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem Side 9 af 36 .3) Change in declination by epoch Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known) Eq.2) Mass ratio of double stars Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown) Eq. p0206 (7. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass Angle subtended by semimajor axis Eq. p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 Eq. p0016 (1.2) Mass ratio of double stars Right ascension Eq. p0016 (1. p0206 (7.1) Effect of interstellar extinction Semimajor axis of reduced mass Eq. p0039 b Radial acceleration Interstellar extinction coefficient Eq. p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 Apparent blue magnitude Eq. p0438 (12.

p0277 (9. p0173 (6. p0083 b Bolometric correction Specific heat at constant pressure Eq. p0234 (8.6) Reyleigh criterion Eq.72) Ratio of specific heats Ionization energy Eq.20) The Planck function Bolometric correction Eq. p0166 (6.4) Proper motion Side 10 af 36 . p0081 (3.72) Ratio of specific heats Specific heat at constant volume Eq.7) Saha Aperture Eq. p0354 (10. p0019 (1.Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T Eq.23) Random walk displacement Distance [AU] Eq. p0354 (10. p0064 a Distance in AU from parallax in arc seconds Distance [pc] Eq.7) Focal ratio Distance [cm] Eq.

36) The radiation field Differential optical depth Eq. p0016 (1. p0206 a Eq. p0445 (12. p0266 (9.2) Change in right ascension by epoch Proper motion Eq.2) Eq.1) Eq.13) Optical depth Declination Eq.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center Change in right ascension Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation Differential vertical optical depth Eq. p0286 (9. p0206 b Distance from paralax in arcseconds Radient Flux Distance modulus Angle subtended by semimajor axis Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 Eq.6) Eq. p0018 Proper motion Side 11 af 36 .1) Effect of interstellar extinction Absorptionline spreading Eq. p0064 (3. p0206 Eq. p0438 (12. p0016 (1.Eq. p0067 (3. p0068 (3.2) Change in right ascension by epoch Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum Eq.

p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8) Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient Eq.39) b Redshift Eq. p0126 (5.3) Change in declination by epoch Change in wave length Eq.2) Doppler shift Grating resolution Time interval Eq. p0280 (9.45) Luminosity gradient Eq. p0016 (1.26) Pure emission Eq. p0319 (10.Change in declination Eq. p0342 (10. p0318 (10.27) Emission and absorption Differential Luminosity Eq. p0409 (11. p0130 (5.6) Radial acceleration Side 12 af 36 . p0341 a Energy generation rate Differential mass interval Eq. p0341 a Energy generation rate Eq. p0018 Proper motion Differential intensity Eq.8) Mass conservation equation Eq. p0110 (4.1) a Eq. p0280 (9.4) Mass loss rate Differential mass interval inside star Eq.

8) Differential distance Eq.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Differential radius interval Eq. p0342 (10.26) Pressure scale height Eq. p0360 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Eq.26) Pressure scale height Eq. p0319 (10. p0318 (10.45) Luminosity gradient Eq.6) Eq.8) Eq.87) Condition for convection Differential radiation pressure Eq. p0356 (10.Eq. p0352 (10.7) Eq. p0366 (10. p0286 (9.87) Condition for convection Eq. p0351 Radial acceleration Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Mass conservation equation Temperature gradient Eq. p0352 (10.13) Optical depth Side 13 af 36 . p0360 (10. p0318 (10. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.7) Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Eq.36) The radiation field Differential heat interval Eq. p0318 (10. p0266 (9.

p0384 a Mass conservation (10.8) Differential hydrogen mass fraction Eq.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Differential temperature interval Eq.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Eq. p0225 (8.6) Radial acceleration Eq. p0280 (9. p0267 (9. p0356 (10. p0351 Temperature gradient Eq.27) Emission and absorption Differential entropy interval Eq. Additional 2 Eq.Eq.15) Optical depth Eq. p0360 (10.87) Condition for convection Eq. p0366 (10.26) Pure emission Eq.4) Hydrogen depletionrate Mass loss rate Differential speed interval Eq.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Differential time interval Eq. p0280 (9. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate Side 14 af 36 . p0409 (11. p0318 (10. p0366 (10.1) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Differential volume interval Eq.

45) Luminosity gradient Eq.7) Focal ratio Force Eq. p0056 (2. p0051 (2. p0173 (6. p0050 (2. p0133 (5.Eccentricity Eq. p0341 a Eq.5) Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law Radient Flux Side 15 af 36 . p0366 (10.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion Total mechanical energy of system Eq.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Focal ratio Eq. p0131 (5. p0028 Eq. p0030 (2. Additional 2 Energy generation rate Hydrogen depletionrate Energy generation rate due to gravity Eq.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion Eq.3) Energy of a photon Eq.46) Total mechanical energy of system Energy of a photon Eq. p0030 (2.6) Phythagorean theorem Distance at perihelion Distance at aphelion Eq. p0342 (10.5) Energy of a photon Energy generation rate Eq.

p0174 (6.9) Angular magnification Radiation pressure Eq.9) Angular magnification Focal length Eq. p0161 (6. p0067 (3. p0067 (3. p0074 (3.2) Lensmakers formula Eq.3) Flux ratio Eq.2) Radient Flux Eq.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Flux of object 1 (known) Eq.4) Flux ratio Flux of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0073 (3.4) Flux ratio Focal length of eyepiece Eq. p0067 (3. p0073 (3. p0174 (6. p0067 (3. p0067 (3. p0173 (6.Eq.3) Flux ratio Eq.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq.7) Focal ratio Focal length of objective Eq.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Side 16 af 36 . p0074 (3.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq.

37) Radiative flux Eq. p0354 (10.72) Ratio of specific heats Eq.26) Pressure scale height Pressure scale height Eq. p0360 (10.7) Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Pressure scale height Eq.Eq.63) Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Projection angle Eq. p0211 (7.36) The radiation field Flux at surface Eq. p0286 (9.63) Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Ratio of specific heats Eq.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Adiabatic limit Eq. p0356 (10. p0039 (2.12) Acceleration of gravity Hydrostatic equilibrium Eq.87) Condition for convection Pressure scale height Eq. p0287 (9.87) Condition for convection Eq. p0360 (10. p0077 (3. p0352 (10.8) The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Side 17 af 36 .18) Surface Flux of a star Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet Eq. p0352 (10. p0352 (10. p0318 (10.

p0266 a Mean free path for photons Eq. p0280 (9.45) The virial theorem Opacity Eq. p0280 (9.16) Eq.27) Emission and absorption Kinetic energy Eq. p0266 (9.13) Eq.16) Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical depth Intensity at wavelength lambda Eq.8) a Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 .19) Maximum radiative luminosity Opacity at wavelength lambda Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Initial intensity at wave length lambda Eq.26) Pure emission Eq. p0280 (9.15) Optical depth Eq.27) Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical depth Emission and absorption Emission coefficient Eq.7) Eq. p0267 (9.27) Emission and absorption Luminosity Side 18 af 36 . p0280 (9. p0210 (7. p0463 (12.Eq. p0056 (2. p0267 (9. p0351 Optical depth Temperature gradient Eq. p0267 (9. p0210 (7.

p0077 (3. p0068 (3.7) Ratio of luminosities Luminosity of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0068 (3. p0077 (3. p0411 a Eq. p0068 (3. p0351 Temperature gradient Steplength Eq.16) Stefan-Boltsman equation Eq.8) Radient Flux Absolute bolometric magnitude of a star Eq.7) Ratio of luminosities Maximum radiative luminosity Eq. p0266 a Eq.Eq. p0081 (3. p0266 b Mean free path for photons Mean free path for photons Luminosity of object 1 (known) Eq. p0463 (12. p0081 The Planck function Frequency Side 19 af 36 .17) Luminosity of a spherical star Eq.19) Maximum radiative luminosity Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy Eq. p0067 (3.20) Eq.2) Eq.8) Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy at radius r0 Pressure structure of corona Wavelength Eq.23) Random walk displacement Eq. p0277 (9. p0411 (11.

15) Wiens displacement law Observed wavelength Eq. p0110 (4.8) b Eq.3) Eq. p0270 Grating resolution Energy of a photon Frequency .6) Eq. p0135 (5. p0126 (5. p0135 (5.1) a Eq. p0135 (5. p0166 (6. p0076 (3.1) a Doppler shift Wavelength at rest Eq. p0131 (5.a Eq.8) Eq.8) a Eq.7) Eq. Additional 1 Doppler shift Absorptionline spread due to rotation Angular magnification Eq. p0131 c Eq. p0174 (6.wave length Balmer lines Lyman lines Paschen lines Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom Reyleigh criterion Cross section for bound-free ionization of hydrogen in the n'th quantum state Wavelength of maximum intensity Eq.9) Angular magnification Side 20 af 36 . p0135 (5.2) Eq. p0130 (5.39) b Redshift Eq. p0126 (5.

p0068 (3.2) Eq. p0225 (8.8) Eq. p0083 b Eq. p0050 (2. p0229 (8. p0068 (3. p0438 (12.1) Distance modulus Absolute bolometric magnitude of a star Bolometric correction Effect of interstellar extinction Bolometric apparent magnitude Eq. p0034 Eq. p0229 (8. p0043 (2.30) Eq.Bolometric absolute magnitude Eq. p0039 (2. p0051 (2. Notes 1 Eq.6) Eq.31) Eq. p0068 (3.6) Distance modulus Eq.3) Eq.1) Effect of interstellar extinction Main quantum state number Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction Eq. p0135 (5.17) Eq.19) Newtons 2nd law Acceleration of gravity Escape velocity Orbital velocity at perihelion Orbital velocity at aphelion Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Most probable speed of a particle Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles Number of particles Maximum radiative luminosity Side 21 af 36 .1) Eq.12) Eq.8) Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom Total mass of star/planet/atom/object Eq. p0438 (12. p0463 (12.

35) b Eq.2) Eq. p0068 (3. p0211 (7.8) a Keplers 3rd law Reduced mass Mass ratio of double stars Mass ratio of binary stars Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Constraints: Circular orbit .3) Flux ratio Eq.7) Eq.5) Eq. p0052 (2.Radius is constant The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Ratio of radial velocities Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 .8) Eq.7) Ratio of luminosities Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Eq.3) Flux ratio Side 22 af 36 . p0067 (3. p0210 (7. p0210 (7. p0068 (3. p0052 (2. p0067 (3. p0067 (3. p0210 (7.7) Ratio of luminosities Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known) Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0210 Eq. p0046 Eq.4) Flux ratio Mass of object 1 (known) Eq.Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known) Eq.35) a Eq. p0206 (7.

8) a Keplers 3rd law Reduced mass Mass ratio of double stars Mass ratio of binary stars Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Constraints: Circular orbit . p0052 (2. p0052 (2. p0210 (7. p0083 a U-B Color index Jeans mass Eq. p0318 (10. p0210 (7.35) a Eq. p0046 Eq. p0210 (7.7) Eq. p0067 (3.Eq.5) Eq. p0449 (12.4) Flux ratio Mass of object 2 (unknown) Eq.2) Eq. p0206 (7.13) Mean molecular weight Absolute blue magnitude Eq. p0211 (7.8) Eq.7) Jeans mass Mass inside radius Eq.Radius is constant The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Ratio of radial velocities Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 . p0210 Eq. p0323 (10.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Average mass of gas particle Eq.6) Radial acceleration Side 23 af 36 .35) b Eq.

p0449 (12. p0083 a U-B Color index Absolute visual magnitude Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Adiabatic temperature gradient Number of particles Internal energy Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Jeans mass Jeans radius Proper motion Side 24 af 36 . p0328 (10. p0356 (10.7) Eq. Notes 1 Eq.Eq.8) Mean molecular weight Ideal gass law Constraints: Ideal gas .65) Eq. p0318 (10.The ideal gaslaw applies Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas .14) Eq.19) Eq.13) Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction Mean molecular weight Eq.26) Eq.81) Eq. p0326 (10. p0353 (10.7) Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Eq. p0323 (10.21) Eq. p0323 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Absolute ultraviolet magnitude Eq. p0356 (10. p0449 (12. p0325 (10.

p0135 (5. p0135 (5.2) Grating resolution Side 25 af 36 . p0135 (5.Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons Number of illuminated lines in the grating Eq.2) Grating resolution Number of particles/atoms Eq. p0277 (9. p0135 (5.4) Proper motion Reduced mass Eq. p0130 (5.23) Random walk displacement Order of diffraction lines Eq. p0270 Balmer lines Lyman lines Paschen lines Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom Cross section for bound-free ionization of hydrogen in the n'th quantum state Number of atoms pr cm^3 Eq.7) Eq. Notes 1 Number of particles Number of steps Eq.8) a Eq. p0130 (5. p0046 Reduced mass Main quantum state number Eq. p0019 (1.8) Eq.8) b Eq.

2) Lensmakers formula Number of particles moving at the speed v Eq.Time difference in years (Epoch) Eq. p0225 (8. p0161 (6. p0445 (12.1) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Frequency Eq. p0225 (8.7) Saha Index of refraction at wavelength lambda Eq.5) Energy of a photon Side 26 af 36 . p0016 (1.4) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Mass loss rate Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm) Eq. p0409 (11.wave length Momentum Eq.2) Change in right ascension by epoch Eq. p0234 (8. p0016 (1.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center Number of atoms in ionization state i Eq. p0131 (5.3) Energy of a photon Eq.1) Eq. p0131 c Frequency . p0133 (5. p0081 a Frequency Eq.3) Change in declination by epoch Total number density pr volume Eq.

The ideal gaslaw applies Pressure scale height Pressure scale height Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Condition for convection Side 27 af 36 . p0009b Eq. p0352 (10.35) a Eq. p0064 (3. p0210 (7.14) Eq. p0039 c Eq.63) Eq. p0052 (2. p0328 (10.7) Eq. p0210 (7.26) Eq. p0211 (7.26) Eq.Radius is constant The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 .35) b Eq.Paralax in arcseconds Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Pressure Eq. p0323 (10. p0009a Eq.8) a Synodic period of an inferior planet Synodic period of superior planet Keplers 3rd law Tangential speed Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Constraints: Circular orbit . p0352 (10.87) Ideal gass law Constraints: Ideal gas .1) Distance from paralax in arcseconds Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas . p0064 a Distance in AU from parallax in arc seconds Period Eq.8) Eq. p0360 (10. p0052 (2.

p0028 Eq.Eq.6) Acceleration of gravity Escape velocity Luminosity of a spherical star Radial acceleration Side 28 af 36 . p0039 (2. p0353 (10.35) b Constraints: Circular orbit . p0234 (8.9) Radiation pressure Nuclear energy generated pr particle Eq. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate Orbit radius Eq.8) Pressure structure of corona Pressure of free electrons Eq. p0039 b Eq. p0043 (2. p0342 (10.7) Saha Radiation pressure Eq. p0052 (2. p0261 (9. p0039 c Phythagorean theorem Radial acceleration Tangential speed Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Eq.Radius is constant Eq.12) Eq. p0318 (10.45) Luminosity gradient Radius of/inside star/planet Eq. p0077 (3. p0411 (11.65) Internal energy Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Eq.17) Eq.17) Eq.

p0319 (10.6) Distance at aphelion Jeans radius Eq. p0161 (6.8) Eq.8) Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Mass conservation equation Temperature gradient Adiabatic temperature gradient Mass conservation (10.2) Lensmakers formula Distance at aphelion Eq. p0351 Eq. p0356 (10.2) Lensmakers formula Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0206 (7. p0411 a Eq.2) Mass ratio of double stars Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown) Eq. p0030 (2.7) Eq.8) Mass loss rate Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy at radius r0 Pressure structure of corona Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known) Eq. p0384 a Eq. p0206 (7.81) Eq. p0409 (11.8) Jeans radius Side 29 af 36 .4) Eq.2) Mass ratio of double stars Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known) Eq. p0161 (6. p0449 (12. p0411 (11.Eq. p0318 (10.

p0323 (10. p0318 (10. p0384 a Eq. p0342 (10. p0266 a Eq. p0319 (10.63) Eq.8) Eq.13) Eq. p0351 Eq. p0280 (9. p0352 (10.8) Eq. p0449 (12.6) Eq.26) Eq.Distance at perihelion Eq.7) Eq. p0318 (10.45) Eq.15) Eq.14) Eq. p0409 (11.The ideal gaslaw applies Temperature gradient Pressure scale height Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Luminosity gradient Mass conservation (10.5) Distance at perihelion Density Eq.27) Eq.8) Mass loss rate Jeans mass Jeans radius Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Distance traveled Side 30 af 36 . p0266 (9.The ideal gaslaw applies Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas . p0280 (9. p0451 (12. p0328 (10. p0267 (9.26) Eq.7) Eq. p0449 (12. p0030 (2.4) Eq.16) Optical depth Mean free path for photons Optical depth Pure emission Emission and absorption Radial acceleration Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Mass conservation equation Ideal gass law Constraints: Ideal gas .

16) Eq. p0077 (3. p0267 (9. p0009b Synodic period of superior planet Cross section for bound-free photoionization Eq. p0081 (3.18) Eq. p0270 Cross section for bound-free ionization of hydrogen in the n'th quantum state Collision cross section Eq.20) Eq.2) Eq.15) Optical depth Synodic period Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin) Eq.15) Eq. p0225 (8. p0261 (9.1) Eq. p0077 (3.37) Eq.17) Eq. p0009a Synodic period of an inferior planet Eq. p0229 (8. p0323 Side 31 af 36 .9) Wiens displacement law Stefan-Boltsman equation Luminosity of a spherical star Surface Flux of a star The Planck function Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Most probable speed of a particle Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles Radiative flux Radiation pressure Ideal gass law Constraints: Eq. p0076 (3. p0077 (3. p0229 (8.Eq. p0287 (9.3) Eq.

26) Eq. p0445 (12.95) Eq. p0411 a Eq.16) Optical depth Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical depth Incident angle Side 32 af 36 . p0445 (12. p0351 Eq.7) Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas . p0353 (10. p0360 (10.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center Optical depth Eq. p0449 (12. p0234 (8.65) Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Temperature gradient Condition for convection Internal energy Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Energy generation rate due to gravity Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy at radius r0 Optical depth of 21 cm line center Jeans mass Jeans radius Saha Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Eq.8) Eq.7) Ideal gas .4) Eq.14) Eq. p0451 (12.16) Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Optical depth of 21 cm line center Eq.(10. p0267 (9. p0366 (10. p0449 (12.87) Eq.15) Eq. p0267 (9. p0328 (10.

13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Smallest angular seperation Eq. p0129 a Radial acceleration Speed relative to the sun Side 33 af 36 . Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation Internal energy Internal energy Eq.6) Reyleigh criterion Apparent ultraviolet magnitude Eq. p0056 (2. p0056 (2. p0074 (3.Eq. p0039 c Tangential speed Speed Eq.65) Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Potential energy Eq.46) Total mechanical energy of system Apparent visual magnitude Eq. p0073 (3. p0353 (10. p0083 a U-B Color index Inclination of rotational axis Eq.45) The virial theorem Eq. p0039 b Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction Orbital velocity Eq. p0166 (6.

1) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Speed of stellar wind Eq. p0225 (8. p0050 (2. p0051 (2.4) Mass loss rate Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1 Side 34 af 36 . p0043 (2. p0229 (8. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation Escape velocity Eq. p0409 (11.17) Escape velocity Most probable speed Eq.2) Most probable speed of a particle Velocity at perihelion Eq.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion Rotational speed at equator Eq.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion Radial velocity of object 1 (known) Eq. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars Velocity at aphelion Eq.Eq.

p0325 (10. p0110 (4.8) comparable to m2 Eq. p0019 (1.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0210 (7. p0326 (10. p0210 (7.7) Eq.39) a Redshift Eq.21) Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Side 35 af 36 .7) Sum of masses in a binary system Radial velocity Eq.8) a Ratio of radial velocities Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 . p0129 a Speed relative to the sun Root mean-squared speed of particles Eq. p0210 (7.19) Eq. p0210 (7. p0229 (8. p0210 (7.5) Eq.4) Proper motion Eq.3) Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles Tangential velocity Eq.5) Ratio of radial velocities Eq. p0129 a Speed relative to the sun Hydrogen Mass fraction Eq. p0018 Proper motion Eq.(7.

p0326 (10.19) Eq.21) Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Metal mass fraction Eq. p0325 (10.7) Saha Side 36 af 36 . p0234 (8.39) b Redshift Partition function Eq. p0110 (4. p0110 (4. p0326 (10.21) Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Redshift Eq.39) a Redshift Eq.Helium mass fraction Eq. p0325 (10.19) Eq.