Astronomical formulae

Formulas compiled by Frank Sorensen 2002-2003. Last changed 2004-10-19. All page- or equation numbers refer to Carroll & Ostlie: "An introduction to modern astronomy", Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. 1996 Equations without numbers or references are from my own notes.

Side 1 af 36

Constants
Radiation constant The speed of light Gravitational constant Plancks constant Boltzmann's constant Luminosity of the sun Epoch correction Mass of electron Mass of Hydrogen atom Mass of proton Mass of sun Absolute bolometric magnitude of the sun Epoch correction Period of the Earth Universal gas constant Rydberg constant Stefan-Boltsman constant = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Cross section for Thompson electron scattering =

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Variables
acceleration Area Average distance from the sun Semimajor axis in ellipse Semimajor axis of object 1 (known) Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown) Centripetal acceleration Interstellar extinction coefficient Semimajor axis of reduced mass Angle subtended by semimajor axis Right ascension Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known) Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown) Apparent blue magnitude Semiminor axis in ellipse Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T Bolometric correction Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume Ionization energy Aperture Distance [cm] Distance [AU] Distance [pc] Absorptionline spreading Differential vertical optical depth Differential optical depth Declination Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum Change in right ascension Proper motion Change in declination Change in wave length Time interval Differential intensity

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Differential Luminosity Differential mass interval Differential mass interval inside star Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient Differential radiation pressure Differential heat interval Differential radius interval Differential distance Differential entropy interval Differential temperature interval Differential time interval Differential speed interval Differential volume interval Differential hydrogen mass fraction Eccentricity Total mechanical energy of system Energy of a photon Energy generation rate Energy generation rate due to gravity Focal ratio Force Radient Flux Flux of object 1 (known) Flux of object 2 (unknown) Focal length of eyepiece Focal length Focal length of objective Radiation pressure Flux at surface Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet Ratio of specific heats Adiabatic limit Pressure scale height Projection angle Initial intensity at wave length lambda Intensity at wavelength lambda Emission coefficient Kinetic energy Side 4 af 36 .

Opacity Opacity at wavelength lambda Luminosity Steplength Luminosity of object 1 (known) Luminosity of object 2 (unknown) Maximum radiative luminosity Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy Wavelength Wavelength of maximum intensity Observed wavelength Wavelength at rest Angular magnification Bolometric absolute magnitude Bolometric apparent magnitude Main quantum state number Total mass of star/planet/atom/object Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known) Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known) Mass of object 1 (known) Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Mass of object 2 (unknown) Average mass of gas particle Absolute blue magnitude Jeans mass Mass inside radius Absolute ultraviolet magnitude Absolute visual magnitude Mean molecular weight Proper motion Reduced mass Main quantum state number Number of atoms pr cm^3 Number of illuminated lines in the grating Number of particles/atoms Number of steps Order of diffraction lines Side 5 af 36 .

Time difference in years (Epoch) Total number density pr volume Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm) Number of atoms in ionization state i Index of refraction at wavelength lambda Number of particles moving at the speed v Frequency Momentum Paralax in arcseconds Period Pressure Pressure of free electrons Radiation pressure Nuclear energy generated pr particle Orbit radius Radius of/inside star/planet Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known) Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known) Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown) Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown) Distance at aphelion Jeans radius Distance at perihelion Density Distance traveled Synodic period Cross section for bound-free photoionization Collision cross section Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin) Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Optical depth of 21 cm line center Optical depth Incident angle Smallest angular seperation Apparent ultraviolet magnitude Inclination of rotational axis Internal energy Potential energy Side 6 af 36 .

Apparent visual magnitude Orbital velocity Speed Speed of stellar wind Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system Velocity at aphelion Rotational speed at equator Escape velocity Most probable speed Velocity at perihelion Radial velocity of object 1 (known) Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown) Radial velocity Root mean-squared speed of particles Tangential velocity Hydrogen Mass fraction Helium mass fraction Metal mass fraction Redshift Partition function Side 7 af 36 .

p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass Side 8 af 36 . p0077 (3. p0050 (2.16) Stefan-Boltsman equation Average distance from the sun Eq.Formulas acceleration Eq.30) Eq.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Eq. p0051 (2.31) Orbital velocity at perihelion Orbital velocity at aphelion Semimajor axis in ellipse Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law Area Eq. p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 Eq. p0030 (2. p0052 (2. p0074 (3.6) Distance at aphelion Eq.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq. p0030 (2. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass Semimajor axis of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem Eq. p0073 (3. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis Semimajor axis of object 1 (known) Eq. p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 Eq.5) Distance at perihelion Eq.35) a Keplers 3rd law Eq.

p0206 b Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 Apparent blue magnitude Eq. p0206 c Semimajor axis of reduced mass Angle subtended by semimajor axis Eq.2) Mass ratio of double stars Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 (unknown) Eq. p0206 (7. p0438 (12. p0016 (1.Centripetal acceleration Eq.1) Effect of interstellar extinction Semimajor axis of reduced mass Eq.2) Mass ratio of double stars Right ascension Eq.3) Change in declination by epoch Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 (known) Eq. p0039 b Radial acceleration Interstellar extinction coefficient Eq. p0206 Angle subtended by semimajor axis Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index Semiminor axis in ellipse Eq. p0206 (7.2) Change in right ascension by epoch Eq. p0028 Phythagorean theorem Side 9 af 36 . p0206 a Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 Eq. p0016 (1.

p0234 (8.7) Focal ratio Distance [cm] Eq. p0277 (9. p0173 (6.6) Reyleigh criterion Eq.7) Saha Aperture Eq.20) The Planck function Bolometric correction Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction Specific heat at constant pressure Eq. p0166 (6.23) Random walk displacement Distance [AU] Eq.72) Ratio of specific heats Ionization energy Eq. p0354 (10.Blackbody intensity at wavelength lamda at Temperature T Eq.72) Ratio of specific heats Specific heat at constant volume Eq. p0019 (1. p0081 (3. p0064 a Distance in AU from parallax in arc seconds Distance [pc] Eq.4) Proper motion Side 10 af 36 . p0354 (10.

p0206 Eq. p0438 (12. p0016 (1. p0018 Proper motion Side 11 af 36 . p0068 (3.6) Eq. p0064 (3. p0206 a Eq.13) Optical depth Declination Eq.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center Change in right ascension Eq. p0016 (1.2) Eq.1) Effect of interstellar extinction Absorptionline spreading Eq.2) Change in right ascension by epoch Full width of 21 cm line at half maximum Eq.1) Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation Differential vertical optical depth Eq.Eq. p0445 (12. p0266 (9. p0206 b Distance from paralax in arcseconds Radient Flux Distance modulus Angle subtended by semimajor axis Angle subtended by semimajor axis 1 Angle subtended by semimajor axis 2 Eq.36) The radiation field Differential optical depth Eq. p0286 (9. p0067 (3.2) Change in right ascension by epoch Proper motion Eq.

p0342 (10. p0341 a Energy generation rate Differential mass interval Eq. p0016 (1. p0341 a Energy generation rate Eq.8) Differential pressure interval Luminosity gradient Eq. p0280 (9.27) Emission and absorption Differential Luminosity Eq.4) Mass loss rate Differential mass interval inside star Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10. p0318 (10.6) Radial acceleration Side 12 af 36 .Change in declination Eq. p0130 (5. p0409 (11.3) Change in declination by epoch Change in wave length Eq.1) a Eq.2) Doppler shift Grating resolution Time interval Eq.45) Luminosity gradient Eq. p0018 Proper motion Differential intensity Eq.26) Pure emission Eq. p0110 (4. p0126 (5. p0319 (10. p0280 (9.39) b Redshift Eq.8) Mass conservation equation Eq.

p0360 (10. p0318 (10. p0286 (9.26) Pressure scale height Eq.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Eq.36) The radiation field Differential heat interval Eq. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.6) Eq. p0366 (10. p0318 (10.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Differential radius interval Eq.87) Condition for convection Differential radiation pressure Eq.13) Optical depth Side 13 af 36 .8) Eq.87) Condition for convection Eq.26) Pressure scale height Eq.45) Luminosity gradient Eq. p0318 (10.8) Differential distance Eq. p0266 (9. p0352 (10. p0356 (10. p0342 (10. p0360 (10. p0319 (10.7) Eq.Eq.7) Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Eq. p0351 Radial acceleration Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Mass conservation equation Temperature gradient Eq. p0352 (10.

p0280 (9.6) Radial acceleration Eq. Additional 2 Eq.27) Emission and absorption Differential entropy interval Eq. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate Side 14 af 36 . p0267 (9. p0384 a Mass conservation (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Differential time interval Eq. p0280 (9.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Eq. p0318 (10. p0360 (10. p0366 (10.4) Hydrogen depletionrate Mass loss rate Differential speed interval Eq.8) Differential hydrogen mass fraction Eq.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Differential temperature interval Eq. p0366 (10.Eq. p0409 (11. p0225 (8. p0351 Temperature gradient Eq.15) Optical depth Eq. p0356 (10.87) Condition for convection Eq.26) Pure emission Eq.1) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Differential volume interval Eq.

p0030 (2. p0341 a Eq.3) Energy of a photon Eq. p0131 (5. p0051 (2. Additional 2 Energy generation rate Hydrogen depletionrate Energy generation rate due to gravity Eq. p0034 Newtons 2nd law Radient Flux Side 15 af 36 . p0133 (5.45) Luminosity gradient Eq. p0173 (6.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion Eq. p0050 (2. p0366 (10.5) Energy of a photon Energy generation rate Eq.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion Total mechanical energy of system Eq.Eccentricity Eq. p0028 Eq.95) Energy generation rate due to gravity Focal ratio Eq.5) Eq. p0056 (2.46) Total mechanical energy of system Energy of a photon Eq. p0342 (10. p0030 (2.6) Phythagorean theorem Distance at perihelion Distance at aphelion Eq.7) Focal ratio Force Eq.

9) Angular magnification Radiation pressure Eq. p0074 (3.2) Lensmakers formula Eq.3) Flux ratio Eq.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq.9) Angular magnification Focal length Eq. p0074 (3. p0067 (3. p0174 (6. p0067 (3. p0067 (3. p0174 (6.Eq. p0067 (3. p0067 (3.7) Focal ratio Focal length of objective Eq.3) Flux ratio Eq. p0173 (6.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq. p0161 (6. p0073 (3.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Flux of object 1 (known) Eq. p0073 (3.4) Flux ratio Flux of object 2 (unknown) Eq.4) Flux ratio Focal length of eyepiece Eq.2) Radient Flux Eq.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Side 16 af 36 .

p0211 (7.8) The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Side 17 af 36 .Eq. p0360 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Adiabatic limit Eq.7) Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Pressure scale height Eq. p0318 (10.12) Acceleration of gravity Hydrostatic equilibrium Eq. p0352 (10.87) Condition for convection Eq. p0352 (10. p0356 (10. p0354 (10.87) Condition for convection Pressure scale height Eq.63) Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Projection angle Eq. p0077 (3.72) Ratio of specific heats Eq.37) Radiative flux Eq.26) Pressure scale height Pressure scale height Eq.63) Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Ratio of specific heats Eq. p0039 (2. p0287 (9.18) Surface Flux of a star Acceleration of gravity on the surface of star/planet Eq. p0360 (10. p0286 (9. p0352 (10.36) The radiation field Flux at surface Eq.

7) Eq. p0267 (9. p0266 (9. p0463 (12. p0267 (9.13) Eq. p0280 (9.26) Pure emission Eq. p0280 (9. p0056 (2. p0267 (9.27) Emission and absorption Kinetic energy Eq. p0280 (9. p0266 a Mean free path for photons Eq.15) Optical depth Eq. p0210 (7.8) a Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 . p0351 Optical depth Temperature gradient Eq. p0210 (7.16) Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical depth Intensity at wavelength lambda Eq.27) Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical depth Emission and absorption Emission coefficient Eq.27) Emission and absorption Luminosity Side 18 af 36 . p0280 (9.Eq.45) The virial theorem Opacity Eq.16) Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Initial intensity at wave length lambda Eq.19) Maximum radiative luminosity Opacity at wavelength lambda Eq.

Eq.2) Eq. p0411 a Eq.8) Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy at radius r0 Pressure structure of corona Wavelength Eq. p0266 a Eq. p0067 (3. p0077 (3.20) Eq. p0068 (3. p0411 (11. p0463 (12.16) Stefan-Boltsman equation Eq. p0068 (3.7) Ratio of luminosities Luminosity of object 2 (unknown) Eq.19) Maximum radiative luminosity Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy Eq. p0077 (3. p0351 Temperature gradient Steplength Eq.7) Ratio of luminosities Maximum radiative luminosity Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons Mean free path for photons Luminosity of object 1 (known) Eq. p0068 (3. p0277 (9.23) Random walk displacement Eq. p0081 (3.17) Luminosity of a spherical star Eq.8) Radient Flux Absolute bolometric magnitude of a star Eq. p0081 The Planck function Frequency Side 19 af 36 .

6) Eq. p0270 Grating resolution Energy of a photon Frequency . p0131 (5. p0135 (5.1) a Doppler shift Wavelength at rest Eq.8) b Eq.8) Eq.wave length Balmer lines Lyman lines Paschen lines Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom Reyleigh criterion Cross section for bound-free ionization of hydrogen in the n'th quantum state Wavelength of maximum intensity Eq. p0135 (5. p0076 (3. Additional 1 Doppler shift Absorptionline spread due to rotation Angular magnification Eq. p0135 (5.3) Eq. p0174 (6. p0126 (5.8) a Eq.a Eq.15) Wiens displacement law Observed wavelength Eq.39) b Redshift Eq. p0126 (5.2) Eq.1) a Eq. p0166 (6.9) Angular magnification Side 20 af 36 .7) Eq. p0131 c Eq. p0135 (5. p0130 (5. p0110 (4.

Bolometric absolute magnitude Eq.8) Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom Total mass of star/planet/atom/object Eq.2) Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction Eq. p0043 (2.8) Eq.1) Distance modulus Absolute bolometric magnitude of a star Bolometric correction Effect of interstellar extinction Bolometric apparent magnitude Eq. p0039 (2. p0068 (3. p0438 (12. p0135 (5. p0229 (8. p0438 (12. p0229 (8. p0068 (3. p0068 (3. Notes 1 Eq.6) Distance modulus Eq.6) Eq. p0225 (8. p0463 (12.12) Eq.17) Eq.1) Eq. p0051 (2.19) Newtons 2nd law Acceleration of gravity Escape velocity Orbital velocity at perihelion Orbital velocity at aphelion Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Most probable speed of a particle Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles Number of particles Maximum radiative luminosity Side 21 af 36 . p0083 b Eq.1) Effect of interstellar extinction Main quantum state number Eq. p0034 Eq.31) Eq. p0050 (2.30) Eq.3) Eq.

Radius is constant The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Ratio of radial velocities Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 . p0210 (7.2) Eq.3) Flux ratio Side 22 af 36 . p0206 (7.8) Eq. p0046 Eq.35) a Eq. p0052 (2. p0068 (3. p0052 (2.Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 1 (known) Eq.3) Flux ratio Eq.5) Eq.35) b Eq. p0211 (7. p0067 (3.7) Eq. p0067 (3.8) a Keplers 3rd law Reduced mass Mass ratio of double stars Mass ratio of binary stars Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Constraints: Circular orbit . p0210 (7. p0210 Eq. p0067 (3. p0210 (7. p0068 (3.4) Flux ratio Mass of object 1 (known) Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Bolometric absolute magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Eq.7) Ratio of luminosities Bolometric magnitude of object 2 (unknown) Eq.7) Ratio of luminosities Bolometric magnitude of object 1 (known) Eq.

7) Eq. p0052 (2. p0067 (3. p0318 (10. p0449 (12. p0211 (7. p0046 Eq.35) a Eq. p0210 (7. p0206 (7.35) b Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Average mass of gas particle Eq.4) Flux ratio Mass of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0052 (2. p0210 Eq.Eq.5) Eq.2) Eq. p0323 (10.8) Eq. p0210 (7.13) Mean molecular weight Absolute blue magnitude Eq.Radius is constant The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Ratio of radial velocities Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 . p0210 (7. p0083 a U-B Color index Jeans mass Eq.8) a Keplers 3rd law Reduced mass Mass ratio of double stars Mass ratio of binary stars Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Constraints: Circular orbit .6) Radial acceleration Side 23 af 36 .7) Jeans mass Mass inside radius Eq.

26) Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Adiabatic temperature gradient Number of particles Internal energy Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Jeans mass Jeans radius Proper motion Side 24 af 36 . p0356 (10.81) Adiabatic temperature gradient Absolute ultraviolet magnitude Eq.13) Eq. p0449 (12.19) Eq.8) Mean molecular weight Ideal gass law Constraints: Ideal gas .The ideal gaslaw applies Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas . p0083 b Bolometric correction Mean molecular weight Eq.81) Eq.65) Eq. p0325 (10. p0356 (10.7) Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Eq. p0323 (10. Notes 1 Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index Absolute visual magnitude Eq. p0353 (10. p0328 (10.7) Eq.21) Eq. p0449 (12.Eq.14) Eq. p0326 (10. p0318 (10. p0323 (10.

p0130 (5. p0270 Balmer lines Lyman lines Paschen lines Generalized energylevels in the hydrogen atom Cross section for bound-free ionization of hydrogen in the n'th quantum state Number of atoms pr cm^3 Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons Number of illuminated lines in the grating Eq. p0135 (5. p0135 (5. p0046 Reduced mass Main quantum state number Eq.23) Random walk displacement Order of diffraction lines Eq.8) a Eq. Notes 1 Number of particles Number of steps Eq.Eq.8) Eq.2) Grating resolution Side 25 af 36 . p0130 (5. p0019 (1. p0135 (5.7) Eq. p0277 (9. p0135 (5.4) Proper motion Reduced mass Eq.2) Grating resolution Number of particles/atoms Eq.8) b Eq.

1) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Frequency Eq. p0133 (5. p0409 (11. p0081 a Frequency Eq. p0445 (12. p0161 (6. p0131 (5. p0234 (8. p0131 c Frequency .2) Change in right ascension by epoch Eq. p0016 (1.3) Change in declination by epoch Total number density pr volume Eq.4) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Mass loss rate Column density of neutral hydrogen (in unit 1/cm) Eq. p0225 (8.3) Energy of a photon Eq. p0225 (8.5) Energy of a photon Side 26 af 36 .4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center Number of atoms in ionization state i Eq.7) Saha Index of refraction at wavelength lambda Eq.1) Eq.wave length Momentum Eq.2) Lensmakers formula Number of particles moving at the speed v Eq.Time difference in years (Epoch) Eq. p0016 (1.

26) Eq.35) a Eq.26) Eq. p0052 (2.8) a Synodic period of an inferior planet Synodic period of superior planet Keplers 3rd law Tangential speed Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Constraints: Circular orbit .8) Eq. p0009b Eq. p0360 (10.14) Eq. p0328 (10.1) Distance from paralax in arcseconds Eq.7) Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas . p0064 a Distance in AU from parallax in arc seconds Period Eq.87) Ideal gass law Constraints: Ideal gas . p0052 (2. p0323 (10.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Pressure Eq.63) Eq. p0211 (7. p0009a Eq. p0352 (10. p0210 (7.Paralax in arcseconds Eq. p0064 (3.35) b Eq. p0039 c Eq. p0210 (7.Radius is constant The mass function of a binary system m1 comparable to m2 Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 .The ideal gaslaw applies Pressure scale height Pressure scale height Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Condition for convection Side 27 af 36 . p0352 (10.

8) Pressure structure of corona Pressure of free electrons Eq. p0052 (2. p0039 c Phythagorean theorem Radial acceleration Tangential speed Keplers 3rd law assuming circular orbit Eq. p0043 (2. p0028 Eq.17) Eq.17) Eq.35) b Constraints: Circular orbit .65) Internal energy Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Eq.Radius is constant Eq.6) Acceleration of gravity Escape velocity Luminosity of a spherical star Radial acceleration Side 28 af 36 .7) Saha Radiation pressure Eq. p0261 (9.45) Luminosity gradient Radius of/inside star/planet Eq.Eq. p0234 (8. p0353 (10. p0318 (10. p0039 (2. p0342 (10. p0077 (3. p0411 (11. Additional 2 Hydrogen depletionrate Orbit radius Eq.12) Eq. p0039 b Eq.9) Radiation pressure Nuclear energy generated pr particle Eq.

p0449 (12.8) Jeans radius Side 29 af 36 .2) Lensmakers formula Distance at aphelion Eq.Eq. p0411 a Eq. p0161 (6.4) Eq.2) Mass ratio of double stars Radius of curvature of surface 2 (unknown) Eq. p0356 (10. p0411 (11.6) Distance at aphelion Jeans radius Eq. p0206 (7. p0030 (2.8) Mass loss rate Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy at radius r0 Pressure structure of corona Distance to center of mass of object 1 (known) Eq. p0409 (11.8) Eq. p0319 (10.81) Eq.2) Lensmakers formula Distance to center of mass of object 2 (unknown) Eq.7) Eq. p0206 (7.8) Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Mass conservation equation Temperature gradient Adiabatic temperature gradient Mass conservation (10.2) Mass ratio of double stars Radius of curvature of surface 1 (known) Eq. p0351 Eq. p0318 (10. p0384 a Eq. p0161 (6.

The ideal gaslaw applies Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas .The ideal gaslaw applies Temperature gradient Pressure scale height Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Luminosity gradient Mass conservation (10. p0323 (10.45) Eq. p0451 (12.27) Eq.16) Optical depth Mean free path for photons Optical depth Pure emission Emission and absorption Radial acceleration Hydrostatic equilibrium Constraints: Hydrostatic equilibrium Mass conservation equation Ideal gass law Constraints: Ideal gas .15) Eq. p0266 a Eq.14) Eq.6) Eq.5) Distance at perihelion Density Eq. p0384 a Eq.Distance at perihelion Eq. p0342 (10. p0266 (9. p0328 (10.26) Eq. p0030 (2. p0280 (9.7) Eq.8) Eq.26) Eq.8) Eq. p0449 (12.4) Eq. p0318 (10. p0351 Eq. p0318 (10. p0352 (10. p0449 (12.63) Eq.13) Eq.7) Eq.8) Mass loss rate Jeans mass Jeans radius Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Distance traveled Side 30 af 36 . p0267 (9. p0319 (10. p0280 (9. p0409 (11.

p0077 (3. p0009a Synodic period of an inferior planet Eq. p0270 Cross section for bound-free ionization of hydrogen in the n'th quantum state Collision cross section Eq. p0261 (9.37) Eq.15) Optical depth Synodic period Eq. p0287 (9.20) Eq. p0076 (3.18) Eq.15) Eq. p0081 (3. p0225 (8.9) Wiens displacement law Stefan-Boltsman equation Luminosity of a spherical star Surface Flux of a star The Planck function Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Most probable speed of a particle Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles Radiative flux Radiation pressure Ideal gass law Constraints: Eq. p0229 (8. p0077 (3. p0229 (8. p0267 (9.17) Eq.3) Eq.2) Eq.Eq.1) Eq. p0266 b Mean free path for photons Temperature / Effective temperature (Kelvin) Eq. p0323 Side 31 af 36 . p0077 (3. p0009b Synodic period of superior planet Cross section for bound-free photoionization Eq.16) Eq.

p0445 (12.8) Eq. p0445 (12. p0351 Eq. p0366 (10.4) Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Temperature gradient Condition for convection Internal energy Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Energy generation rate due to gravity Approximate ratio of proton potential and kinetic energy at radius r0 Optical depth of 21 cm line center Jeans mass Jeans radius Saha Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Eq.The ideal gaslaw applies Total pressure (gas + radiation) Constraints: Ideal gas .14) Eq.95) Eq. p0328 (10. p0234 (8. p0353 (10. p0449 (12.16) Optical depth Intensity of ray travelling through gass from an optical depth Incident angle Side 32 af 36 . p0267 (9.15) Eq.7) Eq.16) Free-fall time for a homologous collapse Optical depth of 21 cm line center Eq.4) Optical depth of 21 cm line center Optical depth Eq.(10.87) Eq. p0451 (12.7) Ideal gas . p0411 a Eq. p0360 (10.26) Eq. p0267 (9. p0449 (12.65) Eq.

p0353 (10.46) Total mechanical energy of system Apparent visual magnitude Eq. p0039 c Tangential speed Speed Eq. p0083 a U-B Color index Inclination of rotational axis Eq.13) Radiation pressure (absorption) Eq. p0074 (3. p0166 (6. p0073 (3. p0056 (2.14) Radiation pressure (reflection) Smallest angular seperation Eq.45) The virial theorem Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation Internal energy Internal energy Eq.Eq. p0083 b Bolometric correction Orbital velocity Eq.6) Reyleigh criterion Apparent ultraviolet magnitude Eq. p0129 a Radial acceleration Speed relative to the sun Side 33 af 36 . p0056 (2. p0039 b Eq.65) Constraints: Nonreletavistic gass Potential energy Eq.

p0225 (8. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars Velocity at aphelion Eq.31) Orbital velocity at aphelion Rotational speed at equator Eq. p0211 The mass function of a binary system m1 Side 34 af 36 .4) Mass loss rate Speed of star 1 (known) in binary system Eq.1) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function Speed of stellar wind Eq. p0409 (11. p0210 Mass ratio of binary stars Speed of star 2 (unknown) in binary system Eq. Additional 1 Absorptionline spread due to rotation Escape velocity Eq.30) Orbital velocity at perihelion Radial velocity of object 1 (known) Eq.2) Most probable speed of a particle Velocity at perihelion Eq. p0051 (2. p0050 (2.Eq. p0043 (2. p0229 (8.17) Escape velocity Most probable speed Eq.

7) Sum of masses in a binary system Radial velocity Eq.8) comparable to m2 Eq. p0129 a Speed relative to the sun Hydrogen Mass fraction Eq. p0129 a Speed relative to the sun Root mean-squared speed of particles Eq.4) Proper motion Eq.m2 is negliable compared to m1 Radial velocity of object 2 (unknown) Eq. p0210 (7.39) a Redshift Eq. p0019 (1.3) Root-mean-squared speed of thermal particles Tangential velocity Eq. p0018 Proper motion Eq.21) Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Side 35 af 36 . p0210 (7. p0110 (4.(7. p0229 (8.5) Ratio of radial velocities Eq. p0210 (7. p0326 (10.19) Eq.5) Eq. p0210 (7.8) a Ratio of radial velocities Sum of masses in a binary system Mass function assuming m2 << m1 Constraints: m2 << m1 . p0325 (10.7) Eq. p0210 (7.

p0110 (4. p0325 (10.Helium mass fraction Eq.39) a Redshift Eq. p0326 (10.21) Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Metal mass fraction Eq. p0325 (10.19) Eq. p0234 (8.7) Saha Side 36 af 36 .19) Eq. p0326 (10.39) b Redshift Partition function Eq.21) Mean molecular weight for neutral gas Mean molecular weight for completely ionized gas Redshift Eq. p0110 (4.

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