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Physics

Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers

Subject : Physics
Nature of the Physical World and Measurement
1. Scope of Physics - Answer (click here)
2. Physics, Technology and Society - Answer (click here)
3. Forces of nature - Answer (click here)
4. Measurement - Answer (click here)
5. Derived quantities and their units - Answer (click here)
6. SI standards - Answer (click here)
7. Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols - Answer
(click here)
8. Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities - Answer (click here)
9. Determination of distance, mass, time - Answer (click here)
10. Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments - Answer (click here)
11. Measurement: Significant figures - Answer (click here)
12. Measurement: Rounding off - Answer (click here)
13. Classification of Errors in Measurement - Answer (click here)
14. Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)
15. Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis - Answer (click here)

Kinematics
1. Kinematics - Rest and Motion - Answer (click here)
2. Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion) - Answer (click here)
3. Equations of motion - Answer (click here)
4. Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time
graph - Answer (click here)
5. Representation of a vector quantities - Answer (click here)
6. Different types of vectors - Answer (click here)
7. Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors - Answer
(click here)
8. Subtraction of vectors - Answer (click here)
9. Resolution of vectors and rectangular components - Answer (click here)
10. Multiplication of two vectors - Answer (click here)
11. Projectile motion - Answer (click here)
12. Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally - Answer (click here)
13. Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique
projection) - Answer (click here)
14. Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
15. Three types of the inertia - Answer (click here)
16. Examples for Newton's first law of motion - Answer (click here)
17. Newton's second law of motion - Answer (click here)
18. Impulsive force and Impulse of a force - Answer (click here)
19. Newton's third Law of motion - Answer (click here)
20. Applications of Newton s third law of motion - Answer (click here)
21. Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum - Answer
(click here)
22. Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces - Answer (click here)
23. Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces - Answer (click here)
24. Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's
theorem - Answer (click here)
25. Uniform circular motion - Answer (click here)
26. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity - Answer (click here)
27. Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction -
Answer (click here)
28. Applications of centripetal forces - Answer (click here)
29. Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding - Answer
(click here)
30. Motion in a vertical circle - Answer (click here)
31. Motion on a level circular road - Answer (click here)
32. Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force - Answer (click
here)
33. Potential energy and Kinetic energy - Answer (click here)
34. Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement -
Answer (click here)
35. Conservative forces and non-conservative forces - Answer (click here)
36. Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision - Answer (click
here)

Dynamics of Rotational Motion


1. Centre of mass - Answer (click here)
2. Centre of gravity - Answer (click here)
3. Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium - Answer (click here)
4. Rotational motion of rigid bodies - Answer (click here)
5. Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body - Answer
(click here)
6. Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes
theorem - Answer (click here)
7. Moment of a force - Answer (click here)
8. Couple and moment of the couple (Torque) - Answer (click here)
9. Angular momentum of a rigid body - Answer (click here)
10. Relation between torque and angular acceleration - Answer (click here)
11. Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration - Answer (click here)

Gravitation and Space Science


1. Newton's law of gravitation - Answer (click here)
2. Acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
3. Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth - Answer (click here)
4. Variation of acceleration due to gravity - Answer (click here)
5. Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy - Answer
(click here)
6. Inertial mass and Gravitational mass - Answer (click here)
7. Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet - Answer
(click here)
8. Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy - Answer (click here)
9. Geo-stationary satellites and Polar satellites - Answer (click here)
10. Uses of satellites - Answer (click here)
11. Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch
Vehicles (Rockets) - Answer (click here)
12. Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels - Answer (click here)
13. The Solar system - Answer (click here)
14. Kepler's laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods -
Answer (click here)
15. Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets - Answer
(click here)
16. Conditions for life on any planet - Answer (click here)
17. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system - Answer
(click here)
18. Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system - Answer (click here)
19. Milky Way galaxy - Answer (click here)
20. Origin of the Universe - Answer (click here)

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids


1. Mechanics of Solids and Fluids - Answer (click here)
2. Intermolecular or interatomic forces - Answer (click here)
3. Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
4. Experimental verification of Hooke's law - Answer (click here)
5. Study of stress - strain relationship - Answer (click here)
6. Three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
7. Relation between the three moduli of elasticity - Answer (click here)
8. Determination of Young's modulusby Searle's method - Answer (click here)
9. Applications of modulus of elasticity - Answer (click here)
10. Pressure due to a liquid column - Answer (click here)
11. Pascal's law and effect of gravity - Answer (click here)
12. Applications of Pascal's law: Hydraulic lift and brake - Answer (click here)
13. Co-efficient of viscosity - Answer (click here)
14. Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow - Answer (click here)
15. Stoke's law (for highly viscous liquids) - Answer (click here)
16. Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille's flow
method - Answer (click here)
17. Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force - Answer (click
here)
18. Experiments to demonstrate surface tension - Answer (click here)
19. Molecular theory of surface tension - Answer (click here)
20. Fluid Surface energy and surface tension - Answer (click here)
21. Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble -
Answer (click here)
22. Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity - Answer (click here)
23. Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise
method - Answer (click here)
24. Factors affecting and Applications surface tension - Answer (click here)
25. Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy - Answer (click
here)
26. Fluid Equation of continuity - Answer (click here)
27. Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)
28. Application of Bernoulli's theorem - Answer (click here)

Oscillations
1. The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM - Answer
(click here)
2. Important terms in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
3. Dynamics of harmonic oscillations - Answer (click here)
4. Angular harmonic oscillator - Answer (click here)
5. Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring - Answer (click here)
6. Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube - Answer (click here)
7. Oscillations of a simple pendulum - Answer (click here)
8. Laws of pendulum - Answer (click here)
9. Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion - Answer (click here)
10. Types of oscillations - Answer (click here)

Wave Motion
1. Characteristics of wave motion - Answer (click here)
2. Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion -
Answer (click here)
3. Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave -
Answer (click here)
4. Velocity of wave in different media - Answer (click here)
5. Laplace?s correction - Answer (click here)
6. Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases - Answer (click here)
7. Equation of a plane progressive wave - Answer (click here)
8. Characteristics of progressive wave - Answer (click here)
9. Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level - Answer (click here)
10. Applications of reflection of sound waves - Answer (click here)
11. Applications of refraction of sound - Answer (click here)
12. Superposition principle of waves - Answer (click here)
13. Interference of waves - Answer (click here)
14. Experimental demonstration of interference of sound - Answer (click here)
15. Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats - Answer (click here)
16. Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves - Answer (click
here)
17. Standing waves in strings - Sonometer - Answer (click here)
18. Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes - Answer (click here)
19. Resonance air column apparatus - Answer (click here)
20. Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications - Answer (click here)

Heat and Thermodynamics


1. Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction - Answer (click here)
2. Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases - Answer (click here)
3. Pressure exerted by a gas - Answer (click here)
4. Degrees of freedom of molecule - Answer (click here)
5. Law of equipartition of energy - Answer (click here)
6. Thermal equilibrium - Answer (click here)
7. Molar specific heat capacity of a gas - Answer (click here)
8. First law of thermodynamics - Answer (click here)
9. Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation) - Answer (click here)
10. Indicator diagram (P-V diagram) - Answer (click here)
11. Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion - Answer
(click here)
12. Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion - Answer
(click here)
13. Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes - Answer (click
here)
14. Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's
statement - Answer (click here)
15. Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations -
Answer (click here)
16. Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences - Answer (click
here)
17. Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation - Answer (click here)
18. Perfect black body - Answer (click here)
19. Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling - Answer (click here)
20. Surface temperature of the Sun - Answer (click here)
21. Angstrom pyrheliometer - Answer (click here)

Ray Optics
1. Reflection of light - Answer (click here)
2. Image in a plane mirror - Answer (click here)
3. Reflection at curved surfaces - Answer (click here)
4. Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
5. Applications of Total internal reflection - Answer (click here)
6. Michelson's method - Answer (click here)
7. Importance of velocity of light - Answer (click here)
8. Refraction of light - Answer (click here)
9. Refraction at a spherical surface - Answer (click here)
10. Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification - Answer (click
here)
11. Combination of thin lenses in contact - Answer (click here)
12. Refraction of light through a prism - Answer (click here)
13. Dispersion of light and Dispersive power - Answer (click here)
14. Spectrometer - Answer (click here)
15. Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer - Answer (click here)
16. Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism -
Answer (click here)
17. Formation of rainbows - Answer (click here)
Magnetism
1. Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements - Answer (click here)
2. Basic properties of magnets - Answer (click here)
3. Force between two magnetic poles - Answer (click here)
4. Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic
dipole (Bar magnet) - Answer (click here)
5. Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet -
Answer (click here)
6. Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet - Answer (click here)
7. Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
8. Tangent law - Answer (click here)
9. End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer - Answer (click here)
10. Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer - Answer
(click here)
11. Magnetic properties of materials - Answer (click here)
12. Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances -
Answer (click here)
13. Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss - Answer (click here)
14. Uses of ferromagnetic materials - Answer (click here)

Electrostatics
1. Electrostatics - frictional electricity - Answer (click here)
2. Basic properties of electric charge - Answer (click here)
3. Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field,
Electric Field Intensity (E) - Answer (click here)
4. Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines
of forces - Answer (click here)
5. Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between
electric field and potential - Answer (click here)
6. Gauss's law and its applications - Answer (click here)
7. Electrostatic induction - Answer (click here)
8. Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor - Answer (click
here)
9. Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and
construction - Answer (click here)

Current Electricity
1. Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity -
Answer (click here)
2. Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel - Answer (click
here)
3. Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer - Answer (click here)
4. Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors -
Answer (click here)
5. Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors - Answer (click here)
6. Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell -
Answer (click here)
7. Electric energy and electric power - Answer (click here)
8. Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification
of Faraday's laws of electrolysis - Answer (click here)
9. Electric cells and Voltaic cell - Answer (click here)
10. Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell - Answer (click here)
11. Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary
cells - Answer (click here)

Effects of Electric Current


1. Applications of Joule heating - Answer (click here)
2. Seebeck effect - Answer (click here)
3. Neutral and Inversion temperature - Answer (click here)
4. Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π) - Answer (click here)
5. Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ) - Answer (click here)
6. Thermopile - Answer (click here)
7. Biot - Savart Law - Answer (click here)
8. Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent
galvanometer - Answer (click here)
9. Solenoid and Right hand palm rule - Answer (click here)
10. Magnetic Lorentz force - Answer (click here)
11. Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of
Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
12. Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type
moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer - Answer
(click here)
13. Heating effect : Joule's law - Answer (click here)
14. Verification of Joule's law - Answer (click here)
15. Magnetic effect of current - Answer (click here)
16. Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current - Answer (click
here)
17. Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current - Answer (click here)
18. Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction - Answer (click here)
19. Ampere's Circuital Law - Answer (click here)
20. Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current - Answer (click
here)
21. Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron - Answer (click here)
22. Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field - Answer (click
here)
23. Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field - Answer
(click here)
24. Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors - Answer
(click here)
25. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field -
Answer (click here)
26. Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter - Answer (click here)
27. Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter - Answer (click here)
28. Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Answer (click here)
29. The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron - Answer (click here)

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


1. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) -
Three phase - Answer (click here)
2. Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current - Answer (click here)
3. Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a
transformer - Answer (click here)
4. Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
5. Magnetic flux - Answer (click here)
6. Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
7. Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction - Answer (click here)
8. Lenz's law - Answer (click here)
9. Self Induction - Answer (click here)
10. Coefficient of self induction - Answer (click here)
11. Self inductance of a long solenoid - Answer (click here)
12. Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction - Answer (click here)
13. Methods of producing induced emf - Answer (click here)
14. AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase - Answer (click here)
15. Eddy currents - Answer (click here)
16. Transformer - Answer (click here)
17. Long distance power transmission - Answer (click here)
18. Alternating current - Answer (click here)
19. AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor - Answer (click here)
20. Choke coil: Construction and Working - Answer (click here)
Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics
1. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life - Answer (click here)
2. Uses of electromagnetic spectrum - Answer (click here)
3. Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum,
Absorption Spectra - Answer (click here)
4. Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence - Answer (click here)
5. Theories of light : Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic
theory, Quantum theory - Answer (click here)
6. Scattering of light : Tyndal scattering, Raman effect - Answer (click here)
7. Wave front : Huygen's principle - Answer (click here)
8. Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
- Answer (click here)
9. Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory - Answer (click here)
10. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction - Answer (click here)
11. Diffraction grating explanation with Theory - Answer (click here)
12. Polarisation of transverse waves - Answer (click here)
13. Double refraction - Answer (click here)
14. Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid - Answer (click here)
15. Nicol prism and Types of crystals - Answer (click here)
16. Optical activity - Answer (click here)
17. Specific rotation - Answer (click here)
18. Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics - Answer (click here)
19. Characteristics of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
20. Hertz experiment - Answer (click here)
21. Types of spectra - Answer (click here)
22. Theories of light - Answer (click here)
23. Scattering of light - Answer (click here)
24. Wave front - Answer (click here)
25. Superposition principle - Answer (click here)
26. Diffraction - Answer (click here)
27. Polarisation - Answer (click here)

Atomic Physics
1. Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of
electrons - Answer (click here)
2. Properties of Cathode rays - Answer (click here)
3. Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays - Answer (click
here)
4. Thomson's method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an
electron - Answer (click here)
5. Millikan's oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron -
Answer (click here)
6. Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
7. Rutherford's α - particle scattering experiment - Answer (click here)
8. Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
9. Bohr atom model - Answer (click here)
10. Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram - Answer (click
here)
11. Excitation and ionization potential of an atom - Answer (click here)
12. Shortcomings of Bohr's theory - Answer (click here)
13. Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks - Answer (click here)
14. Production of X-rays - Modern Coolidge tube - Answer (click here)
15. Types of X-rays: Soft and Hard X-rays - Answer (click here)
16. Properties of X-rays - Answer (click here)
17. Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X-rays - Answer (click here)
18. Laue experiment - Answer (click here)
19. Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction - Answer (click here)
20. Bragg's X-ray spectrometer - Answer (click here)
21. X-ray spectra - continuous and characteristic X-ray spectra - Answer (click
here)
22. Moseley's law and Applications of Moseley's law - Answer (click here)
23. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X-rays - Answer (click
here)
24. Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser - Answer (click here)
25. Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click here)
26. Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level - Answer (click
here)
27. Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser - Answer (click
here)

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


1. Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation - Answer (click here)
2. Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect - Answer (click here)
3. Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current - Answer (click
here)
4. Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential - Answer
(click here)
5. Laws of photoelectric emission - Answer (click here)
6. Einstein's photoelectric equation - Answer (click here)
7. Photoelectric cells and their types, applications - Answer (click here)
8. de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron - Answer (click
here)
9. Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations - Answer
(click here)
10. Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference - Answer (click here)
11. Special theory of relativity - Answer (click here)
12. Einstein's mass-energy equivalence - Answer (click here)

Nuclear Physics
1. Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size - Answer
(click here)
2. Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve - Answer (click here)
3. Bainbridge mass spectrometer - Determination of isotopic masses of
nuclei - Answer (click here)
4. Nuclear force and Radioactivity - Answer (click here)
5. Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays - Answer (click here)
6. Radioactive displacement law - Answer (click here)
7. Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons - Answer (click here)
8. Artificial radioactivity - Answer (click here)
9. Applications of radio-isotopes - Answer (click here)
10. Biological hazards of nuclear radiations - Answer (click here)
11. Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators - Answer
(click here)
12. Geiger - Muller counter: Construction and Operation - Answer (click here)
13. Energy released in Nuclear fission - Answer (click here)
14. Radioactive Chain reaction - Answer (click here)
15. Atom bomb - Principle and construction - Answer (click here)
16. Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses - Answer (click here)
17. Nuclear power programme in India - Answer (click here)
18. Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy - Answer (click here)
19. Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers -
Answer (click here)
20. Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles - Answer (click here)

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


1. Semiconductors: Energy band in solids - Answer (click here)
2. Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy
gap - Answer (click here)
3. Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap -
Answer (click here)
4. Electrons and holes in semiconductors - Answer (click here)
5. Intrinsic semiconductor - Answer (click here)
6. Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor - Answer (click here)
7. PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics - Answer
(click here)
8. PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier - Answer (click
here)
9. Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms - Answer (click here)
10. Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator - Answer (click here)
11. Light Emitting Diode (LED) - Answer (click here)
12. Junction transistor - Answer (click here)
13. Working of a PNP transistor - Answer (click here)
14. Transistor circuit configurations - Answer (click here)
15. Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration -
Answer (click here)
16. Transistor as a switch - Answer (click here)
17. Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working - Answer (click here)
18. Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias - Answer (click here)
19. Single stage CE amplifier - Answer (click here)
20. Multistage amplifiers - Answer (click here)
21. Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and - Answer (click here)
22. Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation - Answer (click
here)
23. Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit - Answer (click here)
24. Essentials of LC oscillator - Answer (click here)
25. Colpitt's oscillator - Answer (click here)
26. Integrated circuit (IC) - Answer (click here)
27. Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels -
Answer (click here)
28. Basic logic gates using discrete components - Answer (click here)
29. Operational amplifier (OP - AMP) - Answer (click here)
30. Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP - Answer (click
here)
31. Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference
amplifier - Answer (click here)
32. Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) - Answer (click here)
33. Multimeter - Answer (click here)

Communication Systems
1. Propagation of electromagnetic waves - Answer (click here)
2. Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages,
Limitations - Answer (click here)
3. Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages - Answer
(click here)
4. Phase modulation (PM) - Answer (click here)
5. Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section - Answer
(click here)
6. Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver - Answer (click here)
7. Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube - Answer
(click here)
8. Television: Scanning and synchronising - Answer (click here)
9. Monochrome picture tube - Answer (click here)
10. Monochrome TV transmission - Answer (click here)
11. Monochrome TV receiver - Answer (click here)
12. RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar -
Answer (click here)
13. Analog communication and digital communication - Answer (click here)
14. Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile - Answer (click here)
15. Wire and Cable - Answer (click here)
16. Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications - Answer (click
here)
17. Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits - Answer (click here)