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Review Article

Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in


Dentistry: An Update
Sagrika Shukla 1, Ashi Chug 2, Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar 3

El diagnóstico preciso y la planificación del tratamiento son la columna vertebral de cualquier tratamiento médico; por
2 Dentistry and Maxillofacial

Abstracto
esta razón, se introdujo de haz cónico tomografía computarizada (CBCT) y ha sido ampliamente utilizado. La tecnología
Surgery, All India Institute of
Medical Sciences, CBCT proporciona una visualización de imágenes en tres dimensiones, lo que permite la ubicación exacta y el alcance

Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India, de las lesiones o cualquier región anatómica. Por la misma razón, CBCT no sólo puede ser utilizado para los campos
3 Division of Prosthodontics and
quirúrgicos, sino también para campos como la endodoncia, prostodoncia y ortodoncia para la planificación del
Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of
tratamiento adecuado y el cuidado dental eficaz. El objetivo y la importancia clínica de esta revisión son actualizar los
1 Dentistry and
Dentistry, McGill University,
médicos dentales sobre las aplicaciones CBCT en cada especialidad dental para un diagnóstico adecuado y un
Montreal, Canada
tratamiento más predecible.

Received : 24‑12‑16.
Accepted : 25‑10‑17. palabras clave: Anatomical variation, cone beam computed tomography, dental technology,

Published : 30‑11‑17. pathology, radiology, three‑dimensional, X‑ray


CBCT’s introduction in dentistry, dental clinicians could Departments of

Introduction not only have profound knowledge of oral pathology but could also

W
enhance the access to a detailed view of the underlying structures
in 1895
ilhelm in a wavelength
C. Röntgen range
discovered (the X‑rays) which became a
electromagnetism and their relations. This 3D image was groundbreaking since the
very important diagnostic tool.[ 1] This discovery unleashed a great process of decision‑making became simpler and the recognition of
later, CBCT started to appear in dental research publications.[ 4] With
source of knowledge of the human body breaking the constraints of the bony defects from different angles became easier. The aim of this
medical science and enabling doctors to diagnose and treat manuscript is to describe the CBCT function concept and its
pathologies accurately. It was after 14 years that X‑rays were application in dental and maxillofacial conditions.
recognized in dentistry by Dr. Walkhoff, a dentist in Braunschweig,
Germany. The discovery of X‑rays was the basis for improved
methods of scientific
Inc., introduced evaluation
3D dental such
software as the cone
in dentistry beamand
in 1988, computed
2 years
tomography (CBCT). Interestingly, this technology took almost 40 Materials and Methods
years to evolve and become available for clinicians. CBCT has This narrative review gathered literature from
evolved from CT scan; a technique invented in 1967 by the British peer‑reviewed articles published in indexed journals available in
engineer Godfrey Hounsfield.[ 2] The first prototype of clinical CBCT PubMed and other web‑based resources. The article and literature
scanner was originally devised as a cost‑effective and efficient used for this publication has been summarized in Table 1.
introduced in Europe in 1998 and the US in 2001.[ 3] Columbia Scientific
method for obtaining cross‑sectional three‑dimensional (3D) images
for radiotherapy and later (1982) for angiography.[ 3]
A pplicAtions in dentistry
Oral surgery
An oral surgeon can analyze the size, extent, and location of a tumor
or cyst, its penetration into surrounding structures, and relation to vital
CBCT’s commercial availability was delayed for a decade and was first
structures such as nerves

Address for correspondence: Dr. Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar, Faculty of


Dentistry, McGill University, Stratchona Anatomy and Dentistry Building, 3640
University Street, Rm M/65, Montreal,
Quebec, H3A 0C7, Canada.
E‑mail: kelvin.afrashtehfar@mail.mcgill.ca

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For reprints contact: reprints@medknow.com

How to cite this article: Shukla S. Chug A, Afrashtehfar KI. Role of cone beam computed
DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_516_16
tomography in diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry: An update. J Int Soc Prevent
Communit Dent 2017;7:S125-36.

© 2017 Diario de la Sociedad Internacional de Odontología Preventiva y Comunitaria | Publicado por Wolters Kluwer - Medknow S125
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Shukla, et al.: CBCT in dentistry

Tabla 1: Resumen de la literatura utilizado para esta publicación


Autor Estudio de Diseño de la muestra Año Resumen de métodos tamaño Conclusión
Filler AG 2009 Revisión - Una serie constante de los avances en la física, En general, las arenas competitivas de la propiedad
las matemáticas, computadoras, y ciencia de la académica, intelectual, y los aspectos sociales de estos
imagen clínica han transformado desarrollos históricos parecen haber actuado para
progresivamente el diagnóstico y tratamiento de estimular el avance de la tecnología
trastornos neurológicos y neuroquirúrgicos en
los 115 años transcurridos entre el
descubrimiento de los rayos X y el advenimiento
de alta resolución de difusión basada funcional
RM

Bhattacharyya KB 2016 Revisión - Un artículo de revisión se centra en el artículo informativo sobre el trabajo de Godfrey
trabajo de Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield Newbold Hounsfield y sus contribuciones al
campo de la medicina
Liguori C et al. Revisión de 2015 - El artículo se centra en la historia, La introducción de la TC es uno de los hitos más
componentes y funcionamiento de CBCT importantes logrados en los últimos 40 años de clínica y
biomédica de imágenes toma una investigación más
robustos y fiables como una técnica de evaluación para los
pacientes en todos los entornos clínicos

Orentlicher G et al. 2012 Revisión - La introducción de las nuevas tecnologías de New 3D technologies for dental implants have opened
diagnóstico y planificación de tratamiento en 3D en new avenues to clinicians for accurate and predictable
la implantología dental muestra una colocación diagnosis, planning, and treatment Knowledge of CT
precisa y predecible de los implantes como el plan scans, proprietary treatment planning software, the
de tratamiento virtual es ahora una realidad. Tales complete treatment process protocols, and guided
técnicas han revolucionado el diagnóstico de surgery instrumentation and techniques are
implante dental y el tratamiento instrumental to successful treatment outcomes

Ogawa T et al. 2007 Case series 10‑OSA Ten patients with OSA and ten non‑OSA The OSA group presented a concave‑ or

10‑non‑OSA control individuals were imaged using elliptic‑shaped airway and the non‑OSA group
CBCT (Newtom QR‑DVT9000) to comparepresented a concave‑, round‑, or square‑shaped
their upper airway structure airway, showing characteristics of OSA airway that
may contribute to distinguishing OSA cases from
non‑OSA cases

Araki M et al. 2007 Case report ‑ A case of odontogenic myxoma showing CBCT may prove extremely useful in clarifying
a cyst‑like pattern with a partially thick detailed internal structure and the state of margins
but vague and unclear radiopaque
border between the left mandibular
second premolar and first molar on
rotational panoramic radiography

Nair MK et al. 2007 Case report ‑ Incidental finding of a potentially This report assumes significance in the light of
life‑threatening large fusiform aneurysm of
widespread use of CBCT by dental clinicians for
the internal carotid artery at the level of routine diagnostic tasks without a formal interpretation
the posterior communicating artery in a being carried out on all such studies
patient

Contd...

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Shukla, et al.: CBCT in dentistry

Table 1: Contd...
Author Year Study design Sample size Method summary Conclusion
Bianchi A et al. 2010 Case series 10 Ten patients with craniomaxillofacial Simulations in orthognathic surgery for
deformations underwent CBCT before skull‑maxillofacial deformities using CBCT
surgery. Using the SurgiCase CMF acquisition are reliable, in addition to the low
software, the data were reconstructed in radiation exposure, and could become the reference
3D, and various osteotomies were standard to plan surgical treatment
simulated in a 3D virtual environment by
applying different surgical procedures. At
6 months after surgery, the patients
underwent repeat CBCT

Swennen GR et al. 2009 Case series 10 A double CBCT scan procedure with a The results show the potential for a double CBCT
modified wax bite wafer to augment the 3Dscan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to set
virtual skull model with a detailed dental up a 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with
surface was used. The impressions of the detailed dental surface
dental arches and the wax bite wafer were
scanned using a high‑resolution
standardized CBCT scanning protocol.
Surface‑based rigid registration using ICPs
was used to fit the virtual models on the
wax bite wafer. Automatic rigid point‑based
registration of the wax bite wafer on the
patient scan was performed to implement
the digital virtual dental arches into the
patient’s skull model

Uchida Y et al. 2009 Case study Cadavers for: ALL for the mandibular canal and the Large variations in measurements were observed,
CBCT ‑ 4, mandibular ICD at its origin was measured both for ALL and ICD, no fixed distance mesially
anatomy ‑ 71 and compared in cadavers using anatomy from the mental foramen should be considered
and CBCT to safely install endosseous safe. The ALL and the ICD can be estimated from
implants in the most distal area of the the CBCT measurement
interforaminal region

Worthington P et al. 2010 The authors outline clinical goals for la planificación del implante virtual utilizando datos CBCT
implant planning and placement and permite a los médicos crear y visualizar el resultado final
describe the anatomical and prosthetic antes de iniciar el tratamiento. exploraciones CBCT son
requirements for successful implant precisos y rentables y se pueden utilizar para lograr el
placement. They also present imaging resultado clínico deseado
solutions, including CBCT scanning and
software analysis, to the clinical goals

Un Alqerban et al. 2013 Estudio de caso Prueba - 32 conjuntos de diagnóstico radiográficas la planificación del tratamiento quirúrgico de los caninos
preoperatorias 2D y 3D se analizaron superiores retenidos no fue significativamente diferente entre
posteriormente por 6 observadores. las imágenes panorámicas y CBCT
evaluaciones preoperatorias se llevaron a
cabo por el cirujano tratante. pruebas de
McNemar, la regresión logística jerárquica, y
los modelos lineales mixtos se utilizaron para
explorar la diferencia entre 2D y 3D

Cont ...

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Shukla, et al .: CBCT en odontología

Tabla 1: Cont ...


Autor Estudio de Diseño de la muestra Año Resumen de métodos tamaño Conclusión
Dang V 2009 Revisión - De PubMed y otras fuentes de datos CBCT es una mejor herramienta en la evaluación y el
relacionados, opinión con respecto a tratamiento de problemas dentales complejos
funcionamiento y las ventajas de CBCT

Bittencourt LP et al. 2011 Estudio de caso 12 pacientes que usan las imágenes de TC respecto a la media El sitio interradicular más segura para la inserción minitornillo
valores de desviación estándar distancia en la mandíbula estaba entre los primeros y segundos
interradicular y se obtuvieron a una altura molares, mientras que en el maxilar superior, entre los
de 2, 5, 8, y 11 mm desde la cresta ósea caninos y los primeros premolares
alveolar. Las medias se compararon con
datos de la media de la literatura

Tyndall DA et al. 2008 Revisión - This article focuses on applications of Only a modest amount of research has been
CBCT to dentoalveolar disease and undertaken in the field of CBCT and dentoalveolar
conditions, as applied in the practice applications More in vitro and in vitro studies are
of general dentistry, periodontics, and needed 3. More clinical studies preferably random
endodontics double blind clinical trials

CBCT and caries research results are mixed for


proximal caries and few data exist for occlusal and pit
and fissure caries at this time CBCT imaging for caries
should be limited to nonrestored teeth For periodontal
disease, CBCT is superior to 2D imaging but no more
accurate than 2D for bone height CBCT for
endodontic purposes appears to be the most
promising use of CBCT

Scarfe WC et al. 2009 Review ‑ CBCT is a diagnostic imaging modality Specific situations, both pre‑ and post‑operatively,
that provides high‑quality, accurate 3D where the understanding of spatial relationships
representations of the osseous elementsafforded by CBCT facilitates diagnosis and
of the maxillofacial skeleton. CBCT influences treatment. CBCT is a useful task‑specific
systems are available that provide small imaging modality and an important technology in
field of view images at low dose with comprehensive endodontic evaluation
sufficient spatial resolution for
applications in endodontic diagnosis,
treatment guidance, and posttreatment
evaluation

Cohenca N et al. 2007 Review 3 The purpose of this review is to describe The NewTom 3G DVT 9000 provided valuable
the advantages and disadvantages of information that helps to determine the type and
each technique and the clinical severity of the injury to establish appropriate
application for dentoalveolar trauma. treatment plan and its implementation
Three clinical cases are described to
illustrate the potential use of the NewTom
3G for diagnosis and treatment plan of
dentoalveolar traumatic injuries

Contd...

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Shukla, et al.: CBCT in dentistry

Table 1: Contd...
Author Year Study design Sample size Method summary Conclusion
Cotton TP et al. 2007 Review ‑ CBVT (CT) imaging captures a cylindrical CBVT has great potential to become a valuable
volume of data in one acquisition and thus tool in the modern endodontic practice
offers distinct advantages over conventional
medical CT, including increased accuracy,
higher resolution, scan‑time reduction, and
dose reduction

John V 2008 Case report ‑ This paper reports on the conservative Advances in contemporary endodontic practice allow
nonsurgical endodontic management of the clinician to meet the technical and biological goals
an upper right lateral incisor diagnosed of endodontic treatment of a wide range of clinical
with infected dens invaginatus (Oehlers’ situations. A thorough examination is needed to
Type III) and associated acute apical identify and manage such anomalies earlier to
abscess, while maintaining vitality of facilitate predictable conservative management
the surrounding pulp. The use of
contemporary endodontic techniques in
the diagnosis, treatment planning, and
management of the case is highlighted

Tsurumachi T et al. 2007 Case report ‑ Value of the 3DX cone beam computerizedThis case illustrates successful application of 3DX
radiography system is illustrated by the cone beam computerized radiography system in
case of a fractured endodontic instrument planning endodontic surgery
protruding into the maxillary sinus

Young GR 2007 Case report ‑ A clinical case is reported where labial The sinus tract resolved with radiographic evidence
postperforation in a maxillary central of healing at 1‑year recall
incisor occurring 15 years previously
presented with a sinus tract and
radiolucent lesion. Nonsurgical
retreatment and perforation repair using
mineral trioxide aggregate were
performed with the aid of an operating
microscope

Patil S et al. 2015 Review ‑ Article is to review the history and evolutionLa Asociación Americana de Endodoncia y la
of CBCT, its advantages over conventionalAcademia Americana de Radiología oral y
radiography and to discuss the literature maxilofacial sugieren conjuntamente que las
validating its application in endodontics imágenes CBCT debe ser considerado cuando las
imágenes 2D no facilita la información adecuada.
Cada paciente no requiere de imágenes en 3D, y no
debe ser utilizado con fines de detección

Mohan R et al. 2011 Revisión - Esta revisión describe todos los detalles másCBCT con su alta resolución espacial, la asequibilidad, el tamaño
finos de CBCT que no sólo revela la más pequeño, la adquisición más bajo, y el mantenimiento han

arquitectura 3D del periodonto, sino también hecho como un paso natural en imágenes periodontal
ayuda a reconstruirlo

Cont ...

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Tabla 1: Cont ...


Autor Estudio de Diseño de la muestra Año Resumen de métodos tamaño Conclusión
Afrashtehfar KI 2012 comparativo 10 (mujeres, Las imágenes de TC y radiografías The 3D angular cephalometric analysis is a fairly
estudiar hombres - 5 - 5) cefalométricas laterales de diez pacientes se reliable method, like the traditional 2D
utilizaron en este estudio. Los datos en bruto cephalometric analysis. Currently, the 3D system
de TC de los pacientes se convierten en is likely to be more suitable for the diagnosis of
imágenes en 3D con un programa de cases with complex orthodontic anomalies.
simulación 3D (Imita However, with the decrease in radiation exposure
and costs in the future, 3D cephalometrics can be
9.0, Leuven, Belgium). Lateral a suitable alternative method to 2D cephalometry
cephalometric radiographs were used
manually for 2D measurements. The
comparisons of the two methods were
made using 14 cephalometric angular
measurements. The Wilcoxon
matched‑pairs signed‑ranks test (a 50.05)
was used to determine the difference
between the two methods. To assess the
intra‑ and interobserver reproducibility, two
sets of recordings made by each observer,
in each modality, were used. Dahlberg’s
formula was used to determine the
intraobserver reproducibility, and the
Wilcoxon matched‑pairs signed‑rank test
(a 50.05) was used to assess the
interobserver reproducibility

Afrashtehfar KI et al. 2013 Review and a ‑ This article briefly addresses various Immediate postextraction endosseous implant
case report aspects to be considered such as CT, placement with immediate loading could be performed
surgical guides, implant considerations for accurately because of the planning done using the
the edentulous patient, and considerationsCT. The manufacture and design of a surgical guide
for immediate implant placement and prevented technical difficulties during the
loading. In this clinical case, immediate prosthetically guided surgery. A proper diagnosis and
postextraction implant placement with a careful treatment planning will continue to be the
immediate loading was performed key to success within the principles of complex oral
accurately because of the planning done rehabilitation
with the CT scan. The use of a
stereolithographic model and a surgical
guide prevented technical difficulties and
improved the predictability during the
prosthetically driven surgery

Bérgamo AL et al. 2015 Review ‑ The database searched was PubMed, and The most dental age estimation methods were
the terms used were “dental age estimationbased on developmental stages of the teeth through
methods” and “forensic dentistry”. Just radiographs and they were applied in children and
papers about dental age estimation subadults in countries of the different continents
methods written in English between 2012
and 2015 were selected

Contd...

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Shukla, et al.: CBCT in dentistry

Table 1: Contd...
Author Year Study design Sample size Method summary Conclusion
Nodehi D et al. 2015 Review ‑ The present article evaluates various CBCT test should not be taken unless it is necessary
clinical applications of CBCT. Among and do more good than harm. While using this
scientific articles, research was method, the whole image dataset should be assessed
conducted by PubMed on the dental completely to maximize the resultant clinical data and
application of CBCT, containing many make sure that every significant implicit finding was
articles; in general, among which most reported. Further evaluations are required for better
of them were clinically about dentistry determination of CBCT applications in forensic
and its related analyses. Different dentistry
functionalities of CBCT including oral
and maxillofacial surgery, root treatment,
implantology, orthodontics,
temporomandibular joint dysfunction,
periodontics, and forensic dentistry have
been indicated in the study

European commission, 2012 2012 Evidence‑based ‑ A multidisciplinary team was formed from Guidelines regarding CBCT, its use, and ALARA
guidelines the SedentexCT project academic were created, according to different fields
institutions, consisting of nationally and
internationally recognized experts,
including dentists, dental radiologists,
medical physicists, and other dental
specialists, including oral and maxillofacial
surgery, orthodontics, periodontology, and
restorative dentistry

blanca SC 2014 Revisión - Libro sobre Radiología oral Para leer con precisión un fenómeno de tejidos blandos, se

necesita una resolución de contraste de 24 bits

WI Shaibah et al. 2014 Un método físico para evaluar la precisión de No se encontró diferencia significativa entre las mediciones
las mediciones obtenidas a partir de una físicas y CBCT para todas las muestras. Las medidas
unidad de radiografía dental i-CAT CBCT lineales de la unidad de CBCT i-CAT son exactos, y el
utilizado para evaluar el efecto del tamaño de ajuste de los parámetros de exploración, tales como el
voxel en la precisión de la medición por una campo de visión y el tamaño de voxel no afectarán de
unidad de CBCT i-CAT manera significativa esta precisión

Adibi S et al. 2012 Revisión - Los autores realizaron búsquedas en bibliotecas CBCT es importante en el proceso de diagnóstico; por lo
PubMed, Google, y Cochrane utilizando las tanto, los radiólogos orales y maxilofaciales deben tomar el
palabras clave “CBCT y odontología”, resultando papel de liderazgo y facilitar la formación y la educación de
en más de 26.900 entradas en> 700 artículos, los estudiantes de odontología y residentes
incluyendo 41 revisiones publicadas
recientemente en revistas nacionales e
internacionales. Este artículo se basa en
publicaciones y estudios existentes

R Gupta et al. Revisión de 2015 - Autores describieron el papel de CBCT en unidades Hounsfield de la densidad del tejido no están
odontología y cuánto pueden afectar a la calibrados en CBCT, que por lo que es poco fiable para
densidad del tejido de varias estructuras comparar la densidad del tejido basado en los números CT
generados a partir de diferentes unidades CBCT

Cont ...

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Tabla 1: Cont ...


Autor Estudio de Diseño de la muestra Año Resumen de métodos tamaño Conclusión
MacDonald-Jankowski DS et 2007 Revisión - El efecto jurídico de la utilización de monitores The recent emergence of CBCTs has provoked a
al. digitales y CBCT en la práctica odontológica se number of legal dilemmas such as an
han descrito. La reciente aparición de CBCT, que accompanying responsibility for reading and
está cambiando los enfoques actuales para la interpreting large fields of view that include
formación de imágenes para la planificación extragnathic areas that are ordinarily outside the
preimplantatorio, ha provocado una serie de dentist’s purview
dilemas legales, tales como una responsabilidad
de acompañamiento para la lectura e
interpretación de grandes campos de visión que
incluyen extragnáticos

Scarfe WC et al. 2009 Review ‑ CBCT can be utilized in various fields of It can be successfully used for analysis of soft tissue
dentistry and can be used to observe airway constrictions and obstructions for patients
successfully before and after treatment suffering from sleep apnea, other soft tissue
improvement of the patient especially in theevaluations for orthodontic treatment, and periodontal
cases of OSA treatment

Orhan K et al. 2010 Case report ‑ Utilization of CBCT in the detection of It was concluded that CBCT images should be
possible cervical or internal resorption obtained for root fractures, especially those in
secondary to a midhorizontal fracture in a which cervical or internal resorption is
36‑year‑old male patient. The fractured suspected from routine conventional
teeth spontaneously healed and were radiographs
diagnosed radiographically after 28 years.
Because of possible invasive cervical
resorption and doubt over internal
resorption in the conventional images, it
was decided to examine the teeth with
CBCT with 3D reconstructions

CBCT=Cone beam CT, MRI=Magnetic resonance imaging, 3D=Three‑dimensional, OSA=Obstructive sleep apnea, ICPs=Iterative closest points, ALL=Anterior loop length,
ICD=Incisive canal diameter, 2D=Two‑dimensional, CBVT=Cone‑beam volumetric tomography, ALARA=As low as reasonably achievable, CT=Computed tomography,
FOV=Field of view

and blood vessels [Figure 1]. CBCT also helps in the assessment of Implantology
impacted teeth and supernumerary in terms of its location and relation CBCT provides a higher degree of predictability of implant placement
to vital structures.[ 5] The clinician can also detect changes in the bony because of its accuracy for evaluation. The clinician can evaluate the
deformities related to bisphosphonate‑associated osteonecrosis of the height and width of the bone present to place an implant [Table 2 and
jaw, bone grafts, and paranasal sinuses; in cases of obstructive sleep Figure 3]. In peri‑implantitis cases,
apnea, it helps to form a volume surface rendering of the windpipe.[ 5] CBCT the amount of bone
has the ability to provide attention to details, thus, becomes the surrounding the implant can be assessed previous to probing,
technology of choice for midface fracture cases e.g., gunshot wounds, providing such important information as
orbital fracture management, interoperative visualization of the facial radiolucency.[ 10,11]
bones after fracture [Figure 2], and intraoperative navigation during
Orthodontics
surgical procedures.[ 6‑8]
An orthodontist can use CBCT for the assessment of the position of
unerupted teeth, particularly for impacted ones, especially in cases of
maxillary impacted canines where knowing exactly the tooth position
In cases of temporomandibular joint disorders and dysfunctioning results in accurate treatment planning [Figure 4]. The angulation is
related to trauma, pain, dysfunction, fibro‑osseous ankylosis, appreciated well in these 3D images, which would be difficult to
detecting condylar cortical erosion, cysts, and visualization of soft appreciate on conventional radiographs even when taken in two
tissue (ST), CBCT becomes the imaging device of choice.[ 9] different planes. It also

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Shukla, et al.: CBCT in dentistry

Figura 1: Destrucción del cuerpo - parasínfisis dejó región mandibular debido a un tumor Figura 2: Múltiples fracturas que afectan a la región naso-orbitoethmoidal, Le Fort bilateral de 2
intraóseo y 3 niveles y una bilateral de alto Le Fort 1 fractura a lo largo de una fractura parasínfisis
izquierda de la mandíbula

Figura 3: El uso de haz de cono de la tomografía computarizada en la planificación de la colocación


tridimensional de cuatro implantes en la zona anterior

Figura 4: vista tridimensional de ambos arcos maxilar y mandibular que representan cantidad
ayuda en la identificación de cualquier resorción de los dientes adyacentes (es de hueso presente, cráteres, bifurcación, y la pérdida ósea crestal
decir, donde los caninos superiores son ectópico y incisivo raíces son sospechosos
de tener la resorción sufrido). [ 12]

Tabla 2: Cono haz tomografía computarizada utilizado en el


Otras aplicaciones de la CBCT en ortodoncia son la evaluación del paladar
tratamiento de la implantología
hendido, reabsorción relacionada con impactado Planificación del implante exacta posición de
los dientes, la rápida expansión maxilar, cefalometría 3D, integración de imágenes elevación sinusal
de la superficie, de evaluación de las vías respiratorias, de evaluación de la edad, y Intra-alveolar de osteogénesis de distracción altura ósea
la investigación de parestesia-ortodoncia asociada. [ 13] En los casos en los implantes vertical reducido hueso horizontal anchura reducida

de mini-tornillos se colocan para el anclaje, CBCT se utiliza para analizar las variaciones anatómicas de la preparación del nervio

dimensiones de huesos y la ubicación precisa de la colocación para minimizar las alveolar de plantillas

complicaciones. [ 14]

La sensibilidad puede aumentar con CBCT pero no debe ser a costa de


endodoncia especificidad. [ 15] CBCT en endodoncia se puede utilizar para la identificación y
CBCT también se puede utilizar para el diagnóstico de caries ya que la detección medición de la extensión de las lesiones periapicales [ dieciséis] y también se
de caries y evaluación profundidad en las lesiones proximales y oclusales se diferencia sólido a partir de lesiones llenas de líquido (por ejemplo, granulomas
mejoran considerablemente. Sin embargo, su aplicación en la restauración de periapicales de quistes) utilizando los valores de escala de grises en las lesiones.

endodoncia-metálico produciría artefactos reduciendo la precisión diagnóstica. [ 15] [ 15]

CBCT imágenes de caries debe limitarse a los dientes nonrestored. CBCT juega un papel importante en el establecimiento de la terapia de endodoncia con éxito

mediante la identificación de todos los canales de la raíz

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Shukla, et al .: CBCT en odontología

so that they can be accessed, cleaned, shaped, and obturated.[ 16] It unión (CEJ), y CEJ y cresta ósea facial se puede determinar. [ 23-25]
helps in identification of prevalence of a second mesiobuccal canal
(MB2) in maxillary first molars and also multiple and accessory canals
odontología forense
(aberrant pulpal anatomy, e.g., dens invaginatus) in any other teeth.[ 15]
CBCT también se puede aplicar en el campo de la odontología forense
It also helps in differentiation of pathosis from normal anatomy and
para la estimación de la edad precisa para cada persona del sistema
relationships with important anatomical structures. CBCT also plays
legal (incluidos los que han fallecido). Para estimar la edad exacta,
an important role in the diagnosis and management of root fractures,
diente tiene que ser seccionado para identificar los cambios
luxation and/or displacement, and alveolar fracture.[ 17‑22]
morfológicos; como con la edad, las capas internas del diente (dentina,
cemento y pulpa) ilustran los cambios fisiológicos y patológicos. [ 26] Sin
embargo, la CBCT, no se requiere que tales métodos agresivos. [ 27]
Periodontics
In periodontics, CBCT detects the amount of bone present, craters,
furcation, crestal bone loss, fenestrations, and dehiscences [Figure
s preocupaciones eguridad
5]. In spite of its usefulness in this field, CBCT is not indicated as a
Eso es de suma importancia ese como sólo razonablemente
routine method of imaging periodontal bone support. However, limited
achievable (ALARA) principle is followed during diagnosis, as far as
volume, high‑resolution CBCT may be indicated in selected cases of
the radiation dose of CBCT imaging is concerned.[ 28] Use of CBCT for
infrabony defects and furcation lesions, where clinical and
examination must be justified for each patient as the examination is
conventional radiographic examinations do not provide the
dose dependent; i.e., higher doses of radiation may also be applied
information needed for management; thus, it may have a role to play
depending on the lesion to be examined, but higher radiation
in the management of complex periodontal defects for which surgery
increases risks. Thus, CBCT should only be used when the question
is the treatment option.[ 13,15] CBCT can also be used within a period of
for which imaging is required cannot be answered adequately by
1 month for postoperative defect fill or bone density evaluation, which
lower dose conventional (traditional) radiography.[ 28] Therefore, it is
cannot be detected through normal radiographs, and it can also
necessary to ensure that patient doses are monitored on a regular
replace subtraction radiography.[ 15]
basis and compared to agreed standards. Standard dose levels are
normally referred to as diagnostic reference levels, and a dose of 4
mGy of SRL is recommended as the absorbed dose in air measured
at the end of the spacer cone for a standard maxillary molar
projection.[ 28]
CBCT can help in identifying bone defect size and early signs of
periodontitis by assessing periodontal ligament space, measurement
of gingival tissue, and the dimensions of the dentogingival unit.[ 23] This
method is called ST‑CBCT and helps to visualize and measure
By 1897, Kells reported that long exposures to X‑rays caused a mild
precisely distances corresponding to the hard and STs of the
skin irritation, similar to sunburn, and early X‑ray machines needed
periodontium and dentogingival attachment apparatus. With adjustment for each use so that the operator placed his hand between
ST‑CBCT, gingival margin and the facial bone crest, gingival margin the actively radiating tube and the film plate. Kells took radiographs in
and the cementoenamel this manner for 12 years, after which he developed cancerous tumors
on his fingers. Thus, concerns about radiation exposure, especially
when it is done once in a lifetime are inconsequential; furthermore,
beyond 80 years of age, the risk becomes negligible because the
latent period between X‑ray exposure and the clinical presentation of
a tumor would probably exceed the lifespan of a patient.[ 29] In contrast,
the tissues of younger people are more radiosensitive and their
prospective lifespan is likely to exceed the latent period. However, the
ALARA principle should be kept in mind and should be followed with
each exposure.

l imitAtions of cone beAm computed

tomogrAphy imAging
Figure 5: Both permanent upper canines are impacted with the crown facing toward the
palatal aspect and the roots more toward the buccal aspect
While there has been enormous interest on CBCT, this technology
currently has limitations too related to the

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Shukla, et al.: CBCT in dentistry

la geometría de proyección, la sensibilidad del detector, y el contraste de c onflicts of interest


resolución “cono del haz”. [ 30] Estos parámetros crean una imagen inherente There are no conflicts of interest.
(conocido como ruido) que reduce la claridad de imagen de tal manera que los
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