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Analysis of Transition Metal Compounds

PRECIPITATES

When 2 aqueous solutions are mixed together and an insoluble compound is formed, this is known as
precipitate, not a suspension.

The observation that a precipitate is formed should always be accompanied by the colour of the ppt even if it is
white.

Some reagents should be added until they are in excess. This may result in a ppt forming and then dissolving in
excess reagent.

(I) SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION (NaOH)


When dilute NaOH solution is added to a solution containing a metal ppt, the ppt of the insoluble
hydroxide (e.g. Mn(OH)2 ) is formed. Ppt which are amphoteric (that acts both as base and acid)
hydroxides will dissolve in excess NaOh to give a solution containg a complex ion (e.g. [Cr(OH)6]3- ).

Students should assume that aqueous NaOH should be added until it is in excess even if it is not stated in
instruction.

OBS. ON ADDING DIL.NaOH OBS. ON ADDING EXCESS NaOH LIKELY ION


Ppt dissolves to give green
Green ppt Chromium (III)
solution.
Off-white ppt which darkens to
Ppt is insoluble Manganese (II)
exposure to air
Green ppt which turns brown on
Ppt is insoluble Iron (II)
exposure to air
Brown ppt Ppt is insoluble Iron (III)

Green ppt Ppt is insoluble Nickel (II)

Blue ppt Ppt is insoluble Copper (II)


Ppt dissolves to give colourless
White ppt Zinc (II)
solution
White ppt Ppt is insoluble Mg2+/Ba2+/St2+/Ca2+

(II) AMMONIA (NH3) SOLUTION

Dilute aqueous NH3 when added to a solution containing a cation that will form the same hydroxide as
NaOH solution.
Excess NH3(aq) may dissolve the ppt to form a complex ion [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+. Students must assume
that NH3(aq) must be added until in excess.
OBS. ON ADDING EXCESS DIL.
OBS. ON ADDING DIL. NH3 (AQ) LIKELY ION
NH3 (AQ)
Ppt dissolves to give green
Green ppt Chromium (III)
solution.
Off-white ppt which darkens to
Ppt is insoluble Manganese (II)
exposure to air
Green ppt which turns brown on
Ppt is insoluble Iron (II)
exposure to air
Brown ppt Ppt is insoluble Iron (III)

Green ppt Blue Solution Nickel (II)


Dissolves to give a darker blue
Blue ppt Copper (II)
solution (royal blue/deep blue)
Ppt dissolves to give colourless
White ppt Zinc (II)
solution
White ppt Ppt is insoluble Magnesium

Negative ions – Refer AS Chemistry

TEST FOR OXIDISING AND REDUCING AGENTS

Reducing agents usually decolourise aqueous acidified KMnO4 (purple) and may also turn aqueous K2Cr2O7
from orange to green.Reducing agents:

 Iron (II) ions


 Iodide ions
 H2O2

Oxidizing agents usually liberate Iodine as a brown solution or black solid from aqueous Potassium Iodide (KI).
Iodine solution gives a blue black colouration with starch.
Oxidizing agents:
 Acidified Manganate (VII) ions
 Acidified Dichromate (VI) ions
 H2O2

H2O2 SOLUTION (HYDROGEN PEROXIDE)


Aqueous H2O2 can act both as an oxidizing agent and reducing agent often with an evolution of Oxygen.

OBS ON ADDING H2O2 INFERENCE


Brown ppt Manganate (VII), brown ppt – MnO2
Purple solution is decolourized Manganate (VII) in acid solution
Pale green solution - yellow Iron (II) to Iron (III) in acid solution
Green ppt – brown Iron (II) Hydroxide
Green alkaline solution - Yellow Chromium (III) to Chromate (VI)
Brown solution or black ppt Iodine from Iodide in acid soluion