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V.

Liability

A. Possessor of Animals
Vestil v. IAC (179 SCRA 47). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

B. Things thrown or falling from a building


Dingcong v. Kanaan (72 Phil 14). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

C. Death/Injuries in the course of employment


Afable v. Singer Sewing Machine (58 Phil 39). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

D. Strict Liability/ Product Liability


Coca-cola v. Court of Appeals (227 SCRA 293) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

E. Interference with Contractual Relations


Gilchrist v. Cuddy (29 Phil 542). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

So Ping Bun v. Court of Appeals (GR No. 120554) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

F. Liability of Local Government


Guiltaco v. City of Dagupan (171 SCRA 382). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
G. Presumption of Negligence

VI. Persons Liable

A. The Tortfeasor

Worcester v. Ocampo (22 Phil 42) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


Chapman v. Underwood (27 Phil 374) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Caedo v. Yu Khe Thai (GR No. L-20392) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Rodriguez Luna v. IAC (135 SCRA 242) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Vicarious Liability

1. Parents

Exconde v. Capuno (101 Phil 843) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15


Salen v. Balce (107 Phil 748) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Fuellas v. Cadano (3 SCRA 361). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Guttierez v. Guttierez (56 Phil 177) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Rodriguez-Luna v. IAC (135 SCRA 242) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Libi v. IAC (214 SCRA 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Tamargo v. Court of Appeals (209 SCRA 518) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Cuadra v. Monfort (35 SCRA 160) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

2. Guardians

3. Teachers and Heads of Institutions

Mercado v. Court of Appeals (108 Phil 414) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Palisoc v. Brillantes (41 SCRA 548) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Amadora v. Court of Appeals (GR No. L- 29025). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Pasco v. CFI (160 SCRA 785) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Ylarde v. Aquino (163 SCRA 697). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Salvosa v IAC (166 SCRA 247) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
St. Francis v. Court of Appeals (194 SCRA 340) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
PSBA v. Court of Appeals (205 SCRA 729) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Soliman v. Tuazon (209 SCRA 47) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
St. Mary’s Academy v. Carpitanos (GR No. 143363) . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4. Owners and Managers of Establishment


Philippine Rabbit v. Phil American (63 SCRA 231). . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5. Employees
Philtranco v. Court of Appeals (273 SCRA 562). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Castilex v. Vasquez (GR No. 132266). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Filamer v. IAC (212 SCRA 637) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
NPC v. Court of Appeals (294 SCRA 209) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Light Rail Transit v. Navidad (397 SCRA 75). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Mckee v. IAC (211 SCRA 517) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Valenzuela v. Court of Appeals (253 SCRA 303) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

6. State

Merrit v. Government (34 Phil 311). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


Rosete v. Auditor General (81 Phil 453). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Mendoza v. De Leon (33 Phil 508) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Fontanilla v. Maliaman (194 SCRA 486) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
City of Manila v. Teotico (22 SCRA 267). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Republic v. Palacio (23 SCRA 899) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

7. Others (Employees)

Araneta v. Joya (57 SCRA 59). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

8. Nature of Liability: Joint or Solidary

Lanuzo v. Ping and Mendoza (100 SCRA 205). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


Malipol v. Tan (55 SCRA 202) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Viluan v. Court of Appeals (17 SCRA 742). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

VII. Torts with Independent Civil Action


A. Violation of Civil and Political Right

Delfin Lim v. Ponce de Leon (GR No. L-22554). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


Aberca v. Ver (GR No. L- 69866) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
MHP Garments v. Court of Appeals (236 SCRA 227). . . . . . . . . . . . 34

B. Defamation, Fraud, Physical Injuries

Marcia v. Court of Appeals (205 Phil 147). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35


Madeja v. Caro (211 Phil 469) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Arafiles v. Phil Journalists (GR No. 135306). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

1. Defamation

MVRS v. Islamic (396 SCRA 210). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2. Fraud
Salta v. De Veyra (202 Phil 527). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

3. Physical Injuries
Capuno v. Pepsi Cola (GR No. L-19331). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Corpus v. Paje (GR No. L-26737). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Madeja v. Caro (211 Phil 469) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Dulay v. Court of Appeals (GR No. 108017). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

C. Neglect of Duty

VIII. Intentional Tort


A. Abuse of Rights

Velayo v. Shell (100 Phil 186) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Saudi Arabia v. Court of Appeals (297 SCRA 469) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Globe Mackay v. Court of Appeals (176 SCRA 778) . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Albenson v. Court of Appeals (G.R No. 88694) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Amonoy v. Gutierrez (351 SCRA 731) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

UE v. Jader (325 SCRA 804) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Graciano v. Court of Appeals (212 SCRA 436) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Barons Marketing v. Court of Appeals (286 SCRA 96) . . . . . . . . . . 49

BPI v. Court of Appeals (296 SCRA 260) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

B. Acts Contra Bonus: Article 21 of the Civil Code

1. Elements

Ruiz v. Secretary (GR No. L-15526) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


2. Examples

a. Breach of promise to marry, Seduction and Sexual Assault

Wassmer v. Velez (12 SCRA 648) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Tanjanco v. Santos (GR No. L-18630) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Bunag v. Court of Appeals (211 SCRA 441) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Constantino v. Medez (GR No. 5722) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Quimiguing v. Icao (34 SCRA 132) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Pe v. Pe (GR No. L-17396) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56


b. Malicious prosecution

Lao v. Court of Appeals (325 SCRA 694) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Que v. Court of Appeals (325 SCRA 137) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Drilon v. Court of Appeals (270 SCRA 211) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58


c. Public Humiliation

Patricio v. Leviste (GR No. 51832) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Grand Union v. Espino (GR No. L-48250) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59


d. Unjust Dismissal

Singapore Airlines v. Paño (122 SCRA 671) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Medina v. Castro-Bartolome (116 SCRA 597) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

IX. Other Torts


A. Declaration of Duty

Amaro v. Samanguit (L-14986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60


B. Unfair Competition

C. Violation of Human Dignity and Privacy

St. Louis v. Court of Appeals (133 SCRA 179) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


Concepcion v. Court of Appeals (324 SCRA 85) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

X. Damages
A. Definition and Concept

People v. Ballesteros (285 SCRA 438) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Custodio v. Court of Appeals (253 SCRA 483) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Heirs of Borlado v. Court of Appeals (363 SCRA 753) . . . . . . . . . . 62

Lazatin v. Twano (2 SCRA 842) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62


B. Damnum Absque Injuria

Board of Liquidators v. Heirs of Kalaw (20 SCRA 987) . . . . . . . . . 63

Custodio v. Court of Appeals (supra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


C. Kinds of Damages

1. Actual or Compensatory

Algarra v. Sandejas (27 Phil 284) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


a. Kinds

PNOC v. Court of Appeals (297 SCRA 402) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Integrated Packing v. Court of Appeals (333 SCRA 170) . . . . . . . . 64


b. Extent

c. Certainty

DBP v. Court of Appeals (GR No. 118367) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Fuentes v. Court of Appeals (323 Phil 508) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65


d. Damage to property

PNOC v. Court of Appeals (supra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

Personal Injury and Death

Ramos v. Court of Appeals (380 SCRA 467) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Gatchalian v. Delim (203 SCRA 126) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67


e. Attorney’s Fees

Quirante v. IAC (169 SCRA 769) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69


f. Interest

Crismina Garments v. Court of Appeals (304 SCRA 356) . . . . . . . . 70


g. Mitigation of Liability

Cerrano v. Tan (38 Phil 392) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71


2. Moral
a. Concept

Kierulf v. Court of Appeals (269 SCRA 433) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73


b. Proof and Proximate Cause

Miranda-Ribaya v. Carbonell (95 SCRA 672) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Del Rosario v. Court of Appeals (267 SCRA 58) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Raagas v. Traya (22 SCRA 839) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Enervida v. dela Torre (55 SCRA 339) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

People v. Bagayong (299 SCRA 258) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79


c. Cases where allowed

Francisco v. GSIS (7SCRA 577) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Expert Travel v. Court of Appeals (GR No. 130030) . . . . . . . . . . . 82


d. Unfounded Suits

Mijares v. Court of Appeals (271 SCRA 558) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

De la Pena v. Court of Appeals (231 SCRA 456) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Marketing v. Sia (285 SCRA 580) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Cometa v. Court of Appeals (301 SCRA 459) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Triple Eight v. NLRC (299 SCRA 608) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Taking of Life

People v. Pirame (327 SCRA) . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

Carlos Arcona y Moban v. Court of Appeals (393 SCRA 524) . . 91


e. Factors in determining amount

PNB v. Court of Appeals (266 SCRA 136) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Fule v. Court of Appeals (286 SCRA 698) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92


Philippine Airlines v. Court of Appeals (275 SCRA 621) . . . . . . 93

Valenzuela v. Court of Appeals (supra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Sumalpong v. Court of Appeals (268 SCRA 764) . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Lopez v. Pan American (16 SCRA 431) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Producer’s Bank v. Court of Appeals (365 SCRA 326) . . . . . . . . 95


f. Who may recover

Strebel v. Figueros (96 Phil 321) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

ABS-CBN v. Court of Appeals (301 SCRA 572) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

National Power v. Philipp Brothers (369 SCRA 629) . . . . . . . . . 96


3. Nominal

Ventanilla v. Centeno (1 SCRA 215) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Robes-Francisco v. CFI (86 SCRA 59) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

People v. Gopio (346 SCRA 408) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Armovit v. Court of Appeals (184 SCRA 476) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98


4. Temperate

Pleno v. Court of Appeals (GR No. 56505) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

People v. Singh (360 SCRA 404) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

People v. Plazo (350 SCRA 433, 161 SCRA 208) . . . . . . . . . . . . 99


5. Liquidated

6. Exemplary of Corrective

PNB v. Court of Appeals (256 SCRA 44) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Del Rosario v. Court of Appeals (267 SCRA 158) . . . . . . . . . . . . 100