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Supply Chain Management: An International Journal

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains

Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett, S.C. Lenny Koh,
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Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett, S.C. Lenny Koh, (2014) "Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in
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Benchmarking carbon emissions performance
in supply chains
Adolf Acquaye
Kent Business School, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
Andrea Genovese
Management School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
John Barrett
Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, and
S.C. Lenny Koh
Management School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

Purpose – The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address issues such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical
differences and non-standardized data, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers,
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including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However,
challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data have limited the development of
approaches for evaluating performances of product supply chains. This industry-level benchmarking approach ensures that individual firms can
compare their carbon emissions against other similarly structured firms.
Design/methodology/approach – Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such
as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data have limited the development of approaches for
evaluating performances of product supply chains. The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address these issues, ensuring that the
entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated.
This industry-level benchmarking approach ensures that individual firms can compare their carbon emissions against other similarly structured firms.
Findings – Supply chain carbon maps are developed as a means of producing industry-level benchmarks to set a measure for the environmental
sustainability of product supply chains. The industry-level benchmark provides the first step for firms to manage the environmental performance,
identify and target high carbon emission hot-spots and for cross-sectorial benchmarking.
Originality/value – The paper links the theoretical development of supply chain environmental system based on the Multi-Regional Input–Output
model to the innovative development of supply chain carbon maps, such that an industry-level benchmarking framework is produced as a means
of setting product supply chain carbon emissions benchmarks.
Keywords Green supply chain management, LCA, Carbon maps, Environmental performance measurement, Industry-level benchmarking,
Paper type Research paper

1. Introduction societal stakeholders (media, consumers and community and

interest groups, etc.) and regulatory bodies (stakeholders who
Because of the close linkage and impacts of economic systems
set laws or lobby government to set laws).
on the environment (Schaltegger and Synnestvedt, 2002),
In order to make the transition towards sustainable supply
issues related to business sustainability have taken root in
chains, decision-making in organizations needs to be informed
supply chain management practices. This can also be
by supply chain sustainability research (Burritt et al., 2002).
attributed to the fact that besides the competitive advantage
This is because recent studies have clearly interconnected
these can offer to businesses, companies are nowadays held
supply chain strategies and their environmental consequences
accountable for their environmental performance by three key
(Handfield et al., 2005 and Paulraj 2009) and in particular
stakeholders groups, namely, organizational stakeholders
how this can form the basis for sustainable supply chain
(suppliers and partners, employees, management, etc.),
performance management (Hervani et al., 2005). In this
context, benchmarking approaches may be a useful technique
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at for identifying improvement opportunities in supply chains
www.emeraldinsight.com/1359-8546.htm (Beamon, 1999) and, therefore, favouring the transition
towards sustainable supply chains.

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Received 22 November 2013

19/3 (2014) 306 –321 Revised 4 February 2014,
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] 8 February 2014
[DOI 10.1108/SCM-11-2013-0419] Accepted 26 February 2014

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

Generally, business sustainability requires companies to supply chain, including domestic and import flows), their
develop and adopt economically, environmentally and socially environmental sustainability can be benchmarked and greener
sustainable practices (Schaltegger et al., 2008). In terms of operations opportunities adopted. As Faruk et al. (2001)
environmental sustainability, because of the environmental noted, by understanding the entire (upstream and
impacts created along product supply chains, management downstream) supply chain impacts, better strategic actions
strategies are increasingly including prescriptions about supply can be taken; furthermore, these actions may have a much
chain life cycle assessments (LCAs) (Acquaye et al., 2011 and wider positive impact. This benchmarking process can also
Koh et al., 2013) and their implications for decarbonization serve as a useful means of supporting companies in the
and mitigation efforts (Weber and Peters, 2009; successful operationalization and implementation of their
Confederation of British Industry, 2011 and Koh et al., 2013). carbon management strategy using carbon accounting
Indeed, the integration of life cycle analysis principles at the (Schaltegger and Csutora, 2012).
supply chain design phase maximizes long-term sustainability The supply chain maps developed and presented in this
(Chaabane et al., 2012). However, supply chains are paper are based on the MRIO methodology, which takes a
inherently complex because of the globalized nature of system-wide perspective (details are presented in Section 3).
multi-tier process and service inputs. Hence, in order to satisfy Approaches to design, evaluate and benchmark the
a key principle underlining sustainable supply chains (that is, performance of product supply chains based on relative
visibility of the entire upstream and downstream supply resource requirements, and emissions profiles are illustrated.
chains) (Carter and Rogers, 2008 and Carter and Easton, To test the applicability of using supply chain maps as an
2011), any environmental sustainability assessment industry benchmark, a case study from the UK steel industry
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methodology utilized to inform performance measurement is utilized.

and benchmarking must address this complexity. A review of By identifying the supply chain paths that drive resources
supply chain benchmarking literature suggests this is clearly requirements and life cycle carbon emissions, supply chain
lacking (Beamon, 1999; Gunasekaran et al., 2001; Hervani managers and decision-makers are provided with the
et al., 2005). information to benchmark their supply chain performance, by
Informed by the principles of LCAs, supply chain maps can identifying the critical hot-spots which must be targeted in
formally and visually represent the interaction between order to efficiently reduce the carbon emissions. This view is
different entities within a supply chain. According to Gardner supported by Busch and Hoffmann (2011), who stated that
and Cooper (2003) and Acquaye et al. (2012), supply chain when carbon emissions are used as an outcome-based
mapping offers businesses a range of benefits including the measurement, corporate environmental performance pays off.
identification of areas where inefficiencies can be improved By adopting a system-wide supply chain perspective in this
and a support in supply chain redesign or modification. As an study, a major opportunity for comprehensive supply chain
extension to these benefits offered by supply chain maps and performance measurement through benchmarking at the
to address the gaps in knowledge deriving from the inherent industry level is therefore presented. At the same time, the
complexity of product supply chains and from challenges in system perspective increases the pressure on companies along
supply chain performance measurement and benchmarking the supply chain to adopt environmentally responsible
(Beamon, 1999; Gunasekaran et al., 2001 and Hervani et al., business practices to green their entire supply chains
2005), the following research questions are addressed in the (Srivastava, 2007 and Abdallah et al., 2012).
paper: The paper will be structured as follows: In Section 2, a
● Based on the Multi-Regional Input–Output (MRIO) literature review of supply chain performance measurement
analysis approach, how can a carbon assessment and supply chain mapping will be undertaken to provide
methodology be applied to product supply chains for context. This paper adopts a macroeconomic supply chain
developing a benchmarking framework which ensures that modelling approach based on the principles of LCAs to
the entire supply chain impacts (in terms of carbon) and develop supply chain maps and provide a basis to manage and
resource use for all tiers of the supply chain, including benchmark supply chain performance. Details of the general
domestic and import flows, are evaluated? methodology and theoretical underpinning are provided in
● By designing and developing product supply chain maps Section 3. Section 4 illustrates the development of supply
based on carbon emissions and resource requirements, chain maps. The results of the study are presented and
how can these maps form the basis for industry-level discussed in Section 5, allowing for conclusions to be drawn in
benchmarking against which individual firms can compare Section 6.
their carbon emissions performance against other similarly
structured firms? 2. Literature review
Based on these research questions, the paper presents a 2.1 Supply chain performance measurement and
systematic approach for designing and developing supply benchmarking
chain maps which can be used as a benchmark for Following Neely et al.’s (1995) definition of performance
environmental sustainability (in terms of carbon) in measurement and various literature reviews (inter alia:
performance measurement of product supply chains. This Beamon, 1999; Chan, 2003; Hervani et al., 2005; Ritchie and
would be undertaken by using relative resource requirements Brindley, 2007 and Schaltegger, 2011), supply chain
and carbon emissions as environmental indicators. As such, by performance measurement has generally dealt with a
gaining insight into the visibility of product supply chains systematic way of quantifying the effectiveness and efficiency
(such as relative resource requirements for all tiers of the of the supply chain using appropriate quantitative or

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

qualitative methods. Such supply chain performance 2.2 Supply chain mapping
measurement includes benchmarking approaches which A map can be defined as a spatial representation of an
provide a useful way to identify improvement opportunities environment (Muehrcke and Muehrcke, 1992). A supply
(Beamon, 1999) and in strategic, tactical and operational chain map can therefore be described as a graphical
planning capable of shaping objectives, actions and decisions representation of the spatial and functional relationships
(Gunasekaran et al., 2004). Supply chain performance between the various actors in the organization’s supply chain
measurement can be undertaken from the perspective of the network. A supply chain map must combine two
focal firm (Hubbard, 2009) or from the perspective of characteristics: the immediacy of the information to be shared
different stakeholders in the supply chain such as and the capability of exceeding individual understanding and
vision (Gardner and Cooper, 2003). The appearance of maps
manufacturing (Jain et al., 2011), distribution and logistics
can vary significantly from application to application and
(Keebler and Plank, 2009) and consumers (Zhao et al., 2001).
across disciplines. An example is provided by geographic
In recent times, there has been a growing interest in measuring
information systems (GISs) that provide maps tied to
sustainability performance of supply chains, which has
databases capable of displaying several outputs depending on
resulted in the emergence of green supply chain performance selected variables, such as population density, income and soil
measurement frameworks (Bai et al., 2012; Björklund et al., type. Applying these concepts to a supply chain context can
2012, Genovese et al., 2013a). In terms of environmental therefore result in a clear understanding of the exact flow of
sustainability, such performance measurement is based on the materials and impacts along the supply chain and hence form
principle of LCA (Sarkis, 2012), which is usually employed to the basis for managing and benchmarking the environmental
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evaluate profiles of competing products (Collado-Ruiz and performance of the supply chain.
Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi, 2010) and, by extension, to green Several reasons have been cited as motivation for starting a
certification and labelling (Rajagopalan et al., 2011). Although supply chain mapping process (Gardner and Cooper, 2003).
such life cycle-based performance measurements may provide However, these benefits have not previously been extended to
a useful way of making sound environmental decisions form the basis for benchmarking the environmental
regarding a product supply chain, there is no current performance measurement of the supply chain.
standardized approach to benchmark product categories. In According to the current state of the art, several
addition, LCA-based approaches used for benchmarking have methodologies are available for mapping purposes (for a
generally adopted process-based methodologies (Collado-Ruiz complete review see Min and Zhou, 2002):
and Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi, 2010 and Ibáñez-Forés et al., ● GIS-based methods that allow for a geographical
2013). Traditional or process-based LCA approaches representation of the supply chain.
inherently suffer from system boundary truncation and as such ● Network-based methods, allowing for representing flows
are not able to deal with the complexity of supply chains across the supply chain, thanks to a node-edge perspective.
(Acquaye et al., 2011; Majeau-Bettez and et al., 2011). In This is mainly utilized in the operational research literature
for setting and solving supply chain optimization
designing and developing the benchmarking framework based
on the product supply chain carbon map, the Environmental
● Value stream methods that allow for identifying value
Input-Output (EIO) approach (Wiedmann, 2009 and
creation hot-spots within the supply chain, usually used in
Acquaye and Duffy, 2010), developed in this paper as a
reducing waste and idle times.
two-region (UK and Rest of the World) Input–Output (IO)
Framework, is adopted (Refer to Section 3). This provides an The current literature does not provide any approach for
extended system boundary for the benchmarking framework mapping a supply chain from a low-carbon perspective.
and helps address the complexity of product supply chains in Mason et al. (2008) develop a new mapping technique based
terms of the globalized nature of the interconnected product, on a lean thinking paradigm and value stream mapping,
process and service inputs involved in product supply chains at attempting to adapt this to the requirements of industrial
every tier (Finnveden et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., 2010). ecology. It draws on systems theory to assert that lean thinking
As Shaw et al. (2010) pointed out, many firms are not in a is holistic in nature and illustrates that supply chain waste
reduction can find wider application in an environmental
position to conduct benchmarking activities because of the
context. Farris (2010) also used geo-visualization techniques
lack of approaches that would enable them to measure their
to create strategic supply chain maps using real economic
environmental performance and compare it with industry
industry exchange data.
standards or competitors. This paper hopes to add to the
In addition to the academic literature, several
knowledge base by presenting a systematic approach to practitioner-oriented mapping tools have been developed. For
benchmark the performance of product supply chains through instance, PUMA (2011) highlighted how supply chain maps
the use of maps developed based on a system-wide view of the can be used to inform an Environmental Profit and Loss
whole supply chain. This also provides firms the opportunity Account by placing a monetary value on the environmental
to undertake cross-sectoral benchmarking (McNamee, 2001) impacts along the entire supply chain. Furthermore,
by comparing the performance of their supply chains against TRUTHSTUDIO (2013) provides visualization techniques
other similarly structured firms when measured against of supply chains in order to support decision-making. These
industry-level standards. In addition, opportunities for examples demonstrate the potential importance of supply
continuous environmental improvement of product supply chain mapping. Despite the operational benefits and support
chains can be identified and pursued. that these practitioner tools can provide, there seems to be a

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

lack of theoretical foundation, particularly in using approaches (Bilec et al., 2006 and Acquaye et al., 2011) that make use of
in supply chain mapping for benchmarking purposes. product-specific data (a bottom-up approach) would not be
According to Gardner and Cooper (2003), supply chain wholly suitable. The top-down approach also offers the
maps can differ on the basis of their perspective. In this paper, advantage of overcoming the complexity of supply chains by
we adopt industry-level supply chain maps in such a way to set ensuring the complete visibility of the whole network. Indeed,
a benchmark against which the performance of product-level environmentally extended MRIO analysis has emerged as the
supply chains can be measured. Figure 1 provides the favoured method for quantifying emission embodiments
framework for the benchmarking process. (Wiedmann et al., 2007; Wiedmann, 2009; Acquaye et al., 2011;
Indeed, the potential of using supply chain maps for Kanemoto et al., 2011; Skelton et al., 2011; Barrett and Scott,
benchmarking can be developed for a whole industrial sector 2012). The limitations of this methodology are discussed in
(a top-down approach). This can highlight opportunities for Section 5.3. In this study, the industrial supply chain that
companies to measure their own product-level performance produces 1 tonne of steel in the UK is used to illustrate these
(in terms of relative resource requirements and carbon developments. The advancements in MRIO analysis follow on
emissions for instance) against industrial benchmarks. from the basic developments of IO analysis; see inter alia: Peters
and Hertwich (2009) and Wiedmann et al., (2010).
3. Methodologies
In this study, IO methodology applied within a multi-regional 3.1 General IO model
(UK and Rest-of-the-World) framework is adopted to develop The basic IO model, which is well documented, is used as the
underlying methodology in this paper (ten Raa, 2007; Ferng,
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the supply chain maps and consequently benchmarking the

environmental sustainability (in terms of resource requirements 2009; Miller and Blair, 2009 and Minx et al., 2009). The
and carbon emissions) of product supply chains against methodology is very useful in ensuring the whole visibility of
industry-level standards. This methodology is based on the the supply chain (Acquaye and Duffy, 2010; Mattila et al.,
principles of LCA. The usefulness of LCA lies in its application, 2010 and Wiedmann et al., 2011). As a result, a whole life
the nature of the presentation of the results and the relevance and cycle perspective, which is a key principle of green supply
implications of the study. In this paper, the MRIO LCA chain management, is adopted (Carter and Easton, 2011;
methodology is chosen because the benchmarking approach Genovese et al., 2013b).
taken is top-down or an industry-level one. Other LCA
methodologies such as process LCA analysis and hybrid LCA 3.2 MRIO model
The UK MRIO model used to develop the supply chain maps
Figure 1 General overview of supply chain industry-level is constructed as a two-region model (UK and Rest-of-the
benchmarking framework World, the latter indicated as ROW in the following)
framework. The main data sources used are the two-region
MRIO data expanded upon by Wiedmann et al. (2010) to
Input-Output Environmental
Accounts: include MRIO tables split between the UK and ROW.
Industry Following on from the basic IO methodology in which the
technical coefficient matrix, Leontief inverse matrix and final
Top-Down Analysis

demand matrix are clearly defined (Miller and Blair, 2009),

Multi-Regional Input-Output the expansions reported in the following can be made.
Environmental Analysis The technical coefficient matrix can be reformulated as

Indicators A⫽ 冋AAUK

In this case, A becomes the two-region MRIO model technical
coefficient matrix. This includes the respective technical
Industry-level Supply Chain Maps coefficient matrices for UK domestic AUK, UK imports from
ROW 共Aimp兲, UK exports to ROW 共Aexp兲 and ROW domestic
共AROW兲. AUK, Aimp, Aexp and AROW are all of dimensions
178 ⫻ 178; hence, A and I (the Identity Matrix) are therefore
of dimensions 356 ⫻ 356. Full details of sectoral
Decision classifications are available in Table AI.
Support The Technical Coefficient Matrix for UK imports Aimp is
therefore defined as follows:
Bottom-Up Analysis

Aimp ⫽ 冋 q(ROW,UK)

xj 册
Product-level Evaluation Where q共ROW,
represents elements of imports IO table
indicating the input of product 共i兲 from ROW into the industry

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

共j兲 of the UK, while xj represents the total output of UK

industry, 共j兲. Eio ⫽ 冋E0UK 0
Given that the demand for steel can result from domestic
(or UK) production or from imported (ROW) production, the Hence, the environmental-extended MRIO LCA takes the
final demand matrix can be presented such that following form, where the matrix 共E兲 describes the total
y⫽ y 关
yគ(UK,UK) yគ(UK,ROW)
គ(ROW,UK) yគ(ROW,ROW) 兴 E⫽ 冋E0UK 0
册·冉冋0I 0I 册 ⫺ 冋AA UK Aexp
册冊 ·关yគyគ


Where yគ共UK, UK兲 and yគ共ROW, ROW兲 represent the domestic (UK)
demand for UK products and ROW demand for ROW This environmentally extended MRIO model forms the basis
products, respectively. Likewise, yគ共UK, ROW兲 and គy共ROW, UK兲 for the development of the industry-level supply chain map
represent ROW demand for UK products and UK demand for used to benchmark the performance of product supply chains
ROW products, respectively. Indeed, by interconnecting in terms of carbon emissions.
the domestic and ROW IO tables into a two-region MRIO
table, the model can overcome the complexity of product 4. Development of supply chain maps
supply chains as a result of the globalized nature of the As mentioned above, the development of supply chain maps
interconnected product, process and service inputs at every may be beneficial, as it can provide multiple sources of
tier in the supply chain. In this study, we assume UK
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information for benchmarking and performance measurement

demand for products produced in the UK and from the rest purposes. Indeed, supply chain maps can show the relative
of the world. Hence, yគ共UK, ROW兲 and គy共ROW, ROW兲 are set to zero. contribution of resources requirements from supply chain
Therefore, the final demand matrix (now of dimension sectors and tiers needed to produce the final product (in this
356 ⫻ 1) becomes a column matrix: instance, 1 tonne of steel). Secondly, the supply chain maps
can report the relative emissions impact of each resource
关 yគ(UK,UK)
គy ⫽ yគ(ROW,UK) 兴 demanded by the product supply chain at each supply chain
tier. The following subsections will illustrate how the
industry-level supply chain maps were developed based on the
Hence the total (direct and indirect) requirements needed by MRIO methodology presented in Section 3 and used to
an industry to produce a given final demand using the MRIO benchmark the performance of product-level supply chains.
model become:
4.1 Resource requirements from supply chain sectors
x⫽ 冉冋 册 冋
I 0
0 I

AUK Aexp
Aimp AROW 册冊 关⫺1
· y
គ(ROW,UK) 兴 and tiers
In a generalized form, the final demand matrix and the
Leontief inverse matrix can be expressed as x ⫽ 共I ⫺ A兲⫺1·yគ .
This MRIO model forms the basis for the development of the As such, at a whole supply chain level, considering the total
industry-level supply chain map used to benchmark the sectoral demands for product k, the associated inputs from all
performance of product supply chains in terms of relative product sectors are calculated as follows:
resource requirements. To extend the assessment to cover
carbon emissions, the MRIO model is combined with an x ⫽ 共A0 ⫹ A1 ⫹ A2 ⫹ A3 ⫹ A4 ⫹ . . .兲·yk ⫽ 关xi,k兴 with k 僆 J
industry-level environmental model.
Where yk represents the final demand matrix for product k .

关 兴
yគ共UK, UK兲
Given that the study assumes UK demand, yk ⫽ y .
3.3 Environmentally extended MRIO model គ共ROW, UK兲
In the same way, considering the same product k, for each tier
IO analysis can be extended to an EIO LCA to generate results
共n兲 in its supply chain the associated inputs from product
which can be used in the general assessment of supply chain
sectors are calculated as follows:
emissions and to benchmark product supply chains in terms of
carbon emissions. xtier共n兲 ⫽ An·yk ⫽ [xtier(n) ] with k 僆 J
Given that x ⫽ 共I ⫺ A兲⫺1·yគ defines the total direct and
indirect requirements needed to produce an output x for a
given final demand y ; the EIO LCA can therefore be defined Therefore, relative resource requirements in the supply chain
in a generalized form as follows: of the product k from product sectors i at each tier 共n兲 can be
computed as follows:
E ⫽ Eio·x ⫽ Eio· (I ⫺ A)⫺1·yគ xtier 共n兲
␦tier 共n兲


Where Eio is the direct emissions intensity (kg CO2-eq/£) of i i,k

the IO industries and Eio·共I ⫺ A兲⫺1 the total (direct and

indirect) emissions intensities (kg CO2-eq/£). The supply chain maps will report the values ␦tier共n兲
i, k for the
By extension, the matrix Eio expressed in terms of the MRIO selected product k, at each tier 共n兲 requiring resource inputs
structure becomes from each product sector i in the economy, taking into

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

account both UK and ROW inputs. In this paper, supply Table I Thresholds for sector selections based on input relevance at each
chain tiers are defined as the different levels of inter-industry supply chain tier
resource demand, and consequently carbon emissions, across Tier Selection threshold
the economy which contribute to resources usage, and hence
carbon emissions, within the reference industry supply chain Tier 0 ␦i,tier共0兲
k ⱖ 1.000%
being benchmarked. Tier 1 ␦i,tier共1兲
k ⱖ 0.500%
Tier 2 ␦i,tier共2兲
k ⱖ 0.250%
4.2 Emissions impacts from supply chain sectors and Tier 3 ␦i,tier共3兲
k ⱖ 0.125%
tiers Tier 4 ␦i,tier共4兲
k ⱖ 0.062%
The technical coefficient matrix in the MRIO format is written Tier 5 ␦i,tier共5兲
k ⱖ 0.031%

as A ⫽ 冋AUK Aexp
Aimp AROW 册
. Given that the study assumes UK
production but with supply chain resource input (demand) Table II Thresholds for sector selection based on emission intensity at
from both the UK and the ROW, the technical coefficient each supply chain tier

matrix is rewritten as A ⫽
Aimp 0 冋 . 册 Tier
Tier (n)
Selection threshold
␧i,tier共n兲 ⱖ 1.000%
The MRIO EIO LCA equation becomes k

E⫽ 冋E0UK
册 · 冉冋0I 0I 册 ⫺ 冋AA 00 册冊
· yk
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imp Figure 2 shows the principles adopted in developing the

supply chain map. Each sector is represented by a node (a
At a whole supply chain level, considering the production of a circle) within the network diagram; the colour of the circle will
product k, the associated impacts as a result of resource inputs be representative of the emission intensity level; each tier is
from each product sector in the economy (both UK and represented by a dashed box including one or more nodes.
ROW) can be formulated as follows: Inputs from each sector are represented by arrows, weighted
by the strength of relative resource demand.
E⫽ 冋E0UK 0
· 共A0 ⫹ A1 ⫹ A2 ⫹ A3 ⫹ A4 ⫹ . . .兲 · For each sector, at each tier level, the following information
is reported:
yk ⫽ 关ei,k兴 with k 僆 J ● The relative resource requirement for sector i at tier (n)
i, k .
Therefore, considering a product k, for each tier 共n兲 in its ● The relative emissions intensity for sector i at tier (n) ␦tier共n兲
i, k
supply chain, the associated impacts 共En兲 are calculated as
Weights of the arrows and colours of the nodes will be
representative of the different intensities of both resource

冋E0 册
demands and emissions. Tables III-V report the adopted
UK 0
En ⫽ · An · yk ⫽ [etier(n) ] with k 僆 J
EROW i,k

Figure 2 Supply chain map prototype

Thus, relative emissions impacts in the supply chain of the
product k as a result of using resources from product sectors at
each tier 共n兲 can be computed as follows:

␧tier(n) ⫽

i i,k

The supply chain maps will report the values ␧tier共n兲 i, k for the
selected product k, at each tier 共n兲 as a result of using resource
inputs from both UK and ROW in its supply chain.

4.3 Supply chain maps structure

Table III Thresholds for relative emissions intensity representation at each
By using the previously introduced ␧tier共n兲
i, k and ␦tier共n兲
i, k indicators, supply chain tier
supply chain maps capable of showing the relative
contribution of resource requirements used in each tier of Impact Interval Symbol
supply chain to produce the final product and the relative Low ␧tier共n兲
i, k ⱕ 1.00%
emissions impacts can be represented and reported. To this
aim, appropriate thresholds should be defined in order to Moderate 1.00% ⬍ ␧i,tier共n兲
k ⱕ 5.00%
classify sectors according to their inputs and their emissions.
As outlined in Tables I and II, a sector i will be represented High 5.00% ⬍ ␧i,tier共n兲
k ⱕ 10.00%
in the supply chain map at tier 共n兲 if its relative input ␦tier共n兲
i, k is
greater than the threshold for the given tier or if its relative Very high ␧i,tier共n兲
k ⱖ 10.00%
emission intensity ␧tier共n兲
i, k is greater than 1 per cent.

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

Table IV Thresholds for relative resource demand representation at each industry level) within the supply chain, showing the relative
supply chain tier resource requirements of high resource inputs and high
Input Interval Symbol carbon emission paths within the product supply chain.
The benchmarking framework has been developed using
Low ␦i,tier共n兲
k ⱕ 1.00% national-level data for the steel industry; hence it forms the
basis for setting an industry-level benchmark against which
Moderate 1.00% ⬍ ␦i,tier共n兲
k ⱕ 5.00%
firms can measure the performance of their product supply
High 5.00% ⬍ ␦i,tier共n兲 ⱕ 10.00% chains. This can be both in terms of relative resource
requirements from supply chain sector inputs and carbon
Very high ␦i,tier共n兲
k ⱖ 10.00% emissions contributions.
Results summarized in the map can be further analysed. The
demand for resource inputs into a supply chain can be classed as
intermediate demand and final demand. Intermediate demand
(represented here as Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, etc.) describes the
Table V Differentiating between domestic and imported supply chain resources used by other sectors that are then used in producing
input other products and services that ultimately are used in directly
Input Interval producing the final demanded product (represented here as
Tier 0).
No line Domestic Input
Figure 4 shows a different perspective on the supply chain
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Imported Input map. By employing the same representation methodology and

Total Input the same threshold values, it was developed by aggregating the
relative resource requirement and supply chain impacts of the
178 disaggregated sectors representing the wider economy into 1
of 18 broader sectors, namely, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing,
thresholds and symbols, also allowing for reporting both Mining, Food, Textiles, Wood and Paper, Fuels, Chemicals,
domestic and import inputs. Thresholds are flexible and can Minerals, Metals, Equipment, Utilities, Construction, Trade,
be adapted based on the specific application. Transport and Communication, Business Services and Personal
Services. These market segments are referenced, respectively, as
5. Results and discussions A–R on the supply chain maps in Figure 4. Refer to Table AII for
5.1 Supply chain map as a benchmark for industry- details. This supply chain map helps to identify, in a more
level environmental performance measurement intuitive way, market segments which should be prioritized in
Figure 3 illustrates the complete supply chain maps terms of de-carbonization and resource efficiency efforts.
representing the average UK production of 1 tonne of steel Figure 5 also shows the breakdown in the relative split
obtained through the procedure highlighted in Section 4. between Domestic and Imports for all the intermediate
Details of the IO classification and links to specific sectors are resource demand associated with the steel-producing sector in
presented in Table AI. the UK. Most of the supply chain input requirements
The supply chain maps presented here reaffirm the fact that (approximately 76 per cent) are sourced from the UK.
inputs having significant emissions impacts within a product However, as typical of contemporary complex and global
supply chain are not limited to direct inputs or domestic supply chains, it can be observed that for the UK steel sector,
supplies but may also include upstream and imported supply an average of 23 per cent of these resource inputs are
chain inputs. As such, any approach used to develop imported. This percentage represents a benchmark for the
performance benchmarks must be able to capture such inputs sector average against which firms can measure themselves. It
that may have significant impacts on the product supply chain. therefore enables an individual firm to compare its
For instance, it can be observed from Figure 3 that Tier 1 performance with other similarly structured firms. This is a
supply chain inputs such as Sector 112 (Recycling of Metal cross-sectoral measure which enables comparisons with
Waste and Scrap— domestic), according to the thresholds set strategic peers (McNamee et al., 2001). Furthermore, it also
in Section 4.3, can be described as a high carbon emissions gives an indication of the measurement of supply chain risk in
hot-spot within the average UK steel supply chain. As such, terms of reliance on imported supply chain inputs.
this represents an opportunity for the focal firm to work closely As already shown in Figure 4, the whole economy (both
with its domestic or UK supplier of scrap metal to improve domestic and import) represented by the IO classification
their environmental performance. Additionally, Sector 80 from which a supply chain derives its resources can be
(Basic Metal— both domestic and import), Sector 111: represented by 18 different broad market segments. Figure 6
Recycling (import), Sector 114: Electricity Production from further illustrates the average sectoral emissions in kilograms
Gas (domestic) and Sector 115: Electricity Production from CO2-eq for 1 tonne UK production of steel. From the
Coal (domestic) can all be described as Moderate Tier 1 analysis, the carbon emissions benchmark for the steel sector
emissions hot-spots within the supply chain. in the UK against which the environmental sustainability
The supply chain map presented as a benchmark for performance of a steel product supply chain can be measured
environmental performance measurement demonstrates its against was estimated to be 1,158.22 kilograms CO2-eq per
usefulness as a graphical representation of the functional tonne. The supply chain contribution is made up of 91.2 per
relationships between actors (in this instance, sectors at the cent of carbon emissions impacts from the domestic supply

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
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Figure 3 Industry-level supply chain map representing average 1 tonne UK production of steel
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chain and 8.8 per cent of carbon emissions impacts from the chain map developed for the industry level using the IO
imported supply chain. As can be observed from Figure 6, the classifications presented in Table AI.
significant sector contributions are Metals (domestic): 861.1 In this paper, the steel supply chain presented represents a
kg CO2-eq or 74.3 per cent; Utilities (domestic): 101.6 kg hierarchical supply chain relationship between the focal firm
CO2-eq or 8.8 per cent; Metals (import): 50.2 kg CO2-eq or and its suppliers. As such, the main managerial/administrative
4.34 per cent; Mining (domestic): 31.0 kg CO2-eq or 2.7 per and operational implications and challenges are the
cent and Transport and Communications (domestic): 25.0 kg responsibility of the focal firm. The focal firm must encourage
CO2-eq or 2.2 per cent. and promote a two-way data and knowledge exchange across
A detailed breakdown of the top 10 emitting sectors in the supply chain (regarding, for instance, production supplies,
kilograms CO2-eq for the average production of 1 tonne of carbon emissions impacts and resource usage) in order to
steel in the UK is presented in the bar chart in Figure 7. The avoid an asymmetric information state. Supplier engagement
biggest carbon emitters are the direct domestic resources used must also be led by the focal firm because it is essential that
in the steel manufacturing process. activities of suppliers identified as carbon emissions hotspots
In addition to the supply chain carbon map, analyses of the in upstream tiers, such as Tier 1: 112—‘Recycling of Metal
derived results can assist the focal firm to gain further insight Waste and Scrap’ in this example, must be addressed to
into benchmarking the environmental performance of its reduce the overall impacts. Such supply chain collaborations
product supply chain against industry standards in order to and partnerships can help turn strategic intent into an
identify opportunities to improve environmental sustainability organizational reality (Wagner et al., 2002).
performance. The task of overseeing the implementation and analysis of
such a framework should fall within the remit of the
5.2 Supply chain managerial implications sustainability leadership of the company. In fact, such
In the benchmarking process, the focal firm responsible for the sustainability measures integrated within organizations should
production of the final product (in this instance steel) takes be backed by a business case in order that they do not conflict
responsibility as the supply chain leader. Using primary data with the primary goals of managers, who are urged to obtain
from its own production process and supply chain, relative immediate or short-term performance improvement (Burritt
resource inputs and carbon emissions at each tier within the et al., 2011). According to Quinn and Dalton (2009), such
supply chain can be identified and matched to the supply measures should be championed by the ‘Director of

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

Figure 4 Aggregated supply chain map

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Sustainability’ or ‘Sustainability Manager’; however, for other establish robust business cases regarding the payback of
organizations, the necessary structure can involve the set-up of interventions to ensure costs as well as emissions are reduced.
teams which would enable the full integration of such Such scenario analysis will provide visible evidence and also
sustainability practices. allow for intervention measures to be prioritized and designed
The development of the supply chain maps as a benchmark
can also serve as evidence for a base-case environmental Figure 6 Supply chain carbon emissions classified by sector group
scenario analysis, for example carbon emission. By
80% 74.3%
implementing low carbon intervention measures at identified
hot-spots, different intervention scenarios can be tested to 60%

establish which is likely to have the biggest impact and/or 40%

represents the best value in terms of future economic and 20% Domestic
2.7% 4.3% 2.2%
environmental sustainability and competitiveness. This is 0%

particularly relevant as economic sustainability remains a key

Transport &










Wood & paper

Business services

Personal services

driver for greening activities, with firms perceiving the need to

Figure 5 Split between domestic and imports resource requirements

Figure 7 Detailed supply chain carbon emissions by sector

23.92% Freight transport by road

Cement; lime and plaster
Mining of non-ferrous metal ores 8.8
Passenger air transport 9.4
Domestic Requirements Recycling (import) 9.8
Mining of iron ores 10.5
Imported Requirements Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas (import) 11.8
Steel (Import) 43.4
Electricity 91.4
76.08% Steel (Domestic) 857.9

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000
kg CO2-eq

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

with the information provided by the benchmark presented in non-linear. This is because, in some cases, the best available
the supply chain map. This visible process of strategic estimate still might be a linear extrapolation.
emission reduction will allow firms to promote their green As such, the industry-level benchmarking undertaken using
credentials to their supply chain partners and customers in an the IO framework should be communicated as representing
increasingly environmentally conscious climate where the first instance for firms to manage environmental
green-wash no longer satisfies (Lyon and Maxwell, 2011). performance of their product supply chain and identify
opportunities for continuous improvements. The supply chain
5.3 Supply chain challenges and methodological framework shown and used to undertake the benchmarking
assumptions should therefore be considered in context with respect to the
The environmental performance benchmark presented poses practical challenges in its implementation. For instance, in
practical supply chain management challenges. In addition, its other cases, the use of market-based mechanisms such as
application must be communicated within the scope of the emissions certificates or the deliberate reutilization of
assumptions inherent in the methodology used in the resources may also result in reduced emissions. As such, an
developments. Access to product supply chain data is a major accurate reflection of the actual level of environmental
performance of an organization’s supply chain may not be
practical challenge in measuring the environmental
performance of a product supply chain against the
industry-level benchmark that has been presented. Focal firms
must be able to collect supply chain data for their own 6. Conclusions
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processes as well as that of their supply chain partners. Data The paper presents a systematic benchmarking approach
gathering and sharing therefore becomes a pivotal activity. which utilizes the MRIO LCA method as a basis for
This is because primary supply chain data of the product developing supply chain maps for industrial-level carbon
whose environmental performance is to be measured must be emissions performance measurement. The steel industry
matched to the supply chain maps using the IO classifications. supply chain is used to demonstrate the application. The
Although this can be a challenging and time-consuming benchmarking approach can enable entire supply chain impacts
exercise, by selling the fact that benefit from knowledge and resource use for all tiers of the supply chain, including
generation and opportunities for environmental performance domestic and import flows to be evaluated. In addition, it can
improvements are tied to economic gains, the performance provide the basis for individual firms to compare their
measurement exercise can act as a driver for supply chain environmental performance against other similarly structured
partners to collaborate more effectively. firms through cross-sectoral benchmarking.
IO analysis, the methodology underlying the developments It has been well-established that supply chain performance
(as presented in Section 3), by its nature suffers from inherent measurement and benchmarking provides opportunities for
limitations (Hendrickson et al., 1998; Acquaye and Duffy, businesses to identify ways to improve the sustainability
2010). For instance, it assumes homogeneity, which proposes (economic, social and environmental) of their supply chains.
that each sector produces a uniform output using identical However, approaches to measure the performance of these
inputs and processes. However, this is not the case because systems are difficult for a number of reasons. These include the
lack of insight in achieving a fully integrated supply chain
each sector may be a representation of many different
(Gunasekaran et al., 2001), complexities of the supply chains
products or services, and even for the same product, different
(Beamon, 1999), non-standardized data, geographical
technologies may be used in its production. In the example
differences and lack of agreed-upon metrics and benchmarking
presented for the steel supply chain map, steel is a typical
approaches (Hervani et al., 2005). This paper has contributed to
product of IO Sector 80, but this may also represent other
the knowledge base of this research area by presenting a
products. To address this assumption, disaggregation
systematic approach of setting an industry-level benchmark for
techniques can be applied whereby a particular sector of
product supply chain environmental performance measurement
interest can be disaggregated into two separate sectors: a by addressing some of these challenges. A general framework for
unique sector for the product of interest and another sector for the process is presented in Figure 1. The methodological
all other products belonging to that sector. This ensures a framework is underpinned by the use of MRIO analysis to
distinctive sector is allocated for the product supply chain even develop product supply chain maps. This ensures that both
at the industry level. Typical examples of this disaggregation direct and indirect carbon emissions impacts are systematically
analysis have been undertaken in the literature (see for assessed. This is in line with the suggestion by Lee (2011), who
instance, Wiedmann et al. (2011) and Li et al. (2012)). emphasized that although companies are increasingly adopting a
The proportionality assumption in IO analysis requires that in life cycle perspective of their carbon impacts in their products
any production process all inputs are used in strictly fixed and services, manufacturers should identify and consider the
proportions; as such there is a linear correlation between indirect carbon emissions if they wish to manage carbon footprint
production inputs and outputs and consequently in and performance in operations. The steel sector was used to
environmental impacts (Baral and Bakshi, 2010). The demonstrate the approach, which can be extended to other
proportionality assumption is accepted in the use of IO product supply chains. In addition, carbon emissions were
frameworks (Baral and Bakshi, 2010) mainly because of the lack chosen as the main environmental sustainability indicator
of data (Tukker and Dietzenbacher, 2013). Hendrickson et al. because it is the most commonly cited environmental impact.
(1998) also note that the linear proportionality assumption could The approach also satisfies the key characteristics in the
be sufficiently accurate even if the underlying effects are development of effective performance management systems. These

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

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Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321


Table AI Detailed breakdown of input-output sector classifications

Number Input-output classification Number Input-output classification Number Input-output classification

1 Conventional Growing of cereals; vegetables; fruits 28 Organic dairy products 55 Non paper-based publishing and reproduction of
and other crops recorded media
2 Organic Growing of cereals; vegetables; fruits and 29 Grain mill products; starches and 56 Coke oven products
other crops starch products
3 Growing of horticulture specialities and nursery 30 Prepared animal feeds 57 Refined petroleum products
4 Conventional Farming of livestock (except poultry) 31 Bread; rusks and biscuits; 58 Processing of nuclear fuel
manufacture of pastry goods and
cakes (conventional)
5 Organic Farming of livestock (except poultry) 32 Organic bread; rusks and biscuits; 59 Industrial gases
manufacture of pastry goods and
6 Conventional Farming of poultry 33 Sugar 60 Dyes and pigments
7 Organic Farming of poultry 34 Cocoa; chocolate and sugar 61 Inorganic basic chemicals
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8 Forestry; logging and related service activities 35 Other food products 62 Organic basic chemicals
9 Forestry and logging and related service activities 36 Alcoholic beverages 63 Fertilisers and nitrogen compounds
10 Fishing 37 Production of mineral waters and 64 Plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms
soft drinks (non-PVC)
11 Fish farming (non-organic) 38 Tobacco products 65 PVC plastics in primary forms
12 Fish farming (organic/sustainable) 39 Preparation and spinning of textile 66 Pesticides and other agro-chemical products
13 Mining of coal and lignite; extraction of peat 40 Textile weaving 67 Paints; varnishes and similar coatings; printing ink and
14 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas and 41 Finishing of textiles 68 Pharmaceuticals; medicinal chemicals and botanical
Service activities incidental to oil and gas products
extraction; excluding surveying
15 Mining of uranium and thorium ores 42 Made-up textile articles; except 69 Soap and detergents; cleaning and polishing
apparel preparations; perfumes and toilet preparations
16 Mining of iron ores 43 Carpets and rugs 70 Other chemical products
17 Mining of non-ferrous metal ores; except uranium 44 Other textiles 71 Man-made fibres
and thorium ores
18 Mining and quarrying of stone; gravel; clays; salt; 45 Knitted and crocheted fabrics and 72 Rubber products
etc. articles
19 Conventional meat and meat products (excl. 46 Wearing apparel; dressing and 73 Plastic plates; sheets; tubes and profiles
poultry) dying of fur
20 Organic meat and meat products (excl. poultry) 47 Tanning and dressing of leather; 74 Plastic packing goods
manufacture of luggage; handbags;
saddlery and harness
21 Conventional poultry meat and poultry meat 48 Footwear 75 Glass and glass products
2 2 Organic poultry meat and poultry meat products 49 Wood and wood products; except 76 Ceramic goods
23 Fish and fish products 50 Pulp 77 Bricks; tiles and other structural clay products for
24 Conventional Fruit and vegetables 51 Paper and paperboard 78 Cement; lime and plaster
25 Organic Fruit and vegetables 52 Articles of paper and paperboard 79 Articles of concrete; plaster and cement; cutting;
(except paper stationary) shaping and finishing of stone; manufacture of other
non-metallic products
26 Vegetable and animal oils and fats 53 Paper stationary 80 Basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys; manufacture of
tubes and other first processing of iron and steel
27 Dairy products (conventional) 54 Paper-based publishing; printing 81 Copper; Lead; Zinc; Tin and other basic precious and
and reproduction non-ferrous metals (not Aluminium)

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

Table AI
Number Input-output classification Number Input-output classification Number Input-output classification

82 Aluminium 114 Electricity production-gas 146 Banking and financial intermediation; except insurance
and pension funding
83 Casting of metals 115 Electricity production-coal 147 Insurance and pension funding; except compulsory
social securityInsurance and pension funding; except
compulsory social security
84 Structural metal products 116 Electricity production-nuclear 148 Auxiliary financial services
85 Tanks; reservoirs and containers of metal; manufacture of 117 Electricity production-oil 149 Real estate activities with own property; letting of
central heating radiators and boilers; manufacture of steam own property; except dwellings
86 Forging; pressing; stamping and roll forming of metal; powder 118 Electricity production-renewables 150 Letting of dwellings; including imputed rent
metallurgy; treatment and coating of metals (and other)
87 Cutlery; tools and general hardware 119 Gas distribution 151 Real estate agencies or activities on a fee or contract
88 Other fabricated metal products 120 Steam and hot water supply 152 Renting of cars and other transport equipment
89 Machinery for the production and use of mechanical power; 121 Collection; purification and 153 Renting of machinery and equipment; excl. office
except aircraft; vehicle and cycle engines distribution of water machinery and computers
90 Other general purpose machinery 122 Construction (other than 154 Renting of office machinery and equipment including
commercial and domestic buildings) computers
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91 Agricultural and forestry machinery 123 Construction of commercial 155 Renting of personal and household goods
92 Machine tools 124 Construction of domestic buildings 156 Computer services and related activities
93 Other special purpose machinery 125 Sale; maintenance and repair of 157 Research and development
motor vehicles; and motor cycles;
retail sale of automotive fuel
94 Weapons and ammunition 126 Retail sale of automotive fuel 158 Legal activities
95 Domestic appliances (e.g. white goods) 127 Wholesale trade and commission 159 Accounting; book-keeping and auditing activities; tax
trade; except of motor vehicles and consultancy
motor cycles
96 Computers and other office machinery and equipment 128 Retail trade; except of motor 160 Business and management consultancy activities;
vehicles and motor cycles management activities; market research and public
opinion polling
97 Electric motors; generators and transformers; manufacture of 129 Repair of personal and household 161 Technical consultancy; technical testing and analysis;
electricity distribution and control apparatus goods architectural and engineering related activities
98 Insulated wire and cable 130 Hotels and accommodation 162 Advertising
99 Electrical equipment not elsewhere classified 131 Restaurants; cafes; bars etc. 163 Other business services
100 Electronic valves and tubes and other electronic components 132 Passenger transport by railways 164 Public administration (not defence); compulsory social
101 Television and radio transmitters and line for telephony and 133 Freight transport by inter-urban 165 Public administration – defence
line telegraphy railways
102 Television and radio receivers; sound or video recording or 134 Buses and coaches 166 Primary; secondary and other education
reproducing apparatus and associated goods
103 Medical; precision and optical instruments; watches and 135 Tubes and Trams 167 Higher-level education
104 Motor vehicles; trailers and semi-trailers 136 Taxis operation 168 Human health and veterinary activities
105 Building and repairing of ships and boats 137 Freight transport by road 169 Social work activities
106 Railway transport equipment; motorcycles; bicycles and 138 Transport via pipeline 170 Collection and treatment of sewage and liquid waste
transport equipment n.e.c.
107 Aircraft and spacecraft 139 Passenger sea and coastal water 171 Collection and treatment of solid and other waste
transport ⫹ Passenger inland (excl. waste incineration)
water transport
108 Furniture 140 Freight sea and coastal water 172 Waste incineration
transport ⫹ Other inland water
109 Jewellery and related articles; manufacture of musical 141 Passenger air transport 173 Sanitation; remediation and similar activities
110 Sports goods; games and toys 142 Freight and other air transport 174 Activities of membership organisations
111 Miscellaneous manufacturing not elsewhere classified; 143 Supporting and auxiliary transport 175 Recreational and cultural activities
recycling activities: travel agencies; cargo
handling; storage;
112 Recycling of metal waste and scrap 144 Postal and courier services 176 Sporting and other activities
113 Recycling of non-metal waste 145 Telecommunications 177 Dry cleaning; hair dressing; funeral parlours and other
service activities
178 Private households as employers of domestic staff

Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Adolf Acquaye, Andrea Genovese, John Barrett and S.C. Lenny Koh Volume 19 · Number 3 · 2014 · 306 –321

Table AII Whole economy aggregated into market segments

Market segment Sectors number 18 aggregated sectors
A 1-7 Agriculture
B 8-9 Forestry
C 10-12 Fishing
D 13-18 Mining
E 19-38 Food
F 39-48 Textiles
G 49-55 Wood and paper
H 56-58 Fuels
I 59-70 Chemicals
J 71-79 Minerals
K 80-88 Metals
L 89-113 Equipment
M 114-121 Utilities
N 122-124 Construction
O 125-131 Trade
P 132-145 Transport and communication
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Q 146-177 Business services

R 178 Personal services

About the authors Chain Management, Decision Support Models for Logistics
Problems, Multi-Criteria Decision-Making problems.
Adolf Acquaye obtained his PhD in the research area of
Energy, Environment and Sustainability from Dublin Institute John Barrett is Professor in Sustainability Research at the
of Technology, Ireland. He also has a Master’s Degree in Sustainability Research Institute (SRI), University of Leeds. His
Engineering for Sustainable Development from the University research interests include sustainable consumption and production
of Cambridge. He is a Lecturer in Sustainability at the Kent (SCP) modelling, carbon accounting and exploring the transition to
Business School. Previously, he worked as a Research a low carbon pathway. He has extensive knowledge of the use of
Multi-Regional Environmental Input-Output modelling to
Associate at the Stockholm Environment Institute, University
understand the effectiveness of strategies and policies to deliver a low
of York and the University of Sheffield Management School,
carbon economy. Professor Barrett was one of the lead advisors to
researching into Supply Chain Carbon Accounting and
the UK Government (Defra) in relation to the development of
Mapping methods, Life cycle Assessment and Sustainability
PAS2050 and was commissioned by Defra to lead on
Research. He currently serves as Lead Author for the
understanding the carbon footprint of trade. He also serves as a
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth
Lead Author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Assessment Report-AR5 Working Group III (Chapter Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report-AR5 Working
10-Industry). Adolf Acquaye is the corresponding author and Group III (Chapter 5: Drivers, Trends and Mitigation).
can be contacted at: a.a.acquaye@kent.ac.uk
S.C. Lenny Koh is an Associate Dean and Chair Professor in
Andrea Genovese holds a PhD in Science and Technology Operations Management at the University of Sheffield
Management and MSc (with BSc) degree in Engineering and Management School, UK. She is the Founder and Director of
Technology Management from the University of Naples Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LSCM) Research
‘Federico II’ (Italy). He also holds an MBA from Whittemore Centre, and Director of the Faculty’s Centre for Energy,
School of Business and Economics at University of New Environment and Sustainability (CEES). She is also the
Hampshire (USA). Since 2010, he has been working at the co-founder of Supply Chain Management and Information
Logistics and Supply Chain Research Centre, University of Systems (SCMIS) Consortium, a global network of leading
Sheffield Management School (UK), first as a postdoctoral academic and practitioners driving research and knowledge
researcher and then as a Lecturer in Logistics & Supply Chain exchange on supply chain and information systems. Her
Management. His research interests include Low Carbon expertise lies in logistics/supply chain management,
Innovation Management for Supply Chains, Green supply particularly in low carbon industries, low carbon supply.

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