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GOMEZ, Ricky Jay C.

SET191 / T
Exam No. 02

1. Discuss the overall principle of P2/WMin.

Pollution prevention and waste minimization (P2/WMin) stipulates the idea of
sustainability in every industrial projects and plants. This aspect is an important consideration
wherein the wastes and pollutants are being minimized, reduced or as much as possible the total
elimination. Specifically, waste minimization gives the idea of the reduction of impacts of waste,
highlighting the toxicity of hazardous wastes and as well as the amount of wastes being generated
throughout the process of an industry/plant . The purpose of minimization according to the
P2/WMin is because of the following considerations: (1) less costs produced through the avoidance
of the raw materials at disposal and purchase; (2) less regulatory and compliance problems; (3)
development of a socially-stable industry; (4) safe work environment for the workers and
employees; (5) pondering environment through leadership and; (6) work efficiency [1]. In this case,
primary and secondary types of wastes can be minimized. For the primary types of wastes such as
newly generated or stored wastes, recycle, reuse and segregation are the possible mitigating
measures to be applied. For secondary types of wastes such as drilling cuttings, solvents, etc.,
source reduction as well as segregation can be applied.
2. Give an example of an industry/plant and apply the principle of P2/WMin on its project
One of the most impactful industries, especially when speaking with air emissions, is the
cement industry. Pollution prevention and waste minimization is applied in such a way to mitigate
the possible air emissions that are abundant in the plant’s flue gas. Generally, the characteristics
of waste coming out of a cement plant is majorly comprised of dust and particulate matter. Other
gas emissions produced are NOx and SOx which come from the combustion of fuel used. High
alkali, chloride and heavy metal contents are also being observed. For these wastes, the pollution
prevention and waste minimization strategies used by such cement industry are focused on the
minimization of ambient levels of particulates through minimizing the loads being emitted. Some
of the mitigating measures and treatment technologies used are as follows: (1) the dust produced
by a high alkali or chloride containing raw materials are being disposed as solid wastes so as to
avoid the alkali buildup; (2) normally the collection and recycling of dusts being collected is done
so as to improve the efficiency of the process and of course to reduce the possible particulate
emissions; (3) NOx emissions are being reduced and controlled through the use of proper kiln
design, low-NOx burners and as well as the optimization of the level of excess air being used; (4)
fugitive particulate emissions are being controlled through the use of proper ventilation systems;
(5) for SOx minimization, the measure being used was the minimization of sulfur level in the raw
material or fuel being used; (6) ESPs or electrostatic precipitators are also best work with the
capture of particulates in the exhaust of the plant.
3. Discuss the application of P2/WMin on remediation activity.
The application of the P2/WMin on remediation activity works wherein from the source,
the primary and secondary wastes are being evaluation for the disposition, to dictate where will be
these types of wastes will go to the specific locations where they belong. The destinations of waste
can be directed to the disposal cell, segregation and reclassification of wastes or
recycle/beneficially reuse or these wastes.
4. In your own point of view, why is that the Philippines is lacking some law regarding a
specific plan to reduce/eliminate pollution?
There are so many factors to consider why the Philippines doesn’t have any regulations
when it comes to the reduction or elimination of pollution. It is very hard to determine whether the
problem was from the government, from the scientists and technologists, or from the community.
I think some certain issues with everyone hinders the creation of law about the elimination of
pollution. I think financial issues are the main reason for this. As a technologist, I would definitely
know how costly the different technologies would be, knowing for a fact that pollution of different
obnoxious emissions in our ambient air is continuously developing. Some sustainable action can
be done to mitigate these occurrences, but mitigating the pollution is a difficult one. Definitely,
law makers would weigh the different priorities and considerations and would not directly
implement something that is not economically viable specifically speaking. Also, issues with
regards to the different administrations I think were one of the reasons. In the Philippines, some
people have the mentality that whatever being done by the previous administration would just be
neglected by the new one, to emphasize his projects. I think with these kind of mentality, no
administration would help each other to process and make this creation of law for the elimination
of pollution possible. Every administration always starts all over again. Another is that, community
as well as the different companies who lack discipline, and do not comply to the standards
stipulated by the different regulatory bodies would be a more serious aspect. Pollution cannot be
eliminated if the production of it is continuously happening. We have now the pollution prevention
and waste minimization programs that should be complied and implemented. Communities,
company owners, economists, law makers, every one of us should be hand in hand helping each
other to make this law for pollution prevention possible and reliable.
5. Differentiate green technology from industrial ecology.
Green technology is a broad description of the different technologies used to conserve the
environment with the use of the concepts of environmental science. The basic principle stipulated
in green technology is the sustainable development, which ponders the ability of the present
generation to comply to their needs without compromising the ability of the future generations to
meet their own needs. The different technologies involved in green technology are the monitoring
and assessment technology, prevention technologies, control technologies and remediation and
restoration technologies. Examples of the green technologies commonly used in different
industries are recycling, water purification, air purification, sewage treatment, environmental
remediation, solid waste management, renewable energy, eGain forecasting and energy
conservation . Industrial ecology is the science the developed from introducing the systems
framework into industry. Its goal is the creation of sustainable industrial systems. It also seeks to
optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material, to finished material, to component, to
product, to obsolete product, to ultimate disposal.
6.Discuss the concept of nimbyism.
NIMBY is an acronym for not in my back yard. This is the opposition of residents nearby
the vicinity of a certain plant for that plant to be built because it is just at some distance to them.
These residents have the mentality that development is indeed necessary, but should be placed far
from them. Nimbyism is the term used to describe this mentality of the the people having a negative
response to the development of something.
7. Differentiate LCA from LCD from DfE.
Life cycle assessment is a powerful tool in addressing the different environmental impacts
of a certain product from a specific industry from the raw materials down to its disposal. The term
cradle-to-grave is being widely used because the different impacts are being evaluated from the
raw materials, to the processing, to the output product and the wastes generated, to the treatment
of these wastes and consumption of the products, to the disposal. LCA is a very broad and wide
study. It is important to set the boundary, which limits the scope of the study. Life cycle design is
an approach to a more sustainable production of such product, which complies to the ecological,
economical and even social aspects that should be considered in the processing and manufacture.
The design being integrated seeks to minimize the different environmental impacts that could be
generated by each of the system component. Design for environment is closely same as the life
cycle design. It is another technique used to design products with reduced environmental impacts.
DfE is focused on the issues concentrated in the products as well as in process design.
8. Discuss the difficulties and limitations of LCA.
The difficulties and limitations of LCA lies in the goal and scope definition of the study,
the data collection, data evaluation and as well as the information transfer. In goal and scope
definition, there are two major dimensions that should be considered, the temporal and spatial
dimensions. An LCA study as aforementioned, is a broad evaluation of the different environmental
impacts of such product from cradle to grave. Setting temporal and spatial boundaries are very
important because of the following reasons: (1) time required to conduct the LCA study; (2)
allocation methods in defining the systems boundaries; (3) problems with regard to the definition
of functional units for comparison of design alternatives; (4) analysis of complex products and; (5)
cost generated by the study. For data collection, it is difficult to conduct and LCA study due to the
constraints in the availability of data in the literature and the quality of data as well. Some of the
literature reviews do not include so much information, which limits the possibility for the study.
For data evaluation, some complex models which is required to characterize the impacts on human
health, environment, etc., may be inaccurate and not too much accommodating. For the
information transfer, environmental impact categories are being limited due to the fact that they
cannot be compared or categorized into something that is standard.

[1] Department of Environmental Safety, Sustainability & Risk. 2016. Pollution Prevention and
Waste Minimization Guidelines. Department of Environmental Safety, Sustainability & Risk.
[2] World Bank Group. 1998. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook, Cement
Manufacturing. World Bank Group.
[3] Soni, G. D. 2015. Advantages of Green Technology. Maharani Pushpamala Raje Pawar Govt.
Girls College Dewas (M. P.). Social Issues and Environmental Problems, Volume 3.