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FIXED OR SEMI-FIXED

FOAM FIRE PROTECTION


SYSTEMS FOR STORAGE
TANKS

In the early years of the oil industry, fire in a distance from the hazard. (Normally outside the
storage tank was a common occurrence. Virtually dike wall.) Foam producing materials are trans-
all products were stored in cone roof tanks built of ported to the scene after the fire starts and are
riveted steel plates and the roof was often connected to the piping.
constructed with wood and tar coated paper.
Tank fires were common especially after a DEFINITIONS
lightning storm. This costly experience gradually
led to improvements in better codes and There are three major types of tanks commonly
guidelines for handling storage tank fires. used for the storage of combustible or flammable
Floating roof tanks were adopted for low flash liquids.
point petroleum products and proved to be a most
reliable method of protection against losses due to • Cone roof tank
fires. The less volatile products with higher flash • Open top floating roof tank
points continue to be stored in welded steel cone
roof tanks. • Internal floating roof tank/Covered Floating
Roof
As the frequency of fully involved storage tank
fires decreases to a more acceptable level, the A Cone Roof Storage Tank has vertical sides
size of fire, when it happens, becomes larger due and is equipped with a fixed cone-shaped roof
to the increase in tank size and capacity. It is that is welded to the sides of the tank. Tanks that
quite common to see tanks with diameters in ex- have been designed in accordance with API
cess of 328 ft. (100 meters) capable of storing a standards have a weak seam at the joint where
million barrels of product the roof and sides meet. In the event of an
internal explosion, the roof separates and blows
off leaving the tank shell intact. This system
One practical method to protect flammable liquid
allows the tank to retain its contents and any
storage tanks from fire is with a fixed or a semi-
resulting fire will involve the full surface of the
fixed foam fire protection system. When
exposed flammable liquid.
engineered, installed and maintained correctly,
these systems will give many years of reliable
An Open Top Floating Roof Storage Tank is
service. The foam system can be used for fire
similar to the cone roof tank in construction but
prevention, control or direct extinguishment of any
with the exception that it has no fixed roof. A
flammable or combustible liquid fire within the
pontoon type roof floats directly on the flammable
tank.
liquid surface. This floating roof has a mechanical
shoe or tube seal attached to its full perimeter.
In order to select the correct foam system, it is The rim seal covers the space between the
necessary to understand the following systems: floating roof and the tank shell ( side wall ).

A Fixed System is a complete installation piped An Internal Floating Roof/Covered Floating


from a central foam station, discharging through Roof Storage Tank is a combination of both the
fixed discharge devices on the hazard being pro- cone roof and the open top floating roof tank.
tected. Foam proportioning components are per- The tank has a cone roof but with the addition of
manently installed. an internal floating roof or pan that floats directly
on the fuel surface. This type of tank can be
A Semi Fixed System is an installation where the identified by the open vents in the tank side walls
hazard is equipped with fixed discharge device(s) just beneath the roof joint. If the internal floating
which connect to piping that terminates a safe roof is other than a steel double deck or pontoon
type, the fire protection system should be Flammable Liquids are subdivided as follows:
designed for full surface fires ( similar to cone roof
tanks ). For the double deck or pontoon internal Class I liquids include those having flash points
roofs of steel construction, a design for seal area below 100oF ( 37.8oC ) and may be subdivided as
protection shall be permitted (same as open follows:
floating roof tanks). (a) Class IA liquids include those having flash
o o
points below 73 F ( 22.8 C ) and having a
Small quantities of flammable liquids are o o
boiling point below 100 F ( 37.8 C ).
sometimes stored in horizontal style tanks which
(b) Class IB liquids include those having flash
normally sit on saddles or in underground storage o o
points below 73 F ( 22.8 C ) and having a
facilities. This section applies only to the three o o
boiling point above 100 F ( 37.8 C ).
major types of tanks as listed above.
(c) Class IC liquids include those having flash
o o
points at or above 73 F ( 22.8 C ) and below
o o
IDENTIFY THE FLAMMABLE LIQUID 100 F ( 37.8 C ).

There are two basic classifications of flammable Combustible Liquids mean any liquid having a
and combustible liquids: flash point at or above 100oF ( 37.8oC ). They
may be sub-divided as follows:
• Hydrocarbon ( non water miscible ) and
• Polar Solvent ( water miscible ) (a) Class II liquids include those having flash
o o
points at or above 100 F ( 37.8 C ) and
o o
The Hydrocarbon family typically consists of below 140 F ( 60 C ).
standard petroleum products such as - Gasoline, (b) Class IIIA liquids include those having flash
o o
Kerosene, Diesel, Jet Fuel, Heptane, Crude Oil points at or above 140 F ( 60 C ) and below
o o
etc. products that do not mix with water. 200 F ( 93.3 C ).
(c) Class IIIB liquids include those having flash
The Polar Solvent group typically consists of - o o
points at or above 200 F ( 93.3 C ).
Ethanol, Methanol, Ketone, Acetone etc. or pro-
ducts that will mix readily with water. FIRE PROTECTION OF STORAGE TANKS

All Chemguard U.L. Listed and Standard Grade U.L. has established two different types of foam
Foam Concentrates are suitable for use on discharge outlets:
Hydrocarbon fuel fires or spills.
• Type II Discharge Outlet - A fixed device that
Only Chemguard U.L. Listed and Standard Grade delivers foam onto the burning liquid and partially
UltraGuard 3% and the 3%-6% ( at 6% propor- submerges the foam and produces restricted
tioning rate ) Alcohol Resistant - Aqueous Film agitation of the surface. Examples of this type of
Forming Foam ( AR-AFFF ) concentrates are device are Foam Chambers and Foam Makers.
suitable for use on Polar Solvent Fuel fires or
• Type III Discharge Outlet - A fixed or portable
spills.
device that delivers foam in a manner that causes
the foam to fall directly onto the surface of the
burning liquid in such a manner that causes
NOTE: Pure MTBE is only slightly water miscible general agitation. Examples of this type of device
( approx. 4% - 6% ). are Hose Stream Nozzles and Monitors.

There are two basic methods of fire protection


FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS systems for storage tanks:
PER NFPA 11 • Sub-surface Base Injection
• Over the Top - (Subdivided as follows)
Flammable liquids mean any liquid having a flash Foam Chambers
o o
point below 100 F ( 37.8 C ) and having a vapor Foam Makers
pressure not exceeding 40 psi (276 kpa)(absolute) Portable Foam Monitor
o
at 100 F ( 37.8oC ). Foam Tower
SUB-SURFACE BASE INJECTION and 4 - 1. The device is capable of discharging
against considerable back pressure which can be
The sub-surface method of fire protection as high as 40% of the operating pressure. The
produces foam with a "High Back Pressure Foam back pressure is an accumulation of the head
Maker" located outside the storage tank. This pressure of the fuel inside the storage tank and
system delivers the expanded foam mass through any friction loss between the foam maker and the
piping into the base of the tank. The pipe may be tank. A minimum of 100 psi inlet pressure into the
an existing product line or can be a dedicated fire HBPFM is normally required to ensure correct
protection foam line. The expanded foam entering operation. The foam velocity through the piping to
the tank through a discharge outlet is injected into the tank from the HBPFM is very critical. With
the flammable liquid. The discharge outlet must flammable liquids, the foam velocity entering the
be a minimum of 1 ft. above any water that may tank should NOT exceed 10 ft. per second and
be present at the base of the tank. The foam will with combustible liquids the foam velocity should
be destroyed if injected into the water layer. When NOT exceed 20 ft. per second.
injected into the fuel, the foam will rise through the
fuel and form a vapor tight foam blanket on the The following chart shows the minimum discharge
fuel surface. times and application rates for Sub-surface
application:
Advantages of Sub-surface
Hydrocarbon Minimum Minimum
Type Fuel Discharge Application
• The rising foam can cause the fuel in the tank Time Rate
to circulate which can assist in cooling the fuel
Flash point between 100oF and 30 min. 0.10 gpm / ft.
at the surface. 140oF (37.8oC and 93.3oC) 4.1 L/min./m
• If there is an explosion and fire that could
damage the top of the tank, the sub-surface Flash point below 100oF 55 min. 0.10 gpm / ft.
(37.8oC) liquids heated above 4.1 L/min./m
injection system is not likely to suffer damage. their flash points.
• The discharging foam is more efficiently
directed to the fuel surface without any Crude Petroleum 55 min. 0.10 gpm / ft.
4.1 L/min./m
interruption from the thermal updraft of the
fire.
NOTE: The maximum application rate shall be
0.20 gpm / ft. ( 8.1 L/min./m ).
Disadvantages of Sub-surface
FOAM CHAMBERS
• CANNOT be used in storage tanks containing TYPE II DISCHARGE DEVICE
polar solvent type fuels or products that
require the use of AR-AFFF type foam
The Foam Chamber is normally used on cone
concentrates.
roof storage tanks. The chamber is bolted or
• Not Recommended for use in either Floating
welded on the outside of the tank shell near the
Roof or Internal Floating Roof type tanks.
roof joint. A deflector is mounted on the inside of
• Caution must be used so that the maximum
the tank so that the discharging foam from the
foam inlet velocity is not exceeded; otherwise,
foam chamber will be diverted back against the
excessive fuel pickup by the foam as it enters
inside of the tank wall.
the tank will be experienced.
• Not to be used for protection of Class 1A
The foam chamber is mounted on the cone roof
hydrocarbon liquids.
storage tank wall shell in a vertical position just
below the roof joint, or approximately 8" to 12"
HIGH BACK PRESSURE FOAM MAKER down from the roof joint to the center point of the
foam chamber outlet.
The HBPFM device is mounted in the foam line
used to aspirate the foam solution before it is In sequence Chemguard Models FC 2.2, 3, 4 and
discharged into the storage tank base. It will 6 foam chambers are to be mounted from approx.
typically give an expansion ratio of between 2 -1 8" to approx. 12" down from the roof joint.
When the foam chamber is mounted correctly, the maximum length of 120". The discharge pipe in
internal glass seal of the chamber will be just both instances should be directed back against
slightly higher in elevation than the roof joint on the inside wall of the dike. This installation allows
the storage tank. a more gentle application to the flammable liquid
within the dike and lessen the submergence of the
Each foam chamber mounted on a cone roof foam.
storage tank SHOULD have its own individually
valved riser supplying the foam solution from
outside the dike area. For correct operation, a
minimum of 40 psi is required at the inlet to the Criteria for sizing a foam system for a cone roof
foam chamber. storage tank.

• Identify the fuel inside the tank.


FOAM MAKERS
TYPE II DISCHARGE DEVICE • Type of foam concentrate to be used.

The foam maker is normally used to aspirate foam • Calculate the fuel surface area (TTR2). *****
solution before being discharged inside a dike
(bund) area or when used with external floating • Application rate.
roof tanks to supply foam to the rim seal area.
• Type of discharge device required and quantity
The discharge pipe down stream of the foam (based on fuel flash point and tank diameter).
maker is sized to slow the velocity of the
expanded foam and shaped to deflect the foam • Calculate discharge duration.
back against the inside of the dike wall or onto a
splash board or the tank shell wall when used for • Supplementary hose lines required and dis-
floating roof seal protection. charge duration.

The splash board is to be mounted above the top • Quantity of foam concentrate required.
of the floating roof tank. The correct size
discharge pipe from the foam maker should be • Establish bill of materials.
installed per the information supplied in the dike
protection system design information.
NOTE:
When mounted on a storage tank or used in a
dike protection system, the foam maker can be To determine the quantity of foam concentrate in
mounted in either a horizontal or vertical position a given quantity of foam solution, use the fol-
without any detrimental effect on foam lowing formula:
performance.
Multiply the foam solution by
It is recommended that a minimum 12" length of
x .01 if using a 1% type of concentrate
straight pipe be installed upstream from the foam
x .03 if using a 3% type of concentrate
maker during the installation.
x .06 if using a 6% type of concentrate
When using the Chemguard Model CGFM 1.5
EXAMPLE
Foam Maker for a dike fire protection system, a
3" diameter pipe with minimum length of 28" and a Cone roof tank - 150 ft. diameter
maximum of 100" must be connected to the foam
maker outlet ( down stream side ). This length of Fuel - Gasoline
discharge pipe allows for the correct foam Foam Concentrate - 3% AFFF
expansion to take place and slows the discharge
velocity. The Model CGFM 2.5 Foam Maker Surface area - 75' x 75' x 3.1417 = 17,672 sq. ft.
requires a length of 4" pipe to be connected to the App. Rate @ .10 gpm per sq. ft. ( Per NFPA 11)
discharge side of the maker. This length of pipe .10 x 17,672 sq. ft. = 1,767.2 gpm of foam
should also be a minimum of 28" but can have a solution required
Discharge device - Foam Chamber, Qty. 4 It is suggested that for tanks above 200 ft. (60 m)
required in diameter at least one additional discharge outlet
be added for each additional 5,000 sq. ft. ( 465
Discharge Duration - 55 min. 1,767.2 x 55 =
sq. m. ) of liquid surface or fractional part.
97,196 gallons of foam solution x .03 =
2,915.88 gallons of 3% AFFF concentrate This chart indicates the number of SUPPLE-
required. MENTARY hose streams required for various size
Supplementary Hose Lines required ( Per NFPA tanks. Each hose stream must be capable of a
11) - Qty. 3 required ( each minimum 50 gpm ) ( minimum flow rate of 50 gpm of foam solution.
Tank dia. over 120 ft. ) Diameter of Largest Minimum Number of
Hose Line discharge duration ( Per NFPA 11) - Tank Hose Streams Required
30 min. ( Tank dia. over 95 ft. ) 3 x 50 = 150 x Up to 65 ft. ( 19.5 m ) 1
30 = 4,500 gallons of foam solution x .03 = 65 to 120 ft. ( 19.5 to 36 m ) 2
135 gallons of 3% AFFF. 3,051 (135 + 2,916) Over 120 ft. ( 36 m ) 3
gallons of foam concentrate required.
This chart shows the Minimum discharge time and
A suitable bill of materials of major components
application rate for Type II fixed foam discharge
for the above system using a bladder tank could
devices on Cone Roof storage tanks.
be.
Hydrocarbon Application Discharge
• 1 x 3,200 Gallon horizontal style bladder tank.
Type Rate Time
• 1 x 6" Between flange style ratio controller.
Flash point between 0.10 gpm/ft. 30 min.
o o
• 4 x Model FC6 foam chambers each with a 100 F and 140 F (4.1 L/min./m)
o o
flow rate of 395 to 1,050 gpm depending on (37.8 C and 93.3 C)
incoming pressure. o
Flash point below 100 F 0.10 gpm/ft. 55 min.
o
• 1 x 2 1/2" Threaded type ratio controller (For (37.8 C) or liquids heated (4.1 L/min./m)
above their flash points
supplementary system).
• 3 x 50 gpm handline nozzles. Crude Petroleum 0.10 gpm/ft. 55 min.
(4.1 L/min./m)
• foam concentrate.
• Flammable liquids having a boiling point of less
o
NOTE: than 100 F might require higher rates of
application. These should be determined by
This chart identifies the number of Foam Cham- test.
bers required for the protection of a flammable
liquid contained in a vertical cone roof atmos- • For high-viscosity liquids heated above 200oF,
pheric storage tank where the discharge device is lower initial rates of application of foam may be
attached to the tank. Where two or more outlets desirable to minimize frothing and the
are required, the outlets are to be equally spaced subsequent expulsion of the stored liquid from
around the tank periphery and each outlet is to be the storage tank. Good judgment should be
sized to deliver foam at approximately the same used in applying foams to tanks containing hot
rate. oils, burning asphalts or burning liquids that
have boiling points above the boiling point of
Tank Diameter Meters Minimum Number water.
(or equivalent of discharge
area) outlets • The above table includes Gasohols and
Up to 80 ft. 24 1 unleaded gasolines containing no more than
Over 80 to 120 24 to 36 2 10% oxygenated additives by volume. Where
Over 120 to 140 36 to 42 3 these additives exceed 10% by volume or
Over 140 to 160 42 to 48 4 where the flammable liquid is a polar solvent or
Over 160 to 180 48 to 54 5 water miscible product, fire protection is
Over 180 to 200 54 to 60 6 normally supplied by the AR-AFFF type foam
concentrates. In those instances check with
Chemguard to establish recommended appli- Foam Dam installed on roof - Yes - 2 ft. from
cation rates. The minimum discharge duration tank wall and 2 ft. in height
is 55 min.
Sq. ft. area of annular ring - 930 sq. ft.
The following chart indicates the minimum
operating time of the supplementary hose Application Rate - .30 gpm per sq. ft. ( Per
stream(s) for various size tanks. NFPA 11).30 x 930 sq. ft. = 279
gpm of foam solution required.
Diameter of Largest Minimum Operating
Tank Time Type of Discharge Device - Foam Makers

Up to 35 ft. ( 10.5 m ) 10 min. Discharge Duration - 20 min.


35 to 95 ft. ( 10.5 to 28.5 m ) 20 min. 279 x 20 = 5,580 gallons of foam solution - x
Over 95 ft. ( 28.5 m ) 30 min. .03 ( 3% AFFF ) = 167.4 gallons of foam
concentrated
Equipment List using a Foam Pump Skid Assy.
for a 150 ft. dia. tank containing gasoline. Quantity of Foam Makers Required ( Per NFPA
11) 6 required.
1 x Atmospheric Foam Concentrate Storage
Tank 3,100 Gallons Add supplementary hose lines per example for
Cone Roof Tank with Foam Chambers.
1 x Electric powered Foam Pump Proportioning
skid with prepiped 6" ratio controller ( Foam
Chambers ) and prepiped 2 1/2" ratio
controller ( Supplementary Hose Lines ) NOTE:

4 x Model FC4 or FC6 Foam Chambers The number of fixed foam discharge points on an
open top floating roof tank is determined by the
3 x 50 gpm Hand Line nozzles circumference of the tank.
3,051 x Gallons 3% AFFF ( plus any additional
The maximum spacing between discharge points
for testing of the system )
is 40 ft. ( 12.2 m ) of tank circumference when
using a 12" ( 305 mm ) high foam dam and every
NOTE:
80 ft. ( 24.4 m ) of tank circumference when using
When protecting multiple storage tanks the foam a 24" ( 610 mm ) high foam dam.
system is to be sized to protect the single largest
hazard. In accordance with NFPA 11

Fig. 9 depicts a manual foam pump skid system Foam Dam Design - The foam dam should be
showing all necessary piping, valves, discharge circular and constructed of at least No. 10 US
devices, ratio controller, foam pump and foam Standard Gage Thickness ( .134 in./3.4 mm )
storage tank for the above system. steel plate. The dam is to be welded or otherwise
securely fastened to the floating roof. The foam
Fig. 10 shows a Cone Roof Storage Tank with a dam is designed to retain foam at the seal area at
Semi-Fixed Foam System. a sufficient depth to cover the seal area while
causing the foam to flow laterally to the point of
The following example shows the foam system seal rupture.
requirements for seal protection of a 150 ft.
diameter open top floating roof tank. Dam height is to be at least 12" ( 305 mm ) and
should extend at least 2" ( 51 mm ) above any
Type of Tank - Open Top Floating Roof Tank metal secondary seal or a combustible secondary
seal using a plastic foam log.
Diameter of Tank - 150 ft.
It is to be at least 2" ( 51 mm ) higher than any
Type of Fuel - Gasoline burnout panels in metal secondary seals.
Foam dams are to be at least 1 ft. ( 0.3 m ) but Equipment list for the above example using a
no more than 2 ft. ( 0.6 m ) from the edge of the bladder tank foam supplied foam system.
floating roof.
• 1 x 900 Gallon vertical style bladder tank.
Foam solution & rain water is to be drained by,
slotting the bottom of the dam on the basis of 0.04 • 1 x 4" Between flange style ratio controller.
sq. in. of slot area per sq. ft. (278 mm sq./sq. m)
of diked area while restricting the slots to 3/8 in. • 1 x 2 1/2" Threaded type ratio controller ( for
(9.5 mm) in height. Excessive dam openings for supplementary hose lines ).
drainage should be avoided to prevent loss of
foam through the drainage slots. • 1 x Model CFM500 High Back Pressure Foam
Maker ( HBPFM ).
SUB-SURFACE SYSTEM
• Supplementary hand line nozzles and foam
( Sub-surface injection of foam is generally not concentrate.
recommended for fuels that have a viscosity
Determining Number of Discharge Outlets for
greater than 2,000 ssu ( 440 centistokes ) at their
Subsurface Base Injection.
minimum anticipated storage temperature ).
The number of discharge outlets required is bas-
Example of a Sub-Surface Base Injection System
ed on the tank diameter and the flash point of the
Cone Roof Tank - 80 ft. diameter fuel as shown in the above chart.

Fuel - Gasoline
FOAM MONITORS AND HANDLINES
Foam Concentrate - 3%-6% AR-AFFF
Monitors are not to be considered as the primary
Surface Area - = means of protection for fixed roof tanks over 60 ft.
40' x 40' x 3.1417 = 5,026.7 sq. ft. in diameter. Foam handlines are not to be
App. Rate - .10 gpm per sq. ft. considered as the primary means of protection for
.10 x 5,027 sq. ft. = 502.7 gpm of foam solution tanks over 30 ft. in diameter or those over 20 ft. in
Discharge Duration - 55 min. height.

Quantity of Foam Concentrate required - Application Rates Using Monitors or


503 (502.7 ) x 55 x .03 = 829.95 gallons Handlines

Discharge Device - Qty. 1 High Back Pressure The minimum foam solution application rate is
Foam Maker ( " Foam generator " ) based on the assumption that all discharging foam
will reach the area being protected. In consider-
Number of Discharge outlets inside tank
ing actual solution flow requirements, considera-
Qty. 1 (Tank 80 ft. or less) (Per NFPA 11)
tion should be given to potential foam losses from
Supplementary hose lines per example for Cone climatic conditions and thermal updraft of the fire,
Roof Tank. etc.

The following chart shows the number of dis- The following chart shows application density and
charge outlets required inside the tank. duration for monitors and handlines on tanks
containing hydrocarbons.
Tank Diameter Number of Discharge Outlets Required
o
Flash Point below Flash Point 100 F
o o
100 F (38 C)
o
(38 C) or Higher Hydrocarbon Type Minimum Minimum
Application Rate Discharge
Up to 80 ft. ( 24 m ) 1 1 gpm/ft (L/min.)/m2
2
Time
Over 80 to 120 ft. ( 24 - 36 m ) 2 1 (min.)
Over 120 to 140 ft. ( 36 - 42 m ) 3 2
Over 140 to 160 ft. ( 42 - 48 m ) 4 2 Flash point between
Over 160 to 180 ft. ( 48 - 54 m ) 5 2 100oF and 140oF
Over 180 to 200 ft. ( 54 - 60 m ) 6 3
(37.8oC and 93.3oC) 0.16 6.5 50
Over 200 ft. ( 60 m ) 6 3
Plus 1 outlet for Plus 1 outlet for
Flash point below 100oF
each additional each additional (37.8oC) or liquids heated
5,000 sq. ft. 7,500 sq. ft. above their flash points 0.16 6.5 65
(465 sq. m) (697 sq. m) Crude Petroleum 0.16 6.5 65
Included in the above table are gasohols and
unleaded gasolines containing no more than 10
percent of an oxygenated additive by volume.

On tanks containing water miscible/polar solvent


flammable liquids the recommended foam appli-
cation duration is 65 minutes.

Flammable liquids having a boiling point less than


100oF and products that have been burning for
some time can develop a heat layer which might
require foam solution application rates as high as
.2 or .25 gpm per sq. ft.

Where monitors or handlines are used to protect


storage tanks containing polar solvent or water
miscible liquids the discharge duration shall be a
minimum of 65 minutes at the recommended
application rate.

FSFPrv 995
STORAGE TANK
PROTECTION WITH HIGH
FLOW MONITORS

TECHNIQUE IN EXTINGUISHING LARGE points such as Crude Oil may require application
TANK FIRES rates of 0.2 gpm/ft2. (8.1 L/min./m2) or more. The
application rate stated in the code is based on the
Large storage tank fires are very complex events assumption that all the foam solution reaches the
and satisfactory extinguishment requires burning surface.
methodical planning and the effective use of
resources. At this time, existing Codes and
Standards do not provide guidelines for using high Note: The rates are intended for Liquid Hydro-
flow monitor foam applications for large tank fires. carbon Fuels. Polar solvent liquids are destruc-
The existing Codes and Standards do provide tive to regular foams and require the use of
good recommendations for fixed fire protection alcohol resistance foams. Chemguard, Inc.
systems. Full surface fires involving large should be consulted to determine the recom-
diameter tanks have occurred around the world. mended application rate.
Extinguishment of such fires has not been totally
successful. With the introduction of large capacity In view of the above, rates and practical
foam monitors, new varieties of foam experience gained in incidents involving full
concentrates and improvements in application surface fires involving large storage tanks, it
techniques there has been some degree of would be more appropriate to consider 0.25
success in achieving extinguishment. gpm/ft2. (10.4 L/min./m2) which is equal to a 60%
increase for mobile systems. For burning crude
The largest fully involved tank fire that has been oil tank a rate of 0.32 gpm/ft2. (12.9 L/min./m2)
successfully extinguished was 150 ft. (46 meter). may be more appropriate.
The extinguishment was carried out with a large
capacity monitor/cannon applying non-aspirated
foam "over-the-top" onto the burning surface. It is The elevated application rates provide a better
believed that present fire fighting technology is chance of ensuring foam reaching the burning
capable of extinguishing fully involved tank fires surface thus increasing the probability for extin-
up to 197 ft. (60 meters) in diameter. In theory it guishment. Consideration for such high rates
may be technically feasible to extinguish tank fires take into account fall out from the delivery system,
in excess of 200 ft. (61 meters) using the "over- losses due to strong thermal updraft, break down
the-top" method of employing very large capacity of foam as it travels through the flames to reach
mobile monitors with improved types of foam the burning fuel and destruction of the foam due
concentrates. The logistics for mounting such to the hot fuel and any hot metal surface.
massive operations must be fully considered.

WATER AND FOAM CONCENTRATE RE-


APPLICATION RATE QUIRED FOR FIGHTING LARGE TANK FIRES

NFPA 11 application rate for mobile equipment is Water supply both in terms of pressure, flow rate
often interpreted as 0.16 gpm/ft2. (6.5 L/min./m7). and adequate amount of foam concentrate are
among the most important factors for launching a
The code also states that flammable liquids successful extinguishing operation. Unless ade-
having a boiling point of less than 100oF (37.8oC) quate and uninterrupted supply is guaranteed, an
may require higher rates of application. In addi- attempt to extinguish a fully involved large tank
tion flammable liquids with a wide range of boiling fire is doomed to failure at the very onset of the
operation.
The amount of water and the flow rate needed to tank fire could be expected to fully involve a
produce 3% foam solution to generate foam to neighboring identical tank in approximately 1.5
fight a large tank fire can be found in Table 1. hours under the following conditions.

The quantity of 3% foam concentrate and the flow - 4 m/sec.(14 km/hr.) wind towards neighboring
rate needed to produce 3% foam solution to tank
generate foam to fight a large tank fire can be - intertank separation of 0.5 diameter
found in Table 2. (82 ft.) (25 m)
- neighboring tank having pontoon roof and
inadequate water spray protection
COOLING INVOLVED TANK AND THE PRO-
TECTION OF ADJACENT TANKS FROM RADI- Altering any of the above conditions can change
ATED HEAT SOURCE the time for ignition of the adjacent tank:

With reference to existing guidelines, the amount Base Case = 1.5 hrs.
of water needed to cool the involved tank shell is
estimated by tank size: Change of conditions:

100 ft. (30 meter) diameter 750 gpm (3m3/min.) Calm (no wind condition) = 2.8 hrs.
120 ft. (36 meter) diameter 1000 gpm (4m3/min.) Intertank separation increased to 1.0 D (50 m)
160 ft. (48 meter) diameter 1250 gpm (5m3/min.) = 3.0 hrs.
220 ft. (67 meter) diameter 1500 gpm (6m3/min.) Intertank separation increased to 2.0 D (100 m)
= 17.0 hrs.
Cooling water required to protect each adjacent Water protection on side facing exposure
tank not shielded from the tank on fire is 500 gpm = 2.8 hrs.
(2 m3/min.). Double deck roof on exposed tank
= 1.5 hrs.
In practice water applied to the shell of a large Water protection on side facing exposure +
tank on fire is ineffective in preventing it from double deck roof = 24.0+hrs.
buckling and deforming. In the late stages of Tank diameters only 30 m but with 0.5 D
extinguishment, cooling water applied on the area separation = 0.5 hrs
above the liquid level would help the foam stay in Neighboring tank contains kerosene, not naphtha
contact with the tank shell. The cooling streams = 22.0 hrs.
should be stopped when foam attack has started
to conserve water and to concentrate on extin- Some conclusions drawn from the results are:
guishment.
− escalation is likely for unprotected tanks of
The need for protecting adjacent tanks can best volatile material with normal separation unless
be illustrated with information and data published the original fire is extinguished quickly
in a recent study done on large tank fires. − calm conditions only delay the escalation
Although not yet fully validated it nevertheless potential
provides valuable information for pre-fireplanning
− increased separation alone only delays the
purposes.
escalation potential
The time required to create an escalation condi- − water spray protection or roof insulation alone
tion in an adjacent tank depends upon a number does prevent escalation
of factors including: tank size, separation, type, − water spray and roof insulation together are
initial boiling point of flammable liquid in the tanks, effective
water cooling, tank design, wind speed and
− smaller diameter tanks at normal separation
direction.
are at greater risk of escalation than larger
diameter tank
For example, a full surface fire involving a 164 ft.
(50m) diameter open top, floating roof naphtha − lower volatility fuels provide more response
time for fire fighter
Cooling of adjacent tanks is best achieved with combines several monitors to form a Mass
fixed systems that are designed to provide effec- Stream discharging with the wind to concentrate
tive water film coverage of all exposed metal on a selected landing zone within the tank.
surfaces. A cooling water rate of 0.05 gpm/
ft2.(2.0 L/min./m2) is sufficient to absorb 90% of This extremely high “local application rate/density”
incoming radiant heat. Any increase in the promotes survivability of the foam journey through
cooling water rate does not increase the cooling the fire to establish a foothold on a relatively small
effect significantly. The figure of 10.2 L/min./m2 area of the burning surface. Once the foam
by NFPA 15 relates mainly to the protection of blanket at the landing zone is established it can
pressurized vessels such as LPG tanks subject to then be expanded by making adjustments to the
direct flame impingement. Mass Stream. The added advantage of large
volume application in a small area may help to
reduce “local fuel temperature” and the associated
OVER THE-TOP-APPLICATION TECHNIQUE actual vapor presssure which in turn can help in
WITH LARGE CAPACITY FOAM MONITORS lowering the fire severity. These factors require
consideration because as the fuel temperature
A present concept in extinguishing large tank fires approaches the boiling point of water, it is difficult
is to employ Large Capacity Non-aspirated Foam for the foam to survive. As fuel temperature
Monitors to apply foam "over-the-top" of the increases the true vapor temperature will increase
involved tank onto the burning fuel surface. to overcome the effectiveness of the foam
Although they are normally known as non- blanket.
aspirated monitors, these monitors are capable of
producing foam with an expansion ratio of about Large volume foam attack should be launched as
3.1 to 4.5 when used with alcohol resistance type quickly as possible; however, it must be stressed
foam concentrates. that application must not be carried out until all
equipment and logistic support are in place. The
Chemguard has large capacity foam monitors longer a tank is allowed to burn, the danger of
currently available have capacities ranging from escalation becomes greater, the fuel temperature
2,000 to 4,000 gpm (7,570 L/min.). The equip- increases making it more difficult to extinguish,
ment operates at inlet pressure between 100 to the exposed tank shell deforms (normally the
130 psig (690 to 890 kPa) and have a range of exposed steel curls inwards to create nooks and
about 250 to 300 feet (61-99 meter). crevices) making it difficult for foam to cover all
the burning surface. In the case of crude oil, the
AR-AFFF type foam concentrate is preferred and possiblility of having a “boilover” increases with
it should be transported in bulk totes or trailers time.
having large capacities. The logistics for trans-
porting foam in 5 gallon pails or 55 gallon drums The ability to deal with large tank fires depends on
to the fire scene should not be considered, for methodical pre-fire plan, regular training and
obvious reasons. exervises. The most important factor, however,
rests on minimizing the risk of having a fully
Large diameter hose should be used to supply the involved large tank fire through good engineering
flow required for large volume foam attack. The design, effective management and maintenance
use of 5" (125 mm) diameter hose is preferred programs.
due to low frictional loss and is relatively easy to
use. It must be remembered that it is extremely
difficult to move the hose once it is charged with
water. For quick estimation, provide one 5" (125
mm.) hose line for every 1,000 gpm (3.8 m3/min.)
flow requirement. At this flow rate the friction loss
is 8.0 psig (55 kPa) for every 100 feet (30.5 m).
Table 3 provides information on friction loss of
some large diameter hoses.

The “over-the-top” foam technique attacks the STPrv995


burning tank with either a very large capacity
monitor that meets the required application rate or
OVER-THE-TOP FOAM APPLICATION TECHNIQUE
WITH LARGE CAPACITY FOAM MONITORS

Wind

Fuel

Foam

Monitor

D021rv895
TABLE 1

WATER FLOW RATE TO PRODUCE 3% FOAM SOLUTION


TO FIGHT FIRES IN TANKS

MINIMUM QUANTITIES

TANK DIAMETER WATER FLOW RATE TOTAL WATER REQUIRED TO SUSTAIN


65 MINUTES OF OPERATION

Feet Meter Application Rate Application Rate Application Rate Application Rate
0.16 gpm./ft2. 6.5 L/min./m2 0.25 gpm./ft2. 10.4 L/min./m2 0.16 gpm./ft2. 6.5 L/min./m2 0.25 gpm./ft2. 10.4 L/min./m2
Gallon Meter3 Gallon Meter3

100 30.5 1218 4598 1904 7357 79170 299 123760 478
110 33.5 1474 5563 2304 8902 95796 362 149750 579
120 36.6 1754 6621 2742 10594 114005 430 178214 689
130 39.6 2058 7770 3218 12433 133797 505 209154 808
140 42.7 2387 9012 3732 14420 155173 586 242570 937
150 45.7 2741 10345 4284 16553 176133 672 278460 1076
160 48.8 3118 11770 4874 18834 202675 765 316826 1224
170 51.8 3520 13288 5503 21262 226801 864 357666 1382
180 54.9 3946 14897 6169 23837 256511 968 400982 1549
190 57.9 4397 16598 6873 26558 285804 1079 446774 1726
200 61.0 4872 18391 7616 29425 316680 1195 495040 1913
210 64.0 5371 20276 8397 32444 349140 1318 545782 2109
220 67.1 5895 22253 9216 35606 383183 1446 598998 2315
230 70.1 6443 24322 10072 38916 418809 1581 654690 2530
240 73.2 7016 26483 10967 42376 456019 1721 712858 2754
250 76.2 7613 28736 11900 45981 494813 1868 773500 2989
260 79.2 8234 31081 12871 49733 535189 2020 836618 3233
270 82.3 8879 33518 13880 53632 577149 2179 902210 3486
280 85.3 9549 36047 14927 57679 620693 2343 970278 3749
290 88.4 10243 38667 16013 61872 665820 2513 1040822 4022
300 91.4 10962 41380 17136 66213 712530 2690 1113840 4304

CHARrv895
TABLE 2

FOAM CONCENTRATE (3%) TO PRODUCE 3% FOAM SOLUTION


TO FIGHT FIRES IN TANKS

MINIMUM QUANTITIES

TANK DIAMETER 3% FOAM CONCENTRATE FLOW RATE TOTAL 3% FOAM CONCENTRATE REQUIRED
TO SUSTAIN 65 MINUTES OF OPERATION

Feet Meter Application Rate Application Rate Application Rate Application Rate
0.16 gpm./ft2. 6.5 L/min./m2 0.25 gpm./ft2. 10.4 L/min./m2 0.16 gpm./ft2. 6.5 L/min./m2 0.25 gpm./ft2. 10.4 L/min./m2
Gallon Meter3 Gallon Meter3

100 30.5 38 142 59 228 2470 9.25 3835 14.79


110 33.5 46 172 71 275 2989 11.19 4640 17.89
120 36.6 55 205 85 328 3557 13.31 5522 21.30
130 39.6 64 240 100 385 4174 15.62 6481 24.99
140 42.7 74 279 116 446 4841 18.12 7617 28.99
150 45.7 86 320 133 512 5558 20.80 8629 33.27
160 48.8 97 364 151 582 6323 23.67 9818 37.86
170 51.8 110 411 171 658 7138 26.72 11063 42.74
180 54.9 123 461 191 737 8003 29.95 12425 47.92
190 57.9 137 513 213 821 8917 33.38 13844 53.39
200 61.0 152 569 236 910 9880 36.98 15340 59.16
210 64.0 168 627 260 1003 10893 40.77 16912 65.22
220 67.1 184 688 286 1101 11955 44.75 18561 71.58
230 70.1 201 752 312 1204 13066 48.91 20287 78.23
240 73.2 219 819 340 1311 14227 53.25 22090 85.18
250 76.2 238 889 369 1422 15438 57.78 23969 92.43
260 79.2 257 962 399 1538 15697 62.50 25925 99.97
270 82.3 277 1037 430 1659 18006 67.40 27957 107.81
280 85.3 298 1115 463 1784 19365 72.48 30068 115.94
290 88.4 320 1196 496 1913 20773 77.75 32252 124.37
300 91.4 342 1280 531 2048 22230 83.21 34515 133.10

CHARrv895
TABLE 3

FRICTION LOSS PER 100 FEET / 30.5 METERS

FRICTION LOSS IN WATER SUPPLY LINE EXPRESSED AS PSIG & kPa LOSS PER 100 FEET / 30.5 METERS OF HOSE

FLOW 4 INCH SUPPLY LINE 4-1/2 INCH SUPPLY LINE 5 INCH SUPPLY LINE 6 INCH SUPPLY LINE
USGPM LITER/MIN. PSIG kPa PSIG kPa PSIG kPa PSIG kPa

100 369 0.20 1 0.10 1 0.06 1 0.05 0.3


200 737 0.80 6 0.40 3 0.32 2 0.20 1
300 1106 1.80 12 0.90 6 0.72 3 0.45 3
400 1474 3.20 22 1.00 10 1.28 9 0.80 6
500 1843 5.00 34 2.50 17 2.00 14 1.25 9
600 2211 7.20 50 3.60 25 2.88 20 1.80 12
700 2580 9.80 68 4.90 34 3.92 27 2.45 17
800 2948 12.80 88 6.40 44 5.12 35 3.20 22
900 3317 16.20 112 8.10 56 6.48 45 4.05 28
1000 3685 20.00 138 10.00 69 8.00 55 5.00 34
1100 4054 24.20 167 12.10 83 9.68 67 6.05 42
1200 4422 28.80 199 14.40 99 11.52 79 7.20 50
1300 4791 33.80 233 16.90 117 13.52 90 8.45 58
1400 5160 39.20 270 19.60 135 15.68 108 9.80 68
1500 5628 45.00 310 22.50 155 18.00 124 11.25 78
1600 5897 51.20 353 25.60 177 20.48 141 12.80 88
1700 6265 57.80 399 28.90 199 23.12 156 14.45 100
1800 6634 64.80 447 32.40 223 25.92 179 16.20 112
1900 7002 72.20 496 36.10 249 28.88 199 18.05 124
2000 7371 80.00 552 40.00 276 32.00 221 20.00 138
2100 7739 88.20 608 44.10 304 35.28 243 22.05 152
2200 8106 96.80 667 48.40 334 38.72 267 24.20 167
2300 8476 105.80 729 52.90 366 42.32 292 26.45 182
2400 8845 115.20 794 57.60 397 46.08 308 28.80 199
2500 9214 125.00 862 62.50 431 50.00 345 31.25 215

CHARrv195
FIG. 9

EXAMPLE OF BALANCE PRESSURE PUMP


SKID WITH TWO PROPORTIONERS

Pressure Vacuum Vent

Atmospheric Tank

Pressure Relief
Valve Flush Inlet
Connection
Flush Outlet
Connection
Strainer

Balancing
Valve
Foam
Concentrate
Pump

System 1: Foam solution


to manifold supplying 4 foam
chambers on cone roof tank.

Water
Inlet

System 2: Foam solution to


Ratio
separate storage tank system
Controller
or hose reels, if required.

D004rv895
FIG. 10

SEMI-FIXED FOAM SYSTEM WITH MOBILE


APPARATUS SUPPLYING THE FOAM SOLUTION

Foam
Chamber

Foam Chamber
Aerated Topside Application
Foam
on Cone Roof Tank

OS & Y Valve

FUEL

Foam Solution
from Mobile
Apparatus
Dike Wall

D085rv995
SUB-SURFACE INJECTION APPLICATION
ON CONE ROOF TANK

Foam
Blanket

Rupture Aerated
Disc Foam
(optional) Check Gate Valve
Valve
FUEL Foam
Solution

Test Point Dike Wall


Water Level High Back Pressure
Foam Maker

D003rv995
TYPICAL OUTLETS FOR SUB-SURFACE INJECTION
INSIDE CONE ROOF STORAGE TANKS

Connections for Sub-surface Foam Makers

Gate Valve
Check Valve

Valved
2 Outlets Rupture Disc Test Connection
(optional)
Dike Wall

3 Outlets

4 Outlets

D023rv195
TYPICAL SUB-SURFACE TANK PROTECTION INLET DESIGN

A. Straight-In C. Horizontal ELL E. Horizontal Tee


Recommended Recommended Recommended
Tank Shell Tee

Valve

Plan o
90 ELL
Water
Bottom

Plan Elev.
Elev.

B. Vertical ELL D. 180o ELL


o
Not Recommended Not Recommended 180 ELL
A. Best for Cone Roof Tanks

B. Possible to Block with Sediment

90o ELL C. Good for Floating Roof Tanks (FRT)

D. Not Good for FRT, Gives Stream Backlash

E. Best for Floating Roof Tank

D019rv195
EXPANDED FOAM VELOCITY vs PIPE SIZE
2 1/2", 3", 4", 6", 8", 10", 12", 14"
Standard Schedule 40 Pipe

All dimensions in inches (millimeters)


unless otherwise noted

EXPANDED FOAM RATE


FT/SEC
M/SEC

FOAM VELOCITY vs PIPE SIZE - 16", 18"


Standard Schedule 40 Pipe
9.1 30
18"
16" (46
0)
0)
(40

6.1 20
FOAM VELOCITY

3 10

All dimensions in inches (millimeters)


unless otherwise noted.
0

GPM 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000


LPM 7570 15139 22710 30278 37848 45420 52990 60560

EXPANDED FOAM RATE D038rv195


FRICTION LOSS OF EXPANDED FOAM
THROUGH VARIOUS SIZE PIPES

These subsurface graphs depict the friction loss characteristics of foam with an expansion of 4 to 1 and inlet
velocities for various pipe sizes. The 4 to 1 ratio is the value to be used for friction loss and inlet velocity
calculations.

60

50
2 1/2" PIPE DIAMETER

40

3" PIPE DIAMETER

30

20
FOR SI UNITS
1 gpm = 3.785 l / min.
1 psi = 6.895 kPa
1 ft. = 0.305 m

10

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

FOAM FLOW - gpm

50

40
4" PIPE DIAMETER

30

20
FOR SI UNITS
1 gpm = 3.785 / min.
1 psi = 6.895 kPa
1 ft. = 0.305 m

10

0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200


FOAM FLOW - gpm D075rv195
FOR SI UNITS
1 gpm = 3.785 l / min.
50 1 psi = 6.895 kPa
1 ft. = 0.305 m

40
6" PIPE DIAMETER

30

20
8" PIPE DIAMETER

10
10" PIPE DIAMETER

0
1600 2400 3200 4000 4800 5600 6400 7200 8000 8800
FOAM FLOW - gpm

FOR SI UNITS
1 gpm = 3.785 l / min.
1 psi = 6.895 kPa
25 1 ft. = 0.305 m

20

15

10

14" PIPE DIAMETER


5

0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 24000 28000 32000


FOAM FLOW - gpm

D076rv195
FOAM CHAMBER INSTALLATION
FIXED SYSTEM USING A BLADDER TANK

Foam
Chamber Ball Valve
Normally Closed
Ball Valve
Normally Open
Swing Check

Hydraulic Actuated
Ball Valve

Bladder Tank

Solution Flow
Water
Supply

Proportioner

D010rv1296
FOAM CHAMBER TOPSIDE APPLICATION
ON INTERNAL FLOATING ROOF TANK

Foam
Vent Chamber

Aerated
Foam

Internal
Floating
Roof
FUEL Foam Solution

Dike Wall

D003rv195
INSTALLATION OF FOAM MAKER & SPLASH BOARD
ON FLOATING ROOF TANKS

Sheet steel splash board can be rectangular or cut as shown


mounted on top of shell reinforced with suitable supports.
Minimum dimensions will depend on minimum clearance needed "A" Dimension is the height of the foam maker outlet
between foam discharge outlet and top position of roof. above the top edge of the tank shell. The minimum
height must clear the top position of the floating roof.

"L" Shield Length

3/8 of "L"
Splash Board

12"
Deflector
Foam Maker

Foam Dam

"A" 2' 0"

1/2 of "A"

12"

Roof

Wind Girder

Urethane Seal

Foam solution piping to other foam makers may Tank Shell


be located above or below wind girder or Swing Joint Foam Solution
at grade level. Supply Piping

D040rv195
EXAMPLES OF TYPICAL TOP AND BELOW SEAL
APPLICATIONS FOR FLOATING ROOF TANKS

Foam
Maker Aerated Foam

Weather Shield

Foam Dam
Foam Maker
Aspirated
Foam Solution Foam
Brace

Seal

Foam
Solution Pontoon
Roof

Typical Top of Seal Application Typical Below Seal Application

D005rv195
SEAL AREA PROTECTION USING A FOAM MAKER
OR HANDLINE NOZZLE FROM LADDER AREA

Quick Opening Valve

Foam Maker

Siamese
Siamese Foam
Foam Outlet
Hydranfor
Handline Connection

Back Board Mounted


Higher than Uppermost
Position of Roof

Stairway
Platform

Stairway Ladder

Foam Dam
Wind Girder

Brace

Foam Solution Piping


Floating Roof

Tank Shell

Product

D022rv195
TANK AND DIKE PROTECTION WITH FOAM MONITOR SYSTEM

Dike

Tank Tank

OS & Y
Valve
Monitor
(Typical)

Tank

Foam
Concentrate OS & Y Valve

Monitor

Ratio
Water Controller
Supply

D033rv195
STORAGE TANK PROTECTION
Topside Applications
Foam Maker
Existing or New
Foam Chamber

Foam Delivery Pipe

Foam Solution
Delivery Piping
Forcing Foam Maker

Dike Dike
SolutionFoam Solution
Delivery
Delivery Piping
Piping
Fixed Foam Chamber Foam Maker

A - B Foam Chamber Portable Foam


Tube or Tower

Mechanical Foam
Generator Conversion

Foam Solution
Foam Solution Delivery Hoses
Delivery Piping

Dike Dike

A - B Powder Conversion Portable Foam Tower


D016rv195
TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT FOR SUB-SURFACE SYSTEMS
INTO A CONE ROOF STORAGE TANK

Tank Shell

Rupture Disc Swing


(optional) Check GateValve
Valve

From High Back


Pressure Foam Maker
At Least 1 ft.
(0.3m)
Water Bottom

Foam
Flow

Valved Test Connection

D012rv195
STORAGE TANK PROTECTION
Sub-surface Applications
(Hydrocarbon Fuels Only)

Foam
Delivery
Piping High Back Pressure
Foam Maker

Normal Product
Water Line
Bottom

Dike Dike
Solution
Solution Piping
Delivery
Piping
High Back Pressure
Dedicated Foam Solution Foam Maker
Production Line Application
Line Application

Although dedicated lines may be used to apply foam using the subsurface method,
additional economies may be realized by using existing product lines for foam
injection.

In some installations a total tank farm may be covered by using a single subsurface
injection station at the product line manifold.

The piping pressure losses and the inlet injection velocity must be verified by calculation.
This is to be done with each product line which is a candidate for subsurface injection.
D017rv195
STORAGE TANK PROTECTION SUMMARY

Fixed-Roof (Cone) Tanks Pontoon or Double-Deck Floating Roof Tanks

Number Not applicable. Mechanical Shoe Seal.


Required 1 - For each 130 ft. (39.6 m) of tank circumference
(no foam dam required)
Tube Seal - Over 6 in. (15.2 cm) from top of seal to top of
pontoon with foam outlets under metal weather shield or
secondary seal.
1 - For each 60 ft. (18.3 m) of tank circumference
(no foam dam required)
Tube Seal - Less than 6 in. (15.2 cm) from top of seal to
top of pontoon with foam outlets under metal weather
shield or secondary seal.
1 - For each 60 ft. (18.3 m) of tank circumference
[foam dam at least 12 in. (30.5 cm) high required].

Hydrocarbon Not Applicable. 0.30 gpm. (1.14 L/min.) per sq. ft. (sq. m) of annular ring
Application area with foam dam or with foam application under metal
Rates weather seal or secondary seal. 0.50 gpm (1.9 L/min.) per
sq. ft.. (sq. m for all other applications).

Discharge Not Applicable. 20 min. - with foam dam or under metal weather shield or
Times secondary seal.

Polar Not Applicable. Not covered by NFPA 11.


Solvents

Size of Monitors for tanks up to 60 ft. (18.3 m) in Monitors not recommended.


Tank diameter.
Hand hoselines for tanks less than 30 ft. Handlines are suitable for extinguishment of rim fires
(9.2 m) in diameter and less than 20 ft. in open-top floating roof tanks.
(6.1 m) high.

2 2
Hydrocarbon 0.16 gpm/ft. 0.16 gpm/ft.
2
Application [(6.5 L/min.)/(m )] (6.5 L/min./m )
2

Rates For rim fires in open-top floating roof tanks.


o o
Discharge Flash point below 100 Fo (37.8 C) 65 min. Use same times as for open-top floating roof tank rim
o
Times Flash point 100 F - 140 F 50 min. fires.
Crude Oil 65min.

Number Same as table for foam chambers. Not Recommended.


Required

2 2
Hydrocarbon Minimum 0.1 gpm/ft. [(4.1 L/min.)/m. ] of Not Recommended.
Application liquid surface.
2 2
Rates Maximum 0.2 gpm/ft. [(8.2 L/min.)/m. ]
Foam velocity from outlet shall not exceed
10 ft. per sec. (3.05 m per sec.) for Class 1B
liquids or 20 ft. per sec. (6.1 m per sec.) for
all other liquids.

o o
Discharge Flash point 100 F (37.8 C) 30 min. Not Recommended.
o o
Times to 140 F (194.4 C)
o o
Flash point below 100 F (37.8 C) 55 min.
Crude Petroleum 55 min.

Polar Not Recommended. Not Recommended.


Solvents

2 2 2 2 o o
For S1 units: 1 gpm/ft. = 40.746 (L/min.)/m ; 1 ft. = 0.305 m; 1 ft. = 0.0929 m ; 1 in. = 0.0245 m; C = F - 32/1.8.
D056rv0200
STORAGE TANK PROTECTION SUMMARY

Pontoon or Double-Deck Floating


Fixed-Roof (Cone) Tanks and
Roof Tanks, (Open-Top or
Pan-Type Floating Roof Tanks
Covered) Annular Seal Area

Number Up to 80 ft. (2.44 m) dia. 1 Foam Chamber 1 for each 40 ft. (12.2 m) of circumference
of Foam 81 to 120 ft. (24.7 - 36.6 m) dia. 2 Foam Chambers with a 12-inch (30.5 cm) high foam dam.
Outlets 121 to 140 ft. (36.9 - 42.7 m) dia. 3 Foam Chambers
Required 141 to 160 ft. (43 - 48.8 m) dia. 4 Foam Chambers 1 for each 80 ft. (24.4 m) of circumference
161 to 180 ft. (49 - 54.9 m) dia. 5 Foam Chambers with a 24-inch (61 cm) high foam dam.
181 to 200 ft. (55.2 - 61 m) dia. 6 Foam Chambers
Over 210 ft. (61.2 m) 1 additional for each
5,000 sq. ft.

Hydrocarbon 0.10 gpm (0.38 L/min.) per sq. ft. (sq. m) of liquid surface. 0.30 gpm (1.14 L/min.) per sq. ft. (sq. m)
Application of annular ring area between tank wall
Rates and foam dam.

Polar Not covered by NFPA 11.


Solvent See Manufacturer's Approval Report.
Rates

Type I Type II
Hydrocarbon
Discharge o o o o
Flash Pt. 100 F - 140 F (37.8 C - 194.4 C) 20 min. 30 min. 20 min.
Times o o
Flash Pt. below 100 F (37.8 C) 30 min. 55 min.
Crude Petroleum 30 min. 55 min.

Polar Type I 30 min. Not covered by NFPA 11.


Solvents Type II 55 min.

D057rv195