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NOTES:

 Exams and tests such as urine analysis may show high blood sugar levels over 200mg
 Negative feedback (aka thermostat)- starts at normal range, goes beyond normal range,
returns to normal, maintains body temperature through normal balance
 Feedback mechanism: helps maintain normal temperature (blood glucose levels)
 Body temperature is controlled by hypothalamus which is the processing center in the
brain
 The hypothalamus triggers effectors like swat glands and muscles controlling body hair

Body’s hormonal response to glucose


1. sugar cells enter bloodstream raising blood sugar levels

2. pancreas secretes insulin in bloodstream

3. sugar molecules move out of blood stream and into cells of skeletal muscles, fat, and liver

4. blood sugar levels return to normal

Role of glucagon getting blood sugar back to normal

1. pancreas releases glucagon when concentration of glucose in bloodstream fall low

2. glucagon causes liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose when release in bloodstream

3. high blood glucose levels stimulate release of insulin

Define feedback or feedback mechanism. Include an example that shows YOU understand the
concept.
Feedback mechanism: something which helps maintain homeostasis through normal balance
1. starts at normal range
2. goes beyond normal range
3. returns to normal
EX: thermostat- when set to a temperature the thermostat will either increase or decrease its
temperature to end up at the desired temperature. This follows the steps listed above to achieve
normal (desired) temperature.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Research how the body regulates body
temperature. Explain what organs, tissues, or functions are involved in warming and cooling the
body.
The hypothalamus is the controls body temperature and is in the center of the brain. The
hypothalamus activates changes to effectors which is notified by nerves to either cool or warm
the body. An example of this is the body producing sweat when hot through the sweat glands
and body hair standing up when the body is cold. Sweat is produced by glands on the skin’s
surface. It produces sweat to cool the body by evaporation. Body hair can stand up due to tiny
muscles pulling the hair up to stop the release of heat from the body.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Construct a diagram using Inspiration showing
how the body maintains normal body temperature. Add an additional bubble for each step with
an image representing the step and a caption explaining your image selection. Indicate if the
feedback loop you create represents positive or negative feedback mechanism.
The feedback loop I created represents a negative feedback mechanism because the goal the
body is trying to achieve is homeostasis. This is because the body is controlling the blood
glucose levels to prevent low or high blood sugar in the individual.
You just ate a candy bar. List the steps your body goes through to control this increase in
glucose levels. Mention the glands, hormones, and target organs involved.
1. sugar cells enter bloodstream raising blood sugar levels

2. pancreas secretes insulin in bloodstream

3. sugar molecules move out of blood stream and into cells of skeletal muscles, fat, and liver

4. blood sugar levels return to normal

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome the candy bar is wearing off so your blood sugar
begins to drop. Research and record what is happening as you body's blood sugar return to
normal. Include the role that glucagon plays, as well as the glands, hormones, and target
organs.
1. pancreas releases glucagon when concentration of glucose in bloodstream fall low

2. glucagon causes liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose when release in bloodstream

3. high blood glucose l

evels stimulate release of insulin

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Conclusion 1: Is blood sugar regulated by


negative or positive feedback? Explain
Blood sugar is regulated by negative feedback because the body tries to achieve homeostasis.
Negative feedback is a reaction due to a stimulus such as intake of sugar. Its outcome is
lessened due to the initial outcome. Blood sugar needs to be monitored because if a person has
high or low blood sugar then it could potentially be fatal. On the other hand, positive feedback is
when the rate of a process increases and so does the outcome.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Conclusion 2: Explain how a problem with insulin
receptors would affect the ability to achieve homeostasis.
This would cause high blood glucose levels in the individual which would lead to Type 2
diabetes. Because the insulin receptors do not function properly, the glucose would not be able
to get into the cell. Homeostasis would be affected due to the glucose transfer system not being
able to function.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Conclusion 3: Explain how it is possible that a
problem with hormones and feedback may have led to Anna Garcia's untimely death.
Due to prior testing knowledge, Anna Garcia is a Type 1 diabetic and ate foods which can be harmful to
the body due to high sugar levels. Because of this her hormones would not properly function causing her
to become deceased.