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Key Words —Covered aluminum electrodes, aluminum welding electrodes, shielded metal arc welding, filler metal

Key Words —Covered aluminum electrodes, aluminum welding electrodes, shielded metal arc welding, filler metal specifications

AWS A5.3/A5.3M:1999 (R2007) An American National Standard

Approved by the American National Standards Institute February 11, 1999

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Supersedes ANSI/AWS A5.3-19

Prepared by the American Welding Society (AWS) A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials

Under the Direction of the AWS Technical Activities Committee

Approved by the AWS Board of Directors

Abstract

This specification prescribes requirements for the classification of covered (flux coated) E1100, E3003, and E4043 aluminum-alloy electrodes for shielded metal arc welding. Tests conducted for classification are chemical analysis of the core wire as well as tensile and bend tests from groove weld test assemblies fabricated with each of two sizes of electrode for each classification. Standard electrode sizes, electrode identification, and chemical composition limits are specified. This specification makes use of both U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI). Since these are not equivalent, each system must be used independently of the other.

550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126
550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126

International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-561-9 American Welding Society 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126 © 1999 by American Welding Society All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Reaffirmed: February 21, 2007

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ii

Foreword This foreword is not part of AWS A5.3/A5.3M:1999 (R2007), Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy

Foreword

This foreword is not part of AWS A5.3/A5.3M:1999 (R2007), Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding, but is included for informational purposes only.

This document represents the sixth revision of the first aluminum covered electrode specification issued in 1943. The original document was prepared by a joint AWS/ASTM Committee and published as an ASTM Standard. During the mid-to-late 1960s, ASTM agreed to accept AWS as the sole agency responsible for the development and publication of filler metal specifications. In recent years, AWS filler metal specifications have been recognized by the American National Standards Institute as shown below:

AWS/ASTM B184-43T Tentative Specifications for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Metal Arc-Welding Electrodes

AWS A5.3-62T

Tentative Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Arc-Welding Electrodes

ASTM B184-62T

AWS A5.3-69

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Arc-Welding Electrodes

ANSI W3.3-1973

ANSI/AWS A5.3-80

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes

ANSI/AWS A5.3-88

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

ANSI/AWS A5.3-91

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Comments and suggestions for the improvement of this standard are welcome. They should be sent to the Secretary, AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials, American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

ix

Table of Contents Page No. Personnel (Reaffirmation) v Personnel (Original) vii Foreword ix List

Table of Contents

Page No.

Personnel

(Reaffirmation)

v

Personnel (Original)

vii

Foreword

ix

List of Tables

xii

List of Figures xii

1. Scope 1

1

Part A—General Requirements

2. Normative References 1

3. Classification 1

4. Acceptance

1

5. Certification

1

6. Units of Measure and Rounding-Off Procedure

2

Part B—Tests, Procedures, and Requirements

2

7.

Summary of Tests 2

8.

Retest

2

9.

Weld Test Assembly 3

10.

Chemical Analysis

3

11.

Tension Test 3

12.

Bend Test

5

Part C—Manufacture, Identification, and Packaging

5

13. Method of Manufacture 5

14. Standard Sizes and Lengths

5

15. Core Wire and Covering

5

16. Exposed Core 6

17. Electrode Identification

6

18. Packaging

7

19. Marking of Packages

7

Annex A (Informative)—Guide to AWS Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Annex A (Informative)—Shielded Metal Arc Welding

9

Annex B (Informative)—Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries

15

AWS Filler Metal Specifications by Material and Welding Process

17

xi

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding 1. Scope This specification

Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

1. Scope

This specification prescribes requirements for the classification of aluminum and aluminum-alloy elec- trodes for shielded metal arc welding.

Part A General Requirements

2. Normative References

2.1 The following ANSI/AWS standards 1 are referenced in the mandatory sections of this document:

Filler Metal Procurement

Guidelines. (2) ANSI/AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechan- ical Testing of Welds.

2.2 The following ASTM standards 2 are referenced in the mandatory sections of this document:

(1) ASTM E 29, Standard Practice for Using Signifi- cant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications. (2) ASTM E 34, Standard Methods for Chemical Analysis of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. (3) ASTM B 209, Standard Specification for Alumi- num and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate.

(1) ANSI/AWS

A5.01,

1 AWS Standards are published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. 2 ASTM Standards are published by the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Consho- hocken, PA 19428-2959.

1

2.3 The following ISO standard 3 is referenced in the

mandatory sections of this document:

(1) ISO 544, Filler Materials for Manual Welding— Size Requirements.

3. Classification

3.1 The electrodes covered by the A5.3/A5.3M specifi-

cation are classified using a system that is independent of

U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI). Classification is according to the chemical composition of the core wire, as specified in Table 1, and mechanical properties of a groove weld.

3.2 An electrode classified under one classification shall

not be classified under any other classification in this specification.

4. Acceptance

Acceptance 4 of the electrode shall be in accordance with the provisions of ANSI/AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines.

5. Certification

By affixing the AWS specification and classification designations to the packaging, or the classification to the

3 ISO Standards are published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036. 4 See Section A3, Acceptance (in Annex A) for further infor- mation concerning acceptance, testing of the material shipped, and ANSI/AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines.

Table 1 Chemical Composition Requirements for Core Wire

Weight Percent a,b

Other

Elements

AWS

UNS

Classification f

Designation c

Si

Fe

Cu

Mn

Mg

Zn

Ti

Be

Each

Total

Al

E1100

A91100

(d)

(d)

0.05–0.20

0.05

0.10

0.0008

0.05

0.15

99.00 min e

E3003

A93003

0.6

0.7

0.05–0.20

1.0–1.5

0.10

0.0008

0.05

0.15

Remainder

E4043

A94043

4.5–6.0

0.8

0.30

0.05

0.05

0.10

0.20

0.0008

0.05

0.15

Remainder

a The core wire, or the stock from which it is made, shall be analyzed for the specific elements for which values are shown in this table. If the presence of other elements is indicated in the course of work, the amount of those elements shall be determined to ensure that they do not exceed the limits specified for “Other Elements.”

b Single values are maximum, except where otherwise specified.

c SAE/ASTM Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys.

d Silicon plus iron shall not exceed 0.95 percent.

e The aluminum content for unalloyed aluminum is the difference between 100.00 percent and the sum of all other metallic elements present in amounts of 0.010 percent or more each, expressed to the second decimal before determining the sum.

f Refer to Table A1 for Proposed ISO Designations.

product, the manufacturer certifies that the product meets the requirements of this specification. 5

6. Units of Measure and Rounding- Off Procedure

6.1 This specification makes use of both U.S. Customary Units and the International System of Units (SI). The measurements are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other without combining in any way. The specification with the desig- nation A5.3 uses U.S. Customary Units. The specifica- tion A5.3M uses SI Units. The latter are shown in appropriate columns in tables or within brackets [ ] when used in the text.

6.2 For the purpose of determining conformance with this specification, an observed or calculated value shall be rounded to the nearest 1000 psi [10 MPa] for tensile strength, and to the “nearest unit” in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the limiting value for other quantities in accordance with the rounding-off method given in ASTM E 29, Practice for Using Signifi- cant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications.

5 See Section A4, Certification (in Annex A) for further infor- mation concerning certification and the testing called for to meet this requirement.

2

Part B Tests, Procedures, and Requirements

7. Summary of Tests

The tests required for each classification are specified in Table 2. The purpose of these tests is to determine the chemical composition of the core wire and the mechani- cal properties of the weldment. The base metal for the weld test assemblies, the welding and testing procedures to be employed, and the results required are given in Sec- tions 9 through 12.

8. Retest

8.1 If the results of any test fail to meet the requirement,

that test shall be repeated twice. The results of both tests

shall meet the requirement. Specimens or samples for re- test may be taken from the original test assembly or sam- ple, or from a new test assembly or sample. For chemical analysis, retest need be only for those specific elements that failed to meet the test requirement.

8.2 If the results of one or both retests fail to meet the re-

quirement, the material under test shall be considered as not meeting the requirements of this specification for that

classification.

Table 2

Required Tests

Electrode Size

AWS Classification

in.

mm

Chemical Analysis a

Tension Test b

Bend Test c

 

3/32

2.4

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

 

2.5

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

 

1/8

3.2

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

5/32

4.0

Required

Required e

Required e

E1100, E3003, and

3/16

4.8

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

E4043

5.0

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

6.0

Required

Required f

Required f

 

1/4

6.4

Required

Required f

Required f

5/16

8.0

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

3/8

9.5

Required

Not

Required d

Not

Required d

a Chemical analysis of the core wire or the stock from which it is made.

b See Section 11.

c See Section 12.

d If the product is not produced in the sizes listed for required tensile tests and bend tests, then the size closest but not greater than the size specified to be tested, shall be subject to the required tests.

e Electrodes 5/32 in. [4.0 mm] and smaller shall be classified on the basis of the results obtained with the 5/32 in. [4.0 mm] size of the same classification.

f Electrodes 3/16 in. [4.8 mm] and larger shall be classified on the basis of the results obtained with the 1/4 in. [6.0 or 6.4 mm] size of the same classification.

8.3 In the event that, during preparation or after comple-

tion of any test, it is clearly determined that prescribed or proper procedures were not followed in preparing the weld test assembly or test specimens or in conducting the test, the test shall be considered invalid, without regard to whether the test was actually completed, or whether the test results met, or failed to meet, the requirement. That test shall be repeated, following the proper pre- scribed procedures. In this case the requirement for dou- bling the number of test specimens does not apply.

9. Weld Test Assembly

9.1 One weld test assembly is required as specified in

Table 2. It is the groove weld in Figure 1 for mechanical properties.

9.2 Preparation of the weld test assembly shall be as pre-

scribed in 9.3, Figure 1, and Table 2 (Notes e and f) using base metal of the appropriate type specified in Table 3. Testing of the assembly shall be as specified in Sections 11, Tension Test, and 12, Bend Test. The assembly shall

be tested in the as-welded condition.

9.3 The test assembly shall be preheated to a temperature

between 350° and 400°F [175° and 200°C], and shielded metal arc (SMA) welded from one side, in the flat posi-

3

tion. The test assembly should be precambered or re-

strained so that warping due to welding will not cause the finished test assembly to be out-of-plane by more than

5 degrees. If the completed test assembly is more than

5 degrees out-of-plane it shall be straightened at room temperature.

10. Chemical Analysis

10.1 A sample of the core wire, or the stock from which

it is made, shall be prepared for chemical analysis.

10.2 The sample shall be analyzed by accepted analytical

methods. The referee method shall be ASTM E 34, Stan- dard Methods for Chemical Analysis of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.

10.3 The results of the analysis shall meet the require-

ments of Table 1 for the classification of electrode under test.

11. Tension Test

11.1 Two transverse rectangular tension test specimens

shall be machined from the groove weld described in Section 9, Weld Test Assembly, and shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4
Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4
Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4
Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4
Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4
Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4
Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties 4

Figure 1—Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties

4

Table 3 Base Metal for Test Assemblies

Electrode

Base Metal

AWS

Aluminum

ASTM

UNS

Classification

Alloy a

Specification

Designation

E1100

1100

B209

A91100

E3003, E4043

b 3003 b

B209

A93003

a Aluminum Association, Inc. registration numbers.

b When welding 3003 with E4043 electrodes, 3003-0 (annealed temper) plate is preferred.

The dimensions of the specimens shall be as specified in the tension test section of AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds. All dimensions shall be the same as shown in the AWS B4.0 figure for transverse rectangular tension test specimens (plate) except the re- duced section radius shall be 2 in. [50 mm].

11.2 The specimens shall be tested in the manner de-

scribed in the tension test section of ANSI/AWS B4.0, Standard Methods for Mechanical Testing of Welds.

11.3 The results of the tension test shall meet the require-

ments specified in Table 4.

12. Bend Test

12.1 One transverse face and one transverse root bend

specimen, as required in Table 2, shall be machined from the groove weld test assembly described in Section 9 and shown in Figure 1. The dimensions of these bend speci- mens shall be the same as those shown in the bend test section of AWS B4.0 in the figure for transverse face and transverse root-bend specimens (plate).

Table 4 Tension Test Requirements

Tensile Strength, min. a

AWS Classification

psi

MPa

E1100

12

000

80

E3003

14

000

95

E4043

14

000

95

a Fracture may occur in either the base metal or the weld metal.

5

12.2 The specimens shall be tested in the manner de-

scribed in the guided bend test section of ANSI/AWS B4.0 by bending them uniformly through 180 degrees over a 1-1/4 in. [32 mm] radius in any suitable jig. Typi- cal bend test jigs as shown in bend test section of AWS B4.0 shall be used. Positioning of the face-bend speci- men shall be such that the face of the weld is in tension. Positioning of the root-bend specimen shall be such that the root of the weld is in tension. For both types of trans- verse bend specimen, the weld shall be at the center of the bend.

12.3 Each specimen, after bending, shall conform to the

1-1/4 in. [32 mm] radius, with an appropriate allowance for spring back, and the weld metal shall show no crack or other open defect exceeding 1/8 in. [3.2 mm] mea- sured in any direction on the convex surface, when ex- amined with the unaided eye. Cracks that occur on the corners of a specimen during testing and which show no evidence of inclusions or other fusion-type discontinui- ties, shall be disregarded.

Part C Manufacture, Identification, and Packaging

13. Method of Manufacture

The electrodes classified according to this specifi- cation may be manufactured by any method that will produce electrodes that meet the requirements of this specification.

14. Standard Sizes and Lengths

14.1 Standard sizes (diameter of the core wire) and

lengths of electrodes are shown in Table 5. Other sizes and lengths meet the requirements of this specification when agreed by the purchaser and supplier.

14.2 The diameter of the core wire shall not vary more

than ±0.002 in. [±0.05 mm] from the diameter specified. The length shall not vary more than ±1/4 in. [±6 mm] from that specified.

15. Core Wire and Covering

15.1 The core wire and covering shall be free of defects

that would interfere with uniform deposition of the

electrode.

Table 5

Standard Sizes

Diameter of Core Wire

Standard Lengths

AWS Classification

in.

mm

in.

mm

 

3/32

(0.094)

a

2.4

a

 

(0.098)

2.5

 

1/8

(0.125)

3.2

5/32

(0.156)

4.0

14

350

3/16

(0.188)

a

4.8

a

E1100, E3003, and E4043

(0.197)

5.0

(0.236)

6.0

 

1/4

(0.250)

a

6.4

a

5/16

(0.312)

8.0

18

450

3/8

(0.375)

a 9.5 a

 

a These sizes are not included in ISO 544.

15.2 The core wire and the covering shall be concentric

to the extent that the maximum core-plus-one-covering dimension shall not exceed the minimum core-plus-one- covering dimension by more than the following:

(1) Seven percent of the mean dimension in sizes 3/32 in. [2.4 and 2.5 mm] (2) Five percent of the mean dimension in sizes 1/8 and 5/32 in. [3.2 and 4.0 mm] (3) Four percent of the mean dimension in sizes 3/16 in. [4.8 mm] and larger Concentricity may be measured by any suitable means.

15.3 The coverings shall be such that they are not readily

damaged by ordinary handling and the coverings shall not blister when heated to 400°F [200°C]. They shall be consumed uniformly during welding, and they also shall not blister or melt back from the core wire. The flux resi- due they produce shall be readily removable.

16. Exposed Core

16.1 The grip end of each electrode shall be bare (free of

covering) for a distance of not less than 1/2 in. [12 mm], nor more than 1-1/4 in. [30 mm] for electrodes 5/32 in. [4.0 mm] and smaller, and not less than 3/4 in. [19 mm] nor more than 1-1/2 in. [38 mm] for electrodes 3/16 in. [4.8 mm] and larger, to provide for electrical contact with the electrode holder.

16.2 The arc end of each electrode shall be sufficiently

bare and the covering sufficiently tapered to permit easy striking of the arc. The length of the bare portion (mea- sured from the end of the core wire to the location where

6

the full cross-section of the covering is obtained) shall not exceed 1/8 in. [3 mm] or the diameter of the core wire, whichever is less. Electrodes with chipped cover- ings near the arc end, baring the core wire no more than the lesser of 1/4 in. [6 mm] or twice the diameter of the core wire, meet the requirements of this specification, provided no chip uncovers more than 50% of the circum- ference of the core.

17. Electrode Identification

All electrodes shall be identified as follows:

17.1 At least one imprint of the electrode classification

shall be applied to the electrode covering within 2-1/2 in. [65 mm] of the grip end of the electrode.

17.2 The numbers and letters of the imprint shall be of

bold block type of a size large enough to be legible.

17.3 The ink used for imprinting shall provide sufficient

contrast with the electrode covering so that, in normal use, the numbers and letters are legible both before and after welding.

17.4 The prefix letter E in the electrode classification

may be omitted from the imprint.

17.5 In lieu of imprinting, electrodes may be identified

by the following:

(1) Attaching to the bare grip end of each electrode a pressure sensitive tape bearing the classification number (2) Embossing the classification number on the bare grip end of each electrode. In this case, a slight flattening

of the grip end will be permitted in embossing.

the area of the

18. Packaging

18.1 Electrodes shall be suitably packaged to protect

them from damage during shipment and storage under normal conditions.

18.2 Standard package net weights shall be 1 lb [0.5 kg],

5 lb [2.5 kg], and 10 lb [5 kg]. Other package weights meet the requirements of this specification when agreed

by the purchaser and supplier.

19. Marking of Packages

19.1 The following product information (as a minimum)

shall be legibly marked on the outside of each unit package:

(1) AWS specification and classification designations (year of issue may be excluded) (2) Supplier’s name and trade designation

(3) Size and net weight (4) Lot, control, or heat number

19.2 The following precautionary information (as a mini-

mum) shall be prominently displayed in legible print on

all packages of electrodes, including individual unit packages enclosed within a larger package.

7

WARNING:

PROTECT yourself and others. Read and understand this information.

FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous to your health.

ARC RAYS can injure eyes and burn skin.

ELECTRIC SHOCK can KILL.

• Before use, read and understand the manufacturer’s in- structions, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), and your employer’s safety practices.

• Keep your head out of the fumes.

• Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases away from your breathing zone and the general area.

• Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection.

• Do not touch live electrical parts.

• See American National Standard ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126; and OSHA Safety and Health Standards, available from the Superintendent of Doc- uments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- ton, DC 20402. Phone: (202) 512-1800.

DO NOT REMOVE THIS INFORMATION

Annex A (Informative) Guide to Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum- Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal

Annex A (Informative)

Guide to Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum- Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

This annex is not part of AWS A5.3/A5.3M:1999 (R2007), Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding, but is included for informational purposes only.

A1. Introduction

The purpose of this guide is to correlate the electrode classifications with their intended applications so the specification can be used effectively. Reference to appro- priate base metal specifications is made whenever that can be done and when it would be helpful. Such refer- ences are intended only as examples rather than complete listings of the materials for which each filler metal is suitable.

A2. Classification System

A2.1 The system for identifying the electrode classifica- tions in this specification follows the standard pattern

used in other AWS filler metal specifications. The letter

E at the beginning of each classification designation

stands for electrode. The numerical portion of the desig- nation in this specification conforms to the Aluminum Association registration for the composition of the core

wire used in the electrode.

A2.2 An international system for designating welding filler metals is under development by the International

Institute of Welding (IIW) for use in future specifications

to be issued by the International Standards Organization

(ISO). Table A1 shows the proposed designations for aluminum filler metals. In that system the initial “E” des- ignates a covered electrode, the letter “A” the alloy sys- tem, followed by a four-digit number. For wrought aluminum alloys, the four-digit number is the same as that commonly recognized worldwide.

9

A3. Acceptance

Acceptance of all welding materials classified under this specification is in accordance with ANSI/AWS A5.01, Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines, as the spec- ification states. Any testing a purchaser requires of the supplier, for material shipped in accordance with this Specification, shall be clearly stated in the purchase or- der, according to the provisions of ANSI/AWS A5.01. In the absence of any such statement in the purchase order, the supplier may ship the material with whatever testing normally is performed on material of that classification, as specified in Schedule F, Table 1, of ANSI/AWS A5.01. Testing in accordance with any other Schedule in that Table shall be specifically required by the purchase order. In such cases, acceptance of the material shipped shall be in accordance with those requirements.

A4. Certification

The act of placing the AWS specification and classifi- cation designations on the packaging enclosing the prod- uct, or the classification on the product itself, constitutes the supplier’s (manufacturer’s) certification that the prod- uct meets all of the requirements of the specification. The only testing requirement implicit in this certifica- tion is that the manufacturer has actually conducted the tests required by the specification on material that is rep- resentative of that being shipped and that material met the requirements of the specification. Representative ma- terial, in this case, is any production run of that classifi- cation using the same formulation. “Certification” is not

Table A1 Designation Reference Guide

AWS Composition Designation a

UNS Number

Proposed ISO Designation b

AWS Classification Number c

1100

A91100

EA1100

E1100

3003

A93003

EA3003

E3003

4043

A94043

EA4043

E4043

a AWS chemical composition designation is that of the core wire and is the same as the Aluminum Association designation number.

b The proposed ISO designation number (IIW doc. XII-1232-91) contains the last four digits of the UNS number for wrought alloys, preceded by “EA,” “E” to signify a covered electrode and “A” to signify an aluminum base alloy.

c The AWS classification number is the AWS chemical composition designation preceded by an “E” to signify an electrode which carries the electrical current.

to be construed to mean that tests of any kind were nec- essarily conducted on samples of the specific material shipped. Tests on such material may or may not have been conducted. The basis for the certification required by the specification is the classification test of “represen- tative material” cited above, and the “Manufacturer’s Quality Assurance Program” in ANSI/AWS A5.01.

A5. Ventilation During Welding

A5.1 Five major factors govern the quantity of fumes in the atmosphere to which welders and welding operators are exposed during welding:

(1) Dimensions of the space in which welding is done (with special regard to the height of the ceiling) (2) Number of welders and welding operators work- ing in that space (3) Rate of evolution of fumes, gases, or dust, accord- ing to the materials and processes used (4) The proximity of the welders or welding opera- tors to the fumes as the fumes issue from the welding zone, and to the gases and dusts in the space in which they are working (5) The ventilation provided to the space in which the welding is done.

A5.2 American National Standard ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (published by the American Welding Society), discusses the ventilation that is required during welding and should be referred to for details. Attention is drawn particularly to the Section of that document on Health Protection and Ventilation.

A6. Welding Considerations

A6.1 Welding aluminum by the shielded metal arc pro- cess is a well established practice. However, develop-

ment of the gas shielded arc welding processes and the many advantages these processes offer has caused a shift away from the use of covered electrodes. When shielded metal arc welding, a flux-covered electrode is held in the standard electrode holder, and welding is done with di- rect current, electrode positive (DCEP). Important fac- tors to be considered when welding aluminum with covered electrodes are moisture content of the electrode covering, and cleanliness of the electrode and base metal. Preheat is usually required to obtain good fusion and to improve soundness of the weld. Residual flux removal between passes is required to provide improved arc sta- bility and weld fusion. Complete removal of the residual flux after welding is necessary to avoid corrosive attack in service.

A6.2 The presence of moisture in the electrode covering is a major cause of weld porosity. Dirt, grease, or other contamination of the electrode can also contribute to po- rosity. The absorption of moisture by the covering can be quite rapid, and the covering can deteriorate after only a few hours exposure to a humid atmosphere. For this rea- son, the electrodes should be stored in a dry, clean loca- tion. Electrodes taken from previously opened packages or those exposed to moisture should be “conditioned” by holding them at 350° to 400°F [175° to 200°C] for an hour before welding. After conditioning, they should be stored in a heated cabinet at 150° to 200°F [65° to 95°C] until used.

A6.3 The minimum base metal thickness recommended for shielded metal arc welding of aluminum is 1/8 in. [3.2 mm]. For thicknesses less than 1/4 in. [6.4 mm], no edge preparation other than a relatively smooth, square cut is required. Material over 1/4 in. [6.4 mm] should be beveled to a single-V-groove with a 60 to 90-degree in- cluded angle. On very thick material, U-grooves may be used. Depending upon base metal gauge, root-face thick- nesses range between 1/16 and 1/4 in. [1.6 and 6.4 mm].

10

A root opening of 1/32 to 1/16 in. [0.8 to 1.6 mm] is de-

sirable for all groove welds.

A6.4 Because of the high thermal conductivity of alumi- num, preheating to 250° to 400°F [120° to 200°C] is nearly always necessary on thick material to maintain the weld pool and obtain proper fusion. Preheating will also help to avoid porosity due to too rapid cooling of the weld pool at the start of the weld. On complex assemblies, pre- heating is useful in avoiding distortion. Preheating may be done by torch using oxygen and acetylene or other suit- able fuel gas, or by electrical resistance heating. Mechani- cal properties of 6XXX series aluminum-alloy weldments can be reduced significantly if the higher preheating tem- peratures, 350°F [175°C] or higher, are applied.

A6.5 Single-pass SMA welds should be made whenever possible. However, where thicker plates require multiple passes, thorough cleaning between passes is essential for optimum results. After the completion of any welding, the weld and work should be thoroughly cleaned of residual flux. The major portion of the residual flux can be removed by mechanical means, such as a rotary wire brush, slag hammer, or peening hammer, and the rest by steaming or a hot-water rinse. The test for complete re- moval of residual flux is to swab a solution of five- percent silver nitrate on the weld areas. Foaming will occur if residual flux is present.

A6.6 Interruption of the arc when shielded metal arc welding aluminum can cause the formation of a fused

flux coating over the end of the electrode. Reestablishing

a satisfactory arc is impossible unless this formation is removed.

A7. Description and Intended Use of Electrodes

A7.1 Electrodes of the E1100 classification produce weld metal of high ductility, good electrical conductivity, and a minimum tensile strength of 12 000 psi (80 MPa). E1100 electrodes are used to weld 1100, 1350(EC), and other commercially pure aluminum alloys.

A7.2 Electrodes of the E3003 classification produce weld metal of high ductility and a minimum tensile strength of 14 000 psi [95 MPa]. E3003 electrodes are used to weld aluminum alloys 1100 and 3003.

A7.3 The E4043 classification contains approximately five-percent silicon, which provides superior fluidity at welding temperatures, and for this reason is preferred for general purpose welding. The E4043 classification pro- duces weld metal with fair ductility and a minimum ten- sile strength of 14 000 psi [95 MPa]. E4043 electrodes can be used to weld the 6XXX series aluminum alloys,

11

the 5XXX series aluminum alloys (up to 2.5-percent Mg content), and aluminum-silicon casting alloys, as well as aluminum base metals 1100, 1350(EC), and 3003.

A7.4 For many aluminum applications, corrosion resis- tance of the weld is of prime importance. In such cases, it is advantageous to choose an electrode with a composi- tion as close as practical to that of the base metal. For this use, covered electrodes for base metals other than 1100 and 3003 usually are not stocked and must be spe- cially ordered. For applications where corrosion resis- tance is important, it may be advantageous to use one of the gas shielded arc welding processes for which a wider range of filler metal compositions is available.

A8. Special Tests

It is recognized that supplementary tests may be re- quired for certain applications. In such cases, tests to de- termine specific properties such as corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties at elevated or cryogenic temperatures, and suitability for welding different combinations of aluminum base alloys may be required.

A9. Chemical Analysis

The accepted and most widely used method for chem- ical analysis is found in ASTM E 227, Optical Emission Spectrometric Analysis of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy by the Point-to-Plane Technique. This method ana- lyzes a bulk sample and all elements simultaneously. The ASTM E 34, Test Method for Chemical Analysis of Alu- minum and Aluminum Alloy, prescribes individual test methods for which each element is tested. The ASTM E 34 test methods are used as a referee method if a dispute arises concerning a specific element analysis.

A10. General Safety Considerations

A10.1 Burn Protection. Molten metal, sparks, slag, and hot work surfaces are produced by welding, cutting, and allied processes. These can cause burns if precautionary measures are not used. Workers should wear protective clothing made of fire-resistant material. Pant cuffs, open pockets, or other places on clothing that can catch and re- tain molten metal or sparks should not be worn. High-top shoes or leather leggings and fire-resistant gloves should be worn. Pant legs should be worn over the outside of high-top shoes. Helmets or hand shields that provide pro- tection for the face, neck, and ears, and a head covering

to protect the head should be used. In addition, appropri- ate eye protection should be used. When welding overhead or in confined spaces, ear plugs to prevent weld spatter from entering the ear canal should be worn. Goggles or equivalent should also be worn to protect eyes. Clothing should be kept free of grease and oil. Combustible materials should not be car- ried in pockets. If any combustible substance has been spilled on clothing, a change to clean, fire-resistant cloth- ing should be made before working with open arcs or flame. Aprons, cape-sleeves, leggings, and shoulder cov- ers with bibs designed for welding service should be used. Where welding or cutting of unusually thick base metal is involved, sheet metal shields should be used for extra protection. Mechanization of highly hazardous pro- cesses or jobs should be considered. Other personnel in the work area should be protected by the use of noncom- bustible screens or by the use of appropriate protection as described in the previous paragraph. Before leaving a work area, hot work pieces should be marked to alert other persons of this hazard. No attempt should be made to repair or disconnect electrical equipment when it is under load. Disconnection under load produces arcing of the contacts and may cause burns or shock, or both. (Note: Burns can be caused by touching hot equipment such as electrode holders, tips, and nozzles. Therefore, insulated gloves should be worn when these items are handled, unless an adequate cooling period has been al- lowed before touching.) The following sources are for more detailed informa- tion on personal protection:

(1) ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. (2) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29 Labor, Chapter XVII, Part 1910, OSHA General Industry Stan- dards available from the U.S. Government Printing Of- fice, Washington, DC 20402. (3) ANSI/ASC Z87.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, American Na- tional Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002. (4) ANSI Z41, American National Standard for Per- sonal Protection—Protective Footwear, American Na- tional Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002.

A10.2 Electrical Hazards. Electric shock can kill. How- ever, it can be avoided. Live electrical parts should not be touched. The manufacturer’s instructions and recom- mended safe practices should be read and understood. Faulty installation, improper grounding, and incorrect operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all sources of danger.

All electrical equipment and the workpieces should be grounded. The workpiece lead is not a ground lead. It is used only to complete the welding circuit. A separate con- nection is required to ground the workpiece. The work- piece should not be mistaken for a ground connection. The correct cable size should be used, since sustained overloading will cause cable failure and result in possible electrical shock or fire hazard. All electrical connections should be tight, clean, and dry. Poor connections can overheat and even melt. Further, they can produce dan- gerous arcs and sparks. Water, grease, or dirt should not be allowed to accumulate on plugs, sockets, or electrical units. Moisture can conduct electricity. To prevent shock, the work area, equipment, and clothing should be kept dry at all times. Welders should wear dry gloves and rub- ber soled shoes, or stand on a dry board or insulated plat- form. Cables and connections should be kept in good condition. Improper or worn electrical connections may create conditions that could cause electrical shock or short circuits. Worn, damaged, or bare cables should not be used. Open-circuit voltage should be avoided. When several welders are working with arcs of different polari- ties, or when a number of alternating-current machines are being used, the open-circuit voltages can be additive. The added voltages increase the severity of the shock hazard. In case of electric shock, the power should be turned off. If the rescuer must resort to pulling the victim from the live contact, nonconducting materials should be used. If the victim is not breathing, cardiopulmonary resuscita- tion (CPR) should be administered as soon as contact with the electrical source is broken. A physician should be called and CPR continued until breathing has been re- stored, or until a physician has arrived. Electrical burns are treated as thermal burns; that is, clean, cold (iced) compresses should be applied. Contamination should be avoided; the area should be covered with a clean, dry dressing; and the patient should be transported to medi- cal assistance. Recognized safety standards such as ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes; the Na- tional Electrical Code; and NFPA No. 70, available from National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, should be followed.

A10.3 Fumes and Gases. Many welding, cutting, and al- lied processes produce fumes and gases which may be harmful to health. Fumes are solid particles which origi- nate from welding filler metals and fluxes, the base metal, and any coatings present on the base metal. Gases are produced during the welding process or may be pro- duced by the effects of process radiation on the surround- ing environment. Management, personnel and welders alike should be aware of the effects of these fumes and gases. The amount and composition of these fumes and

12

gases depend upon the composition of the filler metal and base metal, welding process, flux, current level, arc length, and other factors. Fluxes, used for oxyfuel gas welding of aluminum alloys, are composed primarily of chlorides plus small fluoride additions. The coatings used in covered electrodes of the types shown in this specification A5.3/A5.3M contain both chlorides and fluorides. The possible effects of overexposure range from irri- tation of eyes, skin, and respiratory system to more se- vere complications. Effects may occur immediately or at some later time. Fumes can cause symptoms such as nau- sea, headaches, dizziness, and metal fume fever. The possibility of more serious health effects exists when es- pecially toxic materials are involved. In confined spaces, the fumes might displace breathing air and cause asphyx- iation. One’s head should always be kept out of the fumes. Sufficient ventilation, exhaust at the arc or flame, or both, should be used to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general area. In some cases, natural air movement will provide enough ventilation. Where ventilation may be question- able, air sampling should be used to determine if correc- tive measures should be applied. All aluminum electrodes possess a compositional control of 0.0008 percent maximum beryllium content. This provides a check by the manufacturer that the filler metal is essentially free of this element and thus avoids the presence of concentrations of this highly toxic metal- lic particulate during the filler metal transfer across the arc. Since the electrode core wire is fabricated as drawn, wrought aluminum wire, the same beryllium control has been applied to all filler metals covered by this ANSI/ AWS A5.3/A5.3M specification. Thus all electrodes pos- sess a 0.0008 percent beryllium maximum limit. More detailed information on fumes and gases pro- duced by the various welding processes may be found in the following:

(1) The permissible exposure limits required by OSHA can be found in CFR Title 29, Chapter XVII Part 1910. The OSHA General Industry Standards are avail- able from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov- ernment Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. (2) The recommended threshold limit values for these fumes and gases may be found in Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Workroom Environment, published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Suite 600, Cin- cinnati, OH 45240-1643. (3) The results of an AWS-funded study are available in a report entitled, Fumes and Gases in the Welding Environment, available from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

A10.4 Radiation. Welding, cutting, and allied operations may produce radiant energy (radiation) harmful to health. One should become acquainted with the effects of this radiant energy. Radiant energy may be ionizing (such as x-rays), or nonionizing (such as ultraviolet, visible light, or infra- red). Radiation can produce a variety of effects such as skin burns and eye damage, depending on the radiant en- ergy’s wavelength and intensity, if excessive exposure occurs.

A10.4.1 Ionizing Radiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by the electron beam welding process. It is or- dinarily controlled within acceptance limits by use of suitable shielding enclosing the welding area.

A10.4.2 Nonionizing Radiation. The intensity and wavelengths of nonionizing radiant energy produced de- pend on many factors, such as the process, welding pa- rameters, electrode and base metal composition, fluxes, and any coating or plating on the base metal. Some pro- cesses such as resistance welding and cold pressure welding ordinarily produce negligible quantities of radi- ant energy. However, most arc welding and cutting pro- cesses (except submerged arc when used properly), laser beam welding and torch welding, cutting, brazing, or sol- dering can produce quantities of nonionizing radiation such that precautionary measures are necessary. Protection from possible harmful effects caused by nonionizing radiant energy from welding include the fol- lowing measures:

(1) One should not look at welding arcs except through welding filter plates which meet the require- ments of ANSI/ASC Z87.1, Practice for Occupational and Education Eye and Face Protection, published by American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002. It should be noted that transparent welding curtains are not intended as welding filter plates, but rather are intended to protect passersby from incidental exposure. (2) Exposed skin should be protected with adequate gloves and clothing as specified in ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, published by American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. (3) Reflections from welding arcs should be avoided, and all personnel should be protected from intense re- flections. (Note: Paints using pigments of substantially zinc oxide or titanium dioxide have a lower reflectance for ultraviolet radiation.) (4) Screens, curtains, or adequate distance from aisles, walkways, etc., should be used to avoid exposing passersby to welding operations.

13

(5) Safety glasses with UV-protective side shields have been shown to provide some beneficial protection from ultraviolet radiation produced by welding arcs.

radiation information sources

include:

A10.4.3

Ionizing

(1) AWS F2.1-78, Recommended Safe Practices for Electron Beam Welding and Cutting, available from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. (2) Manufacturer’s product information literature.

A10.4.4 Nonionizing radiation information sources include:

(1) Hinrichs, J. F., Project Committee on Radiation— summary report. Welding Journal, January 1978. (2) Nonionizing Radiation Protection Special Study No. 42-0053-77, Evaluation of the Potential Hazards from Actinic Ultraviolet Radiation Generated by Electric Welding and Cutting Arcs, available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161,

ADA-033768.

(3) Nonionizing Radiation Protection Special Study No. 42-0312-77, Evaluation of the Potential Retina

Hazards from Optical Radiation Generated by Electric Welding and Cutting Arcs, available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161,

ADA-043023.

(4) Moss, C. E., and Murray, W. E. Optical Radiation Levels Produced in Gas Welding, Torch Brazing, and Oxygen Cutting. Welding Journal, September 1979. (5) Optical Radiation Levels Produced by Air- Carbon Arc Cutting Processes, Welding Journal, March

1980.

(6) ANSI/ASC Z136.1, Safe Use of Lasers, published by American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002. (7) ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, published by the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. (8) ANSI/ASC Z87.1, Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection, published by American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002. (9) Moss, C. E. Optical Radiation Transmission Lev- els through Transparent Welding Curtains, Welding Jour- nal, March 1979.

14

Annex B (Informative) Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries This annex is not part

Annex B (Informative) Guidelines for the Preparation of Technical Inquiries

This annex is not part of AWS A5.3/A5.3M:1999 (R2007), Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding, but is included for informational purposes only.

B1. Introduction

The American Welding Society (AWS) Board of Directors has adopted a policy whereby all official inter- pretations of AWS standards are handled in a formal manner. Under this policy, all interpretations are made by the committee that is responsible for the standard. Official communication concerning an interpretation is directed through the AWS staff member who works with that committee. The policy requires that all requests for an interpretation be submitted in writing. Such requests will be handled as expeditiously as possible, but due to the complexity of the work and the procedures that must be followed, some interpretations may require consider- able time.

B2. Procedure

All inquiries shall be directed to:

Managing Director Technical Services Division American Welding Society 550 N.W. LeJeune Road Miami, FL 33126

All inquiries shall contain the name, address, and affiliation of the inquirer, and they shall provide enough information for the committee to understand the point of concern in the inquiry. When the point is not clearly defined, the inquiry will be returned for clarification. For efficient handling, all inquiries should be typewritten and in the format specified below.

B2.1 Scope. Each inquiry shall address one single provi- sion of the standard unless the point of the inquiry

15

involves two or more interrelated provisions. The provi- sion(s) shall be identified in the scope of the inquiry along with the edition of the standard that contains the provision(s) the inquirer is addressing.

B2.2 Purpose of the Inquiry. The purpose of the inquiry shall be stated in this portion of the inquiry. The purpose can be to obtain an interpretation of a standard’s require- ment or to request the revision of a particular provision in the standard.

B2.3 Content of the Inquiry. The inquiry should be concise, yet complete, to enable the committee to under- stand the point of the inquiry. Sketches should be used whenever appropriate, and all paragraphs, figures, and tables (or annex) that bear on the inquiry shall be cited. If the point of the inquiry is to obtain a revision of the stan- dard, the inquiry shall provide technical justification for that revision.

B2.4 Proposed Reply. The inquirer should, as a proposed reply, state an interpretation of the provision that is the point of the inquiry or provide the wording for a proposed revision, if this is what the inquirer seeks.

B3. Interpretation of Provisions of the Standard

Interpretations of provisions of the standard are made by the relevant AWS technical committee. The secretary of the committee refers all inquiries to the chair of the particular subcommittee that has jurisdiction over the portion of the standard addressed by the inquiry. The subcommittee reviews the inquiry and the proposed reply to determine what the response to the inquiry should

be. Following the subcommittee’s development of the response, the inquiry and the response are presented to the entire committee for review and approval. Upon approval by the committee, the interpretation is an official interpretation of the Society, and the secretary transmits the response to the inquirer and to the Welding Journal for publication.

B4. Publication of Interpretations

All official interpretations will appear in the Welding Journal and will be posted on the AWS web site.

B5. Telephone Inquiries

Telephone inquiries to AWS Headquarters concern- ing AWS standards should be limited to questions of a general nature or to matters directly related to the use of the standard. The AWS Board Policy Manual requires that all AWS staff members respond to a telephone

request for an official interpretation of any AWS stan- dard with the information that such an interpretation can be obtained only through a written request. Headquarters staff cannot provide consulting services. However, the staff can refer a caller to any of those consultants whose names are on file at AWS Headquarters.

B6. AWS Technical Committees

The activities of AWS technical committees regarding interpretations are limited strictly to the interpretation of provisions of standards prepared by the committees or to consideration of revisions to existing provisions on the basis of new data or technology. Neither AWS staff nor the committees are in a position to offer interpretive or consulting services on (1) specific engineering problems, (2) requirements of standards applied to fabrications outside the scope of the document, or (3) points not specifically covered by the standard. In such cases, the inquirer should seek assistance from a competent engi- neer experienced in the particular field of interest.

16

AWS Filler Metal Specifications by Material and Welding Process       GTAW    

AWS Filler Metal Specifications by Material and Welding Process

     

GTAW

         

GMAW

OFW

SMAW

PAW

FCAW

SAW

ESW

EGW

Brazing

Carbon Steel

A5.20

A5.10

A5.18

A5.20

A5.17

A5.25

A5.26

A5.8, A5.31

Low-Alloy Steel

A5.20

A5.50

A5.28

A5.29

A5.23

A5.25

A5.26

A5.8, A5.31

Stainless Steel

 

A5.40

A5.9, A5.22

A5.22

A5.90

A5.90

A5.90

A5.8, A5.31

Cast Iron

A5.15

A5.15

A5.15

A5.15

     

A5.8, A5.31

Nickel Alloys

 

A5.11

A5.14

 

A5.14

   

A5.8, A5.31

Aluminum Alloys

 

A5.30

A5.10

       

A5.8, A5.31

Copper Alloys

 

A5.60

A5.70

       

A5.8, A5.31

Titanium Alloys

   

A5.16

       

A5.8, A5.31

Zirconium Alloys

   

A5.24

       

A5.8, A5.31

Magnesium Alloys

   

A5.19

       

A5.8, A5.31

Tungsten Electrodes

   

A5.12

         

Brazing Alloys and Fluxes

             

A5.8, A5.31

Surfacing Alloys

A5.21

A5.13

A5.21

A5.21

A5.21

     

Consumable Inserts

   

A5.30

         

Shielding Gases

   

A5.32

A5.32

   

A5.32

 

17

Table

Table List of Tables Page No. 1 Chemical Composition Requirements for Core Wire 2 2 Required

List of Tables

Page No.

1 Chemical Composition Requirements for Core Wire

2

2 Required Tests

3

3 Base Metal for Test Assemblies

5

4 Tension Test Requirements

5

5

Standard Sizes

6

A1 Designation Reference Guide

10

List of Figures

Figure

1 Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties

xii

Page No.

4

Table

Table List of Tables Page No. 1 Chemical Composition Requirements for Core Wire 2 2 Required

List of Tables

Page No.

1 Chemical Composition Requirements for Core Wire

2

2 Required Tests

3

3 Base Metal for Test Assemblies

5

4 Tension Test Requirements

5

5

Standard Sizes

6

A1 Designation Reference Guide

10

List of Figures

Figure

1 Groove Weld Test Assembly for Mechanical Properties

xii

Page No.

4

Personnel (Original) AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials R. A. LaFave, Chair

Personnel (Original)

AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials

R. A. LaFave, Chair

J. P. Hunt, 1st Vice Chair D. A. Fink, 2nd Vice Chair R. K. Gupta, Secretary *R. L. Bateman

R. S. Brown

Elliott Company Consultant The Lincoln Electric Company American Welding Society Electromanufacturas, S.A.

Carpenter Technology Corporation

 

R.

A. Bushey

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products

J.

Caprarola, Jr.

Consultant

*L.

J.

Christensen

Consultant

R.

J. Christoffel

Consultant

 

D.

D. Crockett

The Lincoln Electric Company

R.

A. Daemen

Consultant

D.

A.

DelSignore

Consultant

R.

L.

Drury III

Caterpillar, Incorporated

 

H.

W. Ebert

Exxon Research and Engineering Company

 

J.

G.

Feldstein

Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation

 

S.

E. Ferree

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products

L. Flasche

R. D. Fuchs

Delphi Delco Electronic Systems

Böhler Thyssen Welding USA, Incorporated

C.

E. Fuerstenau

Alloy Ring Service

G.

Hallstrom, Jr. J. A. Henning

Hallstrom Consultants Deltak, Incorporated

R.

B. Kadiyala

Techalloy Maryland, Incorporated

P.

J.

Konkol

Concurrent Technologies Corporation

D.

J.

Kotecki

The Lincoln Electric Company

D.

Y. Ku

American Bureau of Shipping

N.

E.

Larson

Consultant

A.

S. Laurenson

Consultant

 

J. S. Lee

Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, Incorporated

G.

H. MacShane

MAC Associates

W.

A. Marttila

DaimlerChrysler

 

R.

Menon

Stoody Company

M. T. Merlo

Select Arc, Incorporated

A. R. Mertes

Ampco Metal, Incorporated

M.

D.

Morin

ABB Power Generation

C.

L. Null

Department of the Navy

J. J. Payne

Consultant

R.

L.

Peaslee

Wall Colmonoy Corporation

E. W. Pickering, Jr. M. A. Quintana *H. F. Reid *S. D. Reynolds, Jr.

Consultant The Lincoln Electric Company Consultant Consultant

L.

F. Roberts

Canadian Welding Bureau

 

P.

K.

Salvesen

Det Norske Veritas (DNV)

J.

M.

Sawhill, Jr.

Newport News Shipbuilding

*Advisor

vii

AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials (Continued)

 

A.

P.

Seidler

Armco Steel

W.

S.

Severance

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products

 

*W. A. Shopp

Consultant

M.

S.

Sierdzinski *R. G. Sim

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products The Lincoln Electric Company (Australia)

E.

R.

Stevens

Consultant

*R. W. Straiton

Bechtel Corporation

 

R.

A. Sulit

Digital Systems Research

R. A. Swain

Euroweld, Limited

R.

D. Thomas, Jr.

R. D. Thomas and Company

K.

P.

Thornberry

J. W. Harris Company, Incorporated

*R. Timerman

Conarco, S.A.

*S.

Tsutsumi

Kobe Steel, Limited

L.

T.

Vernam

AlcoTec Wire Corporation

G.

J. Vytanovych

Mobil Technology Company

T.

R.

Warren

Ingalls Shipbuilding, Incorporated

H. D. Wehr *F. J. Winsor K. G. Wold

Arcos Alloys Consultant Siemens Power Corporation

AWS A5 Subcommittee on Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Filler Metals

L. T. Vernam, Chair

W. N. Dietzen, Vice Chair R. K. Gupta, Secretary

AlcoTec Wire Corporation Gulf Wire Corporation American Welding Society

*B.

E. Anderson

AlcoTec Wire Company

S.

A.

Collins

Maine Maritime Academy

*P.

B.

Dickerson

Consultant

S.

A.

Gedeon

IntellAction, Incorporated

R.

M. Henson

J. W. Harris Company, Incorporated

G. Hergenrather

United Defense LP—Division of FMC

 

L.

L. Herl

Consultant

J. S. Lee

Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, Incorporated

G.

H. Musselman E. R. Pickering

Dana Corporation Reynolds Metals Company

*R. D. Thomas, Jr.

R. D. Thomas and Company

D.

A. Wright, Sr.

Zephyr Products, Incorporated

*Advisor

viii

Personnel (Reaffirmation) AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials D. A. Fink, Chair

Personnel (Reaffirmation)

AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials

D. A. Fink, Chair

J. S. Lee, 1st Vice Chair H. D. Wehr, 2nd Vice Chair R. Gupta, Secretary J. M. Blackburn

The Lincoln Electric Company CB&I Arcos Industries, LLC American Welding Society Department of the Navy

 

R.

S. Brown

RSB Alloy Applications, LLC

J.

C. Bundy

Hobart Brothers Company

R.

J. Christoffel

Consultant

D.

D. Crockett

The Lincoln Electric Company

J. J. DeLoach, Jr.

Naval Surface Warfare Center

D. A. Del Signore

Consultant

 

J.

DeVito

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products

 

H.

W. Ebert

Consultant

D.

M. Fedor

The Lincoln Electric Company

J. G. Feldstein

Foster Wheeler North America

 

S.

E. Ferree

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products

G.

L.

Franke

Naval Surface Warfare Center

 

R.

D. Fuchs

Böhler Thyssen Welding USA, Incorporated

C. E. Fuerstenau

Lucas-Milhaupt, Incorporated

J. A. Henning

Deltak

R.

M. Henson

J. W. Harris Company, Incorporated

M.

Q.

Johnson

Metallurgy Group

S.

D. Kiser

Special Metals

P.

J. Konkol

Concurrent Technologies Corporation

D. J. Kotecki

L. Kvidahl

The Lincoln Electric Company

Northrop Grumman Ship Systems

A.

S.

Laurenson

Consultant

W. A. Marttila

 

Menon

M. T. Merlo

D.

R. Miller

Mosier

L. Null

M. P. Parekh

R.

DaimlerChrysler Corporation Stoody Company Edison Welding Institute

ABS Americas Materials Department B. Polymet Corporation

C. Consultant

Consultant

R.

L. Peaslee

Wall Colmonoy Corporation

S. D. Reynolds, Jr.

Consultant

 

P.

K.

Salvesen

Det Norske Veritas (DNV)

 

K.

Sampath

Consultant

W. S. Severance

ESAB Welding and Cutting Products

 

M. J. Sullivan

NASSCO—National Steel & Shipbuilding

R.

C.

Sutherlin

ATI Wah Chang

 

R.

A. Swain

Euroweld, Limited

R.

D.

Thomas, Jr.

R. D. Thomas and Company

K.

P.

Thornberry

Care Medical, Incorporated

L.

T.

Vernam

AlcoTec Wire Corporation

 

F.

J.

Winsor

Consultant

v

Advisors to AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials

R.

L. Bateman

Electromanufacturas, S. A.

R.

A. Daemen

La Grande Tuiliere

J.

P. Hunt

Consultant

S.

Imaoka

Kobe Steel Limited

M.

A. Quintana

The Lincoln Electric Company

E. R. Stevens

Stevens Welding Consulting

E. S. Surian

National University of Lomas de Zamora

AWS A5C Subcommittee on Aluminum Alloy Filler Metals

L. T. Vernam, Chair

N. Dietzen, Vice Chair

R. Gupta, Secretary

B. E. Anderson

B. C. Boehringer

S. A. Collins

R. M. Henson

G. M. Hergenrather J. S. Lee G. H. Musselman

E. R. Pickering

D. A. Wright

AlcoTec Wire Corporation Gulf Wire Corporation

American Welding Society Consultant The Lincoln Electric Company

Marine Maritime Academy J. W. Harris Company, Incorporated

Harley-Davidson CB&I Dana Corporation—Parish Division

Reynolds Metals Corporation

Zephyr Products, Incorporated

Advisors to AWS A5C Subcommittee on Aluminum Alloy Filler Metals

B. E. Anderson

R. D. Thomas, Jr. V. Van der Mee

Consultant R. D. Thomas and Company Lincoln Electric Europe bv

vi

Statement on the Use of American Welding Society Standards All standards (codes, specifications, recommended practices,

Statement on the Use of American Welding Society Standards

All standards (codes, specifications, recommended practices, methods, classifications, and guides) of the American Welding Society (AWS) are voluntary consensus standards that have been developed in accordance with the rules of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). When AWS American National Standards are either incorporated in, or made part of, documents that are included in federal or state laws and regulations, or the regulations of other govern- mental bodies, their provisions carry the full legal authority of the statute. In such cases, any changes in those AWS standards must be approved by the governmental body having statutory jurisdiction before they can become a part of those laws and regulations. In all cases, these standards carry the full legal authority of the contract or other document that invokes the AWS standards. Where this contractual relationship exists, changes in or deviations from requirements of an AWS standard must be by agreement between the contracting parties.

AWS American National Standards are developed through a consensus standards development process that brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus. While AWS administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards.

AWS disclaims liability for any injury to persons or to property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance on this standard. AWS also makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein.

In issuing and making this standard available, AWS is neither undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity, nor is AWS undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. Anyone using these documents should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances.

This standard may be superseded by the issuance of new editions. Users should ensure that they have the latest edition.

Publication of this standard does not authorize infringement of any patent or trade name. Users of this standard accept any and all liabilities for infringement of any patent or trade name items. AWS disclaims liability for the infringement of any patent or product trade name resulting from the use of this standard.

Finally, AWS does not monitor, police, or enforce compliance with this standard, nor does it have the power to do so.

On occasion, text, tables, or figures are printed incorrectly, constituting errata. Such errata, when discovered, are posted on the AWS web page (www.aws.org).

Official interpretations of any of the technical requirements of this standard may only be obtained by sending a request, in writing, to the appropriate technical committee. Such requests should be addressed to the American Welding Society, Attention: Managing Director, Technical Services Division, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126 (see Annex B). With regard to technical inquiries made concerning AWS standards, oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered. These opinions are offered solely as a convenience to users of this standard, and they do not constitute professional advice. Such opinions represent only the personal opinions of the particular individuals giving them. These individuals do not speak on behalf of AWS, nor do these oral opinions constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and should not be used as a substitute for an official interpretation.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials. It must be reviewed every five years, and if not revised, it must be either reaffirmed or withdrawn. Comments (recommendations, additions, or deletions) and any pertinent data that may be of use in improving this standard are required and should be addressed to AWS Headquarters. Such comments will receive careful consideration by the AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials and the author of the comments will be informed of the Committee’s response to the comments. Guests are invited to attend all meetings of the AWS A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials to express their comments verbally. Procedures for appeal of an adverse decision concerning all such comments are provided in the Rules of Operation of the Technical Activities Committee. A copy of these Rules can be obtained from the American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126.

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