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ANATOMY OF NILEM FISH (Osteochilus cittatus)

AND CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus)

By :
Name : Anisatul Khabibah Zaen
Student ID : B1B015003
Group : IV
Subgroup :1
Asistent : Lucky Pratama Suharto




A. Background

Fish are aquatic organisms that have a complex organ consisting of

several organ systems that work together to perform life activities. Fish are
aquatic vertebrates that breathe with gills, but there are a few types of fish that
breathe through additional tools in the form of a modified swim bladder (air
bubbles). This type of fish has a labyrinth which is an extension to the top of the
gills and function saves a backup O₂ so that fish hold on condition that lack O₂
(Robert, 1976).
Fish can be divided into three groups, namely pet fish, wild fish and wild
fish. The type of pet fish is a fish nilem (Osteochilus cittatus) where the species
is known by many people who generally live in shallow places where flows are
not so heavy, such as lakes, rivers, swamps and puddles of water. The original
habitat of the fish nilem namely in temperate climates, with temperatures
ranging from 18-28 ºC (Asmawi, 1983).
Nilem fish can be consumed by humans because it contains high nutrition
and protein. Another pet fish that lives in freshwater environments are catfish
(Clarias gariepinus). Habitat in river flows is not so heavy, marshes, ponds,
reservoirs, and flooded rice fields. Catfish have a slightly flattened elongated
body, slick and also has a "mustache" long and sticking out from around the
mouth (Suyanto, 1997).
Nilem fish (Osteochilus cittatus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was
chosen as the practical preparations for the way of life is simple, cheap, and easy
to obtain. Nilem fish size and not too big catfish, show many similarities in form
and function with higher vertebrates. Nilem fish and catfish also have
morphological and anatomical arrangement is simple, making it easier student
make observations, both internal organ or organs outside (Saanin, 1968).

B. Purpose

The purpose of Practical Animal structure this time is to determine the

morphology and anatomy of fish nilem (Osteochilus cittatus) and catfish
(Clarias gariepinus).

A. Material

The tools used are a preparation tray, tweezers and surgical scissors.
Materials used are catfish (Clarias gariepinus), fish nilem (Osteochilus
cittatus), water, and tissue.

B. Method

The method used in this lab are as follows:

1. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and nilem fish (Osteochilus cittatus)
anesthetized using chloroform or turned off by the awl on the part of his
2. The fish is cut from the anus along medioventral anterior direction towards
the front until near the pectoral fin.
3. The upper parts of the meat was opened with the help of tweezers, and cut
from the anus toward the body part that continued to the dorsal anterior to
the gill cover.
4. Shearing of the head performed on the gill cover the dorsal and ventral to
the end of the muzzle, when the area is cut out must be done carefully.
5. The gastrointestinal tract was observed by means of pulling the intestines
carefully until it comes out of the body and should not be broken.
6. The tail is cut crosswise.

A. Result

Figure 1. Morphology of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details :

1. Dent nose 13. Branchiostegi membrane

2. Snout 14. Linea lateralis
3. Maxilla bone 15. Anus
4. Mandibulla 16. Porus urogenetalis
5. Misae 17. Pinnae dorsalis
6. Nostril 18. Pinnae caudalis
7. Organon visus 19. Pinnae analis
8. Pre-operculum 20. Pinna abdominalis
9. Operculum 21. Pinna pectoralis
10. Inter-operculum 22. Caput
11. Sub-operculum 23. Truncus
12. Radii branchiostegi 24. Caudal
Figure 2. Viscera Insitu Anatomy of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details:

1. Cavum oris
2. Organon visus
3. Gill filters
4. Cor
5. Pronephros
6. Mesonephros
7. Gonad
8. Vesica metatorial
9. Intestine
10. Hepato-pancreas
11. Anus
12. Porus urogenetalis
Figure 3. Viscera Insitu Anatomy Separated of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details:

1. Ductus cuveri 17. Vesica metatoria

2. Vena hepatica 18. Intestine
3. Sinus venusus 19. Vesica felea
4. Atrium
5. Ventricle
6. Bulbus arteriosus
7. Artery branchialis
8. Gills
9. Pronephros
10. Mesonephros
11. Ureter
12. Oesophagus
13. Gonad
14. Ductus spermaticus/ oviduct
15. Porus urogenitalis
16. Anus
Figure 4. Scale Anatomy of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details:

1. Circular line
2. Radier line
Figure 5. Muscle Cross Section of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details:

1. Neural taju
2. Archus neuralis
3. Transversal septum
4. Horizontal septum
5. Hypaxial muscle
6. Haemal taju
7. Archus haemal
8. Verterbae
9. Epaxial muscle
10. Myomere
11. Myocomata
Figure 6. Gills anatomy of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details:

1. Gills filamen
2. Septum branchialis
3. Epibranchialis
4. Branchialis
5. Dent gill
6. Gill filters
Figure 7. Caudal Skeleton Anatomy of Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Figure details:

1. Neural taju
2. Centrum vertebae
3. Haemal taju
4. Urostyle
5. Hyporalia
Figure 8. Morphology of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Figure details:

1. Caput
2. Truncus
3. Cauda
4. Barbels superior
5. Barbels inferior
6. Cavum oris
7. Nostril
8. Organon visus
9. Overculum
10. Linea lateralis
11. Pinnae dorsalis
12. Pinna pectoralis
13. Shaft
14. Pinna abdominalis
15. Pinnae analis
16. Pinnae caudalis
17. Porus urogenetalis
Figure 9. Anatomy Viscera Insitu of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Figure details:

1. Oesophagus
2. Hepar
3. Cor
4. Gastrum
5. Pylorus
6. Intestine
7. Gonad
8. Ren
9. Porus urogenetalis
10. Clasper
Figure 10. Gills Anatomy of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Figure details:

1. Arborescent
2. Gills
B. Discussion

1. Nilem Fish (Osteochilus cittatus)

Nilem fish (Osteochilus cittatus) including family Cyprinidae such as
carp and tawes. Nilem fish body similar to carp, but his head is small, the body
is rather long and thin with a relatively long dorsal fin. The corners of his mouth,
near the corner of the upper jaw there are two pairs of antennae feelers. Agency
surrounded by 16-17 scales tail, snout not perforated, the location of the eyes
slightly upwards, and almost the same height with high backs caudal peduncle
(Djajadiredja, 1990).
Nilem fish size usually only reaches a length of 25 cm and weighs about
150 grams. This fish is a pet fish from rivers that move to areas sand and clear
water. Nilem fish generally can be maintained well at altitude of about 150-800
meters above sea level (Asmawi, 1983).
The composition of the fish outer body consists of head, body and tail.
Fish head consists of a mouth, curved nose, eyes, and gill cover. Lateral line, the
pelvic fins, pectoral fins, dorsal fin and tail fin located on the body of the fish.
There are fish tail fin. The composition of the inner body consists of the
digestive tract, swim bladder, digestive gland, gills, heart, gonad and kidney
(Prawirohartono, 1989).
Agency nilem scaly fish, on the left side of the flange there nilem fish
linea lateralis which extends from the gill cover to the tail. Scars that serves as a
sixth sense for knowing the magnitude of current in the water. Type nilem fish
scales are cycloid has stripes circular (circular) and lines radier (Susanto, 1996).
Fish nilem (Osteochilus cittatus) has two pairs of antennae feelers
contained in its mouth, forms a relatively wide mouth to mouth and wrinkles as a
sign of the bodies engaging eater. Member nilem fish body consists of various
fin that helps the movement of fish in the water nilem. The fins of a pair of
pectoral fins (pectoral fin) is in favor by one of fingers and 13-15 soft radius, a
pair of pelvic fins (abdominal fin) supported by one of fingers and 8 fingers
software, and a single fin consists of, the anal fin (anal fin) is supported by three
of fingers and five fingers soft dorsal fin (dorsal fin) supported by three of
fingers and 12-18 spokes software, and a tail fin (caudal fin) that have two heron
and symmetrical. The number of lateral line scales there are 33-36 pieces
(Djuhanda, 1985).
Nilem fish linea lateralis has underlined the lateral canal located along
the sides of the body and head. This system serves to detect water flow oriented
balance with the assistance of the membranes or otoliths labyrinth of the inner
ear. Fish nilem testes and male are all located in the ventral from ren (Lagler,
Leather or cutis consist of corium or dermis and epidermis. Corium
consists of connective tissue. The epidermis is plated on the outside is the
epithelium. The cells are glandular epithelium unicelluler that secrete mucus,
mucus is causing the skin to become slippery fish (Radiopoetro, 1977).
Nilem fish digestive system consists of mouth, pharynk, oesophagus,
ventriculus, and intestine that empties into the cloaca. Trails digestive system of
fish is a fish that has a first jaw many small conical teeth to chew food and small
towing tongue oral cavity help mastication of food. Once out of her mouth to the
esophagus that is contained in the gills at the side and the short side and then
proceed to the esophagus into the stomach (gastrum). Pyloric separate value
back from the intestine. Three tubular pyloric caeca, absorbing its functions,
taking into intestine. Three big hearts in the body cavity with the gall bladder
and channels to the intestine and the pancreas is unclear (Storer & Usinger,
Respiratory system in which the fish use gills nilem consisting of 4 pairs
of gill pouch which is adjacent pharynk under operculum. Respiratory system in
fish, in addition to gills are also operculum which serves to protect the gills so
that when performing respiration incoming air is not mixed with foreign
substances from the outside. Breathing time operculum closes attached to the
body wall, arch branchialis expands laterally. Water enters through the mouth
and then visor mouth shut, while arcus branchialis contract, thus operculum
lifted open. Water flows out of filaments so that the blood takes oxygen and
remove carbon dioxide (Jasin, 1989).
The reproductive system of fish nilem is gonads, ovaries, oviduct of the
female, as well as the testes, vas defferens for males, and porus urogenitalis.
There are a pair of male fish testis length and is located in the ventral part of the
ren. Defferens sperm through the vas removed through urogenetalis papillae.
The tip of the caudal ranging from vasdefferens which empties into the
urogenital sinus. Fish nilem female ovaries are a pair of long, egg out on oviduct
(Jasin, 1989).
Nilem female fish are a pair of ovarian long. This has ovarian cavity
caudal to continue themselves into the oviduct which empties into the urogenital
sinus. This ovarian symmetrically located on the right and left sides of the body.
Ovaries are many nests of eggs that contain primordial gamete cells (oogonia or
oocytes). The males, when massaged his stomach from the operculum to the
genital papilla it will exit liquids such as milk (milt) while the female fish are not
(Radiopoetro, 1977).
2. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a fish that lives in freshwater. The
external morphology of catfish can be divided into three parts, namely caput
(head), truncus (body), and cauda (tail). Caput catfish include the mouth (cavum
oris) is likely in the end face of the snout has a jaw-toothed, eye (Organon visus)
is small and situated next to the lateral without eyelids, and have two pairs of
antennae feelers (barbels) which is very useful for moving in the dark water.
Barbels are divided into two pairs of barbels sized one short (inferior barbels)
and which is longer (barbels superior). Mouth are at the threshold snout
(terminal), the decorated four pairs of barbels. Front nostril a short tube located
behind the upper lip, nostril behind a more or less circular slit is behind the nasal
barbels (Suyanto, 1997).
Truncus of catfish just like fish nilem consisting of a variety of fin. Fins
are a pair of pectoral fin (fin pectoralis) equipped shaft, a pair of pelvic fins (fin
abdominal) and fins of a single like, the anal fin (fin analyst), dorsal fin (fin
dorsal) and caudal fin (fin caudalis) , rounded caudal fin dorsal fin are not joined
and anal fins. Shaped pelvic fins rounded anal fin and its length. Shaft has a pair
of pectoral fins that have a maximum length of 400 mm. Porus urogenital also
contained in the truncus, the hole where the reproductive organs and the release
of the results of excretion. Catfish do not have scales (Suyanto, 1991).
The digestive system consists of a jaw catfish containing many cone-
shaped teeth. Digestion starts from the mouth continued entry into the
esophagus. The food from the esophagus get into gastrum and final entry into
intestine. Respirator in catfish just like other fish is by using gills. The incoming
air will be filtered in the gills, carbohydrates are removed and oxygen is
circulated throughout the body. Catfish also have a breathing apparatus called an
Arborescent an organ which is the membrane that folds filled with blood
capillaries. This tool is located in the next room over the gills. These organs used
for breathing air so as to enable catfish to take a breather from the air and can
live in low oxygenated. This tool also allows the catfish to live on land, as long
as the surrounding air has a high humidity (Storer & Usinger, 1961).
The reproductive organs of vertebrate animals case of catfish in the form
of the gonads. Catfish males, one side gonadnya have serrations, darker color,
and size gonadnya smaller than females. Catfish females, gonadnya yellow
colored and visible spots eggs contained therein (Suyanto, 1991).
The organ that plays a role in the excretion of metabolic leftovers in catfish that
is the kidney. Kidney-shaped slender and elongated crimson located above and
below the spine. Other organs which include urinary vesica, ureter, porous
urogenitalia (Bambang, 1997).

A. Conclusion

Based on the results of lab and discussion, we concluded as follows :

1. Fish nilem (Osteochilus cittatus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) can be
divided into three parts, namely the head (head), truncus (body), and cauda
2. Digestive system nilem consists of the oral cavity, esophagus, colon,
kidney, head kidney, gall bladder, spleen, and ductus pneumaticus. The
digestive system consists of catfish jaws, farink, esophagus, Gastrum, and
3. Gills play an important role in respiration nilem and catfish, in addition to
the gills of catfish are an additional tool in the form of Arborescent.
4. System on genital nilem (Osteochilus cittatus) and catfish (Clarias
gariepinus) form the gonads consisting of male gonads and female gonads.
5. System excretion nilem and catfish consists of ren, ureters, vesica urinary
and urogenital sinus.

B. Recommendation

Suggestions for practical lab work is hopefully the future will be better
and more discipline.
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Bambang, M. 1997. Zoologi Dasar. Jakarta: Erlangga.
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Djuhanda dan Tatang. 1985. Dunia Ikan. Bandung: Armico.
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Lagler, K. F. 1997. Zoologi. Jakarta: Erlangga.
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Robert, 1976. Vertebrae Biology 4th Edition. Philadelphia, WB Sounders Company.
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Storer, T.I and Usinger, R.L. 1961. General of Zoology. New York: Mc Graw Hill
Book Company Inc.
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