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The female Reproductive System

L-12_2nd June 2016


Female Reproductive System
• Female reproductive system consists of:
– Ovaries
– Reproductive tracts (oviducts, uterus,
cervix, vagina)
– Asesory glands
– External genital structures

• Ovaries are where female gametes, egg


cells, are produced.
– A follicle contains one egg cell (oocyte) as well
as follicle cells that nurture the developing egg.
– Most/all of the follicles a woman will produce
have formed before birth.
Female Reproductive System
• Each month from puberty through
menopause one follicle ruptures and
releases its egg cell – ovulation.
– The corpus luteum forms from the ruptured
follicle and secretes estrogen and
progesterone to help maintain the uterine
lining during pregnancy. If the egg is not
fertilized the lining disintegrates.
Female Reproductive System
• After ovulation, the egg leaves the ovary and
enters the oviduct, which it follows to the
uterus.
Oviduct (Fallopian tube)

1. Paired, convoluted (coiled)


2. Avenue to transport oocytes from ovaries to uterus
3. Site of fertilization
4. Preceeded by fimbriae and infundibulum
a. fimbriae assist in directing the oocyte into the
infundibulum
5. Lined with both secretory and ciliated cells for the
movement of both oocytes and spermatozoa
6. Has both circular and longitudinal muscles which also
aid in transport of oocytes and spermatozoa
7. Supported by a continuation of the mesovarium
Female reproductive tracts --Uterus
1. Consists of corpus (body), cervix (neck), and two coruna
(horns)
2. Tussue layers: a) endometrium, b) myometrium, c) serous
a. endometrium
- highly glandular over entire lining except ruminants
* ruminants have mushroom-shaped projections called
caruncles
where fetal membranes attach, the fetal sides are called
cotyledons
- varies in thickness and vascularity under the influence of both
hormonal changes and pregnancy
- glandular secretions provide nutrients to the embryo before
implantation and development of placenta
Appearance of Endometrium during Uterine Cycle
Female reproductive tract --Uterus

b. myometrium – muscular portion of the uterus


- hypertrophy (increased cell size) and hyperplasia
(increased cell numbers) during pregnancy
- primary function is in aiding the expulsion of the
fetus
c. serous covering for support (mesoderm)
- provides suspensory support for the uterus
- two broad ligaments on from each side that support
the uterus and varies structures on their respective
sides
d. cervix – heavy, smooth muscle sphincter
- tightly closed except during estrus and parturition
- secretes outward flowing mucus from goblet cells
* mucus flow prevents infective materials from
entering the uterus from the vagina
e. vagina
- within the pelvis, between the uterus and vulva
- sheath for male penis during copulation
- urethral open of discharge of urine
- passage of fetus during parturition
f. vulva (vestibule of the vagina) – caudal portion of
the female genitalia
- located from the urethral opening to the
exterior of the genitalia
- clitoris (femal vestigal counterpart to the male
penis)
* erectile tissue
* sensory nerve endings
g. labia – external portion of vulva
External Female Structures

• Mons Pubis.
• Labia Majora & Minora.
• Clitoris.
• Vestibule.
• Perineum
Mons Pubis

Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty


tissue, prominence over the symphysis pubis
that forms the anterior border of the external
reproductive organs.
It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair.
Labia Majora & Minora

• The labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of


tissue that extended from the mons pubis to the
perineum.
– It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and
vaginal introitus.
• The labia minora is located between the labia
majora, are narrow.
– The lateral and anterior aspects are usually pigmented.
– The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa, pink
and moist.
– Their rich vascularity.
Clitoris

• The term clitoris comes from a Greek word


meaning key.
• Erectile organ.
• It’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to
temperature, touch, and pressure sensation
Vestibule

• Is oval-shaped area formed between the labia


minora, clitoris, and fourchette.
• Vestibule contains the external urethral meatus,
vaginal introitus, and Bartholins glands.
Perineum

• Is the most posterior part of the external


female reproductive organs.
• It extends from fourchette anteriorly to the
anus posteriorly.
• And is composed of fibrous and muscular
tissues that support pelvic structures
D. Blood Supply to the female reproductive
organs
1. Ovarian artery
a. ovaries and oviducts
b. cranial part of the uterus
2. Uterine artery
a. major part of the uterus
3.. Vaginal artery
a. vagina
Female assesory glands

• BARTHOLINI gland (homologous to the Cowpery /


Bulbourethral gland)
– Location: next to the hymen
– Function: produces lubricate
• Para urethral gland (homologous to the prostate
gland
• Vestibular gland (homologous to the Littre gland)
– Location: next to the urethra
– Function: regulate vaginal pH
Kardong, K. V.
2000. Figure
14.52.
Reproductive
organs of
female
eutherian
mammals.