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COLLEGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 6

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents survey of related literature and writing of recognized


experts both of which have significant bearing or relations to the problem under
investigations.
Computer is a prime example of the impact of technology. They have
dramatically simplified information processing because of their speed in
calculating, classifying, storing and summarizing data. Computer are important
component in many records and monitoring systems.
According to Aquino, et. Al (2013), information technology has a greater
impact to an entire industry. It is use of computer and software to manage
information. In actuality, it is the collection of tools that makes it easier to use,
create, manage, and exchange information. It is responsible for storing in formation,
protecting information, processing the information transmitting the information as
necessary, and later retrieving information as necessary. Automation provides
benefits to virtually all of industry from installation, integration and maintenance to
design, procurement, and management.
According to Fortuna, et. Al (2011), the use of computer in the offices has
become very vital. Through the advancement of information technology, people are
able works more accurately than the manual ways. This suggests that through the
vast development in the forms of technology, the quality of works and the time
needed to accomplish a task is improved. Furthermore, people who are accomplish
a t task is improved. Furthermore, people who are to accomplish task undergo
minor difficulties and thus, produce better results compares to using manual or
outdates technology. Organization and updating of data become more efficient and
comprehensive. Moreover, with the creasing percentage of data to be stored, it is
then imperative to make use the recent technology.
COLLEGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 7

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According to Rialubin, et. al (2012), the need for computerized system to


process data into information has increased with the rapid growth of population.
The use of computerized processing of information and data makes the works easier
especially in schools, like recording of data leading to efficiency when trying to
summarize reports, and produce accurate records of the school. There is a need to
keep records of all school activities, especially keeping and the management of the
records is a vital responsibility of the school activities of the schools system.
Moreover, schools managers or administrators rely on the shorts and long-term data
captured in records to make effectives decisions about immediate issues and
students concerns.
According to Gustafson (2011), the web is an ever-changing medium whose
scope, application, audience and platform continue to grow on a daily basis. If one
worked on the web for any amount of time, he/she has likely heard or even used the
term “progressive enhancement.” Since the term’s inception, it has been considered
a best practice for approaching web design. But what is it really? And how do user
reconcile its meaning with the rapid evolution of the languages and browser relied
on to do jobs? In this brief book, Adaptive Web Design: Crafting Rich Experiences
with Progressive Enhancement. Easy Readers, LLC; 1st edition 2011, Aaron
Gustafson chronicles the origin of progressive enhancement, its philosophy, and
mechanisms, and reveals the countless practical ways that one can apply
progressive enhancement principles using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. By
understanding progressive enhancement and how to apply it properly, web
practitioners can craft experiences that serve users (rather than browsers), giving
them access to content without technological restrictions.
Today, we live in an information economy. Information itself has value, and
commerce often involves the exchange of information rather than tangible goods.
System based on computer are increasingly being used to create, store, and transfer
information. Computers and information systems will continue to change business
and the way we live.
COLLEGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 8

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According to Reynolds (2014), Electronic commerce (e-commerce) involves


any business transaction executed electronically between companies (business-to-
business, or B2B), companies and consumers (business-to-consumer, or B2C),
consumers and other consumers (consumer-to-consumer, or C2C), business and the
public sector, and consumer and the public sector. E-commerce use of mobile,
wireless devices to place orders and conduct business. E-commerce relies on
wireless communication that managers and corporations use to place order and
conduct business with handheld computers, portable phones, laptop computers
connected to a network, and other mobile devices. E-commerce offers many
advantages for streamlining work activities. In addition to e-commerce, business
information system use telecommunication and the Internet to perform many related
tasks.
Enterprise system that process daily transactions have evolved over the
years and offer important solutions for business of all sizes. Many of these early
system were designed to reduce costs by automating routine, labor-intensive
business transactions. Processing business transaction was the first computer
application developed for most organization. A transaction processing system (TPS)
is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, database, and devices
used to perform and record business transactions.
According to Reynolds (2014), Order processing system “running these
systems efficiently and reliably is so critical that the order processing systems are
sometimes referred to as the lifeblood of the organization.” The processing flow
begins with the receipt of a customer order. The finished product inventory is
checked to see if sufficient inventory is on hand to fill the order. Purchasing system
is traditional transaction processing system that support the purchasing function
include inventory control, purchase order processing, receiving, and accounts
payable.
An enterprise system is central to an organization and ensures information
can be shared across all business functions and all levels of management to support
COLLEGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 9

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the running and managing of a business. Enterprise system employ a database of


key operational and planning data that can be shared by all. Businesses rely on such
systems to perform many of their daily activities in areas such as product supply,
distribution, sales, marketing, human resources, manufacturing, accounting, and
taxation so that work is performed quickly, while avoiding waste and mistakes.
Without such system, recording and processing business transactions would
consume huge amounts of an organization’s resources. This collection of processed
transaction also forms a storehouse of data invaluable to decision making. The
ultimate goal is to satisfy customers and provide a competitive advantage by
reducing cost and improving service.