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ORDER RUGOSA - Generally Have well organized septal arrangements with six cardinal or - Gshelia sp. - preferred shallow, Mid Ordovician-
robust, primary septa are inserted in four spaces around the corallum – (Carboniferous) tropical environments Streptelasma were first
calcitic - Acervularia - with both colonial recorded
forms (Silurian) and solitary life modes End Permian Mass
- Phillipsastrea - Benthic Extinction-
(Devonian) disappearance of Rugose
- Paleosmilia Corals
(Carboniferous) Planktonic Cnidarians
- Jellyfishes

between the cardinal septa and the two alar septa and also
between the two counterlateral septa and lateral septa

ORDER - Skeletal - Have well developed tabulae - Lichenaria - preferred shallow, Early Ordovician –
material is - Septa are usually very much reduced to short spines or are (Tremadocian) tropical environments First appearance
composed absent, and dissepiments are variably developed - Catenipora (Late - colonial Late Permian – the
(CNIDARIA) of calcite Ordovician) - Benthic group was very musch in
- Paleofavosites (Late decline following a long
Ordovician) period of deterioration
- Propora (Late after the Frasnian
Ordovician) extinctions

- The group is varied with erect, massive, sheet-like and chain-

like colonies and branching forms

PHYLUM - Body has - Bilaterally symmetrical and vermiform. - Polychaetes – paddle - Feed a wide range of Cambrian - Recent
more than - Body cavity is a true coelom, often divided by internal septa worms (have the most material.
two cell - Body possesses a through gut with mouth and anus. complete fossil record - Some live in water,
layers, - Have ring-like external segments that coincide with internal ) (Cambrian) and some live on land
tissues and partitions housing pairs of digestive and reproductive organs - Canadia Spinosa – - Polychaetes - Benthic
organs. - Body possesses 3 separate sections, a prosomium, a trunk found in Burgess
- Has no true and a pygidium. Shale (Mid-
respiratory Cambrian)
organs. * Note: Spirrigina –
- Reproductio have been associated
n normally with Polychaetes
sexual and (Ediacaran)
c or

CLASS - Are highly TRILOBITES - - The segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata - Paradoxides-(Mid - Most trilobites lived in Early Cambrian – first
derived were unique and very (comprising the Cephalon, Thorax, Pygidium) Cambrian) fairly shallow water and appearance
arthropod successful arthropod - Calymene(Lower were benthic; they End Permian -
(ARTHROPODS) - They posses group Ordovician to Upper walked on the bottom, extinction
a chitinous Devonian) and probably fed on
exoskeleton - Naraoia- first detritus
that must be described from the - A few, like
shed during Burgess Shale as a the agnostids, may have
growth. brachiopod been pelagic, floating in
Crustacean(Mid the water column.
Cambrian) Cambrian and
Ordovician trilobites
generally lived in
shallow water. After the
Ordovician, when many
trilobite groups declined
or went extinct, the
survivors tended to be
Trilobite Exoskeleton– is divided longituinally into three lobes restricted to deeper
(“Three Lobed”): water.
-Axial Lobe– protects the digestive system
-Two Pleural Lobes– cover appendages
Cephalon – has a glabella(raised axial area) with a series of
glabellar furrows
Eyes– are commonly developed laterally with the facial or
cephalic suture separating the inner fixed and the outer free
SUPERCLASS - The heavily During Cambrian - with gills, mandibles, two pairs of antennae - Canadapsis perfecta - -aquatic, mainly marine Cambrian- Recent
armored crabs and and stalked compound eyes is one of the earliest during Cambrian
lobsters are under crustaceans from the the - The majority Ostracodes- diversified
this superclass Burgess Shale.( Middle of crustaceans are during Ordovician-
Barnacles and Cambrian ) aquatic, living in either Silurian
Ostracodes – are marine or freshwater Barnacles- flourished
also crustaceans - Aeger tipularis - from environments, but a few during the Cretaceous
Solnhofen (Late Jurassic) groups have adapted to
life on land, such as
terrestrial crabs,
terrestrial hermit crabs,
and woodlice.
- planktonic and benthic

SUBCLASS - “sea - A member of the - Defined in terms of the prosoma(head and thorax) - Eurypterus remipes - Most eurypterids were Ordovician- Permian
scorpions” Subphylum with six segments (bearing appendages), an (Silurian) predators, attacking
- slit-like Chelicerata along opisthosoma(abdomen) with at most 12 segments, and fishes and other
structures an with the horseshoe a pair of chelicerate(pincers) attached to the first arthropods
d book crabs segment of the prosoma.
lungs on
fossils were
found. Such
structures are
today known
only in
CLASS - Arachnids - include spiders, - body with Cephalothorax and abdomen(fused in ticks and - Attercopus- Early -terrestrial, solitary, Silurian-Recent
usually lay ticks, scorpions mites) spider (Devonian) carnivorous or parasitic
yolky eggs, and mites - Cephalothorax bears 6 pairs appendages (no antennae or Scorpions- Upper
which hatch - under Phylum mandibles). First two appendages modified for feeding, last Silurian to Recent
into Chelicerata along four for locomotion
immatures with Eurypterids - Air-breathing, with respiration by book lungs(leaf like plates Spiders – Middle
that resemble Devonian to Recent
Ticks and Mites –
Devonian to Recent

containing blood vessels) or tracheae(ramified tubules).

CLASS - Sexes are - Under Phylum - Cordulagomphus - Essentially all Middle Devonian -
generally Arthropoda, fenestratus – belongs environments Recent
separate Superclass to - Primarily terrestrial
- Many with Hexapoda Odonata(Dragonfles) but many with aquatic
metamorpho (Lower Cretaceous) larvae

- Body with three distinct tagma(head,t horax, and abdomen)

- Head with 1 pair antennae
- Compound eyes
- 3 pairs mouth parts (1 pair mandibles, 2 pairs maxillae)
- 3 thoracic segments with pair of jointed legs on each
- Wings often present
- Abdomen usually with 11 segments or fewer (6-8)
- Respiration by tracheae
CLASS - Belongs to - Flask-shaped theca commonly with three basal plates - Pentremites - Filter-fed on Middle Ordovician(?),
Subphylum (Mississippian) phytoplankton and Middle Silurian-Late
Pelmatozoa, Class organic detritus Permian
Eocrinoidea - Sessile benthonic
- Planktonic(some
nektonic) larval stage
- Usually found in fine
grained facies
- Salinity probably
normal marine

- Ambulacra with elongate lancet plate and rows of side plates

CLASS - Proteinacous - Under subphyllum - Formed complexly branched colonies or simple linear series - Pendeograptus - Colonial marine Cambrian –
skeleron Hemichordata of interconnecting tubes fruticosus (Lower organisms Pennsylvanian
Ordovician) - Planktonic or
A epiplanktonic

- Zooids commonly in linear series or in series of clusters

connected to each other by stolons
- Stick-like fossils
CLASS - Early species -Phylum Chordata Agnathans (“Cyclostomata”) - Birkenia elegans- Heterotrascans - some Ordovician- Recent
had heavy -SubPhylum - “ jawless vertebrates” anaspids (Mid- are bottom dwellers
bony scales Vertebrata - Paired fins absent or poorly developed Silurian ) - some
and plates in -Class Agnatha - Primitive ear region - Gilpichthys greenei are nektonic
their skin, *Subclass (Pennsylvanian)
but these are Myxinoidea Anaspids - its laterally
not present *Subclass *Conodonts *Heterostracans- compressed, fishlike
in living Petromyzontida - Preservation of soft-bodied specimens indicate that earliest undisputed form indicates a free-
species. *Subclass they were elongate, eel-like animals vertebrates(Ordovici swimming habit.
- In most cases Conodonta - Presence of a notochord , dorsal nerve chord, an – Upper
the skeleton * Subclass myomeres(muscle blocks along the length of the Devonian)
is Pteraspidomorphi body), a tail, and a midline tail fin Hagfishes and
cartilaginous *Subclass *Anaspids(Upper Lampreys – Their
- The Cephalaspidomorpha Silurian- Upper elongated bodies are
embryonic Devonian) adaptations to a
notochord burrowing habit,
persists in Agnathans(Cyclosto *Thelodonts (Upper throughout life in the
the adult. mata) – polyphyletic Silurian – Middle hagfish but only during
- Seven or grouping of: Devonian) the larval period in the
more paired *modern Lampreys lamprey.
gill pouches (Petromyzontida)
are present. *Hagfishes
- The (Myxinoidea)
digestive Semiparasitic
system lacks animals with no jaws *Pteraspidimorphs
a stomach. - with dermal armor
- with paired nasal sacs and openings
- typically one pair of gill openings
- skulls not forming complete head shield
incertae cedis
- Order
- Order

Heterostracans – mouth usually anterior and

ventral with the development of long, narrow,
oral plates(have small tiny backward-pointing
denticles that were probably used for capturing

*Cephalispidomorphs – with massive head shield that

covered gills dorsally and with ventral placement of mouth and
gill openings
*Anaspids – small, streamlined (fusiform), laterally compressed
- eyes laterally placed
- mouth terminal and in form of oval, vertical slit for
filter feeding

*Thelodont – small fish with tiny cone-like scales

- eyes far apart and lateral
- mouth vental but nearly terminal
- often with a hypocercal tail

PLACODERMS - Placoderms - Phylum Chordata - Were the first vertebrates to have jaws - Coccosteus –one of - Freshwater or marine Devonian – Lower
are thought to -Subphylum - Typically dorsoventrally compressed fishes with head and trunk the oldest jaw-bearing - Usually benthonic Mississippian
be the first Vertebrata shields (in advanced types shields connected by ball-and-socket placoderm - Not very powerful
fish to -Infraphylum articulation) (Devonian) swimmers
reproduce by Gnathostomata - Some are
internal *Class benthonektonic
fertilization. Placodermi - Some are eunektonic
None of the
early jawless
visible sexual

ACANTHODIANS - mode of - Phylum Chordata - Climatius(Late - Are often found Late Ordovician-Lower
reproduction -Subphylum - Were small fishes, mostly in the range 50-200 mm in length, Ordovician) preserved in vast Permian
unknown Vertebrata and they bore numerous spinesat the front of each fin and in numbers in the rock
- Classicaly -Infraphylum spaced rows on their undersides layers, so they probably
known as Gnathostomata swam in huge shoals in
“spiny *Class open water, perhaps
sharks” Acanthodii feeding on small
arthropods and
- They escaped predators
from side to side in
their shoals, and
perhaps their
exceptional spininess
made them difficult to
CHONDRICHTHY - “Shark-like - Phylum Chordata - Cartilaginous(cartilage consist of prismatic structure) - Doliodus - live mostly in marine
fishes” -Subphylum - Skin covered wirh dermal denticles including placoid scales, problematicus(Devon locations but few Upper
Vertebrata teeth, claspers, and fin spines(histology of teeth is sometimes ian) species live in Ordovician/Silurian?
Chondros = -Infraphylum used in classifications) freshwater. To Recent
cartilage Gnathostomata
Ichthys = fish *Class Elasmobranchii – - First preserved prismatic
Chondrichthyes predominantly nektonic cartilage is Early
* Subclass Devonian Age
(rays, skates, and
SARCOPTERYGI Phylum Chordata Osteichthyes – Bony fishes - Cheirolepis- Actinopterygians –act Actinopterygians –
- Most -Subphylum Actinopterygian(Dev in propulsion, steering, (Upper
AN &
Osteichthyes Vertebrata *Actinopterygians – differ from sarcopterygians in the onian) and hydrostatic Silurian?)/Lower
ACTINOPTERYG become -Infraphylum presence of fin rays (bony, rod-like fin supports) - Tiktaalik – adjustment Devonian to Recent
IAN FISHES sexually Gnathostomata - “ray-finned fishes” intermediate between
(OSTEICHTHYE mature one *Class lobe-finned fish and FEEDING SYSTEMS OF Sarcoterygians – Lower
to five years Osteichhyes amphibians (Late ACTINOPTERYGIANS: Devonian to Recent
after birth. *Subclass Devonian)
- Females Sarcopterygii 1.Chondostrean Stage
have two ov *Subclass 2. Primitive Neopterygian
Stage – features greatly
aries that Actinopterygii
increased feeding
make eggs, effectiveness by increasing
and males the strength of the bite
have two test *Sarcopterygian –with fleshy lobe fins, a squamosal 3.Teleost Stage – features
es that make bone is present on the skull, and a cosmine layer is present on the are developed for suction
sperm. scales and bones feeding
- The sperm - “lobe-finned fishes”
and the egg Sarcopterygians –
cells are the modern species are
sex cells of found in freshwater but
the fish. extinct types inhabited a
- Spawning wide variety of
or environments
reproduction -
is cyclical essentially all were
and usually bottom dwelling
happens at omnivores
least once a - older
year. types seem to have relied
on lungs
burrows(for aestivation
during dry seasons,
where they can survive
in a semi- inanimate
state in a flask-shaped,
mucus lined pit) are
found from Devonian to
COELACANTHS( - The mode Phylum Chordata - Are bony fish with two dorsal fins, lobate paired fins, and - Eoachtinistia foreyi. - Predominantly predatory Devonian - Recent
of reproductio -Subphylum cosmoid structure of the scales and dermal bones (Devonian) fishes and mainly relied
n is Vertebrata - Most important distinguishing feature is braincase division into - Latimeria chalumnae – on sense of smell (with
ovoviviparity. -Infraphylum an anterior and posterior parts with an intracranial joint between still existing species small eyes)
- This involves Gnathostomata them
internal *Class - Small plates surround the eye
fertilization of Osteichhyes
eggs, *Subclass
followed by a Sarcopterygii
gestation *
period Order Dipnoi (the
thought to be lung fish)
about a year *
in duration Infraclass
during which Crossopterygii
time the *
embryos feed Order Actinistia
off the yolk (Coelacanth)
sac of the egg, *
culminating Infraclass
in the live Tetrapodomorpha
births of fully
formed *
young. SuperOrder
rise to the

DIVISION - Some KingdomPlantae - No stiffened vascular tissue for conducting water and - Poor fossil record - Many bryophytes grow Devonian - Recent
bryophytes are -SubKingdom nutrients (nonvascular) on soil or on the
BRYOPHYTA unusually Bryophyta persistent remains of
(MOSSES, tolerant of their own growth, as
LIVERWORTS, extended
well as on living or
periods of
AND dryness and decomposing material
of other plants. Some
HORNWORTS) freezing, and,
upon the return grow on bare rock
of moisture, surfaces, and several are
they rapidly aquatic.
The exact
controversial. - Gametophytes most important phase of sexual
DIVISION KingdomPlantae - Vascular plants (with conducting cells(xylem and MOST IMPORTANT - typically found in Silurian -Recent
-SubKingdom phloem) for transporting water and nutrients) DIVISIONS: swamps, moist
Tracheophyta - Usually possess stems, roots, and leaves 1.Rhyniophyta woodlands, and along
Sphenophyta –
lake edges
Spores must
DIVISIONS: 1.Rhyniophyta –oldest known vascular plants - Cooksonia ( Silurian)
within a few
1.Rhyniophyta - no leaves or roots with
days to
2.Psilopsida (“whisk dichotomous branching
ferns”) of the stems
3.Zosterophyllopsida -stems capped by spore- 2.Psilopsida (“whisk
4.Lycophyta bearing cases ferns”)
5.Sphenophyta (sporangia)
6.Filicinophyta - spores are -Psilotum – still existing
Filicinophyta –
homosporous and spore (Silurian)
is trilete (round
spore develops
triangular with three folds on it) 3.Zosterophyllopsida
into a small
2.Psilopsida (“whisk ferns”) – Psilotum is very similar to Rhyniophyta Zosterophyllum
with three dimensional (Silurian- Devonian)
dichotomous branching
and low degree of organ 4.Lycophyta
differentiation with
roots and vascularized -Lepidodendron – scale
leaves absent tree (Carboniferous)
- sporangia are bome
terminally on short
lateral axes (Carboniferous)
-Sigillaria – stems/trunks
3.Zosterophyllopsida – ancestors of (Carboniferous)
microphyllous plants -Stigmaria – roots or
- also leafless rhizophores
and branched (Carboniferous)
dichotomously, -Lepidophylloides –
but sporangia
leaves (Carboniferous)
and attached to a
short stalk 5.Sphenophyta
-branches forked into two axes, one grows upward
and one grows downward (“H-branched”) - Calamites – arborescent
4.Lycophyta – includes the modern club (Pennsylvanian)
mosses and quill worts - Annularia – leaf whorls
- also arborescent (tree-like)
lycopods up to 40 m high
- evolved from Rhyniopsida
-have true roots,stems and 6.Filicinophyta
often with small leaves with
a single strand of vascular -Psaronius (Late
tissue Carboniferous)
- NO leaf gap(microphylls) - Pecopteris
-leaves on trunk in pits (leaf cushion/bolsters) and arranged (Carboniferous)
in spirals
5.Sphenophyta – include the modern horsetails and several extinct groups
- with scale-like small leaves arranged in whorlsaround
an above ground , bamboo-like
jointed (with nodes ans
internodes) photosynthetic stem
that is hollow inside
- walls of stem cells contain
silica, so stems often “gritty
- spores form inside cone-shaped
clusters of tiny branches at the
shoot tips an are dispersed by air
- typically found in swamps, moist woodlands, and
along lake edges

6.Filicinophyta – includes ferns and their allies

- large, complex leaves(megaphylls-with leaf gaps,
spaces developed where the leaf
stalk (petiole) joins the vascular
cylinder of the twig)
- fern leaves (fronds ) usually
feather-like with blades finely
divided into segments and develops
rachis, pinna, and pinnules
- immature fronds unroll in most
- tree ferns were large, arborescent ferns found in coal

CLASS KingdomPlantae - Are characterized by seeds IMPORTANT - Gymnosperms Carboniferous- Recent

GYMNOSPERMOP - They have a Bryophyta
- Typically formed by fusion of egg and sperm nuclei
are seed plants adapted
vascular then develop into ripened ovules(seeds) to life on land; thus, they
SIDA system (used *Class Rhyniopsida
- Have no flowers “seed ferns”)
are autotrophic,
*Class Psilopsida
for the *Class - Seeds are not fully enclosed -Alethopteris photosynthetic
transportatio Zosterophyllopsida Gymnosperm = “ naked seed” (Carboniferous) organisms that tend to
n of water *Class Lycopsida -Neuropteris conserve water.
and *Class Sphenopsida (Carboniferous)
nutrients) *Class Filicopsida -Medullosa (Pennsylvanian)
that includes *Classs -Glossopteris (Permian)
roots, xylem, Progymospermopsida
(ancestors of PROGYMOSPERM :
and phloem.
gymnosperms) -Archeopteris –early trees
*Class (Late Devonian)
Coniferales – (plants with naked
often have seeds)
two kinds of
GYMOSPERM *Pteridospermophyta( “seed ferns”) –with fern-like compound
cones bear
ORDERS: leacves(fronds ) but gymnosperm-
microspores 1. Pteridospermop like seeds and wood
and female hyta( “seed
cones develop ferns”) *Cordaitales – tall trees about 15 to 30 meters high
megaspores) 2. Cordaitales - leaves often sword- or strap-shaped with dichotomous
- 3. Coniferales venations (with forking leaf veins)
seeds develop (pines, sprucese, - leaves were bome spirally in a crown near the top of the
on the shelf- junipers, plant
hemlocks, firs, - seed-bearing cone-like structures and pollen-bearing
like scales of
cypresses , cones bome on special small branches
female cones redwood)
4. Gingkoales *Coniferales - woody trees and shrubs with needle-like or scale-like
(“maidenhair leaves
tree”) - most are evergreens (shed leaves throughout the year but
5. Cycadophyta retain enough of them to distinguish them from deciduous
6. Cycadeoiphyta trees)
- have cones(cone-shaped clusters of modified leaves
bearing the sporangia)

*Gingkoales – often conifer-like trees with a main trunk bearing

branches with axillary long and short shoots
- leaves are usually fan-shaped
- some leaves are deeply lobed, others are not
- venation of the leaves typically parallel, although each
vein is divided
*Cycadophyta and Cycadeoiphyta – are often difficult to distinguish as
fossils (both often form shrubby or
tree-like plants with pinnate, strap-
like, palm-like leaves and similar

SUBDIVISION - All show KingdomPlantae - “flowering plants” - Archaefructus- oldest - Many modern taxa may Early Cretaceous -
double -SubKingdom -the ovules are fully enclosed within flower (Early be traced well back into Recent
ANGIOSPERMOP fertilization, Bryophyta carpels Cretaceous) the Tertiary and
HYTINA that is two *SubDivision
- most angiosperm ovules have two Cretaceous, and
sperm nuclei Angiospermophytina
-Class are involved *Class integuments, or protective casings paleobotanists assume
Magnoliopsid in fertilization. Magnoliopsida/Dicotyl -most angiosperms have pollen that adaptations that are
One unites edonae (Dicotyledons) grains with a double outer wall observed today had the
with the egg *Class separated by columns of tissue. same functions in the
nae nucleus, while Liliopsida/Monocotyle - angiosperms have a flower past.
-Class the other fuses donae(Monocotyledons
with another )
Liliopsida/M nucleus that
onocotyledon divides to
form the food
ae supply for the
- Most have Liliopsida/Monocotyledon Magnoliopsida/Dicotyledon
Embryo with single cotyledon Embryo with two cotyledons
vessels rather Pollen with single furrow or Pollen with three furrows or
than just pore pores
tracheids Flower parts in multiples of Flower parts in multiples of
- Most have a three four or five
net-like Major leaf veins parallel Major leaf veins reticulated
pattern of
veins in their Stem vacular bundles scattered Stem vascular bundles in a ring
Roots are adventitious Roots develop from radicle
Secondary growth often
Secondary growth absent
AMPHIBIANS -lungs Phylum Chordata - Earliest tetrapods(four-footed - Evolution of tetrapods Upper Devonian-
became more -Subphylum creatures) from fishes represented a Recent
efficient (but Vertebrata - Typically the small and - Ichthyostega- have 7 significant change
gill-breathing primitivr types tend to be fingeers(Upper in body plan from one
retained in *SuperClass relatively high and round- Devonian – Lower suited to organisms that
immature and Tetrapoda bodied Mississippian) respired and swam in
larval stages *Class - Bony scales reduced but water, to organisms that
of primitive Amphibia(Betrachomor ancient types often retained V- -Acanthostega – have 8 breathed air and moved
types) pha) shaped ventral armor fingers(Late Devonian) onto land.
-evolution of
paired -probably initially with
appendages *Ichthyostegids –earliest external fertilization and
- as air tetrapods but laid large numbers of
breathing not ancestral small eggs in water
became more to other
efficient the groups
pectoral fins - some of the
was used to early
lift the head tetrapods have
out of water as many as 8
-fins became toes
tetrapod limbs (Ichthyostega
with the loss had 7) that were developed into paddle-like
of the fin rays appendages

*Temnospondyls – labyrinthodont
amphibians that evolved from osteolepiform
fishes; primitive features inherited from these
fish include labyrinthine infolding of dentine,
palatal fanged teeth, vertebrae composed of
several centra elements
- often with large flat heads
- include the aquatic eryopoids and

*Lissamphibians – may have been derived from dissorophid

temnospondyl amphibians
Includes frogs and toads, the long bodied
aquatic salamanders, and the worm-like

*Lepospondyls – small amphibians

- may have evolved from early labyrinthodonts
-characterized by lepospondylous
vertebrae(spool-shaped bony cylinder
surrounding the notochord)
- include the snake-like aistopods and lysoropids,
the eel-like nectridians, and the lizard-like
terrestrial “microsaurs”

*Anthracosaurs and their kin – ancestral to reptiles

*Seymouriamorpha –with combination of reptile and amphibian
- Amphibian features include: anthracosaur-
like skull
- Reptile features include: skull and cheek
solidly attached
*Diadectomorphs – terrestrial “reptiliomorphs,”
- very close to the origin of amniotes
- wih peg-like front teeth and grinding
molariform teeth

EARLY *Anapsid- the Series Amniota Development of amniote egg- has a large yolk, a shell, and *Dimetrodon incisivum – *Anapsid – insectivorous, *Anapsid
Anapsida are the Class Synapsida extraembryonic membranes which protect the egg, supply Synapsid (Permian) carnivorous, or (Carboniterous -Recent)
REPTILES most primitive Order Therapsida nourishment and for gas exchange * Tetraceratops insignis herbivorous
subclass of Class Sauropsida
*Amniotes –probably a monophyletic group; probably –Synapsid (Early *Synapsid – earliest *Synapsid
reptiles, the SubClass Anapsida
ancestral stock originated in the Mississippian Permian) carnivorous (Carboniterous -Recent)
from which amniotes
evolved, making PATTERNS OF BEHIND THE ORBITS: vertebrates
anapsids OPENINGS OF SKULL *Anapsid – no temporal opening during the *Euryapsid (Permian -
paraphyletic ROOF(TEMPORAL -includes Captorhinids, turtles Permian and Cretaceous)
OPENINGS) BEHIND *Synapsid –lower opening with post-orbital and squamosal dominated as
*Synapsid - have THE ORBITS:
meeting above herbivores or
often been *Anapsid
termed *Synapsid -includes mammal-like reptiles carnivores
"mammal-like *Diapsid *Diapsid – two temporal openings present *Diapsid -can be found
reptiles", but *Euryapsid -includes dinosaurs,pterosaurs, and ancestral condition in terrestrial,
synapsids are of all modern reptiles except turles marine,
now typically *Euryapsid – upper opening with post-orbital and squamosal aquatic, and
considered to be meeting below semi-aquatic
a group distinct - includes plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs environments
from "true
-can be
reptiles"; the
Synapsida often herbivores,
includes carnivores, and
pelycosaurs, omnivores
therapsids, and *Euryapsid - marine
true mammals environment
*Diapsid - The
diapsids are
diverse, and
include all
lizards, snakes,
turtles,[2] and
dinosaurs (both
avian and non-

*Euryapsid -
mainly composed
of marine
reptiles. There
are no surviving
descendants of
the euryapsids

AQUATIC Ichthyopteryg Series Amniota SubClass Anapsida - Mesosaurus (Early Ichthyopterygia - marine -Mesosauridae
ia – *Class Synapsida Permian) -nektonic (Early Permian to
REPTILES *Class Sauropsida
reproduction *Mesosauridae – up to one meter long,slender - Eunotosaurus – -viviparous Cretaceous)
*SubClass Anapsida
probably took - with long laterally compressed tail and neck earliest known reproducti
place in water -Testudines and paddle-like feet ancestor of turtles on -Testudines ( Late
and with live *SubClass Diapsida - marginal teeth long and slender (Late Permian) -carnivore Permian to Recent)
birth (some -Ichthyosauria - Ichtyosauus -actively
females with -Sauropterygia (Triassic) mobile
skeletons of - Placodonta - Pleisiosaurus (Early -Ichthyosauria
young - Crocodylia Jurassic) Mesosauridae -the (Triassic to Late
ichthyosaurs - Placodus – placodont smaller Cretaceous)
inside them) (Middle Triassic) mosasaurs
- Sarcosuchus – “Super may have -Sauropterygia (Late
Mesosauridae Croc” (Cretaceous) spent some Triassic to
– probably time in Cretaceous)
restricted to fresh
one limited water, - Placodonta (Early
ocean basin *Testudines (Chelonians) –the turtles hunting for Triassic to Cretaceous)
and was used - probably closely kin to pareisaurs and food
as evidence of procolophonids -the larger - Crocodylia (Late
Continental mosasaurs Cretaceous to Recent)
Drift attacks in
Testudines -actively
and sea-
SubClass Diapsida dwelling
Sauropterygia- some live
*Ichthyosauria –dolphin- , tuna- , shark- like neodiapsid reptiles in fresh water
of the Mesozoic -carnivore
- body short, laterally compressed and fusiform - long-
-skull highly modified for aquatic life necked
- long beak, nostrils migrated for posteriorly forms
- eyes greatly enlarged and surrounded by bony undoubtedl
plates y fed on
fish, which
snared in
their tooth-
lined jaws
with rapid
lunges of
*Sauropterygia –lepidosauromorph neodiapsids that include the the neck
nothosaurs, pachypleurosaurs, plesiosaurs, and possibly and head
placodonts Placodonta- shallow
Nothosaurus – limbs relatively normal waters and
Plesiosaurs – develop paddles by adding toe joints not in deep
- beach
lizards that
learnt how to
dig into the
sand and mud
for buried
shellfish as
well as
raiding tidal
pools for
*Placodonta – most with “pavement teeth” other kinds of
- kin to “sauropterygia” and now often placed within shellfish and
that group possibly other
creatures like
Crocodylia –carnivore
- Freshwater
and saltwater

*Crocodylia – Crurotarsi that include the crocodiles, alligators

and their relatives
- skull elongate, flattened, massive
- evolutionary trend in posterior extension of the
palatal bones to form a secondary palate
- body elongate with long, flat tail
-gastralia (ventral ribs) present
-dermal armor
FLYING AND Pterosauria – Kingdom Animalia Pterosauria - - Quetzalcoatlus – Pterosaurus: Pterosaurus (Late
GLIDING are the Phylum Chordata supported Pterosauria (Late volant piscivore (flying Triassic to Late
earliest Class Reptilia their wing Triassic) carnivorous animals that Cretaceous)
REPTILES vertebrates Order membranes - Sharovipterxy eat fish)
known to Pterosauria with a single mirabilis(Middle - they would have Sharovipteryx (Middle
have evolved Genus elongate Triassic) probably live like as an Triassic to Late
powered Sharovipteryx finger bone ancient analogues of Triassic)
flight (the fourth, or seabirds, flapping
“ring” finger),
around over cliffs and
Sharovipteryx along with
shorelines like archaic
– genus of stiffened
early gliding fibrous rods that held the wing membrane out gulls or perhaps soaring
reptiles -They have short body, reduced and fused hip bones, long-distance over
five long toes (including a divergent toe 5), a long neck oceans in a petrel- or
and a large head with pointed jaws and an arm. albatross-like manner.

- Arboreal Terrestrial
Sharovipteryx - It has an upturned premaxilla with procumbent Carnivorous Reptile
teeth. The naris
was enlarged and a
single smaller
antorbital fenestra
was present. The
postorbital was
higher relative to
the orbit. The
rostrum was
straighter. The
ventral mandible
was more convex.
The teeth were
more varied in
shape, with rear
teeth having
several cusps for
cracking insects.
Long hyoids emerged from the base of the throat.

EARLY BIRDS Kingdom Animalia *Archeopterygidae - Skull birdlike with an expanded braincase -Archaeopteryx Jurassic - Recent
Phylum Chordata and large eyes; sutures mostly closed; but Archaeopteryx had lithographica- earliest
Class Aves thecodont teeth known bird (Jurassic) *Hesperornithiformes-
*Hesperornit Family - Skeleton with vertebral column primitive hesperornithiform birds
hiformes- a Archeopterygidae with amphicoelous (biconcave) vertebrae; tail dinosaur-like with -Baptornis – probably spent almost all
highly Order two lateral rows of feathers; hind legs and pelvis similar to Hesperornithiformes their time in the water,
specialized Hesperornihifor saurischian dinosaurs; clavicles joined to form a bird-like furcula (Late Cretaceous) except, presumably, the
taxon of birds mes but no keeled sternum. breeding and egg-laying
-Colymboide- season.
*Podicepidif Order Gaviiformes (Late *Podicepidiformes-
ormes – are Podicepidiforme Oligocene or Early excellent swimmers and
seasonally s Miocene ) divers
Order -Telmatornis –
Charadiiformes (Late

*Hesperornithiformes - Loon-like, flightless, toothed

Cretaceous birds.
-Toothed Birds and Divers

* Podicepidiformes - Bills vary from short and thick to long and

pointed, depending on the diet, which ranges from fish to
freshwater insects and crustaceans.
The feet are always large, with broad
lobes on the toes and small webs
connecting the front three toes. The
hind toe also has a small lobe.

It is dense and
waterproof, and on the underside the
feathers are at right-angles to the skin,
sticking straight out to begin with and
curling at the tip. By pressing their
feathers against the body, grebes can
adjust their buoyancy. Often, they swim low in the water with
just the head and neck exposed.

*Gaviiformes - The loon, the size of a large duck or small goose,

resembles these birds in shape when swimming. Like ducks and
geese but unlike coots (which are Rallidae) and grebes
(Podicipedidae), the loon's toes are connected by webbing. The
bird may be confused with cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae),
which are not too distant relatives of divers and like them are
heavy set birds whose bellies – unlike those of ducks and geese –
are submerged when swimming. Flying loons resemble plump
geese with seagulls' wings that are relatively small in proportion
to the bulky body. The bird points its head slightly upwards
during swimming, but less so than cormorants. In flight the head
droops more than in similar aquatic birds.

*Charadiiformes - Small to
medium-sized and includes
the plovers, the lapwings
and the dotterels. They have
long, pointed wings; plump
bodies;round heads and
short necks. They are found
around the world, usually
near water. The eat insects and other invertebrates. They locate
their food by sight and chase after it, running and stopping to eat
then running again

EARLY - Are Kingdom Animalia Primitive Mesozoic Mammals and Monotremes: PROTOTHERIA Subclass Prototheria Early Cretaceous -
vertebrates Phylum Chordata *Monotremes (MONOTREMA): (Monotrema) Recent
MAMMALS - In the platypus, the
(which means Class Mammalia *Triconodonts - basic dental structure with tricuspid alignment
*Subclass female retires to a
they have a on the molars Obdurodon insignis–
Prototheria burrow in the bank of
backbone or *Symmetrodonts - shrew-sized mammals from jaw fragments platypus(Miocene) a river or pond. The
spine). (Monotrema) and dentition
*Subclass burrow is lined with
- mandible, slender, and long Zaglossus hacketti- dry vegetation, and
-Are ials and extinct - lower molars triangular with asymmetrical largest of the giant there the eggs are laid.
endothermic. relatives) cusp arrangement echidnas(Pleistocene) Little is known about
Also known *Subclass Eutheria *Docodonts – were probably the size of small mouse and with how platys care for
as “warm- (placentals and elongate snouts Monotrematum - platypus their young because
the burrow ould need
blooded,” extinct relatives) - has articular quadrate articulation but primary tooth (Paleocene)
to be excavated
endothermic hinge is the dentary squamosal without disturbing the
animals PRIMITIVE - developed advanced “square-cusped “ molar TRICONODONT:
MESOZOIC mother.
regulate their patterns - Long-nosed echidnas
own body MONOTREMES: *Multituberculates - most diverse and numerous Mesozoic -Arundelconodon hottoni (Zaglossus) feed
temperate 1. Monotremes mammals (Early Cretaceous) primarily on
which allows - rodent-like earthworms, and
them to live 2. Triconodonts - replaced the rodent-like possibly scarab larvae
in almost 3. Symmetrodo therapsids(TRITYLODONTS) in the mid- Jurassic and were as well. Short-nosed
every climate nts replaced in the Paleocene SYMMETRODONT: echidnas
4. Docodonts (Tachyglossus) feed
on Earth. - skull low and broad with eyes facing
5. Multitubercu mostly on ants and
lates laterally -Zhangheotherium termites.
-Have hair on 6. “ Therians of - with pair of enlarged procumbent lower quinquecuspidens(Early Subclass Eutheria
their bodies. Metatherian- incisors to Mid Cretaceous) (placentals and extinct
Eutherian - with low many-cusped molariform teeth relatives)
-Produce milk Grade” - *“ Therians of Metatherian-Eutherian Grade” DOCODONT: - The different groups
to feed their Tribotherians (Tribotherians) – a wastebasket category to include therians of eutheria differ
babies. with tribosphenic dentition but not sufficiently known to place Borealestes serendipitus greatly in their choice
of foods.
with the marsupial or placental groups (Mid Jurassic)
- Ungulates and
MULTITUBERCULATE are herbivorous,
SOFT ANATOMY: : feeding on plants.
- Have hair and specialized mammary glands for suckling their These may feed on
young Rugosodon eurasiaticu - grasses or low herbs
PROTOTHERIA– meaning “before gestation” the earliest known (grazing) or on the
- (Monotrema)egg- laying complete skeleton of a leaves of shrubs and
trees (browsing).
METATHERIA – meaning “middle gestation” multituberculate(Mid
- Carnivora, are
- (Marsupials)have a marsupium - Jurassic) primarily carnivores,
a pouch in which most embryonic development feeding on other
takes place “TRINITY THERIANS” animals as their
EUTHERIA- meaning “ true gestation” (TRIBOTHERIANS): primary source of
- (Placentals)have development taking nourishment. Some of
place in the uterus and the embryo is nourished Holoclemensia texana these carnivores may
by the placenta (the tissues shed following a (Early Cretaceous specialize on
birth) particular prey, such
<Albian> )
as insects or fish
- Other eutherians, such
GESTATION PERIOD - is the time in Kermackia texana (Early as raccoons and bears,
which a fetus develops, beginning with Cretaceous <Albian>) are omnivores, eating
fertilization and ending at birth. both meat and plant
Pappotherium pattersoni material.
o SKELETON <Albian>)
 Determinate growth (grow rapidly but
achieve definitive body size) METATHERIAN
 Once grown epiphyses on long bones (MARSUPIALS)
fuse with the shaft
Sinodelphys szalayi -
o SKULL FEATURES earliest known
 Presence of a dentary condyle on the metatherian;opossum-
jaw articulating with a glenoid in the like(Early Cretaceous)
 Incisors, canines and premolars
replaced only once EUTHERIAN(PLACEN
 Molars not replaced, with two roots and TALS):
specific pattern pattern of occlusion
 With single bony nasal opening in the Eomaia scansoria (Early
skull Cretaceous)
single ear ossicle (stapes)
 MAMMALS – with chain of
three bones (malleus, incus,
and stapes) which conduct
vibrations from the typanum
to the inner ear

 Mammals are DIPHYODONT (with
two tooth generations; deciduous and
 MONOTREMES – lack functional
– with tritubercular or tribosphenic
cheek teeth (both upper and lower
molars with three prominent tubercles
or cusps)
typically many incisors (up to
5 above and 4 below)
incisors approximately equal
in size

incisors commonly reduced to
3 pairs or less
- lower
incisors consist of one pair of
procumbent teeth

- one of
each incisor is enlarged
relative to others
- canines
- long
diastema separating incisors
from cheek dentition
- cheek
dentition strongly

modification of bones of hind
- digits II
and III of hind foot reduced
and incorporated in a single
dermal sheath (probably for

 DIDACTYLY – no foot

II. Differentiate

1. Saurischians vs, Ornithischians(bird-shaped )dinosaur

- “Lizard-hipped” dinosaurs - “Bird-hipped” dinosaurs
- May be diagnose by a number of characters of the skull, vertebrae, and limbs including the presence of a - Diagnosed by the presence of triangular teeth, with the largest tooth in the middle of the tooth row.
subnarial foramen, a small opening below the nostril and a wedge-shaped ascending process of astragalus
- Shape of the saurischian pelvis is not useful diagnostically, because this pattern is primitive and is shared with
ancestors of the dinosaurs, and indeed with most other reptiles

2. Placental vs. Marsupial

- They give live birth, but they do not have long gestation times like placental mammals. Instead, they give - Placental mammals all bear live young, which are nourished before birth in the mother's uterus
birth very early and the young animal, essentially a helpless embryo, climbs from the mother's birth canal to through a specialized embryonic organ attached to the uterus wall, the placenta.
the nipples. There it grabs on with its mouth and continues to develop, often for weeks or months depending on - The placenta is derived from the same membranes that surround the embryos in the amniote
the species. eggs of reptiles, birds, and monotreme mammals. The term "placental mammals" is somewhat of
- The short gestation time is due to having a yolk-type placenta in the mother marsupial a misnomer because marsupials also have placentae. The difference is that the placenta of
- Placental mammals nourish the developing embryo using the mother's blood supply, allowing longer gestation marsupials is very short-lived and does not make as much of a contribution to fetal
times. nourishment as it does in eutherians, as "placental mammals" are known scientifically.
- Like other mammals, the marsupials are covered with hair.
- Mothers nurse their young

III. Were Dinosaurs warm-blooded?

Some dinosaurs(birds) were and are definitely warm-blooded. Birds have a high activity level, along with a steady and internally regulated temperature. At what point dinosaurs evolved endothermy is a
difficult question. Indirect evidence used to infer the metabolic pattern of extinct dinosaurs comes from several sources, among them analysis of the fine structure and composition of bone and
inferences based on behavior and proportions of different kinds of animals coexisting in a habit (what ecologists call community structure).

The evidence to whether nonavian dinosaurs were warm-blooded is still equivocal, and most claims that all dinosaurs are “warm-blooded” are speculative, There is no clear-cut evidence that dinosaurs
were either cold-blooded or warm-blooded, except that dinosaurs evolved endothermy sometime in their history, as documented by living birds. (Norell,Gaffney&Dingus)

IV. Causes of Extinction of the Dinosaurs

Scientists tend to huddle around one of two hypotheses that may explain the Cretaceous extinction: an extraterrestrial impact, such as an asteroid or comet, or a massive bout of volcanism. Either
scenario would have choked the skies with debris that starved the Earth of the sun's energy, throwing a wrench in photosynthesis and sending destruction up and down the food chain. Once the dust
settled, greenhouse gases locked in the atmosphere would have caused the temperature to soar, a swift climate swing to topple much of the life that survived the prolonged darkness.

Both hypotheses have merit. Some scientists think both may have contributed to the extinction, and others suggest the real cause was a more gradual shift in climate and changing sea levels. Regardless
of what caused the extinction, it marked the end of Tyrannosaurus rex's reign of terror and opened the door for mammals to rapidly diversify and evolve into newly opened niches. (National Geographic)

V. Theories on the Origin of Flight

For decades, discussions on the origin of flight in birds have been dominated and dichotomized by the :


- Has been tied to the “ alternative ancestry” hypothesis (that is, the origin of birds from a usually poorly - Has been closely associated with the notion of relationships to theropod dinosaurs
defined group other than theropods, most often basal archosaurs - the long neck and stiff bipedal tail of Archaeopteryx indicated that the ancestors were ground dwelling
- gliding evolved in order to adapt to an arboreal lifestyle, of which flapping subsequently evolved. reptiles, who evolved flapping flight without a gliding stage.

VI. Discuss briefly the Oldowan Culture and Mousterian Tradition?


- is the earliest of the Lower Paleolithic or Early Stone Age typological “cultures.” - Tool industry of the Neandertals and their contemporaries of Europe, Southwestern Asia, and Northern
- Earliest hominin stone tool tradition Africa
- At present the earliest Oldowan sites date from about 2.6 my and come from Gona, in the Afar region of - From 40,000 to 125,000 years ago
Ethiopia - Tools are more technologically advanced compared to Oldowan
- The Oldowan Culture is restricted to Africa
- Tools are of very simple form( a rolled pebble or a nodule of chert, or a rough lump of almost any kind of
rock is trimmed very roughly along one edge or side, so as to produce a jagged cutting edge)

VII. First appearance of rodents, elephants, dugongs, whales, horses(odd-toed), camels(even-toed)


Rodents Paleocene
Elephants Eocene
Dugong Eocene
Pakicetus (whale ancestor) Early Eocene
Hyracotherium(odd-toed horses) Eocene
Camels Eocene

VIII. Earliest Human Fossil and Origin Theories for Homo Sapiens

LUCY- the oldest human fossil. The bones are approximately 3.2 million years old. It was discovered by Donald Johanson in the Afar Region of Ethiopia in 1974. The latest hypothesis on how Lucy
died was the hominin falling from a tree due to the observed fractures caused by an injury in the remains of the latter. Lucy belongs to the extinct species of Australopithecus afarensis.


- The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from - The hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archaic H. sapiens from
Homo erectus to Homo Sapiens throughout the inhabited world. Africa who migrated out of Africa after 10,000 years ago, replacing all other archaic forms due to their
superior cultural capabilities. Also called the out of Africa hypothesis.

Discovering Dinosaurs: Evolution, Extinction, and the Lessons of Prehistory

By Mark Norell, Eugene S. Gaffney, Lowell Dingus

The Complete Dinosaur

By James Orville Farlow, M. K. Brett-Surman

Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs

By Luis M. Chiappe

Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge

By William A. Haviland, Dana Walrath, Harald E. L. Prins, Bunny McBride

Encyclopedia of Anthropology: FIVE-VOLUME SET

edited by H. James Birx

Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge

By William Haviland, Dana Walrath, Harald Prins, Bunny McBride


Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants

By Wilson Nichols Stewart, Gar W. Rothwell

Source: Boundless. “Characteristics of Gymnosperms.” Boundless Biology. Boundless, 20 Sep. 2016. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2016 from https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-


Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record by Benton and Harper