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Third Preliminary Lesson

LessonLesson Objectives-Objectives- ObjetivasObjetivas dada LiçãoLição

• This lesson presents how to pluralize nouns and adjectives in Portuguese. In Portuguese there are many ways to pluralize a word, dependent on how the word ends. It is perhaps necessary to explain that it is impossible to pluralize adverbs, conjunctions and others parts of speech.

• After completing this lesson, the student will be able to recognize and produce forms of both singular and plural nouns and adjectives.

FormationFormation ofof PluralsPlurals ofof NounsNouns andand Adjectives-Adjectives- FormaçãoFormação dede pluraisplurais dede substantivossubstantivos ee adjectivosadjectivos

1.1. ForFor wordswords endingending withwith aa vowelvowel (other(other thanthan ão),ão), addadd aa finalfinal -s:-s:
1.1. ForFor wordswords endingending withwith aa vowelvowel (other(other thanthan ão),ão), addadd aa finalfinal -s:-s:
mesa, mesas
[table, tables]
contente, contentes
[content]

PracticePractice iii.1-iii.1- PráticaPrática iii.1iii.1

2.2. WordsWords endingending inin -ão-ão formform theirtheir pluralplural byby addingadding aa -s-s oror byby
2.2. WordsWords endingending inin -ão-ão formform theirtheir pluralplural byby addingadding aa -s-s oror byby changingchanging -ão-ão toto -ães-ães oror -ões.-ões.
mão, mãos
[hand, hands]
sermão, sermões
[sermon, sermons]
pão, pães
[bread, breads]

xxxix

xl

PORTUGUÊS

PARA

PRINCIPIANTES

*It will necessary to learn these plural individually. They will be indicated in the vocabulary lists immediately after the singular form.

**For those speakers of Spanish, a trick that generally will give the plural in Portuguese
**For those speakers of Spanish, a trick that generally will give the plural in Portuguese is to pluralize the
equivalent in Spanish and then take out the -n-.
mano, manos
mão, mãos
[hand, hands]
sermón, sermones
sermão, sermões
[sermon, sermons]
pan, panes
pão, pães
[bread, breads]
alemán, alemanes
alemão, alemães
[German, Germans]
león, leones
leão, leões
[lion, lions]
2.12.1 AllAll wordswords endingending inin ––çãoção formform theirtheir pluralplural byby substitutingsubstituting
2.12.1 AllAll wordswords endingending inin ––çãoção formform theirtheir pluralplural byby substitutingsubstituting ––çõesções
coração, corações
[heart, hearts]
situação, situações
[situations, situations]

PracticePractice iii.2-iii.2- PráticaPrática iii.2iii.2

3.3. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -r,-r, -s,-s, -z,-z, addadd -es.-es. cor, cores mês, meses* inglês,
3.3. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -r,-r, -s,-s, -z,-z, addadd -es.-es.
cor, cores
mês, meses*
inglês, ingleses*
rapaz, rapazes
[color, colors]
[months, months]
[English(man), English(men)]
[boy, boys]
*Notice that if the accentuation falls on the last (ultimate) syllable in the singular form, accentuation in is
unnecessary in the plural form as the word then follows general stress rules (emphasis on the penultimate,
second-to-last, syllable).
THIRD PRELIMINARY LESSON • xli 3.13.1 WordsWords endingending inin -s-s withwith stressstress inin
THIRD
PRELIMINARY
LESSON
xli
3.13.1 WordsWords endingending inin -s-s withwith stressstress inin penultimatepenultimate (second(second toto last)last) syllablesyllable areare thethe samesame inin bothboth singularsingular andand pluralplural
forms:forms:
o
lápis, os lápis
[the pencil, the pencils]
o
ônibus, os ônibus
[the bus, the buses]
o
tórax, os tórax
[the thorax, the thoraxes]

PracticePractice iii.3-iii.3- PráticaPrática iii.3iii.3

4.4. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -m,-m, changechange thethe -m-m toto -n-n andand addadd -s.-s. bom,
4.4. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -m,-m, changechange thethe -m-m toto -n-n andand addadd -s.-s.
bom, bons
homem, homens
um, uns
viagem, viagens
[good]
[man, men]
[one, ones; some; a few]
[trip; voyage, trips; voyages]

PracticePractice iii.4-iii.4- PráticaPrática iii.4iii.4

5.5. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -al,-al, dropdrop thethe -l-l andand addadd -is.-is. animal, animais [animal,
5.5. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -al,-al, dropdrop thethe -l-l andand addadd -is.-is.
animal, animais
[animal, animals]
tal, tais
[such]
pardal, pardais
[sparrow, sparrows]

PracticePractice iii.5-iii.5- PráticaPrática iii.5iii.5

xlii • PORTUGUÊS PARA PRINCIPIANTES 6.6. ForFor wordswords endingending inin stressedstressed -el,-el,
xlii
PORTUGUÊS
PARA
PRINCIPIANTES
6.6. ForFor wordswords endingending inin stressedstressed -el,-el, changechange thethe -el-el toto -eis-eis andand writewrite anan acuteacute accentaccent (´)(´) overover thethe -é.-é.
papel, papéis
hotel, hotéis
[paper; role, papers; roles]
[hotel, hotels]
6.16.1 ForFor wordswords endingending inin unstressedunstressed -el,-el, changechange thethe -el-el toto -eis.-eis.
6.16.1 ForFor wordswords endingending inin unstressedunstressed -el,-el, changechange thethe -el-el toto -eis.-eis. AccentuationAccentuation isis maintainedmaintained onon thethe samesame syllable.syllable.
possível, possíveis
[possible]
amável, amáveis
[lovable]

PracticePractice iii.6-iii.6- PráticaPrática iii.6iii.6

7.7. ForFor wordswords endingending inin stressedstressed -il,-il, dropdrop thethe finalfinal -l-l andand addadd -s.-s.
7.7. ForFor wordswords endingending inin stressedstressed -il,-il, dropdrop thethe finalfinal -l-l andand addadd -s.-s.
funil, funis
[funnel, funnels]
barril, barris
[barrel, barrels]
7.17.1 ForFor wordswords endingending inin anan unstressedunstressed -i,-i, dropdrop thethe -il-il andand addadd
7.17.1 ForFor wordswords endingending inin anan unstressedunstressed -i,-i, dropdrop thethe -il-il andand addadd -eis.-eis. AccentuationAccentuation isis maintainedmaintained onon thethe samesame syllable.syllable.
fácil, fáceis
[easy]
fóssil, fósseis
[fossil, fossils]
difícil, difíceis
[difficult]

PracticePractice iii.7-iii.7- PráticaPrática iii.7iii.7

THIRD PRELIMINARY LESSON • xliii 8.8. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -ol,-ol, changechange thethe -ol-ol toto
THIRD
PRELIMINARY
LESSON
xliii
8.8. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -ol,-ol, changechange thethe -ol-ol toto -ois-ois andand writewrite anan acuteacute accentaccent (´)(´) overover thethe -ó.-ó.
sol, sóis
farol, faróis
[sun, suns]
[lighthouse; headlight, lighthouses; headlights]

PracticePractice iii.8-iii.8- PráticaPrática iii.8iii.8

9.9. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -ul,-ul, changechange thethe -ul-ul toto -uis.-uis. azul, azuis [blue]
9.9. ForFor wordswords endingending inin -ul,-ul, changechange thethe -ul-ul toto -uis.-uis.
azul, azuis
[blue]

PracticePractice iii.9-iii.9- PráticaPrática iii.9iii.9

10.10. AA wordword endingending inin unstressedunstressed -ul-ul addsadds -es-es toto thethe completecomplete form:form:
10.10. AA wordword endingending inin unstressedunstressed -ul-ul addsadds -es-es toto thethe completecomplete form:form:
cônsul, cônsules
[consul, consuls]

*Some*Some wordswords areare nearlynearly alwaysalways pluralplural andand they’rethey’re conjugatedconjugated withwith aa pluralplural verb.verb.

Common examples include: as férias as costas os óculos os parabéns [vacation] [back – body
Common examples include:
as férias
as costas
os óculos
os parabéns
[vacation]
[back – body part]
[(eye)glasses]
[congratulations]

PracticePractice iii.10-iii.10- PráticaPrática iii.10iii.10