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General Information

Tools and Techniques

Troubleshooting

Lubrication, Maintenance and Tune-Up

Engine Synchronization and Linkage Adjustment

Ignition and Electrical Systems

Lower Gearcase and Jeft Drive Units

Trim and Tilt Systems

Oil Injection Systems

Remote Controls

Supplement (1 997-2002 Ficht Fuel Injection Service Information)

Index

Wiring Diagrams

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Contents

CHAPTER ONE
GENERALINFORMATION ................................................
Manual organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Notes. cautions and warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Gasket sealant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Torque specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Galvanic corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Engine operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Protection from galvanic corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Propellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

CHAPTER TWO
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES ............................................... 21
Safetyfirst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Service hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Basic hand tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 Special tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Test equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Mechanic's techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

CHAPTER THREE
TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................... 3
Service precautions-1998 model year engines . . . . . . 34 CD4 ignition system troubleshooting
Safety precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 (1 30 hp V4 loop charged models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Operating requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 OIS2000 ignition system troubleshooting
Test and repair equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 (60" V4 and V6 [loop-charged] models) . . . . . . . . . . 93
Wiring harnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 CD6 ignition system troubleshooting
Starting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 (200 and 225 hp) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Battery charging system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 CD8 ignition system troubleshooting
Electrical accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 (250 and 300 hp V8 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Warning systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Key and neutral start switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Ignition system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Capacitor discharge ignition (CDI) troubleshooting . . . 75 Engine temperature and overheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
CD4 ignition system troubleshooting Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
(V4 cross flow models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

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CHAPTER FOUR
LUBRICATION. MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
..............................
..............................
Engine flushing
148
157
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Power steering belt tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Complete submersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Tune-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Anticorrosion maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

CHAPTER FIVE
ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS
Engine timing and synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
....................
130hp(1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
168
Required equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 130 hp (1996) and 200.225. 250
65 jet. 80 jet (1995-1997) and 85- 115 hp and 300 hp (1995 and 1996) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
(90" V4 cross flow models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 130.200. 225and250hp(1997and 1998) . . . . . . . . 185
80 jet (1998). 105 jet. 90.115. 150 and 175 hp
(60" V4 and V6 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

CHAPTER SIX
FUELSYSTEM ....................................................... 190
Fuelpump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Vacuum switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Carburetors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Fuel module and vapor separator
Top feed carburetor (V4 cross flow models) . . . . . . . . 201 (60" V4 and V6 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Minlon carburetors Antisiphon devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
(V4 and V6 loop charged models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Fueltank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Electric fuel primer pump (V8 models) . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Fuel line and primer bulb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Electric fuel primer solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 14

CHAPTER SEVEN
IGNITION AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
Service precautions-1998 model year engines . . . . .
.....................................
221 ..............................
Ignition systems
221
256
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 CD4 ignition (90" V4 cross-flow models) . . . . . . . . . 256
Battery charging system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 OIS2000 ignition system (60" V4 and V6 models) . . . 260
Fuse or circuit breaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 CD4, CD6 and CD8 ignition
Electric starting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 (90" V4, V6 and V8 loop-charged models) . . . . . . . 264
Neutral safety switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Electrical connector service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Flywheel service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

CHAPTER EIGHT
POWERHEAD .......................................................
Service considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...................................
278
278
Flywheel 284
EvinrudeIJohnson model identification . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Power head removal/installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Power head break-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1 Power head disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Service precautions-1 998 model year engines . . . . . 28 1 Power head cleaning and inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Service recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 1 Power head assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Lubricants. sealants and adhesives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Reedvalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Sealing surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Thermostats and water blow-off valve . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Fasteners and torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

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CHAPTER NINE
LOWER GEARCASE AND JET DRIVE
Gearcase identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
.................................... 378
..................
Gearcase removal/installation 387
Gearcase operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379 Water pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
Gear ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380 . Gearcase disassembly/reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
High altitude operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380 Gearcase cleaning and inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Counter-rotation gearcases Gearcase pressure and vacuum tests . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
(twin engine applications) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 1 Pinion gear shimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
Service precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382 Shift shaft height adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
Corrision control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383 Jet drive models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
Gearcase lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Jet pump unit adjustments and maintenance. . . . . . .449
Nuetral start adjustment (tiller handle models). . . . . 385 Jet pump unit service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Shift lever detent adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 Drive shaft and bearing housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
Propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Water intake housing liner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
Trimtabadjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

CHAPTER TEN
TRIM AND TILT SYSTEMS ...........................................465
Manual tilt-assist cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Power trim and tilt system
Power trim and tilt systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468 (electrical troubleshooting). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Power trim and tilt hydraulic troubleshooting . . . . . 478 Electric motor testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
Power trim and tilt system service . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508

CHAPTER ELEVEN
OIL INJECTION SYSTEMS
VR02 oil injection (all models except
...........................................530
(99.90. 112 and 115 special models) . . . . . . . . . . 531

CHAPTER TWELVE
REMOTECONTROLS ..............................................554
SUPPLEMENT
1997-2002 FICHT FUEL INJECTION (FFI) SERIVCE INFORMATION
Electronic component replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
...........566
Charging system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601
Ficht system operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569 Fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609
Starting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Oil delivery system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623
Ignition system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590

INDEX ..........................................................686

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Chapter One

General Information

This detailed, comprehensive manual contains com- MANUAL ORGANIZATION


plete information covering maintenance, repair and
overhaul. Hundreds of photos and drawings guide you This chapter provides general information useful to
throughout every procedure. boat owners and marine mechanics.
Troubleshooting, tune-up, maintenance and repair Chapter Two discusses the tools and techniques for
are not difficult if you know what tools and equipment preventative maintenance, troubleshooting and repair.
to use and what to do. Anyone not afraid to get their Chapter Three provides troubleshooting and testing
hands dirty, of average intelligence and with some me- procedures for all systems and individual components.
chanical ability can perform most of the procedures in Following chapters describe specific systems, pro-
this manual. See Chapter Two for more information on viding disassembly, inspection, assembly and adjust-
tools and techniques. ment procedures in simple step-by-step form. Specifi-
A shop manual is a reference. You want to be able to cations concerning a specific system are included at the
find information quickly. Clymer books are designed end of the appropriate chapter.
with you in mind. All chapters are thumb tabbed and
important items are indexed at the end of the manual. NOTES, CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
All procedures, tables, photos and instructions in this
manual assume the reader may be working on the ma- The terms NOTE, CAUTION and WARNING have
chine or using the manual for the first time. specific meanings in this manual. ANOTE provides ad-
Keep the manual in a handy place in your toolbox or ditional information to make a step or procedure easier
boat. It will help you to better understand how your boat or more clear. Disregarding a NOTE could cause incon-
1
runs, lower repair and maintenance costs and generally venience, but would not cause damage or personal in-
increase your enjoyment of your boat. jury.

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CHAPTER ONE

A CAUTION emphasizes areas where equipment carefully selected to decrease the possibility ofphysical
damage could cause permanent mechanical damage; failure or corrosion. See Galvanic Corrosion in this
however, personal injury is unlikely. chapter for information on marine materials.
A WARNING emphasizes areas where personal in- Nuts, bolts and screws are manufactured in a wide
jury or even death could result from negligence. Me- range of thread patterns. To join a nut and bolt, the di-
chanical damage may also occur. WARNINGS must be ameter of the bolt and the diameter of the hole in the nut
taken seriously. In some cases, serious injury or death must be the same. It is just as important that the threads
has resulted from disregarding similar warnings. are compatible.
The easiest way to determine if fastener threads are
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS compatible is to turn the nut on the bolt, or bolt into its
threaded opening, using fingers only. Be sure both
Torque specifications throughout this manual are pieces are clean. If much force is required, check the
given in foot-pounds (ft.-lb.), inch-pounds (in.-lb.) and thread condition on each fastener. If the thread condi-
newton meters (Nom.). Newton meters are being tion is good but the fasteners jam, the threads are not
adopted in place of meter-kilograms (mkg) in accor- compatible.
dance with the International Modernized Metric Sys- Four important specifications describe the thread:
tem. Existing torque wrenches calibrated in 1. Diameter.
meter-kilograms can be used by performing a simple 2. Threads per inch.
conversion: move the decimal point one place to the 3. Thread pattern.
right. For example, 4.7 mkg = 47 N-m. This conversion 4. Thread direction
is accurate enough for most mechanical operations Figure 3 shows the first two specifications. Thread
even though the exact mathematical conversion is 3.5 pattern is more subtle. Italian and British standards ex-
mkg = 34.3 N-m. ist, but the most commonly used by marine equipment
manufactures are American standard and metric stan-
ENGINE OPERATION dard. The root and top of the thread are cut differently
as shown in Figure 4.
All marine engines, whether two or four-stroke, gaso- Most threads are cut so that the fastener must be
line or diesel, operate on the Otto cycle of intake, com- turned clockwise to tighten it. These are called
pression, power and exhaust phases. right-hand threads. Some fasteners have left-hand ,
threads; they must be turned counterclockwise to
tighten. Left-hand threads are used in locations where
~
Two-Stroke Cycle
normal rotation of the equipment would tend to loosen a
A two-stroke engine requires one crankshaft revolu- right-hand threaded fastener. Assume all fasteners use !
tion (two strokes of the piston) to complete the Otto cy- right-hand threads unless the instructions specify other- ~
i
cle. All engines covered in this manual are a two-stroke wise. I

design. Figure 1 shows gasoline two-stroke engine op-


eration. Machine Screws

Four-Stroke Cycle There are many different types of machine screws


(Figure 5). Most are designed to protrude above the se-
A four-stroke engine requires two crankshaft revolu- cured surface (rounded head) or be slightly recessed be-
tions (four strokes of the piston) to complete the Otto low the surface (flat head). In some applications the
cycle. Figure 2 shows gasoline four-stroke engine op- screw head is recessed well below the fastened surface.
eration. Figure 6 shows a number of screw heads requiring dif-
ferent types of turning tools.
FASTENERS
Bolts I
The material and design of the various fasteners used
on marine equipment are carefully thought out and de- Commonly called bolts, the technical name for this
signed. Fastener design determines the type of tool re-
I
quired to work with the fastener. Fastener material is
fastener is cap screw. They are normally described by
diameter, threads per inch and length. For example, ~

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GENERAL INFORMATION 3

TWO-STROKE OPERATING PRINCIPLES

As the piston travels down-


ward, it uncovers the exhaust While the crankshaft contin-
port (A) allowing the exhaust ues to rotate, the piston
gases to leave the cylinder. A moves upward, covering the
fresh air-fuel charge, which transfer (6)and exhaust (A)
has been compressed slightly ports. The piston compresses
in the crankcase, enters the the new air-fuel mixture and
cylinder through the transfer creates a low-pressurearea in
port (B). Since this charge en- the crankcase at the same time.
ters under pressure, it also As the piston continues to
helps to push out the exhaust travel, it uncovers the intake
gases. port (C). A fresh air-fuel

As the piston almost reaches


the top of the travel, the spark
plug fires, igniting the com-
pressed air-fuel mixture. The
piston continues to top dead
center (TDC) and is pushed
downward by the expanding
As the piston travels down,
gases.
the exhaust gases leave the
cylinder and the complete cy-
cle starts all over again.

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4 CHAPTER ONE

FOUR-STROKE GASOLINE OPERATING PRINCIPLES

Intake valve

As the piston travels


downward, the exhaust
valve is closed and the in-
take valve opens, allowing
the new air-fuel mixture
from the carburetor to be While the crankshaft
drawn into the cylinder. continues to rotate, the
When the piston reaches piston moves upward,
the bottom dead center compressing the air-fuel
(BDC), the intake valve
closes and remains closed
for the next 1 112 revolu-
tions of the crankshaft.

As the piston almost


reaches the top of its
travel, the spark plug
fires, igniting the com-
pressed air-fuel mixture. When the piston al-
The piston continues to most reaches BDC, the
top dead center (TDC) exhaust valve opens
and is pushed downward and remains open until
by expanding gases. the piston is near TDC.
The upward travel of
the piston forces the
exhaust gases out of
the cylinder. After the
piston has reached
TDC, the exhaust valve
closes and the cycle
starts all over again.

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GENERAL INFORMATION 5

MACHINE SCREWS

Hex Flat Oval Filister Round

1/4-20 x 1 indicates a bolt 114 in. in diameter with 20 Figure 7 shows several types of nuts. The common
threads per inch, 1 in. long. The measurement across nut is usually used with some type of lockwasher.
two flats of the bolt head indicates the proper wrench Self-locking nuts have a nylon insert that helps pre-
size required to turn the bolt. vent the nut from loosening; no lockwasher is re-
quired. Wing nuts are designed for fast removal by
hand. Wing nuts are used for convenience in
Nuts non-critical locations.
Nuts are manufactured in a variety of types and sizes. To indicate the size of a nut, manufactures specify the
Most are hexagonal (six-sides) and fit on bolts, screws diameter of the opening and the threads per inch. This is
and studs with the same diameter and threads per inch. similar to a bolt specification, but without the length di-

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6 CHAPTER ONE

OPENINGS FOR TURNING TOOLS

Slotted Phillips Allen Internal torx External torx

mension. The measurement across two flats of the nut


indicates the wrench size required to turn the nut.

@363
Washers

There are two basic types of washers: flat washers


and lockwashers. A flat washer is a simple disc with a
hole that fits the screw or bolt. Lockwashers are de- Common nut Self-locking nut
signed to prevent a fastener from working loose due to
vibration, expansion and contraction. Figure 8 shows
several types of lockwashers. Note that flat washers are
often used between a lockwasher and a fastener to pro-
vide a smooth bearing surface. This allows the fastener
to be turned easily with a tool.

Cotter Pins

In certain applications, a fastener must be secured so


it cannot possibly loosen. The propeller nut on some
marine drive systems is one such application. For this
and diameters. Measure cotter pin length from the bottom
purpose, a cotter pin (Figure 9) and slotted or castel-
of its head to the tip of its shortest prong.
lated nut is often used. To use a cotter pin, first make
sure the pin fits snugly, but not too tight. Then, align a
slot in the fastener with the hole in the bolt or axle. In- Snap Rings
sert the cotter pin through the nut and bolt or propeller
shaft and bend the ends over to secure the cotter pin Snap rings (Figure 10) can be an internal or external
tightly. If the holes do not align, tighten the nut just design. They are used to retain components on shafts
enough to obtain the proper alignment. Unless specifi- (external type) or inside openings (internal type). Snap
cally instructed to do so, never loosen the fastener to rings can be reused if they are not distorted during re-
align the slot and hole. Because the cotter pin is weak- moval. In some applications, snap rings of varying
ened after installation and removal, never reuse a cotter thickness (selective fit) can be selected to position or
pin. Cotter pins are available in several styles, lengths control end play of parts assemblies.

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GENERAL INFORMATION

@@ Plain Folding

Internal snap ring Plain circlip

@ 0 80
Internal tooth External tooth

External snap ring Plain circlip

-
Correct installation
ing paragraphs describe the types of lubricants most of-
ten used on marine equipment. Be sure to follow the
equipment manufacture's recommendations for the lu-
bricant types.
Generally, all liquid lubricants are called oil. They
may be mineral-based (including petroleum bases), nat-
ural-based (vegetable and animal bases), syn-
thetic-based or emulsions (mixtures). Grease is
lubricating oil that has a thickening compound added.
The resulting material then usually enhanced with
anticorrosion, antioxidant and extreme pressure (EP)
additives. Grease is often classified by the type of
thickener added; lithium and calcium soap are the most
commonly used.

Two-stroke Engine Oil

Lubrication for a two-stroke engine is provided by oil


mixed with the incoming airlfuel mixture. Some of the
LUBRICANTS oil mist settles out in the crankcase, lubricating the
crankshaft, bearings and lower end of the connecting
Periodic lubrication helps ensure long service life for rod. The rest of the oil enters the combustion chamber
any type of equipment. It is especially important with to lubricate the piston, rings and the cylinder wall. This
marine equipment because it is exposed to salt, brack- oil is then burned along with the airlfuel mixture during
ish or polluted water and other harsh environments. The the combustion process.
type of lubricant used is just as important as the lubrica- Engine oil must have several special qualities to work
tion service itself, although in an emergency, the wrong well in a two-stroke engine. It must mix easily and stay
type of lubricant is better than none at all. The follow- in suspension in gasoline. When burned, it cannot leave

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8 CHAPTER ONE

behind excessive deposits. It must also withstand the GASKET SEALANT


high operating temperature associated with two-stroke
engines. Gasket sealant is used instead of preformed gaskets
The National Marine Manufacturer's Association on some applications, or as a gasket dressing on others.
(NMMA) has set standards for oil used in two-stroke, Three types of gasket sealant are commonly used: gas-
water-cooled engines. This is the NMMA TC-W ket sealing compound, room temperature vulcanizing
(two-cycle, water-cooled) grade. It indicates the oil's (RTV) and anaerobic. Because these materials have dif-
performance in the following areas: ferent sealing properties, they cannot be used inter-
1. Lubrication (preventing wear and scuffing). changeably.
2. Spark plug fouling.
3. Piston ring sticking. Gasket Sealing Compound
4. Preignition.
5. Piston varnish. This nonhardening liquid is used primarily as a gas-
6. General engine condition (including deposits). ket dressing. Gasket sealing compound is available in
7. Exhaust port blockage. tubes or brush top containers. When exposed to air or
8. Rust prevention. heat it forms a rubber-like coating. The coating fills in
small imperfections in gasket and sealing surfaces. Do
9. Mixing ability with gasoline. not use gasket sealing compound that is old, has began
In addition to oil grade, manufactures specify the ra- to solidify or has darkened in color.
tio of gasoline and oil required during break-in and nor-
mal engine operation.
Applying Gasket Sealing Compound
Gearcase Oil
Carefully scrape residual gasket material, corrosion
deposits or paintfrom the mating surfaces. Use a blunt
Gearcase lubricants are assigned SAE viscosity num-
scraper and work carefully to avoid damaging the mat-
bers under the same system as four-stroke engine oil.
ing surfaces. Use quick drying solvent and a clean shop
Gearcase lubricant falls into the SAE 72-250 range.
towel and wipe oil or other contaminants from the sur-
Some gearcase lubricants are multigrade. For example,
faces. Wipe or blow loose material or contaminants
SAE 80-90 is a common multigrade gear lubricant.
from the gasket. Brush a light coating on the mating
Three types of marine gearcase lubricants are gener- surfaces and both sides of the gasket. Do not apply
ally available; SAE 90 hypoid gearcase lubricant is de- more compound than needed. Excess compound will be
signed for older manual-shift units; type C gearcase squeezed out as the surfaces mate and may contaminate
lubricant contains additives designed for the electric other components. Do not allow compound into bolt or
shift mechanisms; high-viscosity gearcase lubricant is alignment pin holes
a heavier oil designed to withstand the shock loads of
high performance engines or units subjected to severe A hydraulic lock can occur as the bolt or pin com-
duty use. Always use the gearcase lubricant specified presses the compound, resulting in incorrect bolt
by the manufacturer. torque.

Grease RTV Sealant

Greases are graded by the National Lubricating This is a silicone gel supplied in tubes. Moisture in
Grease Institute (NLGI). Greases are graded by number the air causes RTV to cure. Always place the cap on the
according to the consistency of the grease. These rat- tube as soon as possible if using RTV. RTV has a shelf
ings range from No. 000 to No. 6, with No. 6 being the life of approximately one year and will not cure prop-
most solid. A typical multipurpose grease is NLGI No. erly after the shelf life expires. Check the expiration
2. For specific applications, equipment manufactures date on the tube and keep partially used tubes tightly
may require grease with an additive such as molybde- sealed. RTV can generally fill gaps up to 114 in. (6.3
num disulfide (MOS~). mm) and works well on slightly flexible surfaces.

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Applying RTV Sealant GALVANIC CORROSION

A chemical reaction occurs whenever two different


Carefully scrape all residual sealant and paint from types of metal are joined by an electrical conductor and
the mating surfaces. Use a blunt scraper and work care- immersed in an electrolytic solution such as water.
fully to avoid damaging the mating surfaces. The mat- Electrons transfer from one metal to the other through
ing surfaces must be absolutely free of gasket material, the electrolyte and return through the conductor.
sealant, dirt, oil grease or other contamination. Lacquer The hardware on a boat is made of many different
thinner, acetone, isopropyl alcohol or similar solvents types of metal. The boat hull acts as a conductor be-
work well to clean the surfaces. Avoid using solvents tween the metals. Even if the hull is wooden or fiber-
with on oil, wax or petroleum base as they are not com- glass, the slightest film of water (electrolyte) on the hull
patible with RTV compounds. Remove all sealant from provides conductivity. This combination creates a good
bolt or alignment pin holes. environment for electron flow (Figure 11). Unfortu-
Apply RTV sealant in a continuous bead 0.08-0.12 in. nately, this electron flow results in galvanic corrosion
(2-3 mm) thick. Circle all mounting bolt or alignment of the metal involved, causing one of the metals to be
pin holes unless otherwise specified. Do not allow RTV corroded or eroded away. The amount of electron flow,
sealant into bolt holes or other openings. A hydraulic and therefore the amount of corrosion, depends on sev-
lock can occur as the bolt or pin compresses the sealant, eral factors:
resulting in incorrect bolt torque. Tighten the mounting 1. The types of metal involved.
fasteners within 10 minutes after application. 2. The efficiency of the conductor.
3. The strength of the electrolyte.

Anaerobic Sealant
Metals

This is a gel supplied in tubes. It cures only in the ab- The chemical composition of the metal used in ma-
sence of air, as when squeezed tightly between two ma- rine equipment has a significant effect on the amount
chined mating surfaces. For this reason, it will not spoil and speed of galvanic corrosion. Certain metals are
if the cap is left off the tube. Do not use anaerobic seal- more resistant to corrosion than others. These electri-
ant if one of the surfaces is flexible. Anaerobic sealant cally negative metals are commonly called noble; they
is able to fill gaps up to 0.030 in. (0.8 mm) and gener- act as the cathode in any reaction. Metals that are more
ally works best on rigid, machined flanges or surfaces. subject to corrosion are electrically positive; they act as
the anode in a reaction. The more noble metals include
titanium, 18-8 stainless steel and nickel. Less noble
Applying Anaerobic Sealant metals include zinc, aluminum and magnesium. Gal-
vanic corrosion becomes more severe as the difference
Carefully scrape all residual sealant from the mating in electrical potential between the two metals increases.
surfaces. Use a blunt scraper and work carefully to In some cases, galvanic corrosion can occur within a
avoid damaging the mating surfaces. The mating sur- single piece of metal. For example, brass is a mixture of
faces must be absolutely free of gasket material, seal- zinc and copper, and, when immersed in an electrolyte,
ant, dirt, oil grease or other contamination. Lacquer the zinc portion of the mixture will corrode away as a
thinner, acetone, isopropyl alcohol or similar solvents galvanic reaction occurs between the zinc and copper
work well to clean the surfaces. Avoid using solvents particles.
with on oil, wax or petroleum base as they are not com-
patible with anaerobic compounds. Clean a sealant Conductors
from the bolt or alignment pin holes. Apply anaerobic
sealant in a 0.04 in. (1 mm) thick continuous bead onto The hull of the boat often acts as the conductor be-
one of the surfaces. Circle all bolt and alignment pin tween different types of metal. Marine equipment, such
opening. Do not apply sealant into bolt holes or other as the drive unit can act as the conductor. Large masses
openings. A hydraulic lock can occur as the bolt or pin of metal, firmly connected together, are more efficient
compresses the sealant, resulting in incorrect bolt conductors than water. Rubber mountings and vi-
torque. Tighten the mounting fasteners within 10 min- nyl-based paint can act as insulators between pieces of
utes after application. metal.

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10 CHAPTER ONE

Electrolyte Slowing Corrosion

Some simple precautions can help reduce the amount


The water in which a boat operates acts as the electro-
of corrosion taking place outside the hull. These pre-
lyte for the corrosion process. The more efficient a con-
cautions are not substitutes for the corrosion protection
ductor is, the more severe and rapid the corrosion will
methods discussed under Sacrificial Anodes and Im-
be.
pressed Current Systems in this chapter, but they can
Cold, clean freshwater is the poorest electrolyte. Pol- help these methods reduce corrosion.
lutants increase conductivity; therefore, brackish or Use fasteners made of metal more noble than the
saltwater is an efficient electrolyte. This is one of the parts they secure. If corrosion occurs, the parts they se-
reasons that most manufacturers recommend a freshwa- cure may suffer but the fasteners are protected. The
ter flush after operating in polluted, brackish or saltwa- larger secured parts are more able to withstand the loss
ter. of material. Also major problems could arise if the fas-
teners corrode to the point of failure.
Keep all painted surfaces in good condition. If paint
Protection From Galvanic Corrosion is scraped off and bare metal exposed, corrosion rapidly
increases. Use a vinyl- or plastic-based paint, which
Because of the environment in which marine equip- acts as an electrical insulator.
ment must operate, it is practically impossible to totally Be careful when applying metal-based antifouling
prevent galvanic corrosion. However, there are several paint to the boat. Do not apply antifouling paint to metal
ways in which the process can be slowed. After taking parts of the boat or the drive unit. If applied to metal
these precautions, the next step is to fool the process surfaces, this type of paint reacts with the metal and re-
into occurring only where you want it to occur. This is sults in corrosion between the metal and the layer of
the role of sacrificial anodes and impressed current sys- paint. Maintain a minimum 1 in. (25 mm) border be-
tems. tween the painted surface and any metal parts. Or-

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GENERAL INFORMATION

ganic-based paints are available for use on metal This rule is valid for a boat at rest. If underway, addi-
surfaces. tional anode area is required to protect the same surface
Where a corrosion protection device is used, remem- area.
ber that it must be immersed in the electrolyte along The anode must be in good electrical contact with the
with the boat to provide any protection. If you raise the metal that it protects. If possible, attach an anode to all
gearcase out of the water with the boat docked, any an- metal surfaces requiring protection.
* odes on the gearcase may be removed from the corro- Good quality anodes have inserts around the fastener
sion process rendering them ineffective. Never paint or holes that are made of a more noble material. Other-
apply any coating to anodes or other protection devices. wise, the anode could erode away around the fastener
Paint or other coatings insulate them from the corrosion hole, allowing the anode to loosen or possibly fall off,
process. thereby loosing needed protection.
Any change in the boat's equipment, such as the in-
stallation of a new stainless steel propeller, changes the Impressed Current System
electrical potential and may cause increased corrosion.
Always consider this when adding equipment or chang- An impressed current system can be added to any
ing exposed materials. Install additional anodes or boat. The system generally consists of the anode, con-
other protection equipment as required ensuring the troller and reference electrode. The anode in this sys-
corrosion protection system is up to the task. The ex- tem is coated with a very noble metal, such as platinum,
pense to repair corrosion damage usually far exceeds so that it is almost corrosion-free and can last almost in-
that of additional corrosion protection. definitely. The reference electrode, under the boat's
waterline, allows the control module to monitor the po-
tential for corrosion. If the module senses that corro-
Sacrificial Anodes
sion is occurring, it applies positive battery voltage to
the anode. Current then flows from the anode to all
Sacrificial anodes are specially designed to do noth- other metal component, regardless of how noble or
ing but corrode. Properly fastening such pieces to the non-noble these components may be. Essentially, the
boat causes them to act as the anode in any galvanic re-
electrical current from the battery counteracts the gal-
action that occurs; any other metal in the reaction acts vanic reaction to dramatically reduce corrosion dam-
as the cathode and is not damaged. age.
Anodes are usually made or zinc, a far from a noble Only a small amount of current is needed to counter-
material. Some anodes are manufactured of an alumi- act corrosion. Using input from the sensor, the control
num and indium alloy. This alloy is less noble than the module provides only the amount of current needed to
aluminum alloy in drive system components, providing suppress galvanic corrosion. Most systems consume a
the desired sacrificial properties. The aluminum and in- maximum of 0.2 Ah at full demand. Under normal con-
dium alloy is more resistant to oxide coating than zinc ditions, these systems can provide protection for 8-12
anodes. Oxide coating occurs as the anode material re- weeks without recharging the battery. Remember that
acts with oxygen in the water. An oxide coating will in- this system must have constant connection to the bat-
sulate the anode, dramatically reducing corrosion tery. Often the battery supply to the system is connected
protection. to a battery switching device causing the operator to in-
Anodes must be used properly to be effective. Simply advertently shut off the system while docked.
fastening anodes to the boat in random locations will An impressed current system is more expensive to in-
not do the job. stall than sacrificial anodes but, considering its low
First determine how much anode surface is required maintenance requirements and the superior protection
to adequately protect the equipment's surface area. A it provides, the long term cost may be lower.
good starting point is provided by the Military Specifi-
cation MIL-A-8 18001, which states that one square
inch of new anode protects either: PROPELLERS
1. 800 square inches of freshly painted steel. The propeller is the final link between the boat's
2. 250 square inches of bare steel or bare aluminum al- drive system and the water. A perfectly maintained en-
loy. gine and hull are useless if the propeller is the wrong
3. 100 square inches of copper or copper alloy. type, is damaged or is deteriorated. Although propeller

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CHAPTER ONE

selection for a specific application is beyond the scope


of this manual, the following provides the basic infor-
mation needed to make an informed decision. The pro-
fessional at a reputable marine dealership is the best
source for a propeller recommendation.

How a Propeller Works

As the curved blades of a propeller rotate through the


water, a high-pressure area forms on one side of the
blade and a low-pressure area forms on the other side of
the blade (Figure 12). The propeller moves toward the
low-pressure area, carrying the boat with it.

Propeller Parts

Although a propeller is usually a one-piece unit, it is


made of several different parts (Figure 13). Variations
in the design of these parts make different propellers
suitable for different applications.
The blade tip is the point of the blade furthest from
the center of the propeller hub or propeller shaft bore.
The blade tip separates the leading edge from the trail- Propeller Design
ing edge.
The leading edge is the edge of the blade nearest the Changes in length, angle, thickness and material of
boat. During forward operation, this is the area of the propeller parts make different propellers suitable for
blade that first cuts through the water. different applications.
The trailing edge is the surface of the blade furthest
from the boat. During reverse operation, this is the area Diameter
of the blade that first cuts through the water.
The blade face is the surface of the blade that faces Propeller diameter is the distance from the center of
away from the boat. During forward operation, the hub to the blade tip, multiplied by two. Essentially it
high-pressure forms on this side of the blade. is the diameter of the circle formed by the blade tips
during propeller rotation (Figure 14).
The blade back is the surface of the blade that faces
toward the boat. During forward gear operation,
low-pressure forms on this side of the blade. Pitch and rake
The cup is a small curve or lip on the trailing edge of
Propeller pitch and rake describe the placement of the
the blade. Cupped propeller blades generally perform
blades in relation to the hub (Figure 15).
better than non-cupped propeller blades.
Pitch describes the theoretical distance the propeller
The hub is the center portion of the propeller. It con- would travel in one revolution. In A, Figure 16, the pro-
nects the blades to the propeller shaft. On most drive peller would travel 10 inches in one revolution. In B,
systems, engine exhaust is routed through the hub; in Figure 16, the propeller would travel 20 inches in one
this case, the hub is made up of an outer and inner por- revolution. This distance is only theoretical; during op-
tion, connected by ribs. eration, the propeller achieves only 75-85% of its pitch.
The diffuser ring is used on though- hub exhaust Slip rate describes the difference in actual travel rela-
models to prevent exhaust gasses from entering the tive to the pitch. Lighter, faster boats typically achieve
blade area. a lower slip rate than heavier, slower boats.

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13
GENERAL INFORMATION

Direction of
rotation

Blade face

PI Pitch line

line

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14 CHAPTER ONE

Propeller blades can be constructed with constant


pitch (Figure 17) or progressive pitch (Figure 18). On
a progressive propeller, the pitch starts low at the lead-
ing edge and increases toward the trailing edge. The
propeller pitch specification is the average of the pitch
across the entire blade. Propellers with progressive
pitch usually provide better overall performance than
constant pitch propellers.
Blade rake is specified in degrees and is measured
along a line from the center of the hub to the blade tip. A
blade that is perpendicular to the hub (Figure 19) has 0"
rake. A blade that is angled from perpendicular (Figure
19) has a rake expressed by its difference from perpen-
dicular. Most propellers have rakes ranging from 0-20".
Lighter faster boats generally perform better with pro-
peller with a greater amount of rake. Heavier, slower
boats generally perform better using a propeller with
less rake.

Blade thickness

Blade thickness in not uniform at all points along the


blade. For efficiency, blades are as thin a possible at all
points while retaining enough strength to move the
boat. Blades are thicker where they meet the hub and
thinner at the blade tips (Figure 20). This is necessary
to support the heavier loads at the hub section of the
blade. Overall blade thickness is dependent on the
strength of the material used.
When cut along a line from the leading edge to the
trailing edge in the central portion of the blade (Figure
21), the propeller blade resembles and airplane wing.
The blade face, where high-pressure exists during for-
ward rotation, is almost flat. The blade back, where
low-pressure exists during forward rotation, is curved,

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GENERAL INFORMATION 15

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16 CHAPTER ONE

with the thinnest portions at the edges and the thickest


portion at the center.
Propellers that run only partially submerged, as in
racing applications, may have a wedge shaped cross-
section (Figure 22). The leading edge is very thin and
the blade thickness increases toward the trailing edge,
where it is thickest. If a propeller such as this is run to-
tally submerged, it is very inefficient.

Number of blades

The number of blades used on a propeller is a compro-


mise between efficiency and vibration. A one- bladed
propeller would the most efficient, but it would create an
unacceptable amount of vibration. As blades are added,
efficiency decreases, but so does vibration. Most propel-
lers have three or four blades, representing the most
practical trade-off between efficiency and vibration.
sea level, water boils at 212"F (100"C). As pressure in-
creases, such as within an engine cooling system, the
Material boiling point of the water increases-it boils at a tem-
perature higher than 212" F (100" C). The opposite is
Propeller materials are chosen for strength, corrosion
also true. As pressure decreases, water boils at a tem-
resistance and economy. Stainless steel, aluminum,
perature lower than 212" F (100" C). It the pressure
plastic and bronze are the most commonly used materi-
drops low enough, water will boil at normal room tem-
als. Bronze is quite strong but rather expensive. Stain-
perature.
less steel is more common than bronze because of its
During normal propeller operation, low pressure
combination of strength and lower cost. Aluminum al-
forms on the blade back. Normally the pressure does
loy and plastic materials are the least expensive but
not drop low enough for boiling to occur. However,
usually lack the strength of stainless steel. Plastic pro-
poor propeller design, damaged blades or using the
pellers are more suited for lower horsepower applica-
wrong propeller can cause unusually low pressure on
tions.
the blade surface (Figure 24). If the pressure drops low
enough, boiling occurs and bubbles form on the blade
Direction of rotation surfaces. As the boiling water moves to a higher pres-
sure area of the blade, the boiling ceases and the bub-
Propellers are made for both right-hand and left hand bles collapse. The collapsing bubbles release energy
rotations although right-hand is the most commonly that erodes the surface of the propeller blade.
used. As viewed from the rear of the boat while in for- Corroded surfaces, physical damage or even marine
ward gear, a right-hand propeller turns clockwise and a growth combined with high-speed operation can cause
left-hand propeller turns counterclockwise. Off the low pressure and cavitation on gearcase surfaces. In
boat, the direction of rotation is determined by observ- such cases, low pressure forms as water flows over a
ing the angle of the blades (Figure 23). A right-hand protrusion or rough surface. The boiling water forms
propeller's blade slant from the upper left to the lower bubbles that collapse as they move to a higher pressure
right; a left-hand propeller's blades are opposite. area toward the rear of the surface imperfection.
This entire process of pressure drop, boiling and bub-
Cavitation and Ventilation ble collapse is called cavitation. The ensuing damage is
called cavitation bzrrn. Cavitation is caused by a de-
Cavitation and ventilation are not interchangeable crease in pressure, not an increase in temperature.
terms; they refer to two distinct problems encountered Ventilation is not as complex a process as cavitation.
during propeller operation. Ventilation refers to air entering the blade area, either
To help understand cavitation, consider the relation- from above the water surface or from a though-hub ex-
ship between pressure and the boiling point of water. At haust system. As the blades meet the air, the propeller

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GENERAL INFORMATION 17

Counterclockwise
or left-hand

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18 CHAPTER ONE
I

momentarily loses its bite with the water and subse-


quently loses most of its thrust. An added complication
is that the propeller and engine over-rev, causing very
low pressure on the blade back and massive cavitation.
Most marine drive systems have a plate (Figure 25)
above the propeller designed to prevent surface air
from entering the blade area. This plate is correctly
called an anti-ventilation plate, although it is often in-
correctly called an anticavitation plate.
Most propellers have a flared section at the rear of the
I
propeller called a diffuser ring. This feature forms a
barrier, and extends the exhaust passage far enough aft
to prevent the exhaust gases from ventilating the pro-
peller.
A close fit of the propeller to the gearcase is neces-
sary to keep exhaust gasses from exiting and ventilating
the propeller. Using the wrong propeller attaching
hardware can position the propeller too far aft, prevent-
ing a close fit. The wrong hardware can also allow the
propeller to rub heavily against the gearcase, causing
rapid wear to both components. Wear or damage to
these surfaces will allow the propeller to ventilate.

Table I CONVERSlON TABLES


Multiply: By: To get t h e equivalent of:

Length
Inches 25.4 Millimeter
Inches 2.54 Centimeter
Miles 1.609 Kilometer
Feet 0.3048 Meter
Millimeter 0.03937 Inches
Centimeter 0.3937 Inches
Kilometer 0.6214 Mile
Meter 0.0006214 Mile
Fluid volume
U.S. quarts 0.9463 Liters
U.S. gallons 3.785 Liters
U.S. ounces 29.573529 Milliliters
Imperial gallons 4.54609 Liters
Imperial quarts 1.1365 Liters
Liters 0.2641721 U.S. gallons
Liters 1.0566882 U.S. quarts
Liters 33.814023 U.S. ounces
Liters 0.22 Imperial gallons
Liters 0.8799 Imperial quarts
Milliliters 0.033814 U.S. ounces
Milliliters 1O
. Cubic centimeters
Milliliters 0.001 Liters
Torque
Foot-pounds 1.3558 Newton-meters
Foot-pounds 0.138255 Meters-kilograms
Inch-pounds 0.1 1299 Newton-meters
Newton-meters 0.7375622 Foot-pounds
Newton-meters 8.8507 Inch-pounds
Meters-kilograms 7.2330139 Foot-pounds
(continued)

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GENERAL INFORMATION 19

Table 1 CONVERSION TABLES (continued)


Multiply: By: To get the equivalent of:
Volume
Cubic inches 16.387064 Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters 0.061 0237 Cubic inches
Temperature
Fahrenheit (F - 32")x 0.556 Centigrade
Centigrade (Cx 1.8) + 32 Fahrenheit
Weight
Ounces 28.3495 Grams
Pounds 0.4535924 Kilograms
Grams 0.035274 Ounces
Kilograms 2.2046224 Pounds
Pressure
Pounds per square inch 0.070307 Kilograms per
square centimeter
Kilograms per square 14.223343 Pounds per square inch
centimeter
Kilopascals 0.1450 Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch 6.895 Kilopascals
Speed
Miles per hour 1.609344 Kilometers per hour
Kilometers per hour 0.6213712 Miles per hour

Table 2 DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS


Decimal Metric Decimal Metric
Fractions in. mm Fractions in. mm
1164 0.015625 0.39688 33/64 0.515625 13.09687
1/32 0.03125 0.79375 17/32 0.53125 13.49375
3/64 0.046875 1 .I9062 35/64 0.546875 13.89062
1/16 0.0625 1.58750 9/16 0.5625 14.28750
5/64 0.078125 1.98437 37/64 0.578125 14.68437
3/32 0.09375 2.38125 19/32 0.59375 15.081 25
7/64 0.109375 2.77812 39/64 0.609375 15.47812
118 0.125 3.1750 518 0.625 15.87500
9/64 0.140625 3.57187 41/64 0.640625 16.27187
5/32 0.1 5625 3.96875 21/32 0.65625 16.66875
11/64 0.171875 4.36562 43/64 0.671 875 17.06562
3116 0.1875 4.76250 11/16 0.6875 17.46250
1 3/64 0.203125 5.15937 W64 0.703125 17.85937
7/32 0.21875 5.55625 23/32 0.71875 18.25625
15/64 0.234375 5.95312 47/64 0.734375 18.65312
114 0.250 6.35000 314 0.750 19.05000
17/64 0.265625 6.74687 49/64 0.765625 19.44687
9/32 0.28125 7.14375 25/32 0.78125 19.84375
19/64 0.296875 7.54062 51/64 0.796875 20.24062
5116 0.3125 7.93750 13/16 0.8125 20.63750
21/64 0.328125 8.33437 53664 0.828125 21 -03437
11/32 0.34375 8.73125 27/32 0.84375 21.43125
23/64 0.359375 9.12812 55/64 0.859375 22.82812
318 0.375 9.52500 718 0.875 22.22500
25/64 0.390625 9.92187 57/64 0.890625 22.62187
13/32 0.40625 10.31875 29/32 0.90625 23.01875
27/64 0.421875 10.71562 59/64 0.921875 23.41562
7116 0.4375 11.11250 15/16 0.9375 23.81250
29/64 0.453125 11.50937 61/64 0.953125 24.20937
15/32 0.46875 11 .go625 31/32 0.96875 24.60625
31/64 0.484375 12.30312 63/64 0.984375 25.00312
112 0.500 12.70000 1 1 .OO 25.40000

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20 CHAPTER ONE

Table 3 TECHNICAL ABBREVIATIONS


ABDC After bottom dead center
ATDC After top dead center
BBDC Before bottom dead center
BDC Bottom dead center
BTDC Before top dead center
C Celsius (Centigrade)
cc Cubic centimeters
cid Cubic inch displacement
CDI Capacitor discharge ignition
cu. in. Cubic inches
F Fahrenheit
ft. Feet
I
ft.-lb. Foot-pounds
gal. Gallons
HIA High altitude
hp Horsepower
in. Inches
in.-lb. Inch-pounds
I.D. Inside diameter
kg Kilograms
kgm Kilogram meters
km Kilometer
kPa Kilopascals
L Liter
m Meter
MAG Magneto
ml Milliliter
mm Millimeter
N-m Newton-meters
O.D. Outside diameter
or. Ounces
psi Pounds per square inch
PTO Power take off
Pt - Pint
qt. Quart
rPm Revolutions per minute

Table 4 METRIC TAP AND DRILL SIZES


Metric Drill Decimal
size eauivalent fraction Nearest fraction
No. 39
3/32
No. 30
118
No. 19
No. 20
No. 9
16/64
J
17/64
5116
5116
11/32
R
318
13/32
13/32

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GENERAL INFORMATION 21

Table 5 BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE


Specific gravity reading Percentage of charge remaining
I

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Chapter Tlvo

Tools and Techniques

This chapter describes the common tools required for 3. Never smoke or use a torch in an area where a battery is
marine engine repair and troubleshooting. Techniques being charged. Highly explosive hydrogen gas is formed
that make the work easier and more effective are also de- during the charging process.
scribed. Some of the procedures in this book require spe- 4. Use the proper size wrench to avoid damaged fasteners
cial skills or expertise; it some cases it is better to entrust and bodily injury.
the job to a specialist or qualified dealership. 5. If loosening a tight or stuck fastener, consider what
could happen if the wrench slips. Protect yourself accord-
ingly.
SAFETY FIRST 6. Keep the work area clean, uncluttered and well lighted.
7. Wear safety goggles while using any type of tool. This
Professional mechanics can work for years and never is especially important when drilling, grinding or using a
suffer a serious injury. Avoiding injury is as simple as fol- cold chisel.
lowing a few rules and using common sense. Ignoring the 8. Never use worn or damaged tools.
rules can of often does lead to physical injury and/or dam- 9. Keep a Coast Guard approved fire extinguisher handy.
aged equipment. Ensure it is rated for gasoline (Class B) and electrical
1. Never use gasoline as a cleaning solvent. (Class C) fires.
2. Never smoke or use a torch near flammable liquids,
such as cleaning solvent. Dirty or solvent soaked shop BASIC HAND TOOLS
towels are extremely flammable. If working in a garage,
remember that most home gas appliances have pilot A number of tools are required to maintain and repair a
lights. marine engine. Most of these tools are also used for home

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TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 23

and automobile repair. Some tools are made especially for


working on marine engines; these tools can be purchased
from a marine dealership. Having the required tools al-
ways makes the job easier and more effective.
Keep the tools clean and in a suitable box. Keep them
organized with related tools stored together. After using
tool, wipe it clean using a shop towel.
The following tools are required to perform virtually
any repair job. Each tool is described and the recom-
mended size given for starting a tool collection. Addi-
tional tools and some duplication may be added as you
become more familiar with the equipment. You may need
a11U.S. standard tools, all metric size tools or a mixture of
both.

Screwdrivers

A screwdriver (Figure 1)is a very basic tool, but if used


improperly can do more damage than good. The slot on a
screw has a definite dimension and shape. Always select a
screwdriver that conforms to the shape of the screw. Use a
small screwdnver for small screws and a large one for
large screws or the screw head are damaged.
Three types of screwdrivers are commonly required: a
slotted (flat-blade) screwdriver (Figure 2), Phillips
screwdriver (Figure 3) and Torx screwdriver (Figure 4).
Screwdrivers are available in sets, whch ofien include
an assortment of slotted Phillips and Tom blades. If you
buy them individually, buy at least the following:
a. Slotted screwdriver-5/16 x 6 in. blade.
b. Slotted screwdriver-318 x 12 in. blade.
c. Phillips screwdriver-No. 2 tip, 6 in. blade.
d. Phillips screwdriver-No. 3 tip, 6 in. blade.
e. Torx screwdriver-T15 tip, 6 in. blade.
f. Torx screwdriver-T20 tip, 6 in. blade.
g. Tom screwdriver-T25 tip, 6 in. blade.
Use screwdrivers only for driving screws. Never use a
screwdriver for prying or chiseling. Do not attempt to re-
move a Phillips, Tom or Allen head screw with a slotted
screwdriver; you can damage the screw head so that even
the proper tool is unable to remove it.
Keep the tip of a slotted screwdriver in good condition.
Carefully grind the tip to the proper size and taper if it is
worn or damaged. The sides of the blade must be parallel
and the blade tip must be flat. Replace a Phillips or Tom
screwdriver if its tip is worn or damaged.

Pliers

Pliers come in a wide range of types and sizes. Pliers are


useful for cutting, gripping, bending and crimping.Never

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24 CHAPTER TWO

use pliers to cut hardened objects or turn bolts or nuts.


Figure 5 shows several types of pliers.
Each type of pliers has a specialized function. Gen-
eral-purpose pliers are mainly used for gripping and bend-
ing. Locking pliers are used for gripping objects very
tightly, like a vise. Use needlenose pliers to grip or bend
small objects. Adjustable or slip-joint pliers (Figure 6)
can be adjusted to grip various sized objects; the jaws re-
main parallel for gripping objects such as pipe or tubing.
There are many more types of pliers. The ones described
here are the most common.

Box-end and Open-end Wrenches

Box-end and open-end wrenches (Figure 7) are avail-


able in sets in a variety of sizes. The number stamped near
the end of the wrench refers to the distance between two
parallel flats on the hex head bolt or nut.
Box-end wrenches (Figure 8) provide a better grip on
the nut and are stronger than open end wrenches. An
open-e.nd wrench (Figure 9) grips the nut on only two
flats. Unless it fits well, it may slip and round off the
points on the nut. A box-end wrench grips all six flats.
Box-end wrenches are available with six-point or 12 point
openings. The six-point opening provides superior hold-
ing power; the 12-point allow a shorter swing if working
in tight quarters.
Use an open-end wrench if a box-end wrench cannot be
positioned over the nut or bolt. To prevent damage to the
fastener, avoid using and open-end wrench if a large
amount of tightening or loosening toque is required.
A combination wrench has both a box-end and open-
end. Both ends are the same size.

Adjustable Wrenches

An adjustable wrench (Figure 10) can be adjusted to fit


virtually any nut or bolt head. However, it can loosen and

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TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

slip from the nut or bolt, causing damage to the nut and
possible physical injury. Use an adjustable wrench only if
a proper size open-end or box-end wrench in not avail-
able. Avoid using an adjustable wrench if a large amount
of tightening or loosening torque is required.
Adjustable wrenches come in sized ranging from 4- 18
in. overall length. A 6 or 8 in. size is recommended as an
all-purpose wrench.

Socket Wrenches

A socket wrench (Figure 11) is generally faster, safer


and more convenient to use than a common wrench.
Sockets, which attach to a suitable handle, are available
with six-point or 12-point openings and use 114,318, and
112 in. drive sues. The drive size corresponds to the
square hole that mates with the ratchet or flex handle.

Torque Wrench

A torque wrench (Figure 12) is used with a socket to


measure how tight a nut or bolt is installed. They come in
a wide price range and in 114,318, and 112 in. drive sizes.
The drive size corresponds to the square hole that mates
with the socket.
Atypical 114 in. drive torque wrench measures in in.-lb.
increments, and has a range of 20-150 in.-lb. (2.2-17
N-m). Atypical 318 or 112 in. torque measures in ft.-lb. in-
crements, and has a range of 10-150 ft.-lb. (14-203 N*m).

Impact Driver

An impact driver (Figure 13) makes removal of tight


fasteners easy and reduces damage to bolts and screws.
Interchangeable bits allow use on a variety of fasteners.

Circlip Pliers

Circlip (snap ring) pliers are required to remove


circlips. Circlip pliers (Figure 14) usually come with dif-
ferent size tips; many designs can be switched to handle
internal or external type circlips.

Hammers

Various types of hammers (Figure 15) are available to


accommodate a number of applications. Use a ball-peen
hammer to stnke another tool, such as a punch or chisel.
Use a soft-face hammer to strike a metal object without
damaging it.

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26 CHAPTER TWO

I
Never use a metal-faced hammer on engine - and drive I

system components as severe damage will occur. You can


always produce the same amount of force with a
soft-faced hammer.
Always wear eye protection when using hammers.
Make sure the hammer is in good condition and that the
handle is not cracked. Select the correct hammer for the
job and always strike the object squarely. Do not use the
handle or the side of the hammer head to stroke an object.

Feeler Gauges

This tool has either flat or wire measuring gauges (Fig-


ure 16). Use wire gauges to measure spark plug gap; use I

flat gauges for other measurements. A nonmagnetic


(brass) gauge may be specified if working around magne-
tized components.

Other Special Tools

Many of the maintenance and repair procedures require


special tools. Most of the necessary tools are available
from a marine dealership or from tool suppliers. Instruc-
tions for their use and the manufacture's part number are
included in the appropriate chapter.
Purchase the required tools from a local marine dealer-
ship or tool supplier. A qualified machinist, often at a
lower price, can make some tools locally. Many marine
dealerships and rental outlets will rent some of the re-
quired tools. Avoid using makeshift tools. Their use may Most of these tools are available fiom a local marine deal-
result in damaged parts that cost far more than the recom- ership or automotive parts store. I

I
mended tool.
I

Multimeter
I
TEST EQUIPMENT
This instrument is invaluable for electrical trouble- 1
This section describes equipment used to perform test- shooting and service. It combines a voltmeter, ohmmeter (
ing, adjustments and measurements on marine engines. and an ammeter in one unit. It is often called a VOM.
I I

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TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 27

Either type of meter is suitable for most electrical test-


ing described in this manual. An analog meter is better
suited for testing pulsing voltage signals such as those
produced by the ignition system. A digital meter is better
suited for testing very low resistance or voltage reading
(less than 1 volt or 1 ohm). The test procedure will indi-
cate if a specific type of meter is required.
The ignition system produces electrical pulses that are
too short in duration for accurate measurement with a us-
ing a conventional multimeter.Use a meter with peak-volt
reading capability to test the ignition system. This type of
meter captures the peak voltage reached during an electri-
cal pulse.
Scale selection, meter specifications and test connec-
tions vary by the manufacturer and model of the meter.
Thoroughly read the instructions supplied with the meter
before performing any test. The meter and certain electri-
cal components on the engine can be damaged if tested in-
correctly. Have the test performed by a qualified
professional if you are unfamiliar with the testing or gen-
eral meter usage. The expense to replace damaged equip-
ment can far exceed the cost of having the test performed
by a professional.

Strobe Timing Light

This instrument is necessary for dynamic tuning (set-


ting ignition timing while the engine is running). By flash-
ing a light at the precise instant the spark plug fires, the
position of the timing mark can be seen. The flashing light
makes a moving mark appear to stand still next to a sta-
tionary mark.
Timing lights (Figure 19) range fiom inexpensivemod-
els with a neon bulb to expensive models with a xenon
bulb, built in tachometer and timing advance compensa-
tor. A built in tachometer is very useful as most ignition
timing specifications are based on a specific engine speed.
A timing advance compensator delays the strobe
enough to bring the timing mark to a certain place on the
scale. Although useful for troubleshooting purposes, this
feature should not be used to check or adjust the base igni-
Two types of mutimeter are available, analog and digi- tion timing.
tal. Analog meters (Figure 17) have a moving needle with
marked bands on the meter face indicating the volt, ohm
and amperage scales. An analog meter must be calibrated TachorneterlDwell Meter
each time the scale is changed.
A digital meter (Figure 18) is ideally suited for electri- Aportable tachometer (Figure 20) is needed to tune and
cal troubleshootingbecause it is easy to read and more ac- test most marine engines. Ignition timing and carburetor
curate than an analog meter. Most models are adjustments must be performed at a specified engine
auto-ranging, have automatic polarity compensation and speed. Tachometers are available with either an analog or
internal overload protection circuits. digital display.

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28 CHAPTER TWO

The fueVair mixture must be adjusted with the engine


running at idle speed. If using an analog tachometer,
choose one with a low range of 0- 1000rpm or 0-2000 rpm
range and a high range of 0-6000 rpm. The high range set-
ting is needed for testing purposes but lacks the accuracy
needed at lower speeds. At lower speeds the meter must
be capable of detecting changes of 25 rpm or less.
Digital tachometers are generally easier to use than
most analog type tachometers. They provide accurate
measurement at all speeds without the need to change the
range or scale. Many of these use an inductive pickup to
receive the signal from the ignition system.
A dwell meter is often incorporated into the tachometer
to allow testing andlor adjustments to engines with a
breaker point ignition system.

Compression Gauge

This tool (Figure 21) measures the amount of pressure


created in the combustion chamber during the compres-
sion stroke. Compression indicates the general engine
condition making it one of the most useful troubleshoot-
ing tools.
The easiest type to use has screw-in adapters that fit the
spark plug holes. Rubber tipped, press-in type gauges are
also available. This type must be held firmly in the spark
plug hole to prevent leakage and inaccurate test results.

Hydrometer

Use a hydrometer to measure specific gravity in the bat-


tery. Specific gravity is the density of the battery electro-
lyte as compared to pure water and indicates the battery's
state of charge. Choose a hydrometer (Figure 22) with au-
tomatic temperature compensation; otherwise the electro-
lyte temperature must be measured during charging to
determine the actual specific gravity.

Precision Measuring Tools

Various tools are required to make precision measure-


ments. A dial indicator-(~i~ure 23), fir example, is used
to determine piston position in the cylinder, runout and SERVICE HINTS
end play of shafts and assemblies. It is also used to mea-
sure free movement between the gear teeth (backlash) in
the drive unit. Most of the service procedures in this manual are
Venier calipers (Figure 24), micrometers (Figure 25) straightforward and can be performed by anyone reason-
and other precision tools are used to measure the size of ably handy with tools. It is suggested, however, that you
parts, such as the piston. consider your skills and available tools and equipment be-
Precision measuring equipment must be stored, han- fore attempting a repair involving major disassembly of
dled and used carefully or it will not remain accurate. the engine or drive unit.

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TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

damage to test equipment and to ensure accurate testing or


adjustment. Always disconnect the negative battery cable
~~
first, then the positive cable. When reconnecting the bat- I
tery, always connect the positive cable first, then the nega- ~
tive cable.
I

Preparation for Disassembly

Repairs go much faster if the equipment is clean before


you begin work. There are special cleaners such as Gunk
or Bel-Ray Degreaser, for cleaning the engine and related
components. Just spray or brush on the cleaning solution,
let it stand, then rinse with a garden hose.
Use pressurized water to remove marine growth and
corrosion or mineral deposits from external components
such as the gearcase, drive shaft housing and clamp
brackets. Avoid directing pressurized water directly as
seals or gaskets; pressurized water can flow past seal and
gasket surfaces and contaminate lubricating fluids.

WARNrnG
Never use gasoline as a cleaning agent. It
presents an extreme fire hazard. Always
work in a well-ventilated area if using
cleaning solvent. Keep a Coast Guard ap-
proved fire extinguisher, rated for gaso-
line fires, readily accessible in the work
Some operations, for example, require the use of a area.
press. Other operations require precision measurement.
Have the procedure or measurements performed by a pro- Much of the labor charged for a job performed at a deal-,
fessional if you do not have access to the correct equip- ership is usually for removal and disassembly of other
ment or are unfamiliar with its use. parts to access defective parts or assemblies. It is fre-I
I
quently possible to perform most of the disassembly then1
take the defective part or assembly to the dealership fod
Special Battery Precautions repair. I
If you decide to perform the job yourself, read the ap-
Disconnecting or connecting the battery can create a propriate section in this manual, in its entirety. Study t h j
spike or surge of current throughout the electrical system. illustrations and text until you fully understand what is in-,
This spike or surge can damage certain components of the volved to complete the job. Make arrangements to purJ
charging system. Always verify the ignition switch is in chase or rent all required special tools and equipmend
the OFF position before connecting or disconnecting the
battery or changing the selection on a battery switch.
before starting. ~
Always disconnect both battery cables and remove the
battery from the boat for charging. If the battery cables are Disassembly Precautions 1I
connected, the charger may induce a damaging spike or
surge of current into the electrical system. During charg-
ing, batteries produce explosive and corrosive gasses.
During disassembly, keep a few general precautions 4
mind. Force is rarely needed to get things apart. If parts fi)
These gases can cause corrosion in the battery compart- tightly, such as a bearing on a shaft, there is usually a tool
ment and creates an extremely hazardous condition. designed to separate them. Never use a screwdriver to
Disconnect the cables from the battery prior to testing, separate parts with a machined mating surface, such as the
adjusting or repairing many of the systems or components cylinder head or manifold. The surfaces will be damaged
on the engine. This is necessary for safety, to prevent and leak. I

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CHAPTER TWO

Make diagrams or take instant photographs wherever


similar-appearing parts are found. Often, disassembled
parts are left for several days or longer before resuming
work. You may not remember where everything came
from, or carefully arranged parts may become dis-
turbed.
Cover all openings after removing parts to keep con-
tamination or other parts from entering.
Tag all similar internal parts for location and mounting
direction. Reinstall all internal components in the same
location and mounting direction as removed. Record the
thickness and mounting location of any shims as they are
removed. Place small bolts and parts in plastic sandwich
bags. Seal and label the bags with masking tape.
Tag all wires, hoses and connections and make a sketch
of the routing. Never rely on memory alone; it may be sev-
eral days or longer before you resume work. Take your time and do the job right. Break-in procedure
Protect all painted surfaces from physical damage. for a newly rebuilt engine or drive is the same as for a new
Never allow gasoline or cleaning solvent on these sur- one. Use the recommended break-in oil and follow the in-
faces. structions provided in the appropriate chapter.

Assembly Precautions SPECIAL TIPS

No parts, except those assembled with a press fit, re- Because of the extreme demands placed on marine
quire unusual force during assembly. If a part is hard to re- equipment, several points must be kept in mind when per-
move or install, find out why before proceeding. forming service and repair. The following are general sug-
When assembling parts, start all fasteners, then tighten gestions that may improve the overall life of the machine
evenly in an alternating or crossing pattern unless a spe- and help avoid costly failure.
cific tightening sequence or procedure is given. 1. Unless otherwise specified, apply a threadlocking
When assembling parts, be sure all shims, spacers and compound, such as Loctite Threadlocker, to all bolts and
washers are installed in the same position and location as nuts, even if secured with a lockwasher. Use only the
removed. specified grade of threadlocking compound. A screw or
Whenever a rotating part butts against a stationary part, bolt lost from an engine cover or bearing retainer could
look for a shim or washer. Use new gaskets, seals and easily cause serious and expensive damage before the loss
O-rings if there is any doubt about the conditions of the is noticed. When applying threadlocking compound, use
used ones. Unless otherwise specified,a thin coating of oil only enough to lightly coat the threads. If too much is
on gaskets may help them seal more effectively. Use used, it can work its way down the threads and contami-
heavy grease to hold small parts in place if they tend to fall nate seals or bearings.
out during assembly. 2. If self-locking fasteners are used, replace them with
Use emery cloth and oil to remove high spots from pis- new ones. Do not install standard fasteners in place of
ton surfaces. Use a dull screwdriver to remove carbon de- self-locking ones.
posits from the cylinder head, ports and piston crown. Do 3. Use caution when using air tools to remove stainless
not scratch or gouge these surfaces. Wipe the surfaces steel nuts or bolts. The heat generated during rapid spin-
clean with a clean shop towel when finished. ning easily damages the threads of stainless steel fasten-
If the carburetor must be repaired, completely disas- ers. To prevent thread damage, apply penetrating oil as a
semble it and soak all metal parts in a commercial carbu- cooling agent and loosen or tighten them slowly.
retor cleaner. Never soak gaskets and rubber or plastic 4. Use a wide chisel to straighten the tab of a fold-over
parts in these cleaners. Clean rubber or plastic parts in type lockwasher. Such a tool provides a better contact sur-
warm soapy water. Never use a wire to clean jets and face than a screwdriver or pry bar, making straightening
small passages because they are easily damaged. Use easier. During installation, use a new fold-over type
compressed air to blow debris from all passages in the car- lockwasher. If a new lockwasher is not available, fold
buretor body. over a tab on the washer that has not been previously used.

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TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

corrosive environment followed by periods of non-use for


@ REMOVING BROKEN weeks or longer. Such use invites corrosion damage to
SCREWS AND BOLTS fasteners, causing difficulty or breakage during removal.
This section provides information that is useful for re-
moving stuck or broken fasteners and repairing damaged
threads.

Removing Stuck Fasteners

When a nut or bolt corrodes and cannot be removed,


several methods may be used to loosen it. First, apply
penetrating oil, such as Liquid Wrench or WD-40. Ap-
ken stud 2. Drill hole in stud
ply it liberally to the threads and allow it to penetrate
for 10-15 minutes. Tap the fastener several times with
a small hammer; however, do not hit it hard enough to
cause damage. Reapply the penetrating oil if neces-
sary.
For stuck screws, apply penetrating oil as described,
then insert a screwdriver in the slot. Tap the top of the
screwdriver with a hammer. This looses the corrosio
in the threads allowing it to turn. If the screw head is
too damaged to use a screwdriver, grip the head wit
3. Tap in screw extractor 4. Remove broken stud locking pliers and twist the screw from the assembly.
APhillips, Allen or Torx screwdriver may start to sli
in the screw during removal. If slippage occurs, sto
Reusing the same tab may cause the washer to break, re- immediately and apply a dab of course valve lap
sulting in a loss of locking ability and a loose piece of compound onto the tip of the screwdriver. Valve
metal adrift in the engine. When folding the tab into posi- ping compound or a special screw removal compo
tion, carefully pry it toward the flat on the bolt or nut. Use is available from most hardware and automotive part
a pair or plies to bend the tab against the fastener. Do not stores. Insert the driver into the screw and apply down
use a punch and hammer to drive the tab into position. The ward pressure while turning. The gritty material in th
resulting fold may be too sharp, weakening the washer compound improves the grip on the screw, allowi
and increasing its chance of failure. more rotational force before slippage occurs. Keep t
5. Use only the specified replacement parts if replacing a compound away from any other engine components.
missing or damaged bolt, screw or nut. Many fasteners are is very abrasive and can cause rapid wear if applie
specially hardened for the application. onto moving or sliding surfaces.
6. Install only the specified gaskets. Unless specified oth- Avoid applying heat unless specifically instructe
erwise, install them without sealant. Many gaskets are because it may melt, warp or remove the temper fro
made with a material that swells when it contacts oil. Gas- parts.
ket sealer prevents them from swelling as intended and
can result in oil leakage. Most gaskets must be a specific Removing Broken Bolts or Screws
thickness. Installing a gasket that is too thin or too thick in
a critical area could cause expensive damage. The head of bolt or screw may unexpectedly twist off
7. Make sure all shims and washers are reinstalled in the during removal. Several methods are available for remov-
same location and position. Whenever a rotating part con- ing the remaining portion of the bolt or screw.
tacts a stationary part, look for a shim or washer. If a large portion of the bolt or screw projects out, try
gripping it with locking pliers. If the projecting portion
MECHANICS TECHNIQUES is too small, file it to fit a wrench or cut a slot in it to fit a
screwdriver (Figure 26). If the head breaks off flush or
Marine engines are subjected to conditions very differ- cannot be turned with a screwdriver or wrench, use a
ent from most engines. They are repeatedly subjected to a screw extractor (Figure 27). To do this, center punch
I

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32 CHAPTER TWO

the remaining portion of the screw or bolt. Select the


proper size of extractor for the size of the fastener.
Using the drill size specified on the extractor, drill a
hole into the fastener. Do not drill deeper than the re-
maining fastener. Carefully tap the extractor into the
hole and back the remnant out using a wrench on the ex-
tractor.

Remedying Stripped Threads

Occasionally, threads are stripped through careless-


ness or impact damage. Often the threads can be re-
paired by running a tap (for internal threads on nuts) or
die (for external threads on bolts) through threads (Fig-
ure 28).
To clean or repair spark plug threads, use a spark plug
tap. If an internal thread is damaged, it may be necessary
to install a Helicoil or some other type of thread insert.
Follow the manufacturer's instructions when installing
their insert.

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Thank-you for purchasing


one of my manuals.

Whilst the program is under no


copyright my logo is
trademark protected which
prevents the copying of it.

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program from me you have
a PIRATED copy.

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Chapter Three

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting is the simpleprocess of testing individ- 4. Has any service work been recently performed?
ual systems for the purpose of quickly isolating good 5. Has the unit recently come out of storage?
systems from defective or non-functional system(s).When
6. Has the fuel supplier or fuel grade been recently
a system is identified as defective, troubleshooting contin- changed?
ues with testing of the individual components from the
7. Is the manufacturer's recommended oil being used?
suspect system. It is very important to perform only one
test procedure at a time; otherwise, it will be difficult, if 8. Have any accessoriesbeen added to the boat or engine?
not impossible,to determine the condition of each individ- Once the symptom is adequately defined, attempt to
ual component. duplicate the problem. Check the easy, simple areas first
Occasionally a component in a system cannot be tested such as failure to prime the fuel system, attach the safety
separately. In this case, other components are tested and lanyard or an incorrect starting procedure.
eliminated until the suspect component is identified as Before beginning any troubleshooting procedure, per-
defective by the process of elknation. The most impor- form a thorough visual inspection of the unit. Pay special
tant rules of troubleshooting are to test systems before attention to the condition of the battery cable connections
components and to be methodical. Haphazardly jumping (at the battery and the outboard motor), all electrical har-
from one system or component to another may eventually ness connectors and terminals, fuel quantity, quality and
solve the problem, but time and effort will be wasted. Use supply, indications of engine overheat, evidence of leaks
the various system diagrams provided in this manual to (fuel, oil and water) and mechanical integrity (loose fas-
identify all components in a system. Test each component teners, cracked or broken castings). Learning to recognize
in a rational order to determine which component has visual defects is a skill that comes from self-disciplineand
caused the system's failure. patience. Take your time and look closely. Use your hands
The troubleshooting process generally begins when an to touch, feel and wiggle components.
unusual symptom (decrease in performance or unsatisfac- Be realistic about your capabilities, especially when
tory operating characteristic)is noticed. The next step is to working from a home garage or driveway. Service depart-
define the symptom as accurately as possible. Key points ments tend to charge heavily to reassemble an engine that
to consider are: comes into the shop in several boxes, while some will
1. Did the problem occur suddenly or gradually? refuse to take on such a job.
2. Is there a specific engine speed or load at which the Proper lubrication, maintenance and engine tune-up as
problem occurs? described in Chapter Four will reduce the necessity for
3. Does the weather (extreme hot or cold) or engine tem- troubleshooting. However, because of the harsh and de-
perature affect the symptom? manding environment in which the outboard motor oper-

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CHAPTER THREE

ates, troubleshooting at some point in the motor's Securely cap or plug all disconnected fuel lines to pre-I
serviceable life is inevitable. vent fuel discharge when the motor is cranked or the primerl
This chapter concentrates on the actual troubleshooting bulb is squeezed.
procedure. Once the defective component is identified,re- Thoroughly read all manufacturer's instructions andl
fer to the appropriate chapter for removal and replacement safety sheets for test equipment and special tools being
procedures. Refer to the Quick Reference Data section at used. I
the front of the manual for tables containing common en- Do not substitute parts unless you know they meet or1
gine specifications, standard torque values, and spark plug exceed the manufacturer's specifications. I
recommendations. Never run an outboard motor without an adequate water
Tables 1-4 list recommended test equipment and tools, supply. Never run an outboard motor at wide-open throttle
wire color codes and battery cable recommendations. Ta- without an adequate load. Do not exceed 3000 rpm in I
bles 5-8 cover typical symptoms and solutions for the neutral (no load). I
starting, charging, ignition and fuel systems. Tables 9-15 Safely performing on-water tests requires two people.
list specifications (or identify) the starting, charging and One person must operate the boat while the other monitors I
ignition systems. Tables 1-16 are located at the end of this the gauges or test instruments. All personnel must remain
chapter. seated inside the boat at all times. It is not acceptable to
lean over the transom while the boat is under way. Use
SERVICE PRECAUTIONS- extensions to allow all gauges and meters to be located in
1998-2002 MODEL YEAR ENGINES the normal seating area.

The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) certifies I


Test Wheels (Propellers) I
emission output for all 1998-2002(EC) models. Certified
models have an EPA certification plate mounted near the OMC recommends using the specified test wheel (pro-
model identification plate on the engine midsection. peller) for procedures that require running the engine
Refer to Model Identijication in Chapter Eight for illus- under load. An illustration of a typical test wheel is located
trations and additional information on the certification in Chapter Five. The correct test wheel will suitably load
plate. the engine while producing a minimal amount of thrust.
All repairs or service procedures must be performed ex- Use a test wheel in an adequately sized test tank, with the
actly as specified to ensure the engine will continue to boat on a trailer backed into the water or with the boat
comply with EPA requirements. For the same reason, all launched and tied to a dock.
replacement parts must meet or exceed the manufacturer's Test wheels are available from OMC Genuine Parts and
specifications. are listed in the Quick Reference Data section at the front
If in doubt as to whether a repair or service procedure of this manual. The test wheel is also used to determine
will adversely affect the engine's ability to maintain EPA whether or not the engine is producing its rated power. A
compliance, contact an Evinrude or Johnson dealership minimum speed test is listed for each engine in the Quick
before beginning the repair or procedure. Reference Data Section. If the engine can reach or exceed
the specified minimum test speed with the specified test
wheel installed, the engine is producing its rated power.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

Wear approved eye protection at all times (Figure l),es-


pecially when machinery is in operation and when using a
hammer. Wear approved ear protection during all running
tests and in the presence of noisy machinery. Keep loose
clothing tucked in and long hair tied back and secured.Re-
fer to Safety First in Chapter Two for additional safety
guidelines.
When making or breaking any electrical connection, al-
ways disconnect the negative battery cable. When per-
forming tests that require cranking the engine without
starting,disconnect and ground the spark plug leads to pre-
vent accidental starts and sparks.

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TROUBLESHOOTING
I

The gearcase must be submerged in water to at least its surface is removed. However, it is far better to remove too l 1
1
normal operating, depth and the gearcase must be shifted little, than too much. It may take several tries to achieve
into FORWARD gear for thls test. the correct full throttle speed, but once achieved, no further
modifications are required. Many propeller repair stations
A suitable test propeller can also be made by modifying will have experience with this type of modification and
(turning down) the diameter of a standard low pitch alurni- may be able to recommend a starting point.
num propeller until the recommended wide-open throttle
speed can be obtained with the motor (and boat) on a Test wheels andor propellers allow simple tracking of
trailer, backed into the water. Be careful when tying the engine performance. The full throttle test speed of an
boat to a dock as considerable thrust is developed by this engine fitted with the correct test wheel or correctly modi-
type of test propeller. Some docks may not be able to fied propeller can be tracked from season to season. It is
withstand the load. not unusual for a new or rebuilt engine to show a slight
Propeller repair stations can provide the modification increase in test propeller speed as complete break-in is
service. Normally, approximately 113 to 112 of the blade achieved. The engine w d generally hold this speed over
the normal service life of the engine. As the engine begins
to wear out, the test wheel (propeller) speed will show a
gradual decrease that deteriorates to a marked or drastic
decrease, as the point of engine failure is reached.

(? OPERATING REQUIREMENTS

All two-stroke engines require three basic conditions to


run properly: The correct air and fuel mixture from the
carburetor, crankcase and combustion chamber compres-
I

J/
sion, and adequate spark delivered to the spark plug at the
correct time. When troubleshooting it is helpful to remem-
ber: fuel, compression and spark (Figure 2). If any of these

0
are lacking the motor will not run. First, verify the me-
chanical integrity of the engine by performing a compres-
sion test (Chapter Four). Once compression is verified, test
the ignition system with an air gap spark tester and then
COY PRESSION finally focus your attention on the fuel system. Trou-
bleshooting in this order will provide the quickest results.

If the motor has been sitting for any length of time and
refuses to start, check the condition of the battery first to
make sure it is adequately charged, then inspect the battery
cable connections at the battery and the engine. Examine
the fuel delivery system. This includes the fuel tank, fuel
pump, fuel lines, fuel filters and carburetor(s). Rust or
corrosion may have formed in the tank, restricting fuel
flow. Gasoline deposits may have gummed up carburetor
SPARK jets and air passages. Gasoline tends to lose its potency
after standing for long periods. Condensation may con-
taminate the fuel with water. Connect a portable tank
containing fresh fuel mix to help isolate the problem. Do
not drain the old gasoline unless you are sure it is at fault.
Always dispose of old gasohe in accordance with EPA
regulations.

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36 CHAPTER THREE

Starting Difficulties same. If this is not possible, the engine must be disassem-
bled and internally inspected.
Occasionally, an outboard motor will be plagued by hard
starting and generally poor performance (especially at low
speeds) for which there seems to be no good cause. If fuel TEST AND REPAIR EQUIPMENT
and ignition systems test satisfactorily and a compression
Voltage
test indicates that the combustion chamber components
(pistons, rings, cylinder walls and head gaskets) are in
Voltage is the pressure in an electrical circuit. The more
good condition, the crankcase sealing should be tested.
pressure, the more work that can be done. Voltage can be
What has not been tested is crankcase sealing. A two-cy- visualized as water pressure in a garden hose. The more
cle engine cannot function unless the crankcase is ade- pressure, the further the water can be sprayed. Water can
quately sealed. As the piston travels downward, the be present in the hose, but without pressure, you cannot
crankcase must pressurize and push the airlfuel mixture accomplish anything. If the water pressure is too high, the
into the combustion chamber as the intake ports are uncov- hose will burst. When voltage is excessive, it will leak past
ered. Conversely, as the piston travels upward, the crank- the insulation and arc to ground. Voltage is always meas-
case must create a vacuum to pull the airlfuel mixture into ured with a voltmeter in a simple parallel connection. The
the crankcase from the carburetor in preparation for the connection of a voltmeter directly to the negative and
next cycle. Refer to Chapter Two for operational diagrams positive terminals of a battery is an example of a parallel
of a typical two-stroke engine. connection (Figure 3). Nothing has to be disconnected to
Leakage in the crankcase cause the airlfuel charge to make a parallel connection. Just as a water pressure gauge
leak into the atmosphere under crankcase compression. simply has a tap into a hose or pipe, a voltmeter is an
During the intake stroke, crankcase leakage will cause air electricalpressure gauge that taps into the electricalcircuit.
from the atmosphere to be drawn into the crankcase, dilut-
ing the airlfuel charge. The net result is inadequate fuel in
the combustion chamber. On multiple cylinder engines, DC Voltage
each crankcase must be sealed from all other crankcases.
Internal leakage will allow the airlfuel charge to leak to DC voltage is direct current voltage, meaning that the
another cylinder's crankcase, rather than travel to the cor- electricity always flows in one direction only. All circuits
rect combustion chamber. associated with the battery are DC circuits.
The function of the lower piston ring on most two-stroke
engines is to seal the crankcase. It is difficult to test this
ring. Compression tests typically test the upper (compres-
sion) ring, not the lower ring. A classic symptom of lower
ring failure is the inability to idle at the recommended idle
speed. The engine will run fine at higher speeds, but will
slowly stall when idle is attempted.
External crankcase leakage can be identified with a
visual inspection for fuel residue leaking from the crank-
case parting lines, upper and lower crankshaft seals, reed
valves and intake manifolds. Pressure leaking out of the
crankcase can be quickly identified with a soap and water
solution. Air leaking into the crankcase can be found by
applying oil to the suspected sealing area; the oil will be
drawn into the crankcase at the point of the leak.
Internal leakage is difficult to identify. If there are fit-
tings on each crankcase for fuel pumps, primers or recir-
culation systems, a fuel pressure1vacuum gauge can be
attached. As the engine is cranked, a repeating pres-
surelvacuum cycle must be observed on the gauge. The
pressure reading must be substantially higher than the
vacuum reading. All cylinders must read basically the

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TROUBLESHOOTING

AC Voltage manufacturers may refer to this as a DVA voltage readind.


DVA stands for direct voltage adaptor, which is used tb
AC voltage is alternating current, which means that the adapt a standard AC multimeter to measure peak AC volt-
current flows in one direction momentarily and then age.
switches to the opposite direction. The frequency at which Failure to use a meter with a peak (DVA) scale can cause
AC voltage changes direction is referred to as hertz. good ignition components to be incorrectly diagnosed
Household wiring is 115 volts AC and typically 60 hertz bad. OMC specifically recommends one of the following
T
(the average value of electrical pressure is 115 volts and peak voltage meters: the Stevens Instruments CD-77 (Figl-
the electricity changes direction 60 times per second). In ure 4) or the Mercotronic 781. If any other meter is used,
typical outboard motor applications, the charging system's
stator output is AC voltage. In larger, inboard powered
it must provide equivalent readings to these meters. ~
applications, AC voltage is typically created by a dedicated
AC generator (genset) that powers high load devices such
as air-conditioning and appliances. Shorepower is also AC
Amperes ~
voltage. Standard AC voltmeters take an average reading Amperes (amps) are referred to as current. Current is thk
of the fluctuating voltage signal. RMS (root mean square) actual flow of electricity in a circuit. Current can be visy-
AC voltmeters use a different mathematical formula to alized as water flowing from a garden hose. There can bb
come up with a value of the voltage signal. RMS meters pressure in the hose, but if we do not let it flow, no work
must only be used where specified, since the difference in
readings between a standard AC meter and a RMS AC
can be done. The higher the flow of current the more wor
that can be done. However, when too much current flows
F
meter is significant. through a wire, the wire will overheat and melt. ~ e l t e k l
wires are caused by excessive current, not excessive volt-
Peak Voltage age. I

Amps are measured with an ammeter in a simple series


This type of measurement of AC voltage takes the abso- connection. The connection of an ammeter requires the
lute peak or highest value of the fluctuating AC voltage disconnection of a circuit and the splicing of the ammeter
signal. Peak readings are substantiallyhigher than standard into the circuit. Just as a water flow-meter must have tlde
or RMS AC values and are typically used when testing water flow through it in order to measure the flow,
marine CD (capacitor discharge) ignition systems. Other ammeter is an electrical flow-meter that must have all of
T
the current flow through it. Always use an ammeter t h b
can read higher than the anticipated current flow. Always
connect the red lead of the ammeter to
is coming from (electrical source) and the black
ammeter to where the electricity is going
See Figure 5.

1.

Ammeter

~
Black
lead

+
b
~

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CHAPTER THREE

Many digital multimeters use inductive or clamp-on tested circuit to the end of the tested circuit, while the cir-
ammeter probes (Figure 6). These probes read the mag- cuit is being operated. If the circuit has no resistance,
netic field strength created from current flowing through a there will be no voltage drop (the meter will read zero
wire. No electrical connection is required, simply slip the volts). The more resistance the circuit has, the higher the
probe over the lead. voltmeter reading will be. Generally, voltage drop read-
A simple form of ammeter is the direct reading induc- ings of one or more volts are considered unsatisfactory.
tive ammeter (Figure 7). These meters directly read the The chief advantage to the voltage drop test over a resis-
magnetic field strength created from current flowing tance test is that the circuit is tested during operation. It is
through a wire. No electrical connection is required; sim- important to remember that a zero reading on a voltage
ply slip the meter over the lead so that the lead is located in drop test is good, while a battery voltage reading would
the channel or groove located on the rear of the meter. signify an open circuit.
The voltage drop test provides an excellent means of
testing solenoids (relays), battery cables and high current
Watts electrical leads (both positive and negative). As with the
ammeter, always connect the red lead of the voltmeter to
Watts (W) are the measurement units for power in an
where the electricity is coming from (source) and the
electrical circuit. Watts rage the ability to do electrical
black lead of the voltmeter to where the electricity is go-
work. The easiest formula for calculating watts is to take
ing (load).
the system voltage times the amps flowing (12-volt sys-
tem times 10 amp alternator = 120 watt maximum load).
You can easily reverse-calculate amp load by dividing Multipliers
, watts by voltage. For example, a 12-wattradio (divided by
12-volt system voltage) uses 1 amp of current. When cal- When using an analog multimeter to measure ohms, the
culating load on a charging system, remember that you scale choices will typically be labeled R x 1, R x 10, R x
cannot carry more load than the system is rated for or the 100 and so on. These are resistance scale multipliers. R x
I

battery will constantly discharge. 100 means to multiply the meter reading by 100. If the

Ohms

Ohms (Q) are the measurement units for resistance in


an electrical circuit. Resistance will cause a reduction in
current flow and a reduction (or drop) in voltage. Visual-
ized as a lunk in a garden hose, whch would cause less
water (current) to flow, it would also cause less pressure
(volts) to be available downstream from the kink.
Resistance is measured with ohmmeters that are
self-powered. Ohmmeters send a small amount of elec-
tricity into a circuit and measure how hard they have to
push to return the electricity to the meter. An ohmmeter
must only be used on a circuit or component that is iso-
lated (disconnected from any other circuit or component)
and has no voltage present. Ohmmeters are technically
connected in series. For additional information on mea-
suring ohms, refer to Ohmmeterguidelines located later in
this chapter.

Voltage Drop Test

Since resistance causes voltage to drop, resistance can


be measured on an active circuit with a voltmeter. This is
the voltage drop test. Basically, a voltage drop test mea-
sures the difference in voltage from the beginning of the

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TROUBLESHOOTING

needle indicated a reading of 75 ohms while set to the R x Diodes


100 scale, the actual resistance reading would be 75 x 100
or 7500 ohms. It is important to note and remember the Diodes are one-way check valves for electricity. A series
scale multiplier when using - an analog- ohmmeter. of diodes used to change AC current to DC current is called
Other multipliers commonly used for volts, ohms and a rectifier. Single diodes used to prevent reverse flow of
electricity are typically called blocking diodes. Diodes can
amps scales are: mega- (M), kilo- @), milli- (m) and
be tested with an analog meter set to any ohmmeter scale
micro-(%). Mega (M) is a 1,000,000 multiplier, 75 mega-
other than low or with a digital multirneter set to the diode
ohms (or 75 M-ohms) is 75 million ohms. Kilo (k) is a
1,000 multiplier, 75 kilo-volts (or 75 k-volts) is 75 thou- test scale. A diode tested with an analog ohmmeter will
indicate a relatively low reading in one polarity and a
sand volts. Milli (m) is a 0.001 multiplier, 75 milli-volts
relatively high reading in the opposite polarity. A diode
(or 75 m-volts) is 0.075 volts or 75 thousandths of a volt.
Micro (%) is a 0.000001 multiplier, 75 micro-amps (or 75 tested with a digital multirneter will read a voltage drop of
%-amps) is 0.000075 amps or 75 millionths of an amp. approximately 0.4-0.9 volts in one polarity and an open
circuit in the opposite polarity.

Analog Multimeter

A recommended analog multimeter is the Electro-Spe-


cialities model No. 530, also available from Quicksilver
parts and accessories (Mercury or Mariner Dealer) as part
No. 91-99750 (Figure 8).This economical meter features
AC and DC volts, DVA (Peak volts), 10 amp DC ammeter
and four ohmmeter ranges. When using this meter to read
peak volts (DVA) on OMC (Evimde/Johnson) ignition
systems, it may be necessary to reverse the lead's polarity
to obtain satisfactory readings.
When using an analog meter to read ohms, the meter
must be calibrated (zeroed) each time the scale or range is
changed. Normally the ohmmeter leads are connected for
calibration; however, some meters require that the leads
not be touching for calibration when using the low ohms
scale. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions for
calibration.
When checking for a short to ground, calibrate on the
highest scale available. When checking diodes, calibrate
on the R x 10 scale or higher. If the ohmmeter is so
equipped, never use its low scale to test a diode or short to
ground. When checking for a specific ohm value, calibrate
the ohmmeter on a scale that allows reading the specifica-
tion as near the middle of the meter movement as possible.
Analog meters allow easy visual identification of erratic or
fluctuating readings.

Digital Multimeter

The digital multimeter is rapidly gaining popularity in


the marine industry after many years of acceptance in the
automotive industry. Digital displays are easy and clear to
read. Most digital meters are auto-ranging, which means
that they automatically shift to the scale most appropriate
for displaying the value being read. However, be careful to

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CHAPTER THREE

read the scale correctly. Refer to Multipliers located pre- Test Light
viously in this chapter.
Fluctuating readings can be frustrating to read as the The test light is a useful tool for simple troubleshooting.
display will change several times a second. Quality digital A test light must not be used on electronic circuits, such as
multimeters typically have a bar graph located below the modern ignition and fuel injection circuits. The current
digital number display. The bar graph allows easy interpre- draw of the test lamp can damage delicate electronic cir-
tation of fluctuating readings, similar to an analog meter. cuits. A test light must also not be used where specific
The scale range and multiplier (if applicable) will be voltage values are being sought.
displayed alongside the actual reading.
Most quality digital meters have a special diode test Before beginning any troubleshooting with a test lamp,
scale that measures the voltage drop of the diode, instead connect the test lamp directly to the battery and observe
of its resistance. Do not attempt to use the digital multime- the brightness of the bulb. You must reference the rest of
ter's ohms scale to test diodes, as the readings will be your readings against this test. If the bulb does not glow as
inconsistent. The digital multimeter is protected by inter-
nal fuses that are usually uncommon sizes. Buy several
spare fuses at the time of purchase.
Adapters are available for temperature readings, induc-
tive ammeter readings and many other functions. Figure 9
shows a digital multimeter in a protective case with several
adapters.

Ohmmeter Guidelines

When using an analog or digital multimeter to measure


ohms, it is important to understand two electrical condi-
tions:
1. Continuity-Indicated by a 0 (zero) or very low (near
zero) reading. Continuity means that electricity can flow
and is best visualized as a solid wire. This condition is also
referred to as a closed circuit.
2. No continuity-Indicated by an infinity (m) or very
high (near infinity) reading. No continuity means that
electricity cannot flow and is best visualized as a wire
broken in two. This condition is also referred to as an open
circuit.

Resistance (Ohmmeter) Tests

The resistance values are based on tests performed at


room temperature. Actual resistance readings obtained
during testing will generally be slightly higher if checked
on hot components and lower if checked on very cold
components. In addition, resistance readings may vary
depending on the manufacturer of the ohmmeter. There-
fore, use discretion when failing any component that is
only slightly out of specification. Many ohmmeters have
difficulty reading less than 1 ohm accurately. If this is the
case, specifications of less than 1 ohm generally appear as
a very low (continuity) reading.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

brightly as when it was hooked directly to the battery, a Four distinct types of connectors are used on engines
problem is indicated. covered in thls manual. Refer to Chapter Seven for com-
plete connector service.
A test lamp can be used to check ground circuits by
connecting the test lamp lead directly to the positive (i)1 . Bullet connectors-The bullet connector (Figure 10) is
battery terminal. When the test lamp probe is connected to a common connector used widely in the industry. The
a good ground circuit, the light will glow brightly. bullet connectors used on Evinrude/Johnson engines use
vinyl sleeves with several internal sealing ribs to seal the
sleeve to the lead as tightly as possible. Replacement male
Electrical Repairs and female connectors, and their appropriate sleeves are
listed in the manufacturer's parts catalog. The connectors
are crimped in place with a pair of standard crimping pliers.
Check all electrical connections for corrosion, mechani- Make sure the correct vinyl sleeve (male or female) is
cal damage, heat damage and loose connections. Clean and installed over the lead before crimping the connector in
repair all connections as necessary. All wire splices or place.
connector repairs must be made with waterproof marine 2. Amphenol connectors-Amphenol connectors have
grade connectors and heat shrink tubing. The OMC Genu- been widely used on Evinrude/Johnson engines since
ine Parts dealer catalog lists heat shrink connectors and 1978. Identify arnphenol connectors by their round, dark
heat shrink tubing for making waterproof wire splices rubber connector bodies. Often a wire locking clip (or wire
(repairs) on engine and boat harnesses, and for making bail) is used to keep the connector from vibrating apart. A
waterproof connections when adding accessories or mak- disconnected Amphenol connector and its wire bail are
ing other repairs. Marine and industrial suppliers are addi- shown in Figure 11.
tional sources for quality electrical repair equipment.
CAUTION
Always lubricate Amphenol connectors with
isopmpyl alcohol when connecting/discon-
necting the bodies andor replacing pins.
The water resistant molded seals in the bod-
ies will be damaged if no lubricant is used.

3. Deutsch connectors--OMC began using Deutsch con-


nectors (Figure 12) when the Modular Wiring System
( M W S ) was introduced on remote control models begin-
ning with the 1996 model year. The modular wiring har-
ness is designed to allow flexible, uncomplicated rigging
with exceptional durability. These connectors are consid-
ered totally waterproof when correctly installed and serv-
iced. Deutsch style connectors are easily identified by their
hard plastic bodies, orange locking wedges and orange
silicone elastomer seals. An external locking tab prevents
the connectors from vibrating apart and must be manually
released before the connectors can be separated. Each
terminal pin is locked into the connector body with its own
individual internal locking tib.

CAUTION
Always lubricate the seals of Deutsch con-
nectors with OMC Electrical Grease when
reconnecting the bodies andor replacing the
pins. I f the locking wedge is removed,fill the
connector body cavity Cfor the wedge) with
OMC Electrical Grease to within 1/32 in.
(0.8 mm) of the wedge-to-connector body
mating sullface.

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CHAPTER THREE '

4 . Packard connectors-While the Packard connector 1995 Models i


(Figure 13, typical) is used extensively in the automotive
industry, its use is somewhat limited on EvinrudeIJohnson Prior to 1996, the engine wiring harness was connected
engines. This connector is only used to connect an engine to the remote control (boat) wiring harness with a large,
harness directly to an electrical or ignition component and red, ten-pin rubber plug. Figure 15 shows the remote
is not used to connect a harness to another harness. control harness end of the ten-pin plug. If the engine is
CAUTION equipped with trim and tilt, an additional five-pin Amphe-
Always lubricate the seals of Packard con- no1 connector is used for the trimltilt circuits. Bullet con-
nectors with OMC Electrical Grease when nectors are used to connect the oil tank's low oil sending
reconnecting the bodies or replacing the unit to the engine harness. A dedicated safety lanyard
pin(s), body or seal(s).

There are two styles of Packard connector used on the


60" V4 and V6 engines covered in this manual. The first
style is easily identified by a flat arrangement of the
terminal pins (in a straight row), the large U-shaped lock-
ing tab and the three-ribbed replaceable seals (one sealing
the leads to the body and the other sealing the body to the
component).
To replace the body or the lead-to-body seal, all terminal
pins must be removed and cut from their leads. Unlock the
pins by inserting a suitable terminal tool (from an automo-
tive tool supplier) into the rear of the body after the
lead-to-body seal is moved out and away from the body.
Make sure the leads are routed through the new seal andlor
connector body before crimping new terminal pins to the
leads. After crimping, pull the leads (and pins) into the
connector body until they lock in place. This is a Pull-to-
Lock connector.
The second style of Packard connector is used on the
ignition module of the 60" (loop-charged) V6 engines in
six- and eight-pin configurations (Figure 14). This con-
nector is easily identified by the two stacked rows of
terminal pins (three or four each row). Each pin has its own
individual rear seal, while a common three-ribbed seal is
used to seal the connector body to the component.
To replace the body (or the lead-to-body seals), unlock
the terminal pins by inserting a suitable terminal tool (such
as a paper clip) into the front of the body and depressing
the locking tab. Pull the pin and lead out the rear of the
body. Before reinserting the pin, lead and seal into the
body, be sure to bend each pin's locking tab up slightly, to
ensure a positive lock. Then push each lead and pin into
the body until it locks in place. This is a Push-to-Lock
connector.

WIRING HARNESSES

While many variations of wiring harnesses, switches,


warning systems and controls are available, they fall into
one of the following general categories.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

switch is mounted in the control box or in the boats dash. a. The engine is overheating (water temp).
The motor will only run if the lanyard is installed. b. The engine is not receiving oil (no oil).
This system is referred to as the Traditional Wiring Har-
c. The fuel supply is restricted (check engine).
ness in this manual. Refer to Table 2 for the color codes
used on traditional wiring harnesses. d. The oil tank's oil level is low (low oil).
Several styles of OMC tachometers are available with
the System Check gauge integrated into the tachometer. If
a System Check gauge is not used, an audible driver mod-
1996-2002 Models ule must be installed in its place. The module will sound
Beginning with the 1996 model year, a new system the warning horn if any of the previously mentioned prob-
called the Modular Wiring System (MWS) was incorpo- lems occur, but will not indicate the exact cause of the
rated. The MWS system is designed to be used with an warning signal.
OMC System Check engine monitoring gauge. The Sys- The MWS main harness (Figure 17) uses three Deutsch
tem Check gauge (Figure 16) has four light emitting di- connectors to connect the boat (remote control) harness to
odes (LEDs) that allow the operator to easily identlfy the engine harness and a single Deutsch connector to con-
whether: nect the remote oil tank to the engine harness. At the re-
mote control end, a series of Deutsch connectors is used to
connect the boat harness to the remote control (or ignition
switch) harness, the warning horn, the System Check
gauge (or audible driver module) and a tridtilt switch (if
equipped). Ring terminals are provided for the trimltilt
gauge, a conventional tachometer, switched battery posi-
tive (B+) and a black ground lead. Refer to Table 3 for the
color codes used on the MWS harness.
The safety lanyard switch is incorporated into the igni-
tion switch and holds the switch's plunger depressed (Fig-
ure 18). Pulling the lanyard allows the plunger to extend
and rotates the switch to the OFF or STOP position. It is
not necessary for the lanyard to be installed in order for the
motor to run. If the operator is ejected from the boat (with
the lanyard), this design allows any remaining occupants
in the boat to restart the engine and rescue the operator.

WARNING
SYSTEM CHECK GAUGE It is the operator's responsibility to make
sure the lar~yardis installed on the ignition
switch and connected to the operatol; before
beginning operation.

The key benefits of the MWS system are: elimination of


the large, red, 10-pin rubber plug and the separate safety
lanyard switch, easy removal and installation of all com-
ponents, fully waterproof connections and
easy-to-understand warning signals from the System
Check gauge.
The main MWS harness (boat harness) is available in
different lengths to match the boat's length. Extension and
adaptor kits are available to allow the use of 1995 engines
on boats equipped with the MWS and System Check, and
to allow the use of 1996-2002 engines on boats equipped
with the traditional wiring harness. Consult an OMC deal-
ership for your specific application.

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44 CHAPTER THREE

STARTING SYSTEM assembly. When battery current is supplied to the starter


motor by the starter solenoid, the pinion gear is thrust
Description upward (via spiral splines) to engage the flywheel's teeth.
Once the engine starts, the flywheel will overmn the pinion
All Evinrude and Johnson outboard motors covered in gear and a spring will disengage the pinion gear from the
this manual are equipped with an electric start system. The
starter motor is mounted vertically on the port side of the Starter motors are direct drive on 90"V4 (loop-charged
power head and uses an inertia-driven bendix (pinion gear) and cross-flow) models. See Figure 19, typical. Gear

w
OMC MODULAR WIRING SYSTEM
(MWS) HARNESS

1. Modular wiring harness


2. Engine connectors (Deutsch)
3. Warning horn Deutsch connector
4. System check gauge Deutsch connector
5. Traditional tachometer ring terminals
6. Trimltilt gauge ring terminals
7. Trimltilt switch Deutsch connector
8. Ignition switch Deutsch connector

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TROUBLESHOOTING 45

reduction starters are used on 60" V4 (loop-charged) mod-


els and all V6 and V8 models.
On 60" V4 and V6 models, the reduction gear and pinion
assembly (Figure 20) is mounted directly to the power
head. The starter motor can be removed without removing
the reduction assembly. The starter solenoid is mounted
directly to the bottom of the starter motor. A metal strap
replaces the cable normally used to electricallyconnect the
solenoid to the starter.
On 90" V6 and V8 models, the reduction gear and pinion
assembly are an integral part of the starter motor assembly.
The starting system requires a fully charged battery of
at least the minimum specified capacity to provide the large
amount of electrical current necessary to operate the starter
motor. All models incorporate an alternator to keep the
battery charged during engine operation.

CAUTION
Toprevent starter damage from overheating,
do not operate the starter motor continu-
ously for more than 10 seconds. Allow the
motor to cool for at least two minutes be-
tween attempts to start the engine.

Remote control models

These models use an electric starting system consisting

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46 CHAPTER THREE

STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS (REMOTE CONTROL MODELS)

Starter Starter
motor solenold

STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS (TILLER HANDLE MODELS)

12 volt battery

y (ignition) switch

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TROUBLESHOOTING

neutral safety switch, starter solenoid, starter motor and Troubleshooting Preparation
related wiring. See Figure 21. The neutral safety switch
allows starter engagement only if the gear shift is in the If the following procedures do not locate the problem,
NEUTRAL position. The neutral safety switch is mounted refer to Table 5 for additional information. Before trou-
in the remote controlbox. A 20-amp fuse (or circuitbreaker bleshooting the starting circuit, check the following:
on V8 models) is used to protect the remote control key a. The battery must be fully charged. See Chapter
switch circuits. The fuse (or circuit breaker) is located on Seven.
the engine, between the starter solenoid and the main b. The shift control lever must be in the NEUTRAL
harness connector. position.
c. electrical connections must be clean and tight.
Engaging the starter switch allows current to flow The battery cable connections must be secured with
through the neutral safety switch to the starter solenoid's hex nuts and corrosion resistant lock washers. Place
coil windings, causing the solenoid contacts to close and the lockwasher between the battery terminal and the
allowing current to flow directly from the battery, through battery cable to ensure a good connection (Figure
the solenoid and into the starter motor. 23). The use of wing nuts is not an acceptable means
of securing the battery cables to the battery.
d. The wiring harness must be in good condition, with
no worn or frayed insulation.
Tiller handle models e. The fuse (or circuit breaker) protecting the starter
switch must not be blown (open).
f. The power head or gearcase is not the problem
/
Since these models do not use a remote control box, a (mechanical failure).
start button and ignition switch are mounted on the en- CAUTION
gine's lower cowl. The major components of this starting Unless otherwise noted, peij5orm all voltage
system are very similar to the remote control models or test light tests with the leads connected,
described previously, with the following exceptions: and with the terminals exposed to accommo-
date test lead connection.
1. There is no neutral safety switch. A mechanical linkage
prevents the starter button from being depressed when the
shift lever is in FORWARD or REVERSE gear. Starter Motor Turns Slowly

1. Make sure the battery is in acceptable condition and


2. An ignition switch is used in conjunction with a starter
fully charged.
button switch. The starter motor will only engage if the
2. Inspect all electrical connections for looseness or cor-
starter button is pushed and the ignition switch is in the ON
rosion. Clean and tighten as necessary.
(RUN) position. See Figure 22.
3. Check for the proper size and length of battery cables.
Refer to Table 4 for recommended minimum cable gauge
sizes and lengths. Replace cables that are undersize or
relocate the battery to shorten the distance between the
battery and starter solenoid.
4A. 90" V4, V6 and V8 engines-Disconnect and ground
the spark plug leads to the engine to prevent accidental
starting. Turn the flywheel clockwise by hand and check
for mechanical binding. If mechanical binding is evident,
remove the lower gearcase to determine if the binding is in
the power head or the lower gearcase. If no binding is
evident, continue to Step 5.
4B. 60" V4 and V6 engines-Disconnect and ground the
spark plug leads to the engine to prevent accidental start-
ing. Remove all of the spark plugs and the flywheel cover.
Using a suitable socket installed over the timing wheel
screw (at the very top of the engine), turn the engine
clockwise and check for mechanical binding. If mechani-
cal binding is evident, remove the lower gearcase to deter-

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48 CHAPTER THREE

mine if the binding is in the power head or the lower 7. Reconnect the spark plug leads when finished with the
gearcase. If no binding is evident, reinstall the spark plugs troubleshooting procedure.
and continue to Step 5.
5. Perform the starting system voltage drop test as de- Startr.ng system voltage drop test
scribed in the next section.
6. Check the starter motor no-load current draw and no- Excessive resistance in the battery cables, starter sole-
load speed as described in this chapter. noid and starter cable can restrict the current flow to the

VOLTAGE DROP TEST (POSITIVE BATTERY CABLE)

1
- Starter Starter battery
motor solenoid

@
VOLTAGE DROP TEST (STARTER SOLENOID)

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TROUBLESHOOTING

starter, causing the starter to turn the motor slowly. Slow repair the terminal ends or replace the positive battery
cranking speed causes low ignition system output and cable.
subsequent hard starting.
Use the following procedure to determine if any of the CAUTION
Do not connect the positive voltmeter lead in
~
cables or the starter solenoid are the source of a voltage
Step 4 until afer the engine begins cranking.
drop. If the problem is intermittent, try gently pulling,
The open solenoid will read battery voltage
bending and flexing the cables and connections during the and could damage a voltmeter set to a very
test. Sudden voltmeter fluctuations indicate a poor connec- low voltage scale. In addition, disconnect the
tion has been located. voltmeter before stopping cranking.
Remember that a voltage drop test measures the differ-
ence in voltage from the beginning of a circuit or compo- 4. Connect the negative voltmeter lead to the starter side
nent to the end of the circuit or component. If there is of the solenoid as shown in Figure 25. Engage the electric
resistance in the circuit, the voltage at the end will be less starter. While the engine is cranking, touch the positive
than the voltage at the beginning. The circuit must be active voltmeter lead to the battery positive solenoid terminal as
to take a voltage drop reading (in this case the starter must shown in Figure 25. Note the meter reading, then remove
be engaged). A voltmeter reading of 0 means that no the voltmeter lead and discontinue cranking. If the meter
resistance is present in the test circuit. A reading of battery indicates more than 0.2 volts, the starter solenoid has
voltage means that the circuit is completely open (battery excessive internal resistance and must be replaced.
voltage going in and nothing coming out). 5. Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the starter side
Refer to Figures 24-27 for this procedure. Clean, of the solenoid and the negative voltmeter lead to the starter
tighten, repair or replace any cable or solenoid with exces- motor terminal as shown in Figure 26. Engage the electric
sive voltage drop. starter and observe the meter. If the meter indicates more
1. Disconnect and ground the spark plug leads to the than 0.2 volts, excessive resistance is detected in the starter
engine to prevent accidental starting. motor cable (or strap). Clean the connections, repair the
2. Connect the positive (red) voltmeter lead to the positive terminal ends or replace the starter motor cable (or strap).
battery tenninal and the negative (black) voltmeter lead to 6. Connect the positive voltmeter lead to the engine end
the positive solenoid terminal as shown in Figure 24. of the negative battery cable and the negative voltmeter
3. Engage the electric starter and observe the meter. If the lead to the negative battery terminal as shown in Figure
meter indicates more than 0.3 volts, excessive resistance is 27. Engage the electric starter and observe the meter. If the
present in the positive battery cable. Clean the connections, meter indicates more than 0.3 volts, the battery negative

G3 VOLTAGE DROP TEST (STARTER CABLEISTRAP)

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CHAPTER THREE I

cable has excessive resistance. Clean the connections, re- CAUTION


pair the terminal ends or replace the negative battery cable. Disconnect and ground the spark plug leads
7. Reconnect the spark plug leads when finished. to the engine to prevent accidental starting
during all test procedures. Make sure the
shift lever is in the NEUTRALposition before
Starter Motor Does Not Xrn
proceeding.

A test light or voltmeter are both acceptable tools for 1. Connect the test lamp lead to the positive terminal of
troubleshooting the starter circuit. If using a test light, first the battery and touch the test lamp probe to metal anywhere
connect the test light directly to the battery and observe the on the engine block. The test lamp must light. If the lamp
brightness of the bulb. You must reference the rest of your does not light or is dim, the battery ground cable connec-
readings against this test. If the bulb does not glow as tions are loose or corroded, or there is an open circuit in
brightly as when it was hooked directly to the battery, a the battery ground cable. Clean and tighten the connections
problem (excessive resistance) is indicated. or replace the negative battery cable as required.
If using a voltmeter, the meter must read within 1 volt 2. Connect the test lamp lead to a good engine ground and
of the battery voltage when the text indicates that the test connect the test lamp probe to the starter solenoid input
lamp should light. terminal (1, Figure 28). The test lamp must light. If the
lamp does not light or is very dim, the battery cable
connections are loose or corroded, or there is an open
Remote control models circuit in the cable between the battery and the solenoid.
Clean and tighten connections or replace the positive bat-
Refer to Figure 28 for this procedure. Refer to the end tery cable as required.
of the book for wiring diagrams. On V8 models, a 20-amp 3. Connect the test lamp probe to the yellowlred terminal
circuit breaker is used instead of the fuse shown in Figure on the starter solenoid (7, Figure 28). With the ignition
28. switch turned to the START position observe the test lamp.

I VOLTAGE DROP TEST (NEGATIVE BATTERY CABLE)

I I '
- -
~ngine 1

starter 12 volt
? motor solenoid battery

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TROUBLESHOOTING

a. If the test lamp lights, the starter system's switching If there is any doubt as to the fuse's condition,
circuits are working correctly. Proceed to Step 11. replace the fuse.
b. If the test lamp does not light, an open circuit is c. Install the fuse into the fuse holder.
present in the starter system's switching circuits.
Proceed to Step 4A or Step 4B as appropriate. NOTE
4A. V4 and V6 models-Proceed as follows: The 20-amp circuit breaker on V8 models
has one red lead that connects directly to the
a. Remove the 20 amp fuse and connect the test lamp starter solenoid (battery positive) terminal
probe to the input side of the fuse holder (2, Figure and a second red lead that connects to the
28). The test lamp must light. If not, repair or replace wiring harness's redpurple lead at a bullet
the red lead between the starter solenoid and the fuse connector very near the circuit breakei:
holder.
b. Test the 20 amp fuse with an ohmmeter calibrated 4B. V8 models-Disconnect the bullet connector on the
on the R x 1scale. The fuse must indicate continuity. output side of the 20-amp circuit breaker. Connect the test

STARTING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING


(REMOTE CONTROL MODELS)

-
- battery
Starter
Starter solenoid
motor

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CHAPTER THREE

tenninal B (redpurple lead). See 3, Figure 28. The test


lamp probe to the red lead coming from the circuit breaker.
lamp must light. If not, repair or replace the redlpurple lead
The test lamp must light. If not, depress the circuit
between the six-pin Deutsch connector and the ignition
breaker's reset button. If the test lamp still does not light,
replace the circuit breaker assembly. Reconnect the bullet
switch.
connector when f i s h e d . 7. Connect the test lamp probe to the ignition switch
5A. 1995 models with traditional harnesses-Unplug the tenninal S (4, Figure 28). With the ignition switch turned
large, red, 10-pin main harness connector and connect the to the STARTposition,observe the test lamp. The test lamp
test light probe to the redpurple pin (1, Figure 29) of the must light. If not, replace the ignition switch.
engine side of the connector. The test lamp must light. If 8. Remove the cover from the remote control box and
not, repair or replace the redpurple lead between the fuse connect the test lamp probe to the ignition switch side of
holder (or the circuit breaker's bullet connector on V8 the neutral safety switch (5, Figure 28). With the ignition
models) and the main engine harness connector. switch turned to the STARTposition, observe the test lamp.
5B. 1996-2002models with MWS harnesses-Unplug the The test lamp must light. If not, repair or replace the lead
six-pin Deutsch main harness connector and connect the between the neutral safety switch and the ignition switch.
test light probe to pin No. 5 (redpurple lead) of the engine
side of the connector. The test lamp must light. If not, re-
pair or replace the redpurple lead between the fuse holder
(or the circuit breaker's bullet connector [V8 models]) and
the six-pin Deutsch connector.
6A. 1995 models with traditional harnesses-Reconnect
the 10-pin main harness connector and gain access to the
rear of the ignition switch on the dash (or in the remote
control box). Connect the test lamp probe to the ignition
switch terminal B (redpurple lead). See 3, Figure 28. The
test lamp must light. If not, repair or replace the redpurple
lead between the boat side of the main harness connector
and the ignition switch. Refer to Figure 30 for pin location
on the boat side of the main harness connector.
6B. 1996-2002 models with MWS harnesses-Reconnect
the six-pin Deutsch connector and gain access to the rear
of the ignition switch on the dash (or in the remote control
box). Connect the test lamp probe to the ignition switch

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TROUBLESHOOTING

9. Move the test lamp probe to the solenoid side of the 14. Connect the test lamp lead to a good engine ground.
neutral safety switch (6, Figure 28). With the ignition Connect the test lamp probe to the starter motor terminal
switch turned to the START position, the test lamp must (11, Figure 28). With the ignition switch turned to the
light. If not, make sure the shift control is still in neutral START position, the test lamp must light. If not, repair or
and retest. Replace the neutral safety switch if the lamp replace the cable between the starter solenoid and the
still does not light. starter motor. If the test lamp lights, proceed to Step 15.
10. Connect the test lamp probe to the yellowlred terminal 15. Remove the starter (Chapter Seven) and inspect for
on the starter solenoid (7, Figure 28). With the ignition paint or corrosion on the mounting bolts and bosses. If
switch turned to the START position, the test lamp must paint or corrosion is found, clean the mounting bolts and
light. If not, repair or replace the yellowlred lead between bosses and reinstall the starter and test starter engagement.
the neutral safety switch and the starter solenoid (this If the starter still will not engage, remove the starter for
includes the main harness connector). replacement or repair.
11. Connect the test lamp probe to the starter solenoid 16. Reconnect the spark plug leads when finished.
terminal leading to the starter motor (8, Figure 28). With
the ignition switch turned to the START position, the test
lamp must light. If so, proceed to Step 14. If the test lamp Tiller handle models
does not light, proceed to Step 12.
Refer to Figure 31 for this procedure. Refer to the end
12. Connect the test lamp lead to the positive battery
of the book for individual model and complete system
terminal and connect the test lamp probe to the small black
wiring diagrams.
(ground) terminal of the starter solenoid (9, Figure 28).
The test lamp must light. If not, repair or replace the ground CAUTION
lead between the starter solenoid and the engine block (10, Disconnect and ground the spark plug leads
Figure 28). to the engine to prevent accidental starting
13. If the test lamp does not light in Step 11, but does light during all test procedures. Make sure the
in Step 12, replace the starter solenoid and retest starter shift lever is in the NEUTRALposition before
system operation. proceeding.

STARTING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING (TILLER HANDLE MODELS)

12-volt battery

Key (ignition) switch

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CHAPTER THREE

1. Connect the test lamp lead to the positive terminal of must light. If not, repair or replace the purple lead between
the battery and touch the test lamp probe to metal anywhere the terminal block and the bullet connector.
on the engine block. The test lamp must light. If the lamp 9. Connect the test lamp probe to the yellowlred terminal
does not light or is dim, the battery ground cable connec- on the starter solenoid (6, Figure 31). With the ignition
tions are loose or corroded, or there is an open circuit in switch turned to the ON (or RUN) position and the starter
the battery ground cable. Clean and tighten the connections button depressed, the test lamp must light. If not, replace
or replace the battery cable as required. the push-button starter switch and its leads as an assembly.
2. Connect the test lamp lead to a good engine ground and 10. Connect the test lamp probe to the starter solenoid
connect the test lamp probe to the starter solenoid input terminal leading to the starter motor (7, Figure 31). With
terminal (1, Figure 31). The test lamp must light. If the the ignition switchturned to the ON (or RUN) position a d
lamp does not light or is very dim, the battery cable the starter button depressed, the test lamp must light. If so,
connections are loose or corroded, or there is an open in proceed to Step 13. If the test lamp does not light, proceed
the cable between the battery and the solenoid. Clean and to Step 11.
tighten the connections or replace the battery cable as 11. Connect the test lamp lead to the positive battery
required. tenninal and connect the test lamp probe to the small black
3. Connect the test lamp probe to the yellowlred terminal (ground) terminal of the starter solenoid (8, Figure 31).
on the starter solenoid (6, Figure 31). Turn the ignition The test lamp must light. If not, repair or replace the ground
switch to the ON (or RUN) position and depress the starter lead between the starter solenoid and the engine block (9,
button while observing the test lamp. Figure 31).
a. If the test lamp lights, the starter system's switching 12. If the test lamp does not light in Step 10,but does light
circuits are working correctly. Proceed to Step 10. in Step 11, replace the starter solenoid and retest starter
b. If the test lamp does not light, an open circuit is system operation.
present in the starter system's switching circuits. 13. Connect the test lamp lead to a good engine ground.
4. Proceed as follows: Connect the test lamp probe to the starter motor terminal
a. Remove the 20 amp fuse and connect the test lamp (10, Figure 31). With the ignition switch turned to the ON
probe to the input side of the fuse holder (2, Figure (or RUN) position and the starter button depressed,the test
31). The test lamp must light. If not, repair or replace lamp must light. If not, repair or replace the cable between
the red lead between the starter solenoid and the fuse the starter solenoid and the starter motor. If the test lamp
holder. lights, proceed to Step 14.
b. Test the 20 amp fuse with an ohmmeter calibrated 14. Remove the starter (Chapter Seven) and inspect for
on the R x 1 scale. The fuse must indicate continuity. paint or corrosion on the mounting bolts and bosses. If
c. Install the fuse into the fuse holder. paint or corrosion is found, clean the mounting bolts and
5. Gain access to the rear of the ignition switch. Connect bosses and reinstall the starter and test starter engagement.
the test lamp probe to the ignition switch terminal B If the starter still will not engage, remove the starter for
(redpurple lead). See 3, Figure 31. The test lamp must replacement or repair.
light. If not, repair or replace the redlpurple lead between 15. Reconnect the spark plug leads when finished.
the fuse holder and the ignition switch. This includes
connections at the tenninal block and a four-pin Amphenol Push Button Starter Switch Test
connector. (Tiller Handle Models)
6. Connect the test lamp probe to the ignition switch
terminal A (purple lead). See 4, Figure 31. With the An ohmmeter is required for this procedure. Refer to the
ignition switch turned to the ON (or RUN) position, the back of the manual for wiring diagrams.
test lamp must light. If not, replace the ignition switch. 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery.
7. Connect the test lamp probe to the purple lead terminal 2. Disconnect the starter switch yellowlred lead from the
at the terminal block (5, Figure 31). With the ignition starter solenoid (6, Figure 31) and the starter switch purple
switch turned to the ON (or RUN) position, the test lamp lead from the bullet connector between the tenninal block
must light. If not, repair or replace the purple lead between and the switch.
the ignition switch and the tenninal block. This includes a 3. Connect an ohmmeter calibrated on the R x 1 scale,
connection at a four-pin Amphenol connector. between the starter switch leads. The meter must read no
8. Disconnect the bullet connector in the purple lead be- continuity. Replace the start button if any other reading is
tween the starter button and the terminal block. The bullet noted.
connector is not shown in Figure 31. With the ignition 4. Depress the start button. The meter must read continu-
switch turned to the ON (or RUN) position, the test lamp ity. Replace the start button if no continuity is noted.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

5. Reconnect all leads when f ~ s h e dConnect


. the nega- equipped with aftermarket controls and electrical har-
tive battery cable last. nesses.

NOTE
Ignition (Key) Switch Test This ~rocedurealso covers the innition
switches used on tiller handle models.
The following procedure tests the ignition switch on
models equipped with an OMC prewired remote control If so desired, on remote control models, the ignition
assembly or an OMC boat wiring harness with a dash- switch and main wiring harness can be quickly tested at
mounted ignition (key) switch. Most aftermarket prewired the boat side of the main engine harness connector, elimi-
remote controls and boat wiring harnesses use the same nating the need to disassemble the control box or remove
wire color codes, key switch functions and terminal iden- the key switch from the dash panel. To identlfy the correct
tlfication, but this test may not be valid on all models terminal pins (for the boat end of the connector) on a
traditional wiring harness, refer to Figure 30. On models
equipped with the modular wiring system (MWS) and
Deutsch connectors, the color codes of the leads and their
corresponding pin location in the connector body is self-
evident.
If you decide to test at the main harness connect!Jr,
connect the ohmmeter to the appropriate pins based on the
wire color codes called out in the following text. Testing
TRADITIONAL HARNESS at the engine harness connector will not isolate a bad
wiring harness from the key switch. If the switch and
harness fail the test procedure (at the main harness connec-
tor), disconnect the key switch and test the switch individu-
ally to verify that the main harness is not the problem. To
test the key switch alone, follow the procedure as written.
6
NOTE
On a traditional harness (using a dedicated
safety lanyard switch), the safety lanyard
must be installed on the safety lanyard switch
to pe$orm the tests at the main harness
MWS HARNESS connector The safety lanyard switch is con-
nected between the blacWyellow and black
leads of the ignition switch (both M termi-
nals). gthe lanyard is removed, an ohmme-
6 ter connected between the blacWyellow and
black pins of the main harness connector
2 must show continuity, regardless of the igni-
tion switch position. I f the lanyard is in-
stalled and the switch is functioning
correctly, the ignition switch will test as de-
scribed in the following procedure.

4 CAUTION
On ring terminal style switches, generally
used on 1995 models, the blacWyellow lead
must be connected to the terminal that is
elevated and pointing rearward (not toward
the side like the remaining terminals). This
terminal is shown at 2, Figure 32 under
Traditional harness.

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CHAPTER THREE

Use an ohmmeter calibrated on the R x 1 scale to test the 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery.
key switch circuits. Refer to Figure 32 for this procedure. 2. Gain access to the key switch and disconnect the leads
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. from the key switch terminals. Note the color code and
2. Gain access to the key switch and disconnect the leads terminal markings of aftermarket switches.
from the key switch terminals. Note the color code and 3. Calibrate the condenser tester to check for condenser
terminal markings of after-market switches. leakage. Follow its manufacturer's instructions.
3. Connect one lead of the ohmmeter to the ignition switch 4. Connect the black lead of the condenser tester to the M
B terminal (redpurple lead) and the other ohmmeter lead terminal that the blacWyellow lead connects to (Figure
to the A terminal (purple lead). When the switch is in the 31). Make sure the ignition switch is in the OFF or STOP
OFF position, no continuity must be noted. position.
4. Turn the switch to the ON or RUN position. The ohm- 5. Alternately connect the red lead of the condenser tester
meter must indicate continuity. to each of the remaining ignition switch terminals (except
5. Turn the switch to the START or CRANK position. The the other M terminal) and test each terminal for leakage.
ohmmeter must indicate continuity. No leakage must be noted at each of the A, B, C and S
6. Connect one lead of the ohmmeter to the B terminal terminals when the switch is in the OFF or STOPposition.
(redfpurple lead) and the other ohmmeter lead to the S 6. Turn the switch to the ON or RUN position. Connect
terminal (yellowlred lead). When the switch is in the OFF the red lead of the condenser tester to the remaining M
position, no continuity must be noted. (black or blacklwhite lead) terminal. Test this terminal for
7. Turn the switch to the START or CRANK position. The leakage. No leakage must be noted between the two M
ohmmeter must indicate continuity. terminals when the switch is in the ON or RUN position.
8. Turn the switch to the OFF or STOP position. Connect 7. Replace the ignition (key) switch if it does not perform
one ohmmeter lead to an M terminal (blacWyellow lead) as specified.
and the other ohmmeter lead to the other M terminal (black 8. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega-
lead). See Figure 31. The ohmmeter must indicate conti- tive battery cable last.
nuity.
9. While watching the meter, turn the switch to the ON
(RUN) and START (CRANK) positions. The ohmmeter Neutral Safety Switch Tests
must read no continuity in both positions.
10. Turn the switch to the OFF or STOPposition. Connect The purpose of the neutral safety switch is to allow
one ohmmeter lead to the B terminal (redpurple lead) and starter engagement only when the shift lever is in the
the other ohmmeter lead to the C terminal (purplelwhite NEUTRAL position. The starter must not be able to en-
lead). The ohmmeter must read no continuity. gage when the shift lever (gearcase) is in either the FOR-
11. Turn the switch to the ON or RUN position. The WARD or REVERSE position.
ohmmeter must read no continuity. Press in on the key to On tiller handle models, a mechanical linkage is used to
engage the CHOKE or PRIME position. The ohmmeter prevent the starter button from being depressed when the
must read continuity in the CHOKE or PRIME position. shift linkage is in FORWARD or REVERSE gear. Refer to
12. Turn the switch to the START or CRANK position. Chapter Seven for neutral safety switch and mechanical
The ohmmeter must read no continuity. Press in on the key linkage adjustment procedures.
to engage the CHOKE or PRIME position. The ohmmeter Remote control models require remote control shift ca-
must read continuity in the CHOKE or PRIME position. ble adjustment to ensure proper operation. See Chapter
13. Replace the ignition (key) switch if it does not perform Twelve for shift cable adjustments. The shift cable must be
as specified. adjusted anytime it, the gearcase or the control box has
14. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega- been removed, repaired or replaced, or if improper opera-
tive battery cable last. tion is noted.

Ignition (Key) Switch Leakage Test Remote control models


Under some conditions, it is possible for the ignition (boat harness and switch test)
switch to allow the high voltage present in the stop circuit CAUTION
(blacWyellow) lead to leak to the other terminals in the key Moving the shift lever into FORWARD or
switch, but not show up during the ohmmeter test. To test REVERSE gear when the engine is not run-
for leakage, obtain a condenser tester and proceed as ning can damage the control box, shift cable
follows: and gearcase. Have an assistant rotate the

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TROUBLESHOOTING

propeller when it is necessary to shiji the 4. Turn the ignition (key) switch to the START position
gearcase when the engine is not running. while noting the meter reading. The meter must indicate
continuity.
The neutral safety switch is located in the control box. 5. While an assistant is rotating the propeller, position the
If the engine will crank with the control lever in the shift lever in the FORWARD gear position.
NEUTRAL position, but will not crank with the control 6. Turn the ignition (key) switch to the START position
lever in the FORWARD or REVERSE position, the neutral while noting the meter reading. The meter must indicate
safety switch is functioning correctly. no continuity.
Test the switch and boat harness using an ohmmeter. 7. Whlle an assistant is rotating the propeller, position the
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery shift lever in the REVERSE gear position.
and position the remote control shift lever in the NEU- 8. Turn the ignition (key) switch to the START position
TRAL position. while noting the meter reading. The meter must indicate
2A. Traditional harness-Disconnect the large, red, 10- no continuity.
pin main harness connector from the engine. 9. If the test results are not as specified, either the boat
2B. Modular wiring system (MWS) hamess-Remove the wiring harness or the neutral safety switch are defective.
connector box cover and disconnect the six-pin Deutsch Test the isolated neutral safety switch as described in the
main harness connector from the engine. See Figure 32, next section. If the switch tests are satisfactory,there is an
typical. open circuit or high resistance in the boat harness yel-
3A. Traditional harness--Connect an ohmmeter, cali- lowlred or redpurple leads. Repair or replace the harness
brated on the R x 1 scale, to the boat side of the main as necessary.
harness connector as shown in Figure 33. 10. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega-
3B. MWS harness--Connect an ohmmeter, calibrated on tive battery cable last.
the R x 1scale, to the yellowlred (pin No. 2) and redpurple
(pin No. 5) terminals of the main harness connector (boat
side).
Remote control models (isolated switch test)

To test only the neutral safety switch, proceed as follows:


I
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery
and position the remote control shift lever in the NEU-
TRAL position.
Ohmmeter 2. Open the control box to gain access to the switch.
3. Disconnect both yellowlred leads from the switch.
ff 3-
4. Connect an ohmmeter calibrated on the R x 1 scale to
the switch terminals.

NOTE
The switch plunger must be depressed in
NEUTRAL and extended in FORWARD and
REVERSE.

Yellowlred pin 5. Depress the switch; the ohmmeter must indicate conti-
nuity.
6. Release (extend) the switch; the ohmmeter must indi-
cate no continuity.
7. Replace the switch if it does not perform as specified.
8. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega-
tive battery cable last.

Starter Solenoid Bench Test


Boat side of main
harness connector NOTE
All engine wiring hamess leads must be dis-
connectedfrom the solenoidfor this test.

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CHAPTER THREE

Solenoid style varies from engine to engine, but all the Frahm Reed Tachometer can be used for this test.)
solenoids have two large terminal studs and two small Simply hold the tachometer against the starter frame while 1
terminal studs. Refer to Figure 34 for a typical solenoid the starter is running to measure the rpm. A stroboscopic
location. tachometer may also be used, but remember to make a1
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. reference mark on the starter drive (pinion gear) before i
2. Disconnect all leads from the solenoid terminal studs. beginning the test. Another option is to use a tachometer
If necessary, remove the solenoid from the engine. designed for model airplane engines, available from most I
3. Connect an ohmmeter (calibrated on the R x 1 scale) to hobby shops. This type of tachometer is simply held 1
the two large terminal studs as shown in Figure 35, typical. against the end of the starter drive to measure the rpm.
The ohmmeter must indicate no continuity. 1. Remove the starter motor assembly from the power
4. Attach a 12-voltbattery (with suitablejumper leads) to head (Chapter Seven). Securely fasten the starter motor in
the two small terminal studs as shown in Figure 35, typical a vise or other suitable holding fixture. Do not damage the
(polarity is not important). An audible cIick should be starter motor by crushing it in the vise.
heard if the solenoid engages. The ohmmeter must now
indicate continuity.
5. Replace the solenoid if it does not function as specified.
2. Obtain a fully charged startingbattery with a minimum
rating of 500 cold cranking amps (CCA), 650 marine
cranking amps (MCA) or 60 ampere-hours. The battery (
I,
6. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega- must be in good condition for the test results to be accurate. (
tive battery cable last.
3. Connect a suitable voltmeter to the battery as shown in i
Figure 36. 1
Starter Motor No-Load Current Draw Test
CAUTION
If starter system troubleshooting indicates that addi- Make sure the ammeter used in the next step
tional starter motor tests are necessary, use the starter is of suficient capacity to measure the ex-
no-load current draw test as an indicator of internal starter
condition. A clamp-on or inductive ammeter, if available,
is simplest to use as no electrical connections are required.
Make sure that the ammeter being used can read higher
than the anticipated highest amp reading (Table 9).
The starter motor speed must be measured during the
no-load current draw test. A vibration tachometer, such as

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TROUBLESHOOTING

pected amperage draw (Table 9) with an 4B. Inductive or clamp-on ammeter-Using heavy gauge
adequate safety margin. For example, if the battery cables or jumper cables, connect the positive bat-
expected amperage draw is 30 amps, use a tery terminal and the starter motor terminal. Then install
50 amp or larger ammetel: the clamp-on or inductive ammeter over this cable. Then
connect another heavy gauge battery cable or jumper cable
4A. Conventional Ammeter-Using heavy gauge battery to the negative battery terminal, but do not connect this
cables or jumper cables, connect a conventional ammeter cable to the starter at this time. Use Figure 36 as a refer-
in series with the positive battery cable and the starter ence.
motor terminal (Figure 36). Then connect another heavy
gauge battery cable or jumper cable to the negative battery WARNING
terminal, but do not connect this cable to the starter at this Make the last battery connection to the
starter frame in Step 4. DO NOT create any
time.
sparks at or near a battery or a serious
explosion could occul:

NOTE
The battery must maintain at least 12.0-12.4
volts during the test. Ifthe voltagefalls below
this range, yet the current draw does not
exceed spec$ication (Table9), the battery is
Ammeter Voltmeter defective or not of suflcient capacityfor the
test.

5. When ready to perform the no-load test, prepare a


tachometer for the rpm measurement, then quickly and
firmly connect the remaining cable to the starter motor
frame (Figure 36). Note the amperage and rpm readings,
verify the voltage range, then disconnect the jumper cable
from the starter motor frame.
6. If the motor does not perform to specification (Table
9), the motor must be repaired or replaced. See Chapter
Seven. Refer to Table 5 for additional starter motor symp-
toms and remedies.

BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM

Description

An alternator charging system is standard on all models.


The purpose of the charging system is to keep the battery
fully charged and supply current to power accessories.
Charging systems can be divided into two basic designs:
6-amp unregulated systems and 9, 10, 20 and 35-amp
regulated systems. Refer to Table 10 for charging system
identification and stator resistance specifications and Ta-
ble 11for charging system output specifications.
All systems use permanent magnets mounted in the
flywheel (Figure 37) and a stator coil mounted to the
power head. As the flywheel rotates, the magnetic fields in
the flywheel pass through the stator coil windings, induc-
ing AC (alternating current). The stator windings are an
integral part of the stator assembly (also containing igni-
tion system windings) on all systems.Unregulated systems
use a rectifier (a series of two positive and two negative

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CHAPTER THREE

diodes) to change the AC current to DC (direct current). CAUTION


See Figure 38. The output from an unregulated charging an outboard motor equipped with an un-
system is directly proportional to efigine speed. Because a regulated charging system must be operated
non-regulated system has the potential to overcharge the with its battery removed or disconnected,
battery during long periods of wide-open throttle opera- insulate the positive battery cable end to
prevent it from contacting the negative bat-
tion, maintenance-free batteries are not recommended.
tery cable or engine ground. Never operate
Overcharging a battery causes the electrolyte level to drop, an outboard motor equipped with a regu-
leading to premature battery failure. Vented batteries that lated charging system with its battery re-
allow removal of the vent caps and refilling of the electro- moved.
lyte (as needed) will provide longer service life.
Regulated systems use the same type flywheel magnets
and stator coil windings as the non-regulated system, with System Inspection (All Models)
the rectifier being replaced with a rectifierlregulator. The
rectifier portion of the rectifierlregulator changes the AC Before performing the troubleshootingprocedure, check
current to DC current, while the regulator portion monitors the following:
system voltage and controls the charging system output 1. Make sure the battery is properly connected. If the
accordingly. battery polarity is reversed, the Frectifier or rectifierlregu-
lator will be damaged.
Batteries that are maintained at 13-15 volts will stay fully
charged without excessiveventing. The regulator controls the 2. Check for loose or corroded connections. A terminal
strip or bullet connectors are used on all charging system
output of the charging system to keep system voltage at
connections. Clean, tighten, repair or replace as necessary.
approximately 14.5 volts. The large red lead of the recti-
Replace battery wing nuts with corrosion resistant hex nuts
fierlregulator is DC output and also functions as the sense
and lockwashers. Place the lockwasher under the battery
terminal, allowing the regulator portion to monitor system
cable as shown in Figure 39. Loose battery cable connec-
voltage. A purple lead is used to supply key-switched battery tions will cause a charging system failure.
positive voltage to turn the rectifierlregulator on and off with
engine operation. Since the regulator generates considerable 3. Check the rectifier (or rectifierlregulator) mounting
heat during operation, the regulator is water cooled. Cast-in hardware for corrosion, evidence of electrical arcing and
loose fasteners. These components are grounded through
cooling fins (or rods) are used to transfer the heat from the
their mounting hardware. The mounting screws and bosses
regulator to the power head's water jacket.
must be free of paint and corrosion and the screws must be
Another function of the charging system is to provide securely tightened. Loose mounting screws will cause
the signal for the tachometer. The tachometer simply erratic operation and premature failure.
counts AC voltage pulses coming out of the stator before 4. Check the battery condition. Recharge or replace the
the AC voltage is rectified to DC. Tachometer failure is battery as necessary.
related to the charging system, not the ignition system. The 5. Check the wiring harness between the stator and battery
tachometer connects to stator yellowlgray lead on unregu- for cut, chafed or deteriorated insulation and corroded,
lated systems, or the rectifierlregulator gray lead on regu- loose or disconnected connections. Repair or replace the
lated models. wiring harness as necessary.
A malfunction in the charging system generally causes
the battery to be undercharged and the tachometer to read
erratically or totally fail. The following conditions will
result in rectifier, rectifierlregulator or external alternator
failure.
1. Reversing the battery leads.
2. Disconnecting the battery leads while the engine is
running.
3. Loose connections in the charging system circuits, in-
cluding battery connectionsand ground circuits. Wing nuts
are not acceptable fasteners for battery connections. Use
corrosion resistant hex nuts and lockwashers.

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6. Visually inspect the stator windings for discoloration ammeter reading exceeds the rated capacity of the charging
and burned windings. Replace any stator that shows evi- system, reduce the accessory load connected to the charg-
dence of overheating. ing system.

CAUTION
Unless otherwise noted, peijorm all voltage 6 Amp Unregulated Models
tests with the leads connected, with the ter-
minals exposed to accommodate test lead Refer to Table 10 and Table 11 for specifications and
connection. All electrical components must the end of the book for wiring diagrams.
be securely grounded to the power head any
time the engine is cranked or started, or the NOTE
components will be damaged. Ifa clamp-on or inductive ammeter is being
used, install the probe on the rectiper red
lead and go directly to Step 4.
Current Draw Test
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery.
Use this test to determine if the total load of the engine 2. Install a conventional ammeter as follows:
electrical system and boat accessories exceed the capacity a. Remove the rectifier red lead from the terminal strip.
of the charging system. Then reinstall the screw to secure the engine harness
red lead to the terminal strip.
NOTE b. Connect an ammeter of sufficient size to measure the
Ifa clamp-on or inductive ammeter is being maximum rated output of the charging system be-
used, install the probe on the positive battery
tween the rectifier red lead and its corresponding
cable (near the battery) and go directly to
Step 3. If a conventional ammeter is being engine harness red lead. Connect the red lead of the
used, make sure the ammeter is rated for at ammeter to the rectifier red lead and the black lead
least 20 amps. of the ammeter to the engine harness red lead at the
terminal strip.
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. c. Make sure the c o ~ e c t i o n are
s secure and insulated
2. Disconnect the positive battery cable from the battery. from any other leads or grounds.
Securely connect a suitable ammeter between the positive 3. Reconnect the negative battery cable.
battery post and the positive battery cable. Reconnect the 4. Install a shop tachometer according to its manufac-
negative battery cable. turer's instructions.
3. Turn the ignition switch ON (RUN) and turn on all
accessories. Note the ammeter reading. Turn the ignition CAUTION
switch OFF (STOP) and turn off all accessories. If the Do not run the engine without an adequate
water supply and do not exceed 3000 rpm
without an adequate load. Refer to Safety
Precautions at the beginning of this chaptel:
5. Start the engine and run it as specified in Table 11 while
observing the ammeter. If amperage output is less than
specified, continue with Step 6. If amperage output is
within specification, the charging system is functioning
correctly.
6. To check theresistance of the stator, proceed as follows:
a. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Then discon-
nect the yellow and yellow gray stator leads from the
terminal strip.
b. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the lowest scale possible.
Then connect the ohmmeter red lead to the stator's
yellow lead and the ohmmeter black lead to the
stator's yellow/gray lead. The meter must indicate
1.2-1.4 ohms.
c. Replace the stator coil if it does not perform as
specified.

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CHAPTER THREE

7. To perform the stator short-to-ground test, proceed as ter lead to the battery positive terminal and the other
follows: ohmmeter lead to the engine harness red lead that con-
a. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the highest scale avail- nected to the rectifier red lead. Note the ohmmeter reading.
able. Connect the ohmmeter black lead to a clean A good circuit will read continuity (very low resistance).
engine ground. If the stator is removed, connect the If not, repair or replace the red lead andlor connections
ohmmeter to the stator's metal laminations (mount- between the rectifier and the battery.
ing screw bore). 11. Reconnect all leads when finished.
b. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to the stator yellow
lead. The meter must read no continuity. If continu-
ity is noted, inspect the yellow lead for damaged 9,10,20 and 35 Amp Regulated Models
insulation and repair if possible. If the lead is not
damaged, replace the stator coil (or stator assembly). Refer to Table 10 and Table 11 for specifications and
Repeat this step for the stator yellowlgray lead. Both the end of the book for wiring diagrams.
stator leads must have no continuity to ground.
8. To check the positive diodes in the rectifier, proceed as
follows:
a. Disconnect all rectifier leads (red, yellow and yel-
lowlgray). Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropri-
@ (TYPICAL
AMMETER INSTALUTlON
REGULATED SYSTEM)
ate scale to test diodes.
b. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to the rectifier red
lead and the ohmmeter black lead to the rectifier
yellow lead. Note the ohmmeter reading. Reverse the
ohmmeter leads and note the reading. The reading
must be high in one polarity and low in the other.
c. Reconnect the ohmmeter red lead to the rectifier red
lead and move the ohmmeter black lead to the recti-
fier yellowlgray lead. Note the ohmmeter reading.
Reverse the ohmmeter leads and note the reading.
The reading must be high in one polarity and low in
the other.
d. If the reading is high in both polarities or low in both
polarities on any test, replace the rectifier.
9. To check the negative diodes in the rectifier, proceed as
follows:
a. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to a good engine
ground. If the rectifier is removed, connect the ohm-
meter red lead to the rectifier's metal case. Connect
the ohmmeter black lead to the rectifier yellow lead.
Note the ohmmeter reading. Reverse the ohmmeter
leads and note the reading. The reading must be high
in one polarity and low in the other. solenoid
b. Reconnect the ohmmeter red lead to ground. Move
the ohmmeter black lead to the rectifier yellowlgray
lead. Note the ohmmeter reading. Reverse the ohm-
meter leads and note the reading. The reading must
be high in one polarity and low in the other.
c. If the reading is high in both polarities or low in both
polarities on any tests, replace the rectifier.
10. To check the continuity of the rectifier red lead back
to the battery, make sure the negative lead of the battery is
disconnected. Disconnect the rectifier red lead from its
engine harness bullet connector or terminal strip. Calibrate
the ohmmeter on a high ohms scale. Connect one ohmme-

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NOTE NOTE
A regulated charging system only outputs the Loose or corroded battery connections
current necessary to maintain 14.5 volts at a d o r bad battery cables can cause inaccu-
the battery. v t h e battery isfully charged the rate results in the next test. Make sure the
alternator will not produce its rated output cables are in nood shape and that all con- I
unless enough accessory demand is present. nections are clean and tight.
Ifa clamp-on or inductive ammeter is used,
install the probe on the rectz$er/regulator 7. To test the rectifierlregulator excite and sense circuits,
red lead and go directly to Step 4. proceed as follows:
a. Connect the black lead of the voltmeter to the nega-
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. tive battery terminal.
2. Refer to Figure 40 and install a conventional ammeter b. Connect the voltmeter red lead to the red lead at the
as follows: tenninal strip or rectifierlregulator bullet connector.
a. Remove the rectifierlregulator red lead from the The voltmeter must read battery voltage. If the volt-
terminal strip (or the starter solenoid). Then reinstall meter indicates a difference of more than 0.5 volt
the screw to secure the engine harness red lead to the below battery voltage, clean and tighten the connec-
terminal strip (or retighten the nut to hold the battery tions, or repair or replace the red lead between the
cable to the starter solenoid). terminal strip (or bullet connector) and the starter
b. Connect an ammeter of sufficient size to measure the solenoid.
maximum rated output of the charging system in c. Move the voltmeter red lead to the purple lead at thk
between the rectifierlregulator red lead and its cor- tenninal strip or rectifierlregulator bullet connector.
responding engine harness red lead (or the starter Turn the ignition (key) switch to the ON or RUN
solenoid terminal). Connect the red lead of the am- position and note the meter reading. The voltmeter
meter to the rectifierlregulator'~red lead and the must read battery voltage. If the voltmeter indicates
black lead of the ammeter to the engine harness red a difference of more than 1.0 volt below battery
lead at the tenninal strip. See Figure 40. voltage, clean and tighten the connections, or repair
c. Make sure the connections are secure and insulated or replace the purple lead between the terminal strip
from any other leads or grounds. (or bullet connector) and the ignition switch. 1
3. Reconnect the negative battery cable. d. If the voltage on both the red and purple leads is as
4. Install a shop tachometer according to its manufac- specified. I

turer's instructions. 8. To check the resistance of the stator,proceed as follows:


5. Connect a voltmeter to the battery terminals. a. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Then discon-
nect the yellow and yellowlgray stator leads from tlie
I
CAUTION terminal strip or the large, locking two-pin connec-
Do not run the engine without an adequate tor.
water supply and do not exceed 3000 T m b. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the appropriate scale to
without an adequate load. Refer to Safety read the specifications listed in Table 10. Connect
Precautions at the beginning of this chaptel: one lead of the ohmmeter to each of the stator leads.
Note the reading.
6. Start the engine and run it as specified in Table 11while
noting both the ammeter and voltmeter readings. If the c. The stator resistance must be within specifications
voltage exceeds 12.5volts, turn on the accessories or attach (Table 10). If it is not, replace the stator assembly.
the accessories to the battery to maintain battery voltage at 9. To check the stator for a short-to-ground, proceed as
12.5 volts or less. If amperage output is less than specified, follows:
continue at Step 7. If amperage output is within specifica- a. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the highest scale possi-
tion, turn off or disconnect the accessories and run the ble. Connect the ohmmeter black lead to a clean
engine at approximately 3000 rpm whle observing the engine ground. If the stator is removed, connect the
voltmeter. As the battery approaches full charge the voltage ohmmeter to the stator's metal laminations (mount-
must rise to approximately 14.5 volts and stabilize. If the ing screw bore).
voltage stabilizes at approximately 14.5 volts, the voltage b. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to the stator yelldw
regulator is functioning correctly. If the voltage exceeds 15 lead. The meter must read no continuity. If continu-
volts, go to Step 9 and test the stator for a short-to-ground. ity is noted, inspect the yellow lead for damaged
If the stator tests satisfactorily,replace the rectifierlregula- insulation and repair if possible. If the lead is m t
tor. damaged, replace the stator assembly. I

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CHAPTER THREE

c. Repeat this step for the stator yellowlgray leads. c. If voltage is still indicated, the engine andlor boat
Both stator leads must indicate no continuity to wiring harness has a short-to-power between the
ground. gray lead and the red, redlpurple or purple leads.
10. If all ohmmeter and voltage tests have been satisfac- Isolate and repair or replace the defective harness.
tory to this point, yet the system does not perform as
described in Step 6, replace the rectifierlregulator. CAUTION
Do not run the engine without an adequate
11. Reconnect all leads when finished.
water supply and do not exceed 3000 ipm
without an adequate load. Refer to Safety
Rectfier/Regulator Tachometer Circuit Tests Precautions tzt the beginning of this chaptel:
5. With the engine running at 1000 rpm in NEUTRAL,
If the tachometer fails to operate correctly, the recti-
measure the voltage at the tachometer's gray lead terminal
fierlregulatormay not be sending a good tachometer signal
as described in Step 3. The meter must indicate no more
through the gray lead. The followingprocedure is intended than 8 volts.
to determine if a good signal is being sent to the tachome-
a. If the meter indicates 0 volts, check the continuity of
ter. If any charging system related symptom is present, the gray lead from the rectifierlregulator to the ta-
troubleshoot that symptom first as described in the pre- chometer. Repair or replace the gray lead as neces-
vious section before attempting to diagnosethe tachometer sary. If the gray lead has continuity, replace the
symptom. rectifierlregulator.
A voltmeter capable of measuring peak volts is required b. If the voltmeter shows more than 8 volts, replace the
to check the tachometer circuit voltages. A conventional tachometer.
voltmeter will not work. OMC specifically recommends 6. If the voltage in Step 5 is more than zero, but less than
one of the following peak voltage meters: the Stevens eight volts, proceed as follows:
Instruments CD-77 or the Mercotronic 781. If any other a. Disconnect the gray lead from the tachometer and
meter is used, it must provide equivalent readings to these retest the gray lead voltage at 1000 rpm. Voltage
meters. Refer to the end of the book for wiring diagrams. must increase by approximately 1 volt over the
1. Venfy that the tachometer is receiving battery voltage amount noted in Step 5. If the voltage increases by
(or within 1.0 volt of battery voltage) at its purple lead more than approximately 1 volt, replace the ta-
terminal when the ignition switch is in the ON or RUN chometer.
position. Repair the purple lead ignition switch, 20 amp b. Disconnect the four-pin Amphenol connector from
fuse or applicable connectors, as necessary. the oil injection pump and retest the gray lead volt-
2. Verify that the tachometer black lead has continuity to age at 1000 rpm. Voltage must increase by approxi-
the negative battery terminal using an ohmmeter or test mately 2 volts over the amount noted in Step 5. If the
light. Repair the black lead and applicable connectors as voltage increases by more than approximately 2
necessary. volts, replace the pump's circuit board or replace the
3. Set the peak-reading voltmeter to positive (POS) polar- pump as an assembly.
ity and the 50-volt range. Connect the red meter lead to the c. Disconnect the tachometer gray lead and the oil
tachometer's gray lead terminal and the black meter lead injection pump at the same time and retest the gray
to the tachometer's black lead terminal. lead voltage at 1000 rpm. Voltage must increase by
4. Turn the ignition switch to the ON or RUN position, but approximately 3 volts over the amount noted in Step
do not start the engine. Note the meter reading. The meter 5. If the voltage increases by more than approxi-
must indicate 0 volts. If the meter indicates any voltage, mately 3 volts, replace the rectifierlregulator.
perform the following until the defect is located. Once the 7. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega-
meter reads 0 volts, proceed to Step 5. tive battery cable last.
a. Disconnect the rectifierlregulator gray lead from the
engine's tenninal strip or rectifierlregulator bullet Stator Resistance Test
connector. If the meter now indicates 0 volts, replace
the rectifierlregulator. To check the resistance of the stator, proceed as follows:
b. Disconnect the four-pin Amphenol connector from 1. Disconnect the negative battery cable. Then disconnect
the oil injection pump. If the meter now indicates 0 the yellow and yellowlgray stator leads from the terminal
volts, repair the four-pin connector, replace the strip or the large, locking two-pin connector.
pump's circuit board or replace the pump as an 2. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the appropriate scale to read
assembly. the specification listed in Table 10. Connect one lead of

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TROUBLESHOOTING

the ohmmeter to each of the stator leads. Note the reading. a. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to a good engine
The reading must be within specifications (Table 10). ground. If the rectifier is removed, connect the ohm-
3. Replace the stator coil if it does not perform as speci- meter red lead to the rectifier's metal case. Connect
fied. the ohmmeter black lead to the rectifier yellow lead.
4. Leave the stator leads disconnected and perform the Note the ohmmeter reading. Reverse the ohmmeter
stator short-to-ground test as described in the next section. leads and note the reading. The reading must be high
in one polarity and low in the other.
b. Reconnect the ohmmeter red lead to ground. Move
Stator Short-To-Ground Test the ohmmeter black lead to the rectifier yellowlgray
lead. Note the ohmmeter reading. Reverse the ohm-
Perform this test only after performing the Stator resis- meter leads and note the reading. The reading must
tance tests. To perform the stator short-to-ground test, be high in one polarity and low in the other.
proceed as follows: c. If the reading is high in both polarities or low in both
1. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the highest scale available. polarities on any test, the rectifier must be replaced.
Connect the ohmmeter black lead to a clean engine ground. 5. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega-
If the stator is removed, connect the ohmmeter to the tive battery cable last.
stator's metal laminations (mounting screw bore).
2. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to the stator yellow
lead. The meter must read no continuity. If continuity is ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES
noted, inspect the yellow lead for damaged insulation and
The wiring harness used between the ignition switch and
repair if possible. If the lead is not damaged, replace the
stator assembly. Repeat this step for the stator yellowlgray outboard motor is adequate to handle the electrical require-
leads. All stator leads must not have continuity to ground. ments of the outboard motor. It will not handle the electri-
cal requirements of accessories. Whenever an accessory is
3. Reconnect all leads when finished. Connect the nega-
added, run new wiring between the battery and the acces-
tive battery cable last.
sory, and install a separate fuse panel on the instrument
panel.
Rectifier Ohmmeter Test If the ignition switch requires replacement, never install
(Unregulated 6 Amp Models) an automotive-type switch. Use only a switch approved for
marine use.
1. To check the positive and negative diodes in the rectifier
(Figure 38), disconnect the negative battery cable. Then
disconnect all of the rectifier leads (red, yellow and yel- WARNING SYSTEMS
lowlgray) from the terminal strip.
Two types of warning systems are used on the models
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale to test
diodes. covered in this manual. The 1995 engines are intended to
be used with traditional wiring harnesses, which use only a
3. To check the positive diodes in the rectiiier, proceed as
warning horn. The 1996-2002 engines are intended to be
follows:
used with the Modular Wiring Harness (MWS) and the
a. Connect the ohmmeter red lead to the rectifier red
system check engine monitoring gauge which uses warn-
lead and the ohmmeter black lead to the rectifier
ing lights and a warning horn.
yellow lead. Note the ohmmeter reading. Reverse the
Adaptor kits are available from OMC Genuine Parts to
ohmmeter leads and note the reading. The reading
must be high in one polarity and low in the other. allow the use of theMWS and systemcheck gauge on 1995
models and to allow the use of a traditional wiring harness
b. Reconnect the ohmmeter red lead to the rectifier red
on 1996-2002models. For additional information, refer to
lead and move the ohmmeter black lead to the recti-
Wiring Harnesses located in this chapter.
fier yellowlgray lead. Note the ohmmeter reading.
Reverse the ohmmeter leads and note the reading.
The reading must be high in one polarity and low in Tkaditional Wiring Harness
the other. (1995 Models)
c. If the reading is high in both polarities or low in both
polarities on any test, replace the rectifier. The warning system used on 1995models equipped with
4. To check the negative diodes in the rectifier, proceed as a traditional wiring harness provides the operator with
follows: audible warning signals only. The system can warn the

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CHAPTER THREE

operator of engine overheat, oil pump failure (no oil) and 6. On all models except the 90" V4 (cross-flow) models,
low oil level in the remote oil tank. Each warning signal is a blocking diode is used in the engine harness tan lead to
unique, and must be correctly identified by the operator. prevent the horn's self-test and other warning signals from
The four signals produced by the warning horn are as activating the SLOW (Speed Limiting Overheat Warning)
follows: program in the power pack (ignition module). The SLOW
system must only activate if the engine is actually over-
NOTE heating and the temperature switch is closed, shorting the
The no oil and low oil warning signals only tan lead to ground. The diode is positioned in the tan lead,
apply to engines equipped with an oil injec- near the large, red, 10-pin main harness connector. Testing
tion system. of the blocking diode is covered in the appropriate Ignition
section of this chapter. Refer to the end of the book for
1. Engine overheat-An overheating engine will produce
wiring diagrams.
a constant horn signal. I f the overheat signal occurs, reduce
engine speed to idle and check the water discharge indica-
tor for a steady stream of water, indicating that the water Testing the warning horn 1
pump is operating. If adequate water discharge is not noted
at the discharge indicator, shift the gearcase into reverse The warning horn must sound whenever the horn's tan
and briefly apply throttle to clear any debris that may be lead is grounded and the ignition switch is in the ON or
covering the water intake screens. I f the overheat signal is RUN position. To prevent possible power head damage,
still sounding, andlor water discharge is not noted at the test the warning horn at the beginning of each boating
discharge indicator, stop the engine and allow it to cool.
season and periodically during the season. The horn is
Then, determine and correct the cause of the overheat
most quickly tested at the engine temperature switch,
condition.
located near the top of the cylinder head on all models.
2. No oil (oil pump failure&If the motion sensor in the
oil injection pump detects that the oil pump is not pumping The warning horn's black lead is only needed for the
oil, the warning system will produce an urgent, pulsing self-test function and only indicates that the switch is
horn. The engine must be immediately stopped and the receiving power and ground. The following test makes sure
remote oil tank's oil level checked. I f the oil level in the that the boat and engine harness's tan lead has continuity
remote oil tank is satisfactory,the engine must be operated and that the warning horn will sound if the tan lead is
on a premixed 50: 1 ratio fudoil mixture until the cause of grounded. To manually test the warning horn, refer to the
the warning can be determined. Refer to Chapter Eleven end of the book for wiring diagrams and proceed as fol-
for oil injection system troubleshooting procedures. lows:
3. Low oil level-This warning is indicated by a single
beep of the horn, approximately once every 40 seconds. A NOTE
float switch in the remote oil tank activates the warning A temperature switch is used on each cylin-
program in the oil tank whenever the oil level drops to der head. Test both switches in the following
procedure. Models equipped with QuikStart
approximately 113to 114 of the tank capacity. The warning (Table 12) use a switch with two leads on one
circuits in the oil tank hold the tank's tan lead to the tank's cylinder head.
black lead briefly every 40 seconds, sounding the horn. The
horn will continue to sound once every 40 seconds, until 1. Disconnect both cylinder head temperature switches at
the oil tank is refilled. the one-pin Amphenol connector, bullet connector or two-
4. Self-test-The warning horn performs a brief self-test pin Amphenol connector. On some models the connector
each time the key is turned to the ON or RUN position. The is under the electrical component access cover on the
self-test sounds a single beep of the warning horn. If the starboard side of the cylinder block.
self-test does not occur, check the warning horn's purple
2. Turn the ignition (key) switch to the ON or RUN
lead for battery voltage (whenever the ignition switch is in
position.
the RUN or ON position) and the black lead for continuity
to the negative battery terminal (at all times). 3. Using a suitable jumper wire, alternately hold the en-
5. The warning horn must sound whenever the horn's tan gine harness end of each tan lead to a good engine ground.
lead is grounded and the ignition switch is in the ON or The warning horn must sound continuously as long as each
RUN position. The tan lead does not affect the self-test tan lead is held to ground.
unless it is shorted to ground. I f the tan lead is shorted to 4A. If the horn does not sound, but the key-on self-test
ground the horn will sound continuously whenever the sounds normally, one of the following has occurred:
ignition switch is in the ON or RUN position. a. The blocking diode has failed in an open circuit.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 67

b. The tan lead has an open circuit between the engine visual and audible warning signals. The system can warn
temperature switch and the warning horn. This in- the operator of engine overheat, oil pump failure (no oil)
cludes the large, red, 10-pin main harness connector, and low oil level in the oil tank. If a warning occurs, one
the blocking diode (if equipped) and the boat wiring of four light emitting diodes (LEDs) will illuminate on the
harness. System Check gauge (Figure 41) and the warning horn
c. The warning horn has failed (not likely, if the self- will sound continuously for 10 seconds. This warning
test functions). system allows positive identification of the engine system
4B. If the horn does not sound and the key-on self test does that caused the warning, with no interpretation of warning
not sound, one of the following has occurred: signals required by the operator. The warning LED will
a. The warning horn has failed. stay illuminated for 30 seconds after the problem is cor-
b. The warning horn is not receiving battery voltage rected, allowing easy identification of intermittent prob-
through its purple lead when the ignition switch is lems.
in the ON or run position. Test the purple lead and
repair or replace it as necessary. NOTE
c. The warning horn black lead is not properly The Check Engine LED, while present in all
grounded. Test the black lead for continuity back to gauges, is not functional on V4 engines.
the negative battery terminal. Clean and tighten the These engines do not incorporate a sensor
connections, or repair or replace the ground circuit for the check engine LED. Additionally, the
low oil and no oil LEDs only function on
(boat harness black lead) as necessary. engines equipped with an oil injection sys-
5. Turn the ignition switch OFF and reconnect all leads tem.
when fhshed.
All control of the warning horn, the gauge's LEDs and
System Check Engine Monitor the system's self-test function, is contained in the System
Check Engine Monitor gauge.
The warning system used on 1996-1998 models Separate leads are used to carry the signal from the
equipped with the modular wiring system (MWS) and the engine mounted and remote oil tank sensors to the system
system check engine monitor provides the operator with check gauge through an eight-pin Deutsch connector (4,
Figure 42). The engine temperature overheat signal is
carried by the tan lead, the oil injection pump's no oil signal

@ is carried by the tadyellow lead and the oil tank's low oil
signal is carried by the tadblack lead. On V6 and V8
models, the vacuum switch's check engine signal is carried
by the tadorange lead. Each sending unit will connects its
SYSTEM CHECK GAUGE lead to ground if a problem is noted.
On V4 models, the MWS boat harness contains a tanlor-
ange lead (that controls the check engine LED on V6 and
V8 models), but the engine harness does not contain a
tanlorange lead (or a vacuum switch).

NOTE
A temperature switch is used on each cylin-
der head. Test both switches must be tested
in thefollo~dngprocedure.Models equipped
with QuikStart (Table 12) use a switch with
two leads on one cylinder head.

The remaining leads in the eight-pin connector are:


ground (black lead), key-switched battery voltage (purple
lead), tachometer signal from the engine (gray lead) and
warning horn control (tadblue lead).
The warning horn uses only two leads. The purple lead
supplies key-switched battery voltage to the horn and the

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CHAPTER THREE

tanhlue lead is grounded by the system check gauge to 2. Warning horn does not sound for 1/2 second-If the
sound the horn. LEDs also do not illuminate, go back and complete Step 1
before proceeding. If the LEDs illuminate, but the horn
CAUTION does not sound, proceed as follows:
A warning horn must be connected to the a. Disconnect the eight-pin Deutsch connector (4, Fig-
purple and tanhlue two-pin Deutsch con- ure 42) from the system check gauge. Turn the
nector (3, Figure 42), regardless of whether
ignition switch to the ON or RUN position. Using a
a system check gauge or the audible driver
module (part No. 176458) is used. suitable jumper lead, ground the connector's
tanlblue lead (pin No. 8) to the black lead (pin No.
On all models except 90" V4 cross-flow models, a block- 2). If the warning horn sounds, replace the system
ing diode is used in the engine harness tan lead to prevent check gauge. If the warning horn does not sound,
the system's self-test and other electrical signals from leave the gauge disconnected and proceed.
activating the SLOW (speed limiting overheat warning) b. Disconnect the warning horn from its two-pin
program in the power pack. The SLOW program must only Deutsch connector (3, Figure 42). Test the tadblue
activate if the engine is actually overheating. The diode is lead for continuity between the warning horn (two-
positioned near the six-pin Deutsch System Check harness pin) and gauge (eight-pin) Deutsch connectors (3
connector. Testing of the blocking diode is covered in the and 4, Figure 42). If continuity is not noted, repair
appropriate Ignition section of this chapter. or replace the tadblue lead (and/or connectors) as
necessary. When finished, reconnect the eight-pin
Deutsch connector to the gauge.
Self-test mode c. Test the two-pin Deutsch connector's (3, Figure 42)
purple lead (on the wiring harness side) for battery
The self-test function activates each time the key is voltage whenever the ignition switch is in the ON or
turned to the ON or RUN position. The electronics in the RUN position. Repair or replace the purple lead, 20
gauge will sound the warning horn for 112 second and amp fuse andlor ignition switch as necessary. Recon-
illuminate all four gauge LEDs, then turn off each LED in nect the two-pin Deutsch connector when finished.
sequence each time the ignition switch is turned to the ON d. If at this point, the warning horn will not sound for
or RUN position. Each self-test makes sure the warning a 112 second during the self-test, replace the warning
horn and all LEDs are functioning, and that the electronic horn.
control circuits in the gauge are operating correctly.

NOTE Operational mode


I f the battery voltage at the gauge drops
below 7 volts, the gauge may re-enter self- The operational mode is entered each time the self-test
test mode. mode is completed and the gauge receives a tachometer
If the gauge does not self-test correctly, refer to Figure signal from the engine. The warning horn control circuits
42 and proceed as follows: will not be enabled until the gauge receives at least a 1000
1. LED(s) does not illuminate-If one to three of the rpm tachometer signal. In this mode, when a sensor acti-
LEDs do not illuminate, the gauge is defective and must vates (is shorted to ground), the appropriate LED will
be replaced. If all four LEDs do not illuminate, proceed as illuminate and the warning horn will sound for 10 seconds.
follows: The LED will illuminate for a minimum of 30 seconds,
a. Test the purple lead at the gauge's eight-pin Deutsch even if the problem only occurred momentarily. This al-
connector (4, Figure 42) for battery voltage with the lows easy identification of intermittent warning signals.
ignition switch is in the ON or RUN position. Repair However, the LED will remain illuminated as long as the
or replace the purple lead, 20 amp fuse and/or igni- sensor remains activated. When the sensor deactivates
tion switch as necessary. (opens from ground), the LED will remain illuminated for
b. Test the black lead at the gauge's eight-pin Deutsch an additional 30 seconds.
connector for continuity back to the negative battery If an additional sensor activates, the warning horn will
terminal. Repair or replace the black lead as neces- again sound for 10 seconds and the appropriate LED will
sary. illuminate as described in the previous paragraph. On V4
c. I f the purple lead indicates battery voltage and the models, it is possible to have three LEDs illuminated at the
black lead indicates continuity, replace the system same time. On V6 and V8 models, it is possible to have all
check gauge. four LEDs illuminated at the same time.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 69

If the warning system activates under operation, identify the gearcase into reverse and briefly apply throttle to clear
-
which LED is illuminated and refer to the followinp;: any debris that may be covering the water intake screens.
If the water temp LED is still-illuminated, and/or water
1. Water Temp-lf the overheat signal occurs during op-
discharge is not noted at the tell-tale indicator, stop the
eration, reduce the engine speed to idle and check the water
engine, allow it to cool, then determine and correct the
discharge (tell-tale) indicator for a steady stream of water,
cause of the overheat condition.
indicating that the water pump is operating correctly. If
adequatewater discharge is not noted at the tell-tale indi- 2. No oil-If the motion sensor in the oil injection pump
cator, make sure that the boat has come off plane, then shift detects that the oil pump is not pumping oil, the no oil LED

OMC MODULAR WIRING SYSTEM


(MWS) HARNESS

1. Modular wiring harness


2. Engine connectors (Deutsch)
3. Warning horn Deutsch connector
4. System check gauge Deutsch connector
5. Traditional tachometer ring terminals
6. Trimhilt gauge ring terminals
7. Trimhilt switch Deutsch connector
8. Ignition switch Deutsch connector

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CHAPTER THREE

will illuminate and the warning horn will sound. If this the tan lead between the engine harness Amphenol
occurs, immediately stop the engine and check the oil level (or bullet) connector and the system check gauge
in the remote tank. If the tank contains sufficient oil, eight-pin Deutsch connector (4, Figure 42). This
operate the engine on a 50:1fueYoil mixture until the cause includes the blocking diode on models so equipped.
of the warning can be determined.Refer to Chapter Eleven 2. No oil-Proceed as follows:
for oil injection troubleshooting procedures. a. Disconnect the oil injection pump (Figure 43) from
3. Low Oil-A float switch in the remote oil tank activates the engine harness four-pin Amphenol connector.
this LED and the gauge will sound the horn if the oil level The harness leaves the pump at the very back of the
drops to approximately 113to 114of the tank's full capacity. Pump.
The LED will remain illuminated until the oil tank is b. Using a suitablejumper wire, connect the tanlyellow
refilled. lead (pin A) to the black lead (pin B) on the engine
4. Check Engine (V6 and V8 models)-A vacuum switch harness side of the connector.
connected to the fuel supply line going to the VR02 pump c. The No oil LED must illuminate as long as the
unit activates this LED and the gauge will sound the horn tanlyellow lead is connected to the black lead. If not,
if the vacuum in the fuel supply line exceeds 5-6 in.-hg. test the black lead for continuity to the negative
(16.9-20.3 kPa [switches with black housings]) or 6.5-7.5 battery terminal. Repair or replace the black lead as
in.-hg. (22-25.3 kPa [switches with gray housings]). necessary.
d. If the black lead tests satisfactorily, repair or replace
the tanlyellow lead between the four-pin Amphenol
Diagnostic Mode connector and the system check gauge eight-pin
Deutsch connector (4, Figure 44).
The system also features a diagnostic mode. Enter the
3. Low oil--Gain access to the remote oil tank, then
diagnostic mode by turning the ignition switch to the ON
proceed as follows:
or RUN position, but without actually starting the engine.
a. Remove four Tom head screws securing the oil
The gauge will go through its self-testmode, then automat-
pickup assembly to the remote oil tank.
ically enter diagnostic mode. In this mode, the warning
b. Lift the oil pickup assembly from the tank while
horn circuits are disabled. When a sensor is activated, the observing the gauge.
appropriate LED will illuminate only as long as the sensor c. The low oil LED must illuminatewhen the oil pickup
is activated. is llfted high enough to cause the float switch to drop.
If not, disconnect the oil tank two-pin Deutsch con-
NOTE
Do not attempt to use the diagnostic mode nector from the engine harness. Connect a suitable
unless the self-test mode has satisfactorily jumper lead between the tanlblack and black leads
activated. Refer to the end of the book for of the engine harness side of the connector. If the
wiring diagrams. LED now illuminates, repair or replace the oil
pickup leads or replace the pickup as an assembly.
This mode allows you to manually ground the sensors d. If the LED does not illuminate after connecting the
or sensor leads to quickly venfy that the wiring harness jumper lead in the previous step, test the black lead
and gauge are functioning correctly. To test the wiring for continuity from the engine harness side of the oil
harness warning circuits, turn the ignition switch to the ON tank's two-pin Deutsch connector to the negative
or RUN position, verify that the self-test successfully battery terminal. Repair or replace the black lead as
activated and completed, then proceed as follows: necessary.
1. Water temp-Proceed as follows: e. If the black lead tests satisfactorily, repair or replace
a. Disconnect both engine temperature switches at the tanhlack lead between the engine harness side
their one-pin Arnphenol connector, bullet connec- of the oil tank's two-pin Deutsch connector and the
tors or two-pin Amphenol connector. On some mod- System Check gauge eight-pin Deutsch connector.
els, the connectormay be located under the electrical 4. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position and recon-
componentaccess cover on the port side of the power nect all leads when finished.
head.
b. Using a suitable jumper wire, alternately hold the Audible driver module
engine harness end of each tan lead to a good engine
ground. If a system check gauge was not installed when the boat
c. The water temp LED must illuminate as long as each was rigged, an audible driver module must have been
tan lead is held to ground. If not, repair or replace installed in its place. The audible driver module will pro-

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TROUBLESHOOTING

vide only audible signals; there will be no LEDs. Because constant horn signal occurs during operation, reduce the
the LEDs are not present, some interpretation of the warn- engine speed to idle and check the water discharge (tell-
ing horn signals is required on the operator's part. The tale) indicator for a steady stream of water. If adequate
module plugs into the eight-pin Deutsch connector, replac- water discharge is not noted at the tell-tale indicator, make
ing the gauge. The warning signals are as follows: surethat the boat has come off plane, then shift the gearcase
into reverse and briefly apply the throttleto clear any debris
NOTE that may be covering the water intake screens. If water
A constant warning horn and the activation discharge is still not noted at the discharge indicator, stop
of SLOW (speed limiting operational warn- the engine, allow it to cool and determine and repair the
ing) means an overheat situation on all mod- cause of the overheat condition. A float switch in the
els (that are equipped with the SLOWsystem). engine mounted oil reservoir also activates the warning
horn continuously whenever the oil level drops to approxi-
1A. Engine overheat and low oil level (90' V4 [cross-flow] mately 113 to 114 of the tank's full capacity. The float
models)--An overheating engine andlor low oil level in switch holds the tank's tadblack (or tan) lead to the tank's
the oil tank will produce a constant horn signal. If the black lead, sounding the horn until the tank is refilled.

SPARK TESTER INSTALLATION

lgnition coil
lgnitlon coil Ignition coil Ignition coil
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4

High tension

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72 CHAPTER THREE

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TROUBLESHOOTING

1B. Engine overheat and low oil level (90" V4 [loop- tank's tadblack (or tan) lead to the tank's black lead,
charged models)-An overheating engine andor low oil sounding the horn until the tank is refilled
level in the oil tank will produce a constant horn signal.
NOTE
However, if the engine is overheating, the SLOW (speed
limiting overheat warning) system will engage and speed Zfthe boat is operated in rough watel; the oil
sloshing in the oil tank may cause the$oat
will be limited to approximately 2000-3000 rpm. switch to open and close, resulting in an
If a constant horn signal occurs (and the SLOW system intermittent warning horn signal. Do not
engages) during operation, reduce the engine speed to idle confuse this signal with the consistentlypuls-
and check the water discharge (tell-tale) indicator for a ing no oil signal.
steady stream of water, indicating that the water pump is
operating correctly. If adequate water discharge is not 2. Oil pump failure-If the motion sensor in the oil injec-
noted at the tell-tale indicator, make sure that the boat has tion pump detects that the oil pump is not pumping oil, the
come off plane, then shift the gearcase into reverse and warning system will produce an urgent, pulsing horn. The
briefly apply the throttle to clear any debris that may be engine must be immediately stopped and the remote oil
covering the water intake screens. If water discharge is still tank's oil level checked. If the oil level in the remote oil
not noted at the discharge indicator, stop the engine, allow tank is satisfactory, the engine must be operated on a
it to cool and determine and repair the cause of the overheat premixed 50:l ratio fuelloil mix until the cause of the
condition. warning can be determined. Refer to Chapter Eleven for
oil injection system troubleshooting procedures.
I f a constant horn signal occurs (and the SLOW system
3. Self-test-The audible driver module sounds the warn-
does not engage), the float switch in the engine-mounted
ing horn as part of a brief self-test each time the key is
oil reservoir can also activate the warning horn continu-
turned to the ON or RUN position. The self-test sounds a
ously whenever the oil tank's oil level drops to approxi- single beep of the warning horn. If the self-test does not
mately 113 to 114 of the tank's full capacity. The float occur, refer to Troubleshooting the audible driver module
switch holds the tank's tanlblack (or tan) lead to the tank's in the next section.
black lead, sounding the horn until the tank is refilled
1C. Engine overheat and low oil level (V6 and V8 mod-
els)-An overheating engine andor low oil level in the oil Troubleshooting the audible driver module
tank andlor a restricted fuel supply will produce a constant
horn signal. If the audible driver module does not self-test correctly,
If a constant horn signal occurs (and the SLOW system proceed as follows:
engages) during operation, reduce the engine speed to idle 1. Test the purple lead at the module's eight-pin Deutsch
and check the water discharge (tell-tale) indicator for a connector for battery voltage whenever the ignition switch
is in the ON or RUN position. Repair or replace the purple
steady stream of water, indicating that the water pump is
lead, 20-amp fuse andor ignition switch as necessary.
operating correctly. I f adequate water discharge is not
2. Test the black lead at the module's eight-pin Deutsch
noted at the tell-tale indicator, make sure that the boat has
connector for continuity back to the negative battery ter-
come off plane, then shift the gearcase into reverse and
minal. Repair or replace the black lead as necessary.
briefly apply the throttle to clear any debris that may be
3. Turn the ignition switch to the ON or RUN position.
covering the water intake screens. If water discharge is still
Using a suitable jumper lead, ground the connector's
not noted at the discharge indicator, stop the engine, allow tadblue lead (pin No. 8) to the black lead (pin No. 2). If
it to cool and determine and repair the cause of the overheat the warning horn sounds, replace the audible driver mod-
condition. ule. If the warning horn does not sound, leave the module
I f a constant horn signal occur (and the SLOW system disconnected and proceed to Step 4.
does not engage) during operation, reduce the engine speed 4. Disconnect the warning horn from its two-pin Deutsch
to idle. If the warning horn ceases to sound, a fuel restric- connector.Test the tadblue lead for continuity between the
tion is present in the fuel supply line. Troubleshoot the fuel warning horn (two-pin) and module (eight-pin) Deutsch
supply system as described later in this chapter. connectors. I f continuity is not noted, repair or replace the
I f a constant horn signal occurs (and the SLOW system tan/bIue lead (andor connectors) as necessary. When fm-
does not engage) and the horn remains on after the engine ished, reconnect the eight-pin Deutsch connector to the
speed is reduced to idle, the float switch in the engine audible driver module.
mounted oil reservoir can also activate the warning horn 5. Test the two-pin Deutsch connector's purple lead (on
continuously if the oil level drops to approximately 1/3 to the wiring hamess side) for battery voltage whenever the
114 of the tank's full capacity. The float switch holds the ignition switch is in the ON or RUN position. Repair or

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CHAPTER THREE

replace the purple lead, 20-amp fuse andor ignition switch 4. Do not crank the engine if the power pack unit is not
as necessary. Reconnect the two-pin Deutsch connector grounded to the power head.
when finished. 5. Do not touch or disconnect any ignition component
6. If at this point, the warning horn will not sound a single while the engine is running, while the key switch is ON or
beep during the self-test, replace the warning horn. while the battery cables are connected.
6. If the outboard motor must be run without the battery
IGNITION SYSTEM connected, disconnect the charging system rectifier or
voltage regulatorlrectifier leads at the terminal block. Tape
The wiring harness used between the ignition switch and each wire separately to prevent contact with each other or
engine is adequate to handle the electrical requirements of the engine ground.
the outboard motor; however, it will not handle the electri-
cal needs of accesories that may be installed. Whenever an
accessory is added, run new wiring between the battery and Troubleshooting Preparation
the accessory, and install a separate fuse panel on the
instrument panel. 1. Check the wiring harness and all plug-in connectors to
make sure all connectors are tight, free of corrosion and
If the ignition (key) switch should fail, never install an
the wiring insulation is in good condition.
automotive type switch. A marine-grade switch must al-
ways be used. 2. Check all of the electrical components that are
grounded to the engine for good, clean connections.
3. Make sure that all ground wires are properly connected
Description and the connections are clean and tight.
All models covered in this manual are equipped with a 4. Check the remainder of the wiring for disconnected
wires and shorted or open circuits.
magneto-powered capacitor discharge ignition (CDI) sys-
tem. The ignition systems and their respective outboard 5. Make sure an adequate supply of fresh fuel is available
models are as follows: to the engine. Make sure the oil and gasoline are properly
a. CD4-65 jet, 80 jet (1995-1997), 85 Backtroller, mixed in the correct proportions on models without oil
88190 Special, 901115hp (90°), 1121115 Special and injection.
130 hp. 6. Check the battery condition on electric start models.
b. CD6200-225 hp. Clean the terminals and recharge the battery if necessary.
c. Optical Ignition System-9011 15 hp (60") and 150- 7. Check the spark plug cable routing. Make sure the
175 hp models. cables are properly connected to their spark plugs.
d. CD8-250-300 hp models. 8. Remove all spark plugs, keeping them in the order
Refer to Chapter Seven for complete ignition system removed.
descriptions. Variations of each ignition system are used
which contain different components and require different WARNING
troubleshooting and serviceprocedures. Be sure to refer to To prevent fire or explosion, do not create
the appropriate procedure in this chapter. General trou- sparks at or near an open spark plug hole in
Step 9 or Step 10.
bleshooting procedures are provided in Table 2.
9. Install a spark tester (Figure43) between the spark plug
Troubleshooting F'recautions wires and a good engine ground. Adjust the spark tester air
gap to 112in. (12.7 mm). Crank the engine while observing
Note the following precautions to avoid damaging the the spark tester. If a good crisp spark jumps at each spark
ignition system. gap, the ignition system is functioning properly. If weak or
1. Do not reverse the battery connections. Reversing bat- no spark is noted, an ignition system malfunction is likely.
tery polarity will destroy the rectifier, voltage regula- 10. If a spark tester is not available, remove each spark
torlrectifier and power pack. plug and reconnect the proper plug cable to one plug. Lay
2. Never spark the battery terminals with the battery cable the plug against the cylinder head so its base makes a good
connections to check polarity. Any sparks or open flame ground connection, then crank the engine while noting the
near the battery can create a serious explosion. spark gap. If a good crisp spark is noted, the ignition
3. Do not disconnect the battery cables while the engine system is functioning properly. If weak or no spark is
is running. noted, an ignition system malfunction is likely.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Required Equipment ters must be recalibrated each time the scale is changed)
and has automatic polarity compensation.
The following test equipment is necessary to test CD An ohmmeter, although useful, is not always a good
ignition components and to prevent unnecessary parts re- indicator of ignition system condition. This is primarily
placement. because resistance tests do not simulate actual operating
1. Peak Reading Voltmeter (PRVhThe manufacturer rec- conditions. For example, the power source in most ohm-
ommends using one of the following units: meters is only 6-9 volts. A CDI charge coil, however,
a. Merc-0-Tronic Model 78 1 commonly produces 100-300 volts during normal opera-
b. Stevens Model CD-77 tion. Such high voltage can cause coil insulation leakage
c. Electro-Specialties Model PRV-1 that can not be detected with an ohmmeter.
Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
NOTE ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
A conventional voltmeter cannot be used in
place of a meter capable of reading peak temperature). Resistance increases approximately 10
volts. ohms per each degree of temperature increase. Therefore,
resistance tests on hot components will indicate increased
A typical PRV is equipped with two test leads-ne red resistance and may result in unnecessary parts replacement
and one black. The test leads have a probe-type end that without solving the basic problem.
can be slipped under the connector sleeves or directly into 4. Stevens Ignition Module Load Adaptel; part No. PL-
an open connector. A plug-in clip connector is also pro- 88-The PL-88 is required to test power pack output. If a
vided with the tester for attaching a test lead onto an engine PL-88 is not available, it can be fabricated using a 10 ohm,
ground. The tester has three voltage scales: 0-5 volts, 0-50 10 watt resistor (Radio Shack part No. 271-132, or equiva-
volts and 0-500 volts. The voltage range is selected by lent).
turning the voltage knob on the meter. The PRV is also 5. Stevens Ignition Coil Terminal Extenders, part No.
equipped with a polarity selector knob to select the sensor TS-77-The terminal extenders are installed between the
polarity of the voltage to be measured. ignition coil primary terminals and primary wires, and are
During testing, if the meter needle swings hard against used to provide a meter connection to the primary circuit
the right-hand side of the scale, immediately d i s c o ~ e cthe
t during the test procedure.
test leads or discontinue the test to prevent damage to the 6. Jumper wires for Amphenol connectors (4 are
PRV. Recheck the meter switch settings or the test connec- needed)--Can be fabricated using 8 in. lengths of 16-
tions. gauge wire. Connect a pin (OMC part No. 5 11469) to one
Slow cranking speed, caused by a weak battery, faulty end of a wire and a socket (OMC part No. 581656) to the
starter motor or other starting system problem can result other end. Insulate both ends with heat shrink tubing
in invalid peak output readings. Make sure the battery is (OMC part No. 510628).
fully charged and the starting system is operating properly. 7. Spark Tester-Stevens part No. S21, S13C or S48 or
Prior to performing peak output tests, make sure the spark Merc-0-Tronic part No. 55-48 or 55-63 are recommended.
plugs are installed and properly torqued. The spark tester is connected between the spark plug leads
and engine ground to check for spark output from the
2. Breakout (junction) box A breakout box comects to a
ignition system.
particular circuit and allows voltage measurements to be
taken while the circuit remains intact. This enables voltage 8. The correct test wheel-See Table 16. It is necessary
output to be measured while the engine is running. Two to run the outboard under load during the power pack
commonly used breakout boxes are: Stevens Model SA-6 running output test.
and Merc-0-Tronic Model 55-861.
3. A suitable ohmmeter capable of measuring low and CAPACITOR DISCHARGE IGNITION
high ranges-A multirneter is generally the most efficient (CDI) TROUBLESHOoTING
and inexpensive instrument for checking resistance, in
addition to voltage and current. Two types of multirneter Several variations of the CD ignition system are used on
are available: analog and digital. outboards covered in this manual. Each variation may
The analog volt-ohmmeter (VOM) has a moving needle contain different components and require different trou-
with marked bands indicating the volt, ohm and amperage bleshooting and service procedures. Be sure to refer to the
scales. The digital multirneter (DVOM) is ideally suited for appropriate procedure in this chapter. See Figure 44 for a
troubleshooting work because it is easy to read, contains diagram of a typical four-cylinder (CD4) ignition system
internal overload protection, is auto-ranging (analog me- showing the major components common to all models.

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CHAPTER THREE

CD4 IGNITION SYSTEM 7. Alternately, connect a timing light to each cylinder. The
TROUBLESHOOTING timing light should indicate the number of the cylinder that
(V4 CROSS FLOW MODELS) is connected to the timing light. For example, if the timing
light is connected to the No. 2 spark plug wire, the No. 2
The CD4 ignition system is used on the V4 cross-flow mark should be visible. In addition, the number should
models 65 Jet, 80 Jet (1995-1997), 85 Backtroller, 881 90 only appear near the timing pointer.
Special, 901115 hp (90°), 1121115 Special and 130 hp. 8. If a different cylinder number appears, or if the number
The major components of the CD4 ignition system used jumps around or appears at other than the timing pointer,
on V4 cross-flow models include the flywheel, charge coil, first make sure the primary ignition wires are properly
four sensor coils, power pack, four ignition coils and connected. The primary wires must be connected as fol-
related wiring. The charge coil is contained inside the lows:
stator assembly and is not serviced separately. The four a. No. 1 coil--orange/blue wire.
sensor coils are contained in the one-piece timer base b. No. 2 coil-orangelpurple wire.
assembly. c. No. 3 coil~rangelgreenwire.
If the outboard motor is very hard or impossible to start, d. No. 4 coil--orangelpink wire.
begin the troubleshooting procedure at Total Output Test. If the primary wires are properly connected, verify wire
If an ignition malfunction is causing an intermittent high- and pin location on all timer base and power pack connec-
speed misfire or erratic operation, refer to Indexing Fly- tors. See the wiring diagrams at end of manual. If wire and
wheel and Running Output Test. Unless specified pin location are correct, replace the power pack.
otherwise, perform the following ignition system tests in
the sequence given. Skipping tests or jumping around the
troubleshootingprocedure can result in misleading results Total Output Test
and unnecessary parts replacement.Test the entire ignition NOTE
system-more than one component may be defective. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark
gap during the total output test, but the en-
gine pops or baclCfires during starting or
Indexing Flywheel running, the ignition system may be out of
time. Make sure the orangehlue primary
If the outboard motor runs erratically, or if a high speed
ignition wire is connected to the No. 1 (top
misfire is noted, the power pack may be defective. Internal starboard) ignition coil, the orange/pulple
power pack malfunctions can cause erratic ignition system wire is connected to the No. 2 coil (topport),
operation. Perform the following procedure to ensure the the orange/greenwire is connected to the No.
power pack is £iring at the correct time. 3 coil (bottom starboard) and the or-
1. Remove the spark plugs. ange/pink wire is connected to the No. 4 coil
2. Position the No. 2 piston at TDC by rotating the fly- (bottom port). Make sure the spark plug
wheel clockwise. Insert a pencil or similar tool into the No.
2 spark plug hole while rotating the flywheel to ensure the
piston is at TDC.
3. With the No. 2 piston at TDC, place a mark on the
flywheel directly across from the timing pointer. Label the
mark No. 2.
4. Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 on the remaining cylinders.
5. Reinstall the spark plugs and connect the plug leads.

CAUTION
The outboard motor must be supplied with
adequate cooling water while running.
Place the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at
high speed while connected to a flushing
device.
6. Start the motor and run it at the speed at which the
problem is evident.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 77

leads are properly connected, theflywheel is the spark tester mounting clip is secured to a good clean
properly located on the crankshaft and the engine ground.
timing and throttle linkage are properly syn- 3. Connect the cutoff clip and lanyard to the emergency
chronized. stop switch, if so equipped.
4. Adjust the spark tester spark gap to 112 in. (12.7 mm).
The total output test will determineif the ignition system 5. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
is capable of delivering adequate spark to the spark plugs. a. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, con-
Perform the output test with the spark plugs installed and tinue testing at Running Output Test in this chapter.
properly tightened. b. If acceptable spark is noted on at least one spark gap,
1. Disconnect the spark plug leads from the spark plugs. continue testing at Sensor Coil Output Test in this
chapter.
2. Mount a suitable spark tester on the engine and connect c. If no spark is noted at any spark gap, continuetesting
the spark plug leads to the tester. See Figure 45. Make sure at Stop Circuit Test in this chapter.

Stop Circuit Test

The following test eliminates the stop circuit as a poten-


tial cause of an ignition malfunction. The stop button, key
switch and lanyard emergency stop switch are connected
to the power pack through the engine wiring harness.
I One-pin stop circuit connector Activating the stop circuit shorts the power pack output to
ground, which disables the ignition system and stops the
engine.
1. Connect a spark tester as described under Total Output
Test.
2. Disconnect the wire one-pin Amphenol stop circuit
connector (black/yellow wire) between the key switch and
power pack. See Figure 46.
3. Crank the engine while noting the spark tester.
a. If good spark is now noted at all gaps, the problem
is in the stop circuit. Test the stop button or key
switch as described in this chapter.
b. If no spark is noted at any gap, test the charge coil
as described in this chapter.
c. If spark is noted on at least one gap, continue at
Sensor Coil Output Test in this chapter.
4. If testing is complete, reconnect the one-pin stop circuit
connector.

Key Switch Ohmmeter Test

If the engine does not stop when the key switch is turned
to OFF, an open circuit is present in the blackJyellow stop
circuit wire, the key switch is defective or the power pack
is defective.
1. Install the cap and lanyard assembly on the emergency
stop switch.
2. Disconnect the black/yellow one-pin stop circuit con-
nector (Figure 46).
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.

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CHAPTER THREE

4. Insert a suitable jumper lead into the key switch end of 1A. 1995 models-Disconnect the brown and brownlyel-
the stop circuit connector (Figure 47). low wire two-pin Amphenol connector between the stator
5. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground assembly and power pack. See Figure 48.
and the jumper lead. 1B. 19962002 models-Disconnect the brownblack and
a. With the key switch in the OFF position, the ohm- brownlwhite wire two-pin Amphenol connector between
meter should indicate low resistance (continuity). If the stator assembly and power pack. See Figure 48.
not, an open circuit is present in the blacWyellow 2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
wire between the stop circuit connector and key 3. Connect the PRV between a good engine ground and al-
switch, or the key switch is defective. ternately to the A and B terminals in the stator end of the
b. With the key switch in the ON position, the ohrnme- two-pin connector. Crank the engine and note the meter at
ter should indicate no continuity. If continuity is each connection.
noted, continue at Step 6. a. Any voltage reading at either terminal indicates the
6 . Disconnect the blacWyellow stop circuit wires from the charge coil or charge coil wires are shorted to
key switch M terminal. See Figure 47. ground. Repair the short or replace the stator assem-
a. If the meter now indicates no continuity, the key bly as necessary.
switch is defective and must be replaced. b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 4.
b. If continuity is still present, continue at Step 7. 4. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal A in the
7. Separate the emergency stop switch wire from the two-pin stator connector. Connect the red test lead to ter-
wiring harness black/yellow wire at the key switch. minal B.
5. Crank the engine while noting the meter. Charge coil
a. If no continuity is now noted, the emergency stop
output should be 150 volts or more.
switch is defective and must be replaced.
a. If output is 150 volts or more, reconnect the two-pin
b. If continuity is still present, check the blacWyellow
connector and continueto Sensor Coil Output Test.
wire for a short to ground and repair as necessary.
b. If output is less than 150 volts, first inspect the
8. If testing is complete, remove any jumper leads and
condition of the charge coil wires and connectors,
reconnect the stop circuit connector.

Stop Button Ohmmeter Test


(Tiller Handle Models)
If the engine does not stop when the stop button is
@ Ohmmeter

depressed, an open circuit is present in the blacWyellow


stop circuit wire from the power pack or the black wire
from the stop button.
1. Discomect the black/yellow one-pin stop circuit con-
nector between the stop button and power pack.
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
3. Connect the red ohmmeter lead to the stop button end
of the stop circuit connector. Connect the black ohmmeter
lead to a good engine ground.
4. The ohmmeter should indicate no continuity with the
stop button not pushed and low resistance continuity when
the button is pushed.
5. If not, the stop button or stop button wire is defective.

Charge Coil Output Test


Perform the following test to ensure the charge coil is
capable of producing sufficient voltage to charge the ca-
pacitor in the power pack and to make sure the charge coil
or charge coil wiring is not shorted to ground. A peak
reading voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform this test.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

and repair as necessary. If the wiring and connectors 5. Next, check the charge coil and wires for shorts to
are in acceptable condition, check charge coil resis- ground. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high4
tance as outlined under Charge Coil Resistance Test ohm scale.
in this chapter. 6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and alternately to the A and B terminals in the stato
two-pin connector. Any continuity between ground an
Charge Coil Resistance Test either terminal indicates the charge coil or charge
wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and repair
Because resistance generally increases with tempera- grounded wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as nece
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room sary. See Chapter Seven.
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will 7. If testing is complete, remove any jumper leads an
indicateincreased resistance and may result in unnecessary reconnect the two-pin connector.
parts replacement without solving the basic problem.
1. Insert suitable jumper leads into the A and B terminals
in the stator two-pin connector. Sensor Coil Output Test
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale. The sensor coil provides a voltage signal to the power
3. Connect the ohmmeter between the jumper leads. pack which triggers power pack output to be directed to
Charge coil resistance should be as follows: the correct ignition coil primary circuit. Perform this test
a. 6 amp charging system-500-620 ohms. to determine if the sensor coil is capable of producing a
b. 9 and 10 amp charging systems--430-530 ohms. sufficient voltage signal, and to ensure the sensor coil or
4. Replace the stator assembly if charge coil resistance is sensor coil wiring is not shorted to ground. A peak reading
not as specified. voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform this test.

Stator and timer base

brownlblack and
brownlwhite

Emergency stop switch

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CHAPTER THREE

1. Disconnect the five-pin Arnphenol connector between a. If output is 0.3 volt or more, reconnect the timer base
the timer base and power pack. See Figure 49. five-pin connector and continue at Power Pack Out-
2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 5 (or SEN put Test.
and 5 if using Stevens CD-77). b. If output is less than 0.3 volt, check the condition of
the timer base wiring and connectors and repair as
3. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine necessary. If the wiring and connectors are in accept-
ground. Alternately, connect the red PRV test lead to each able condition, check sensor coil resistance as out-
timer bdse terminal in the five-pin connector. Crank the lined under Sensor Coil Resistance Test.
engine and note the meter at each connection.
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted sensor coil
or sensor coil wire(s). Repair the shorted wire(s) as Sensor Coil Resistance Test
necessary or replace the timer base assembly.
b. If no voltage reading is noted, continue to Step 4. Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
4. Connect the black PRV test lead to the timer base temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
connector terminal E. Connect the red test lead to terminal indicate increased resistance and may result in unnecessary
A. parts replacement without solving the basic problem. The
5. Crank the engine while observing the meter. ohmmeter should be calibrated on the R x 1000 or high-
ohm scale when checking for a grounded condition.
6. Alternately connect the red test lead to each remaining
sensor coil terminal in the timer base connector. Crank the 1. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
engine and note the meter at each connection. Sensor coil 2. Connect the black ohmmeter lead to the timer base
output at each terminal should be 0.3 volt or more. terminal E in the five-pin connector.

@
Stator and

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TROUBLESHOOTING

3. Alternately, connect the red ohmmeter lead to each A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevensload adapt-
remaining timer base terminal in the five-pin connector. er (part No. PL-88) arenecessaryto test power packoutput.
Note the meter reading at each connection. 1. Disconnect the primary wires from each ignition coil.
4. Sensor coil resistance should be 30-50 ohms at each 2. Connect the primary wire from the No. 1 coil (or-
connection. If not, replace the timer base assembly. See angerblue) to the red lead of the PL-88 load adapter.
Chapter Seven. Connect the black load adapter lead to a good engine
5. Next, calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high- ground. See Figure 50.
ohm scale. 3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the red load adapter
6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
lead. C o ~ e c the
t black PRV test lead to a good engine
and alternately to each timer base terminal in the five-pin
ground.
connector. Any continuity between ground and any timer
5. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Power
base terminal indicates a short to ground. Inspect the
pack output should be 150 volts or more.
condition of the timer base wires and repair as necessary
or replace the timer base assembly. See Chapter Seven. 6. Repeat Steps 2-5 on the primary wire to each remaining
ignition coil. Output should be 150 volts or more at each
7. If testing is complete, remove any jumper leads and primary wire.
reconnect the five-pin connector. a. If output is 150 volts or more at each primary wire,
test ignition coil resistance as outlined in this chap-
ter.
Power Pack Output Test
b. If no output is noted at one or more primary wires,
replace the power pack. See Chapter Seven. I
WARNING
7. If testing is complete, remove the PL-88 load adapter I

To prevent accidental starting, remove the


spark plug leads from the spark plugs. Se- and reconnect the primary wires to the ignition coils. Make
curely gmund the plug leads to the power sure the orangelblue wire is attached to the No. 1 coil, the
head, or connect the leads to a spark testel: orangelpurple wire is attached to the No. 2 coil, the or-
angelgreen wire is attached to the No. 3 coil and the
orangelpink wire is attached to the No. 4 coil.

Running Output Test


Ground

voltmeter A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens Terminal


Extenders (part No. TS-77) are necessary to perform the
running output test. Running the outboard under load is
often necessary to locate the cause of an intermittent
malfunction or high-speed misfire, especially if good spark
is noted during the Total Output Test.Remove the propeller
and install the correct test wheel (Table 16) prior to per-
forming the test.

CAUTION
The outboard motor must be supplied with
adequate cooling water while running. Zn-
stall the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
the water: Do not attempt to run the motor at
high speed while connected to a flushing
device.

1. Remove the primary wires from each ignition coil.


2. Install a Stevens Terminal Extender (part No. TS-77)
on each coil primary terminal. Connect the primary wires
to the terminal extenders. Make sure the orangelblue pri-
mary wire is attached to the No. 1 ignition coil, the or-
angelpurple wire is attached to the No. 2 ignition coil, the

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CHAPTER THREE

orangelgreen wire is attached to the No. 3 ignition coil and 8. Replace the coil if resistance is not as specified.
the orangelpink wire is attached to the No. 4 ignition coil. 9. To check the spark plug leads, calibrate the ohmmeter
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. on R x 1 or low-ohm scale. Connect the ohmmeter to each
4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the terminal extender end of the lead and note the meter. The resistance should
attached to the No. 1 ignition coil. Connect the black test be nearly zero ohm.
lead to a good engine ground.
5. Start the engine and run at the speed at which the
malfunction is evident while observing the meter. Running RPM Limiting Power Pack
output should be 230 volts or more.
Power packs marked CDL are equipped with an internal
6. Move the red PRV lead to the terminal extender at-
tached to the No. 2 ignition coil and repeat Step 5. Note rpm limiting device designed to prevent power head dam-
the meter reading. age from overspeeding. On models so equipped, the power
7. Move the red PRV lead to the tenninal extender at- pack interrupts ignition if engine speed exceeds 6800 rpm.
tached to the No. 3 ignition coil. Repeat Step 5 while noting Be certain the correct power pack is used if replacement is
the meter. necessary.
8. Move the red PRV test lead to the terminal extender
attached to the No. 4 ignition coil. Repeat Step 5 while CD4 IGNITION SYSTEM
noting the meter. TROUBLESHOOTING
a. If output is less than specified (Step 5) on one or (130 HP V4 LOOP CHARGED MODELS)
more ignition coils, test the charge coil as described
in this chapter. If the charge coil is in acceptable The major components of the CD 4 ignition system used
condition, replace the power pack. on V4 loop charged 130 hp models include the flywheel,
b. If no output is noted at one or more ignition coils, charge coil, power coil, eight sensor coils, power pack, four
test the sensor coils as described in this chapter. If ignition coils, two temperature switches and related wir-
the sensor coils are in acceptable condition, replace ing.
the power pack. The charge coil and power coil are contained inside the
9. If testing is complete, remove the terminal extenders stator assembly and are not serviced separately. The power
and reconnect the primary wires to their respective ignition coil is used to provide voltage for QuikStart and SLOW
coils. operation. The eight sensor coils are contained in a one-
piece timer base assembly and are not serviced separately.
Ignition Coil Resistance Test Four sensor coils are used for QuikStart operation and four
are used for ignition.
Because resistance generally increases with tempera- If the outboard motor is very hard or impossible to start,
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine at room begin the troubleshooting procedure at Total Output Test
temperature (70" F [21° C]). Resistance tests on hot com- in this chapter. If an ignition malfunction is causing an
ponents will indlcate increased resistance and may result intermittent high-speed misfire or erratic operation, refer
in unnecessary parts replacement without solving the basic to Indexing Flywheel and Running Output Test in this
problem. Ignition coil resistance can be checked without chapter. Unless specified otherwise, perform the following
coil removal. ignition system tests in the sequence given. Skipping tests
1. Remove the primary wires and the spark plug wires or jumping around the troubleshooting procedure can re-
from the ignition coil assembly. sult in misleading results and unnecessary parts replace-
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1 or low-ohm scale. ment. Test the entire ignition system-more than one
3. To check primary winding resistance, connect the black component may be defective.
ohmmeter lead to a good engine ground or to the coil
ground tab if the coil is removed. Connect the red ohmme-
ter lead to the coil primary terminal. Indexing Flywheel
4. Primary resistance should be 0.05-0.15 ohm.
5. To check secondary winding resistance, calibrate the If the outboard motor runs erratically, or if a high-speed
ohmmeter on the R x 100 or high-ohm scale. Connect the misfire is noted, the power pack may be defective. Internal
red ohmmeter lead to the coil primary terminal and the power pack malfunctions can cause erratic ignition system
black lead to the spark plug terminal. operation. Perform the following procedure to ensure the
6. Secondary resistance should be 225-325 ohms. power pack is firing at the correct time.
7. Repeat Steps 3-6 on each remaining coil. 1. Remove the spark plugs.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

2. Position the No. 2 piston at TDC by rotating the fly- properly connected, the flywheel is properly
wheel clockwise. Insert a pencil or similar tool into the No. located on the crankshaft and the timing and
2 spark plug hole while rotating the flywheel to ensure the throttle linkage are properly synchronized.
piston is at TDC.
3. With the No. 2 piston at TDC, place a mark on the The total output test determines if the ignition system is
flywheel directly across from the timing pointer. Label the capable of delivering adequate spark to the spark plugs.
mark No. 2. Perform the output test with the spark plugs installed and
4. Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 on the remaining cylinders. properly tightened.
5. Reinstall the spark plugs and connect the plug leads. 1. Disconnect the spark plug leads from the spark plugs.
2. Mount a suitable spark tester on the engine and connect
CAUTION the spark plug leads to the tester. See Figure 45. Make sure
The outboard motor must be supplied with the spark tester mounting clip is secured to a good, clean
adequate cooling water while running. engine ground.
Place the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at 3. Connect the cutoff clip and lanyard to the emergency
high speed while connected to a flushing stop switch, if so equipped.
device. 4. Adjust the spark tester spark gap to 7/16 in. (11.1 mrn).
6. Start the motor and run it at the speed at which the 5. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
problem is evident. a. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, con-
7. Alternately,connect a timing light to each cylinder. The tinue testing at Running Output Test in this chapter.
timing light should indicatethe number of the cylinder that b. If acceptable spark is noted on at least one spark gap,
is connected to the timing light. For example, if the timing continue testing at Sensor Coil Output Test in this
light is connected to the No. 2 spark plug wire, the No. 2 chapter.
mark should be visible. In addition, the number should c. If no spark is noted at any spark gap, continue testing
only appear near the timing pointer. at Stop Circuit Test in this chapter.
8. If a different cylinder number appears, or if the number
jumps around or appears at other than the timing pointer,
first make sure the primary ignition wires are properly Stop Circuit Test
connected. The primary wires must be connected as fol-
lows: The following test eliminates the stop circuit as a poten-
a. No. 1 coil-orange/blue wire. tial cause of an ignition malfunction. The stop button, key
b. No. 2 coil-orangelpurple wire. switch and lanyard emergency stop switch are connected
c. No. 3 coil-orangelgreen wire. to the power pack through the engine wiring harness.
d. No. 4 coil-orangelpink wire. Activating the stop circuit shorts the power pack output to
If the primary wires are properly connected, verify wire ground, which disables the ignition system and stops the
and pin locations on all timer base and power pack con- engine.
nectors. See the wiring diagrams at end of manual. If wire 1. Connect a spark tester as described under Total Output
and pin location are correct, replace the power pack. Test.
2. Disconnect the blacklyellow wire one-pin Amphenol
Total Output Test stop circuit connector between the key switch and power
pack. See Figure 51.
NOTE 3. Crank the engine while noting the spark tester.
If acceptable spark is noted at each spark a. If good spark is now noted at all gaps, the problem
gap during the total output test, but the en-
gine pops or bac@res during starting or is in the stop circuit. Test the key switch as described
running, the ignition system may be out of in this chapter.
time. Make sure the orangehlue primary b. If no spark is noted at any gap, test the charge coil
ignition wire is connected to the No. 1 (top) as described in this chapter.
ignition coil, the orange/purple wire is con-
c. If spark is noted on at least one gap, continue at
nected to the No. 2 coil, the orange/green
wire is connected to the No. 3 coil and the Sensor Coil Output Test in this chapter.
orange/pink wire is connected to the No. 4 4. If testing is complete, reconnect the one-pin stop circuit
coil. Make sure the spark plug leads are connector.

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CHAPTER THREE

Key Switch Ohmmeter Test two-pin connector. See Figure 53. Crank the engine and
note the meter at each connection.
If the engine does not stop when the key switch is turned a. Any voltage reading at either terminal indicates the
to OJ?F, an open circuit is present in the blacWyellow stop charge coil or charge coil wires are shorted to
circuit wire, the key switch is defective or the power pack ground. Repair the short or replace the stator assem-
is defective. bly as necessary.
1. Install the cap and lanyard assembly on the emergency b. If no voltage reading is noted, continue at Step 4.
stop switch. 4. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal A in the
2. Disconnect the blacWyellow one-pin stop circuit con- two-pin stator connector. Connect the red test lead to
nector (Figure 52). terminal B. See Figure 54.
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
4. Insert a suitablejumper lead into the key switch end of
the stop circuit connector (Figure 52).
5. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and the jumper lead.
a. With the key switch in the OFF position, the ohm-
meter should indicate continuity. If not, an open
One-pin stop
circuit is present in the blacWyellow wire between
the stop circuit connector and key switch, or the key
switch is defective.
b. With the key switch in the ON position, the ohmme-
ter should indicate no continuity. If the meter indi-
cates continuity, continue at Step 6.
6. Disconnect the black/yellow stop circuit wires from the
key switch M terminal. See Figure 52.
a. If the meter now indicates no continuity, the key
switch is defective and must be replaced.
b. If continuity is still present, continue at Step 7.
7. Separate the emergency stop switch wire from the
wiring harness blacklyellow wire at the key switch.
a. If no continuity is now noted, the emergency stop
switch is defective and must be replaced.
b. If continuity is still present, check the black/yellow
wire for a short to ground and repair as necessary.
8. If testing is complete, remove any jumper leads and
reconnect the stop circuit connector.

Charge Coil Output Test

Perform the following test to ensure the charge coil is


capable of producing sufficient voltage to charge the ca-
pacitor properly in the power pack and to make sure the
charge coil or charge coil wiring is not shorted to ground.
A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform
this test.
Spark tester
1. Disconnect the brown and brownlyellow wire two-pin
Amphenol connector between the stator assembly and
power pack.
2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
3. Connect the PRV between a good engine ground and
alternately to the A and B terminals in the stator end of the

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TROUBLESHOOTING 85

5. Crank the engine while noting the meter. Charge coil


output should be 150 volts or more.
a. If output is 150 volts or more, reconnect the
two-pin connector and continue at Sensor Coil
Output Test.
b. I f output is less than 150 volts, inspect the condition
of the charge coil wires and connectors. If the wiring
and connectors are in acceptable condition, check
the charge coil resistance as outlined under Charge
Coil Resistance Test in this chapter.

Charge Coil
Resistance Test
Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
indicate increased resistance and may result in unneces-
sary parts replacement without solving the basic prob-
lem.
1. Insert suitablejumper leads into the A and B terminals
in the stator two-pin connector.
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.

Peak reading
voltmeter

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CHAPTER THREE

3. Connect the ohmmeter between terminals A and B in


the two-pin connector. See Figure 55. Charge coil resis-
tance should be 430-530ohms.
4. Replace the stator assembly if charge coil resistance is
not as specilied.
5. Next, check the charge coil and wires for shorts to
ground. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-
ohm scale.
6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and alternately to the A and B terminals in the stator
two-pin connector. See Figure 56. Any continuitybetween
ground and either terminal indicates the charge coil or
charge coil wire(s) are shorted to ground.Locate and repair
the grounded wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as
necessary. See Chapter Seven.
7. If testing is complete, remove any jumper leads and
reconnect the two-pin connector.

Sensor Coil Output Test

The sensor coil provides a voltage signal to the power


pack which triggers power pack 0utp~1.tto be directed to
the correct ignition coil primary circuit. Perform this test
to determine if the sensor coil is capable of producing a
sufficient voltage signal, and to ensure the sensor coil or
sensor coil wiring is not shorted to ground. A peak reading
voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform this test.
1. Disconnect the five-pin and four-pin connectors be-
tween the timer base and power pack.
2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 5 (SEN and
5 if using Stevens CD-77).
3. Connect the PRV test leads between a good engine
ground and alternately to each timer base terminal in the
five-pin (port) and four-pin (starboard) connectors. See
Figure 57.
4. Crank the engine and note the meter at each connection.
a. Any voltage reading at any connection indicates
sensor coil@) or sensor coil wire(s) is shorted to
ground. Locate and repair the short or replace the
timer base assembly as necessary.
b. If no voltage reading is noted at any connection,
continue at Step 5.
5. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal E in the
five-pin connector (port side). Connect the red test lead to
one timer base terminal in the four-pin connector (star-
board side). See Figure 58.
6. Crank the engine while noting the meter reading. Sen-
sor coil output should be 0.5 volt or more.
7. Alternately connect the red test lead to each remaining
timer base terminal in the four-pin connector, then the
five-pin connector. Crank the engine and note the meter at
each connection.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 87

a. If output is 0.5 volt or more at each connection,


continue at Power Pack Output Test in this chapter.
b. If output is less than 0.5 volt at any connection, first
inspect the conditioii of the timer base wiring and
connectors. If the wiring - and connectors are in ac-
Cables from timer base ceptable condition, continue at Sensor Coil Resis-
tance Test in this chapter.

Sensor Coil Resistance Test


Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
indicate increasedresistance and may result in unnecessary
parts replacement without solving the basic problem. The
ohmmeter should be calibrated on the R x 1000 or high-
connector
ohm scale when checking for a grounded condition.
1. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
2. Connect the black ohmmeter lead to terminal E in the
-- port timer base connector (five-pin).
3. Alternately, connect the red ohmmeter lead to each
terminal in the starboard (four-pin) connector. Note the
meter at each connection.
4. If sensor coil resistance is within 130-160ohms at each
connection, continue at Step 5. If not, replace the timer
base assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
5. With the black ohmmeter lead connected to terminal E
in the port (five-pin) connector,connect the red lead to each
remaining terminal in the port connector. Note the meter
at each connection.
Timer
6. If sensor coil resistance is within 35-55 ohms at each
connection, continue at Step 7. If not, replace the timer
base assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
7. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
8. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
Peak reading and alternately to each timer base terminal in the port
(five-pin) and starboard (four-pin) connectors. No conti-
nuity should be present at each connection.
9. If continuity is present between any terminal and
ground, either the sensor coil(s) or sensor coil wire(s) is
shorted to ground. Locate and repair the short or replace
the timer base as necessary.
10. If testing is complete, reconnect the timer base con-
nectors.

Power Pack Output Test


WARNING
connector To prevent accidental starting, remove the
spark plug leads from the spark plugs. Se-
curely ground the plug leads to the power
head, or connect the leads to a spark testel:

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CHAPTER THREE

A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens load adapt- orange/green wire is attached to the No. 3 ignition coil and
er (part No. PL-88) are necessary to test power pack output. the orangelpink wire is attached to the No. 4 ignition coil.
1. Disconnect the primary wires from each ignition coil. 3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
2. Connect the primary wire from the No. 1 coil (or- 4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the terminal extender
angeblue) to the red lead of the PL-88 load adapter. attached to the No. 1 ignition coil. Connect the black test
Connect the black load adapter lead to a good engine lead to a good engine ground.
ground. See Figure 59. 5. Start the engine and run at the speed at which the
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. malfunction is evident while obsewing the meter. Running
4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the red load adapter output should be 180 volts or more.
lead. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine 6. Move the red PRV lead to the terminal extender at-
ground. tached to the No. 2 ignition coil and repeat Step 5. Note
5. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Power the meter reading.
pack output should be 150 volts or more. 7. Move the red PRV lead to the terminal extender at-
6. Repeat Steps 2-5 on the primary wire to each remaining tached to the No. 3 ignition coil. Repeat Step 5 while noting
ignition coil. Output should be 150 volts or more at each the meter reading.
primary wire. 8. Move the red PRV test lead to the terminal extender
a. If output is 150 volts or more at each primary wire, attached to the No. 4 ignition coil. Repeat Step 5 while
test ignition coil resistance as outlined in this chap- noting the meter reading.
ter. a. If output is less than 180 volts on one or more
b. If no output is noted at one or more primary wire, ignition coil(s), test the charge coil as described in
replace the power pack. See Chapter Seven. this chapter. If the charge coil is in acceptable con-
7. If testing is complete, remove the PL-88 load adapter dition, replace the power pack.
and reconnect the primary wires to the ignition coils. Make
sure the orangeblue wire is attached to the No. 1 coil, the
orangelpurple wire is attached to the No. 2 coil, the or-
angelgreen wire is attached to the No. 3 coil and the
orangelpink wire is attached to the No. 4 coil.
@
Ground
Running Output Test

A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens Terminal


Extenders (part No. TS-77) are necessary to perform the
running output test. Running the outboard under load is
often necessary to locate the cause of an intermittent
malfunction or high-speed misfire, especially if good spark
is noted during the Total Output Test.Remove the propeller
and install the correct test wheel (Table 16) prior to per-
forming the test.

CAUTION
The outboard motor must be supplied with
adequate cooling water while running. Zn-
stall the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at
high speed while connected to a flushing
device.

1. Remove the primary wires from each ignition coil.


2. Install a Stevens Terminal Extender (part No. TS-77)
on each coil primary terminal. Connect the primary wires
to the terminal extenders. Make sure the orangelblue pri-
mary wire is attached to the No. 1 ignition coil, the or-
angelpurple wire is attached to the No. 2 ignition coil, the

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TROUBLESHOOTING

b. If no output (zero volt) is noted at one or more The SLOW function is activated by a signal from the
ignition coil(s), test the sensor coils as described in port or starboard engine temperature switch. The tempera-
this chapter. If the sensor coils are in acceptable ture switches are located in the top of each cylinder head.
condition, replace the power pack. The following conditions will cause the SLOW function
9. If testing is complete, remove the terminal extenders to remain activated:
and reconnect the primary wires to their respective ignition a. Engine overheated.
coils. b. Engine temperature switch or switch wire shorted to
ground.
c. Blocking diode closed or shorted to ground.
Ignition Coil
Resistance Test d. Defective power pack.
The following conditions will prevent the SLOW func-
Because resistance generally increases with tempera- tion from operating:
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine at room a. Engine temperature switch or switch wire open.
temperature (70" F [21° C]). Resistance tests on hot com- b. Defective power pack.
ponents will indicate increased resistance and may result c. Defective power coil.
in unnecessary parts replacement without solving the basic If the SLOW function is inoperative, test the temperature
problem. Ignition coil resistance can be checked without switches and SLOW system as follows:
coil removal. 1. Install the outboard motor in a test tank with the correct
1. Remove the primary wires and the spark plug wires test wheel installed. See Table 16.
from the ignition coil assembly. 2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to the rnanu-
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1 or low-ohm scale. facturer's instructions.
3. To check primary winding resistance, connect the black 3. Disconnect the tan port and starboard temperature
ohmmeter lead to a good engine ground or to the coil switch wires from the engine harness wire.
ground tab if the coil is removed. Connect the red ohmme- 4. Start the engine and run at approximately 3500 rpm.
ter lead to the coil primary terminal. 5. Connect the engine harness end of the port tan wire to
4. Primary resistance should be 0.05-0.15 ohm. a clean engine ground and note the engine speed.
5. To check secondary winding resistance, calibrate the 6. Throttle back to idle speed, then stop the engine.
ohmmeter on the R x 100 or high-ohm scale. Connect the 7. Repeat Step 4 and 5 using the starboard tan wire.
red ohmmeter lead to the coil primary terminal and the a. If engine speed reduces to approximately 2500 rpm
black lead to the spark plug terminal. when each tan wire is grounded, test the temperature
6. Secondary resistance should be 225-325 ohms. switch as described in this chapter.
7. Repeat Steps 3-6 on each remaining coil. b. If engine speed reduces when one temperature
8. Replace the coil if resistance is not as specified. switch tan wire is grounded, but not the other, check
the engine wiring harness and connectors and repair
9. To check the spark plug leads, calibrate the ohmmeter
as necessary.
on R x 1 or low-ohm scale. Connect the ohmmeter to each
end of the lead and note the meter. The resistance should c. If engine speed does not reduce as specified when
be nearly zero ohm. either tan wire is grounded, continue at Step 8.
8. Loosen the power pack and disconnect the orange and
orangelblack power coil wires from the terminal block.
SLOW Operation and Testing 9. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
All models are equipped with the speed limiting over- 10. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
heat warning (SLOW) system. The system is designed to and alternately to each power coil wire (orange and or-
limit engine speed to approximately 2500 rpm if engine angelblack). See Figure 60.
temperature exceeds 203" F (95" C). To deactivate SLOW, 11. No continuity should be present between ground and
throttle back to idle, allow the engine to cool to 147-177O either power coil wire.
F (64-81' C), then stop the engine. a. If continuity is noted, either the power coil or power
A blocking diode located in the engine wiring harness is coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and repair
used to isolate the SLOW warning system from the other the shorted wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as
warning systems. Should the blocking diode become necessary.
shorted, the SLOW function will remain activated regard- b. If no continuity is noted, continue at Step 12.
less of engine temperature. 12. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.

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CHAPTER THREE

13. Connect the ohmmeter between the orange and or- 5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
angehlack power coil wires. See Figure 61. 6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
a. If power coil resistance is within 86-106 ohms, re- low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
place the power pack. both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
b. If power coil resistance is not within 86-106 ohms, must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
replace the stator assembly. See Chapter Seven. open and must be replaced.

CAUTION
Do not start the engine with the orange and QuikStart Operation and Testing
orangehlackpower coil wires disconnected.
All models are equipped with the QuikStart electronic
14. If testing is complete, reconnect the orange and or- starting system. The QuikStart circuit automatically ad-
angehlack power coil wires to the terminal block. Rein- vances the ignition timing when the engine temperature is
stall the power pack.

Blocking Diode Test


A blocking diode is used to prevent the SLOW function
from being activated by other engine warning horn sys-
tems. The blocking diode is located in the engine wiring
harness.
If the SLOW function is activated by the no oil, low oil
or fuel vacuum warning signal, test the engine harness
blocking diode as follows:

1995 Models
1. Disconnect the red engine harness connector.
2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature
switches from the engine harness (Figure 62, typical).
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
switch tan wire (engine harness side) and the tan wire ter-
minal in the red engine harness connector. See Figure 63.
5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
0 Stator

open and must be replaced.

1996-2002 models
1. Disconnect the six-pin engine harness connector. This
connector holds several tan wires.
2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature
switches from the engine harness (Figure 62, typical).
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
switch connector tan wire (engine harness end) and the tan
wire terminal in the six-pin engine harness connector.

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I
TROUBLESHOOTING 91
I

less than 96" F (36" C) to improve engine warm-up. The


ignition timing remains advanced until engine temperature
exceeds approximately 96" F (36" C). In addition, Quik-
Start also advances the ignition timing for approximately
5 seconds each time the engine is started, regardless of
engine temperature. To prevent power head damage due to
detonation, the power pack disables QuikStart at engine
speeds exceeding approximately 1100 rpm, regardless of
engine temperature.
To determine if QuikStart is functioning properly, pro-
ceed as follows:
1. Remove the propeller and install the correct test wheel
(Table 16).
2. Place the outboard motor in a suitable test tank. Start
the engine and warm it to normal operating temperature.
Engine temperature must be above 96" F (36" C) before
running this test.

NOTE
Make sure engine synchronization and link-
age adjustments are correctly set as outlined
in Chapter Five.

3. Place temporary marks on the flywheel indicating TDC


for all cylinders.
4. Disconnect the whitelblack temperature switch wire
between the power pack and the port temperature switch.
See Figure 64, typical.

Engine temperature

Engine harness connector Tan or tanlblue


wire (temperature
switch)

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CHAPTER THREE

5. Attach an accurate tachometer to the power head ac- a. If the meter indicates low resistance (continuity) in
cording to its manufacturer's instructions. Step 3, test the temperature switch as described in
6. Attach a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder according to this chapter.
its manufacturer's instructions. b. If the meter indicates high resistance in Step 3,
7. Start the engine and shift into forward gear. Idle speed continue at Step 4.
must not exceed 900 rpm in gear during this test. Adjust 4. Loosen the power pack and disconnect the orange and
idle speed if necessary. orangeblack power coil wires from the terminal block.
8. Observe the flywheel with the timing light. The No. 1 5. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
cylinder TDC mark should be near the timing pointer, scale.
indicating the QuikStart system is functioning. 6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
9. While observing the timing marks, momentarily con- and alternately to the power coil orange and orangehlack
nect the whitehlack temperature switch wire. The timing wires. See Figure 60. No continuity should be present
mark should shift to the left approximately 1 in. (25.4 mni) between either power coil wire and ground. If continuity,
when the wire is connected, indicating that QuikStart has is noted, repair the shorted power coil wire or replace the
returned the timing to the normal setting. stator assembly as necessary. See Chapter Seven.
NOTE 7. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
The engine must be stopped before testing 8. Connect the ohmmeter between the power coil orange
each remaining cylinder to reset the Quik- and orangehlack wires. See Figure 61.
Start circuit. a. If power coil resistance is within 86-106 ohms,
replace the power pack.
10. Stop the engine. Repeat Steps 6-10 for each remaining b. If power coil is not within 86-106 ohms, replace the
cylinder. stator assembly.
a. If one or more cylinders do not react as specified 9. If testing is complete, reconnect all circuits discon-
(Step 9), replace the timer base assembly. See Chap- nected during this procedure.
ter Seven.
b. If no cylinders react as specified (Step 9), refer to
QuikStart inoperative in this chapter. QuikStart always on
c. If all cylinders react as specified in Step 9, the
QuikStart circuit is functioning properly. The following conditions can cause the QuikStart circuit
to remain on constantly:
a. Engine overcooling (not warming up to operating
QuikStart inoperative
temperature).
The following conditions will cause the QuikStart cir- b. Defective temperature switch.
cuit to be inoperative: c. Defective power pack.
a. Defective power coil. d. Defective starter solenoid or key switch.
b. Defective power pack. If QuikStart remains on constantly when the engine is
c. Defective timer base (sensor coil[s]). operated above 1100 rpm, the power pack is defective and
d. An open circuit in the yellowlred wire between the must be replaced. If QuikStart remains on constantly re-
power pack and starter solenoid or key switch. gardless of time on and engine temperature, when the
Troubleshoot the QuikStart circuit as follows: engine is operated below 1100 rpm, continue as follows:
1. Disconnect the whitehlack wire between the port tem- 1. Check for a defective starter solenoid or key switch,
perature switch and power pack (Figure 64). which may cause a small amount of voltage to bleed into
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm the yellowlred wire leading to the power pack. This small
scale. amount of voltage can activate the QuikStart circuit.
2. Check for a defective or damaged port side engine
NOTE temperature switch as described in this chapter.
Engine temperature must be less than 89" F
3. Check for an open circuit or loose or corroded connec;
(32" C) in Step 3.
tions in the whiteblack power pack wire.
3. Connect the ohmmeter between the temperature switch 4. Check the engine for an overcooling condition as de-
whiteblack wire and a good engine ground. The ohmmeter scribed in this chapter.
should indicate no continuity with the engine temperature 5. If no other problems are noted in Steps 1-4,replace the
less than 89" F (32" C). power pack. See Chapter Seven.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

RPM Limiting Power Pack speed misfire or erratic operation, refer to Indexing Fly-
wheel and Running Output Test. Unless specified other-
Power packs marked CDL are equipped with an internal wise, perform the following ignition system tests in the
rpm limiting device designed to prevent power head dam- sequence given. Skipping tests or jumping around the
age from overspeeding. On models so equipped, the power troubleshooting procedure can result in misleading results
pack interrupts ignition if engine speed exceeds 6700 rpm. and unnecessary parts replacement. Test the entire ignition
Make sure the correct power pack is used if replacement is system-more than one component may be defective.
necessary.

Indexing Flywheel
OIS2000 IGNITION SYSTEM
TROUBLESHOOTING (60" V4 AND V6 If the outboard motor runs erratically, or if a high-speed
[LOOP-CHARGED] MODELS) misfire is noted, the power pack may be defective. Internal
power pack malfunctions can cause erratic ignition system
The major components of the OIS2000 (optical ignition operation. Perform the following procedure to ensure the
system) used on 60" V4 and V6 loop-charged models power pack is firing at the correct time.
include the flywheel, charge coil (two charge coils on V6
1. Remove the propeller and install the correct test wheel
models), power coil, optical timing sensor, timing wheel,
(Table 16).
power pack, two dual-ignition coils (threeignition coils on
V6 models), two temperature switches, shift switch and CAUTION
related wiring. The outboard motor must be supplied with
The charge coils and power coil are contained in the adequate cooling water while running.
stator assembly and are not serviced separately.The power Place the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
coil provides voltage for the operation of QuikStart, the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at
SLOW, the timing sensor and other ignition functions. The high speed while connected to a flushing
timing sensor consists of two separate sensors. One sensor device.
provides a signal for each revolution of the flywheel and
is used to determine crankshaft position. The other sensor 2. Place the outboard in a suitable test tank.
provides four supplemental timing signals (six signals on 3. Start the motor and run at the speed at which the
V6 models) and one additional signal to prevent the engine malfunction is evident.
from running in reverse rotation. The power pack is con- 4. Alternately connect an induction timing light to the
tained in a one-piece assembly and is not serviced sepa- spark plug wire to each cylinder. Note the timing marks
rately. adjacent to the timing pointer (A, Figure 65).
If the outboard motor is very hard or impossible to start, NOTE
begin the troubleshooting procedure at Total Output Test. The cylinder numbers are embossed in the
If an ignition malfunction is causing an intermittent high- timing wheel (B, Figure 65) along its outer
periphery. The TDC mark on the timing grid
represents the No. 1 cylindel:

5. The timing light should indicate the number of the


cylinder connected to the timing light. For example, if the
timing light is connected to the No. 2 spark plug wire, the
No. 2 mark should be visible. In addition, the number
should only appear near the timing pointer.
6. If a different cylinder number appears, or if the number
jumps around or appears at other than the timing pointer,
first make sure the primary ignition wires and spark plug
wires are properly connected. The primary wires must be
connected as follows:
a. Orangehlue wires-top ignition coil assembly.
b. Orange wires-V6 center ignition coil assembly.
c. Orangelgreen wires-bottom ignition coil assem-
bly.

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94 CHAPTER THREE

If the primary wires and spark plug wires are properly lanyard emergency stop switch are connected to the power
connected, replace the power pack. pack through the engine wiring harness. Activating the stop
circuit shorts the power pack output to ground, which
disables the ignition system and stops the engine.
Total Output Test
1. Disconnect the Packard connector on the port side
The total output test determines if the ignition system is between the power pack and key switch. This is a five-pin
capable of delivering adequate spark to the spark plugs. connector on V6 models as shown in Figure 66. On V4
Perform the output test with the spark plugs installed and models the connector has four wires (blacklyellow, tan,
properly tightened. whiteblack and yellowlred).
1. Disconnect the spark plug leads from the spark plugs. 2. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
2. Mount a suitable spark tester on the engine and connect a. If spark is now noted at each spark gap, the problem
the spark plug leads to the tester. See Figure 45. Make sure is in the stop circuit. Continue at Key Switch Ohm-
the spark tester mounting clip is secured to a good clean meter Test.
engine ground. b. If no spark is noted at all spark gaps, continue at
3. Adjust the spark tester spark gap to 7/16 in. (11.1 mrn). Eming Sensor Test.
4. Connect the cutoff clip and lanyard to the emergency 3. Remove the spark tester. Reconnect the spark plug
stop switch, if so equipped. wires to the spark plugs.
4. Reconnect the Packard connector.
NOTE
If acceptable spark is noted at each spark
gap during the total output test, but the en- Key Switch Ohmmeter Test
gine pops or bac@res during starting or
running, the ignition system may be out of 1995 Models
time. Make certain the primary ignition
wires are properly connected and the spark If the engine will not stop when the key switch is turned
plug leads are routed correctly. Make sure OFF, test the key switch as outlined in this chapter.
the timing wheel is correctly located, the If the engine will not stop when the clip is removed from
timing sensor is operating properly and the the emergency stop switch, replace the emergency stop
timing sensor cover is properly located. switch.
Make sure the timing and throttle linkages
If the engine will not stop when the key switch is turned
are properly synchronized.
OFF and the clip is removed from the emergency stop
5. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
a. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap and the
outboard runs properly, the problem is not in the
ignition system. Check the fuel and fuel delivery
systems.
b. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, but
the outboard has a high-speed misfire, continue at
Running Output Test.
c. I f acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, but
the outboard does not start, continue at Power Coil
Output Test.
d. If no spark is noted at one spark gap, continue at
Power Pack Output Test.
e. I f no spark is noted on three cylinders of a V6 model,
continue at Shift Switch Test.
f. I f no spark is noted at all spark gaps, continue at Stop
Circuit Test. Do not remove the spark tester.

Stop Circuit Test


The following test eliminates the stop circuit as a poten-
tial cause of an ignition malfunction. The key switch and

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TROUBLESHOOTING

switch, check for an open circuit in the wires between the If the engine will not stop when the clip is removed from
power pack and key switch. the emergency stop switch, replace the emergency stop
1. Disconnect the Packard connector on the port side be- switch. I
tween the power pack and key switch. Thls is a five-pin If the engine will not stop when the key switch is turned
connector on V6 models as shown in Figure 66. On V4 OFF and the clip is removed from the emergency stop
models the connector has four wires (blacklyellow, tan, switch, check for an open circuit in the wires between the
whiteblack and yellowlred). power pack and key switch. Failure to stop may also be due
2. Connect the test adapter from OMC Ignition Test Kit to a faulty power pack. If the starboard cylinders on V6
(part No. 437270 for V4 models or part No. 434017 for models will not shut off, the shift intempter diode may be
V6 models) to the engine wiring harness connector. If the faulty.
test adapter is not available, insert suitable jumper leads 1. Disconnect the Packard connector on the port side be-
into the wire terminals in the engine harness connector. tween the power pack and key switch. This is a five-pin
3. Install the emergency stop switch clip and lanyard, if so connector on V6 models as shown in Figure 66. On V4
equipped. models the connector has four wires (blacklyellow, tan,
4. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm whiteblack and yellowlred). I

scale. 2. Connect the test adapter from OMC Ignition Test Kit
5. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground (part No. 437270 for V4 models or part No. 434017 for V6
and the blacklyellow engine harness wire on V4 models or models) to the engine wiring harness connector. If the test
to either blacklyellow wire on V6 models. adapter is not available, insert suitable jumper leads into
a. With the key switch OFF, the ohmmeter should indi- the wire terminals in the engine harness connector.
cate continuity. 3. Install the emergency stop switch clip and lanyard, if so
b. With the key switch ON, the ohmmeter should indi- equipped.
cate no continuity. 4. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
6. On V6 models, repeat Step 5 with the ohmmeter con- scale.
nected to the remaining blacklyellow wire. 5. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and the black/yellow engine harness wire. I
NOTE
a. With the key switch OFF, the ohmmeter should indi-
If both ohmmeter tests are good, the block-
ing diode in the power pack is shorted. Re- cate continuity.
I
place the power pack as described in b. With the key switch ON, the ohmmeter should indi-
Chapter Seven. cate no continuity.
6. If continuity is noted during the key ON test (Steps $
7. If continuity is noted during the key ON test (Steps 4 and 5 ) , disconnect the wiring harness blacklyellow
and 5), disconnect the wiring harness blacklyellow wires wires from the key switch M terminal and note the me-
from the key switch M terminal and note the meter. ter.
a. Ifthe ohmmeter now indicates no continuity, replace a. Ifthe ohmmeter now indicates no continuity, replace
the key switch assembly. the key switch assembly.
b. If continuity is still present, continue at Step 8. b. If continuity is still present, continue at Step 7. i
8. Disconnect the emergency stop switch wire from the 7. Disconnect six-pin connector from the key switch.
engine harness blacklyellow wire at the key switch and a. If the ohmmeter indicates no continuity, repair or re-
note the meter. place key switch wiring harness. I
a. Ifthe ohmmeter now indicates no continuity, replace b. If the ohmmeter indicates continuity, proceed to
the emergency stop switch. Step 8. I

b. If continuity is still present, check the engine wiring 8. Disconnect the six-pin connector from the engine to in-
harness for a short in the stop circuit. strument panel wiring harness. The wiring harness in-
9. Remove the test adapter and reconnect the power pack cludes the blacWyellow wire. I

connector and all other circuits disconnected during this a. If the ohmmeter indicates no continuity, repair or re-
test. place the instrument wiring harness. I

b. If the ohmmeter indicates continuity, repair or re-


1996-2002 models place the engine wiring harness.
9. Remove the test adapter and reconnect the power pack
If the engine will not stop when the key switch is turned connector and all other circuits disconnected during t y
OFF, test the key switch as outlined in this chapter. test. I

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96 CHAPTER THREE

Shift Switch Test V6 Models b. If cylinders 1, 3 and 5 still do not have spark, con-
tinue at Charge Coil Output Test.
The shift switch on V6 models momentarily interrupts 4. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the R ) 1000 or high-ohm
ignition to cylinders 1,3 and 5 when the outboard motor is scale.
shifted into or out of gear. This power interruption causes 5A. 1995 models-Connect the ohmmeter between the
the outboard to shift easier. shift switch black/yellow wire (A, Figure 69) and a good
Perform the following test if no spark is noted on cylin- engine ground. The ohmmeter should indicate no continu-
ders 1, 3 and 5 during the Total Output Test. ity (high resistance). If not, replace the shift switch and
1. Connect a spark tester as outlined under Total Output wiring harness.
Test. 5B. 1996-2002 models-Connect the ohmmeter between
2A. 1995 models-Isolate the shift switch by discon- the shift switch black/yellow wire (A, Figure 70) and a
necting the black/yellow wire at the two connectors good engine ground. The ohmmeter should indicate no
between the power pack and shift switch. See Figure continuity. If not, replace the shift switch and wiring har-
67. ness.
2B. 1996-2002 models-Isolate the shift switch by dis- 6. Activate the shift switch by pushing downward on the
connecting the blacklyellow wire at the connector between shift cable pin and note the meter. The ohmmeter should
the power pack and shift switch. See Figure 68. now indicate continuity. If not, replace the shift switch and
3. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester. wiring harness.
a. If cylinders 1, 3 and 5 now have good spark, con- 7A. 1995 models-Next, connect the ohmmeter between
tinue at Step 4. both shift switch one-pin terminals (A and B, Figure 69).

SHIFT INTERRUPTER
SHIFT INTERRUPTER SWITCH CIRCUIT SWITCH CIRCUIT
(1995 150 AND 175 HP) (1996-1998 150 AND 175 HP)

Shift interrupter switch


Disconnect to

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TROUBLESHOOTING 97

Note the meter, then reverse the ohmmeterleads. No conti.


nuity should be noted in one reading and continuity should
be noted in the other. If continuity, or no continuity is
noted in both readings, the blocking diode in the wiring
Voltage regulatorlrectifier Shift switch harness is defective. Replace the shift switch and harness
assembly.
7B. 1996-2002 models-Next, connect one ohmmeter
lead to the power pack end of connector (A,Figure 70).
Disconnect multi-wire connector (B, Figure 70).Connect,
remaining ohmmeter lead to pin No. 1 of power pack end
of connector (B). Note the meter, then reverse the ohmme-
ter leads. No continuity should be noted in one reading and
continuity should be noted in the other. If continuity, or na
continuity is noted in both readings, the blocking diode in
the wiring harness is defective. Replace the shift switch
and harness assembly.
8. If the shift switch tests good, reconnect the one-piq
connectors and continue at Charge Coil Output Test.

Power Coil Output Test

The power coil provides voltage to operate QuikStart,


Emergency stop switch Key switch SLOW, the timing sensor and other ignition functions.
Should the power coil fail, the outboard motor will not
start.
A peak-reading voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform
this test.
1. Detach the Packard connector (Figure 71) from the
starboard side of the power pack. The connector may be:
identified by the wire colors which are tan or brown.
Voltage regulator/rectlfier Shm swltch

Emergency stop swltch Key switch

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CHAPTER THREE

2. Connect the Packard test adapter from OMC Ignition Timing Sensor Test
Test Kit (part No. 437270 for V4 models or part No.
434017 for V6 models) to the stator connector. If the test NOTE
adapter is not available, insert suitable jumper leads into Bright light can disrupt the operation of the
the orange and orangeblack wire terminals in the stator optical timing sensor Avoid running the out-
connector. board in bright sunlight with the timing
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. wheel cover removed. Do not aim a timing
4. Connect one PRV test lead to a good engine ground. light directly at the timing sensor
Alternately connect the remaining test lead to the orange
and orangeblack stator wires in the stator connector. OMC Ignition Analyzer part No. 434017 (Figure 72) is
5. Crank the engine at each connection and note the meter necessary to test the optical timing sensor. The sensor
reading. cannot be tested using conventional test equipment. If the
a. Any voltage reading indicates the power coil or ignition analyzer is not available, have the timing sensor
power coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and tested at an OMC dealership or other qualified marine
repair the shorted wire(s) or replace the stator assem- specialist.
bly as outlined in Chapter Seven. 1. Remove the voltage regulatorlrectifier cover.
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 6. 2. Disconnect the timing sensor connector (Figure 73)
6. Connect the black PRV test lead to the orange stator from the timing sensor.
wire. Comect the red test lead to the orangelblack stator 3. Attach the ignition analyzer (part No. 434017) to the
wire. timing sensor (Figure 74).
7. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Power coil 4. Set the analyzer switch to position B for V4 models or
output should be 50 volts or more. position A for V6 models.
a. If output is 50 volts or more, remove the Packard test
adapter and reconnect the connector. Continue at 5. Press the analyzer RESET button.
Eming Sensor Test. 6. Crank the engine a minimum of three revolutions while
b. If output is less than 50 volts, inspect the stator observing the meter.
wiring and connectors and repair as necessary. If the
wiring and connectors are in acceptable condition,
continue at Power Coil Resistance Test.

Power Coil Resistance Test


Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
indicate increasedresistance and may result in unnecessary
parts replacement without solving the basic problem. The
ohmmeter should be calibrated on the R x 1000 or high-
ohm scale when checking for a grounded condition.
1. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
2. Connect the ohmmeter between the orange and or-
angeblack wire terminals in the stator connector.
3. Resistance should be 45-65 ohms. If not, replace the
stator assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
4. Next, comect the ohmmeter between a good engine
ground and alternately to the orange and orangeblack
stator terminals.
5. Any continuity between ground and either stator wire
indicates the power coil or power coil wire(s) is shorted to
ground. Locate and repair the shorted wire(s) or replace
the stator assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
6. Remove the test adapter or jumper leads and reconnect
the stator-to-power pack connector.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

a. If the GOOD indicator light flashes while the engine pacitor properly in the power pack and to make sure the
is being cranked, continue at Power Pack Output charge coil or charge coil wiring is not shorted to ground.
Test. A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform
b. If the BAD indicator light flashes whle the engine this test.
is being cranked, inspect the condition of the timing 1. Detach the Packard connector (Figure 71) from the
wheel. If the timing wheel is in good condition, starboard side of the power pack. The connector may be
replace the timing sensor as outlined in Chapter identified by the wire colors which are tan or brown.
Seven. 2. Connect the Packard test adapter from the OMC Test
7. Remove the ignition analyzer and reconnect the wiring Kit (part No. 437270) to the stator connector. If the test
harness to the timing sensor. Reinstall the voltage regula- adapter is not available, insert suitable jumper leads into
tortrectifier cover. the brown and browdwhite terminals in the stator connec-
tor.
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
Charge Coil Output Test
4. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine
V4 Models ground. Connect the red test lead to either the brown or
browdwhite stator wire. Crank the engine while observ-
Perform the following test to ensure the charge coil is ing the meter at each connection.
capable of producing sufficient voltage to charge the ca- 5. Reconnect the red test lead to the remaining brown or
browdwhite stator wire.
6. Crank the engine while observing the meter at each
connection.
a. Any voltage reading indicates the charge coil or
charge coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and
repair the short as necessary or replace the stator as-
sembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
b. If no voltage reading is noted, continue at Step 7.
7. Connect the black PRV test lead to the brown stator
wire. Connect the red test lead to the brownlwhite stator
wire.
8. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge
coil output should be 250 volts or more.
a. If output is 250 volts or more, remove the six-pin
Packard adapter (or jumper leads), reconnect the
stator connector and continue at Power Pack Output
Test in this chapter.
b. If output is less than 250 volts, inspect the stator wir-
ing and connector and repair as necessary. If the
wires and connector are in acceptable condition,
continue at Charge Coil Resistance Test.

V6 Models

1. Disconnect the six-pin starboard Packard connector be-


tween the stator and power pack. See Figure 71.
2. Connect the six-pin Packard test adapter from the OMC
Test Kit (part No. 434017) to the six-pin stator connector.
If the test adapter is not available, insert suitable jumper
leads into the brown and browrdyellow terminals in the
stator connector.
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
4. Connect one PRV test lead to a good engine ground.
Alternately connect the remaining test lead to the brown

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CHAPTER THREE

and browdyellow stator wires. Crank the engine while ground and alternately to the brown and browdyellow
observing the meter at each connection. terminals in the stator connector.
5. Move the jumper leads to the brownlblack and a. No continuity should be present between ground and
brownlwhite terminals in the stator connector. any stator terminals.
6. Connect the PRV test leads between a good engine b. If continuity is present, the charge coil(s) or charge
ground and alternately to the brownlblack and coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and repair
browdwhite stator wires. Crank the engine while observ- the shorted wire(s) or replace the stator assembly
ing the meter at each connection. (Chapter Seven) as necessary.
a. Any voltage reading indicates the charge coil or 8. Remove the Packard test adapter (or jumper leads) and
charge coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and reconnect the stator-to-power pack connector.
repair the short as necessary or replace the stator
assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
b. If no voltage reading is noted, continue at Step 7. Power Pack Output Test
7. Connect the black PRV test lead to the brown stator WARNING
wire. Connect the red test lead to the browdyellow stator To prevent accidental starting, remove the
wire. spark plug leads j b m the spark plugs. Se-
8. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge curely ground the plug leads to the power
coil output should be 150 volts or more. head, or connect the leads to a spark testel:
9. Move the black PRV test lead to the brownlblack stator
wire and the red test lead to the brownlwhite stator wire. A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevensload ad
10. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge er (part No. PL-88) are necessary to test power pack outp
coil output should be 150 volts or more. 1. Remove the ignition cover and disconnect the prim
a. If output is 150 volts or more, remove the six-pin wires from each ignition coil.
Packard adapter (or jumper leads), reconnect the 2. Connect the primary wire from the No. 1coil to the r
stator connector and continue at Power Pack Output lead of the PL-88 load adapter. Connect the black lo
Test in this chapter. adapter lead to a good engine ground. See Figure 75.
b. If output is less than 150 volts, inspect the stator 3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
wiring and connector and repair as necessary. If the 4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the red load
wires and connector are in acceptable condition, lead. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good
continue at Charge Coil Resistance Test. ground.
5. Crank the engine while observing the meter.
pack output should be 200 volts or more for V4 mo
Charge Coil Resistance Test 100 volts or more for V6 models.
Because resistance generally increases with tempera- 6. Repeat Steps 2-5 on the primary wire to each remai
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room ignition coil.
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will a. If voltage output equals or exceeds desired volt
indicateincreased resistance and may result in unnecessary reading at each primary wire, test ignition coil res
parts replacement without solving the basic problem. tance as outlined in this chapter.
1. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the appropriate scale. b. If no output is noted at one primary wire, replace
2A. V4 models--Connect the ohmmeter between the power pack. See Chapter Seven.
brown and browdwhite terminals in the stator connector. 7. If testing is complete, remove the PL-88 load
2B. V6 models--Connect the ohmmeter between the and reconnect the primary wires to the ignition coils.
brown and browdyellow terminals in the stator six-pin sure the orangehlue primary wires are attached to the top
connector. ignition coils, the orange primary wires are attached to the
3. Resistance should be 1000-1200 ohms on V4 models center ignition coils on V6 models and the orangelgreen
or 495-605 ohms on V6 models. If not, replace the stator primary wires are attached to the bottom ignition coils.
assembly (Chapter Seven). Reinstall the ignition cover.
4. Next, calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-
ohm scale. Running Output Test
5. On V4 models, connect the ohmmeter between a good
engine ground and alternately to the brown and A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens Terminal
browdwhite terminals in the stator connector. On V6 Extenders (part No. TS-77) are necessary to perform the
models, connect the ohmmeter between a good engine running output test. Running the outboard under load is

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TROUBLESHOOTING

often necessary to locate the cause of an intermittent 4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the tenninal extender
malfunction or high-speed misfire, especially if good spark attached to the No. 1 ignition coil. Connect the black test
is noted during the Total Output Test.Remove the propeller lead to a good engine ground.
and install the correct test wheel (Table 16) prior to per- 5. Start the engine and run at the speed at which the
forming the test. malfunction is evident while observing the meter. Running
output should be 130 volts or more.
CAUTION 6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 with the red PRV test lead con-
The outboard motor must be supplied with nected to the terminal extender on each remaining ignition
adequate cooling water while running. In- coil.
stall the motor in a test tank or on a boat in a. If output is less than 130 volts on one or more
the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at ignition coils, test charge coils as described in this
high speed while connected to a flushing chapter.
device.
b. If no output (zero volt) is noted at one or more
ignition coil, test the power pack output as outlined
1. Remove the ignition cover and remove the primary in this chapter.
wires from each ignition coil. 7. If testing is complete, remove the terminal extenders
and reconnect the primary wires to their respective ignition
2. Install a Stevens Terminal Extender (part No. TS-77) coils. Make sure the orangehlue wires are attached to the
on each coil primary terminal. Connect the primary wires top coils, the orange wires are attached to the center coils
to the terminal extenders. Make sure the orangeblue pri- on V6 models and the orangelgreen wires are attached to
mary wires are connected to the top ignition coils, the the bottom coils. Reinstall the ignition cover.
orange primary wires are attached to the center ignition
coils and the orangelgreen primary wires are attached to
the bottom ignition coils. Ignition Coil Resistance Test
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine at room
temperature (70" F [21° C]). Resistance tests on hot com-
0 Ground
ponents will indicate increased resistance and may result
in unnecessary parts replacement without solving the basic
problem. Ignition coil resistance can be checked without
coil removal. Note that each ignition coil assembly con-
tains two separate coils.
1. Remove the primary wires and the spark plug wires
from the ignition coil assembly.
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1 or low-ohm scale.
3. To check primary winding resistance, connect the black
ohmmeter lead to a good engine ground or to the coil
ground tab if the coil is removed. Connect the red ohmme-
ter lead to the coil primary terminal.
4. Primary resistance should be 0.05-0.15 ohm.
5. To check secondary winding resistance, calibrate the
ohmmeter on the R x 100 or high-ohm scale. Connect the
red ohmmeter lead to the coil primary tenninal and the
black lead to the spark plug terminal.
6. Secondary resistance should be 225-325 ohms.
7. Repeat Steps 3-6 on each remaining coil.
8. Replace the coil if resistance is not as specified.
9. To check the spark plug leads, calibrate the ohmmeter
on R x 1 or low-ohm scale. Connect the ohmmeter to each
end of the lead and note the meter. The resistance should
be nearly zero ohm.

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CHAPTER THREE

SLOW Operation and Testing and connectors are in acceptable condition, replace
the power pack (Chapter Seven).
All models are equipped with the speed limiting over-
heat warning (SLOW) system. The system is designed to
limit engine speed to approximately 2500 rpm if engine Blocking Diode Test
temperature exceeds 240" F (1 14" C). To deactivate A blocking diode is used to prevent the SLOW function
SLOW, throttle back to idle, allow the engine to cool to from being activated by other engine warning horn sys-
207" F (110" C), then stop the engine. tems. The blocking diode is located in the engine wiring
A blocking diode located in the engine wiring harness is harness.
used to isolate the SLOW warning system from the other If the SLOW function is activated by the no oil, low oil
warning systems. Should the blocking diode become or fuel vacuum warning signal, test the engine harness
shorted, the SLOW function will remain activated regard- blocking diode as follows:
less of engine temperahue.
The SLOW function is activated by a signal from the
port or starboard engine temperature switch. The tempera- 1995 Models
ture switches are located in the top of each cylinder head.
1. Disconnect the red engine harness connector.
The following conditions will cause the SLOW function
2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature switches
to remain activated: from the engine harness (Figure 76, typical).
a. Engine overheated. 3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
b. Engine temperature switch or switch wire shorted to scale.
ground. 4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
c. Blocking diode closed or shorted to ground. switch tan or tanblue wire (engine harness side) and the
d. Defective power pack. tan wire terminal in the red engine harness connector. See
The following conditions will prevent the SLOW func- Figure 77.
tion from operating: 5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
a. Engine temperature switch or switch wire open. 6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
b. Defective power pack. low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
c. Defective power coil.
If the SLOW function is inoperative, test the temperature
switches and SLOW system as follows.
1. Install the outboard motor in a test tank with the correct
test wheel installed. See Table 16.
2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu-
facturer's instructions.
3. Disconnect the port and starboard tan1bIue temperature
switch wires from the engine harness tan wires.
4. Start the engine and run at approximately 3500 rpm.
5. Connect the engine harness end of the port tan wire to
a clean engine ground and note the engine speed.
6. Throttle back to idle speed, then stop the engine.
7. Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 using the starboard tan wire.
a. If engine speed reduces to approximately 2500 rprn
when each tan wire is grounded, test the temperature
switches as described in this chapter.
b. If engine speed reduces when one temperature
switch tan wire is grounded, but not the other, check
the engine wiring harness and connectors and repair
as necessary.
c. If engine speed does not reduce as specified when
either tan wire is grounded, inspect the temperature
switch wires and connectors and power pack wires
and connectors and repair as necessary. If all wires

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TROUBLESHOOTING

both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and


must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
open and must be replaced.

1996-2002 Models
1. Disconnect the six-pin engine harness connector. This
connector holds several tan wires.
2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature
switches from the engine harness (Figure 76, typical).
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
switch connector tan wire (engine harness end) and the tan
wire terminal in the six-pin engine harness connector.
Engine harness connector Tan or 5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
tanlblue wire 6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
(temperature low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
switch) both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
open and must be replaced.

QuikStart Operation and Testing

All models are equipped with the QuikStart electronic


starting system. The QuikStart circuit automatically ad-
vances the ignition timing when the engine temperature is
less than 105" F (41" C) to improve engine warm-up. The
ignition timing remains advanced until engine tempera-
ture exceeds approximately 105" F (41" C). In addition,
QuikStart also advances the ignition timing for approxi-
mately five seconds each time the engine is started,regard-
less of engine temperature. To prevent power head damage
due to detonation, the power pack disables QuikStart at en-
gine speeds exceeding approximately 1100 rpm, regard-
less of engine temperature.
To determine if QuikStart is functioning properly, pro-
ceed as follows.
1. Remove the propeller and install the correct test wheel
(Table 16).
2. Place the outboard motor in a suitable test tank. Start
the engine and warm it to normal operating temperature.
Engine temperature must be above 105" F (41" C) before
running this test.
NOTE
Make sure engine synchronization and link-
age adjustments are correctly set as outlined
in Chapter Five.
3. Remove the engine harness bracket.
4. Disconnect the whitelblack wire between the power
pack and port temperature switch. See Figure 78, typical.

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CHAPTER THREE

5. Attach an accurate tachometer to the power head ac- wheel and Running Output Test. Unless specified other-
cording to the manufacturer's instructions. wise, perfom the following ignition system tests in the
6A. V4 models-Attach a timing light to the No. 2 cylinder sequence given. Skipping tests or jumping around the
according to its manufacturer's instructions. troubleshooting procedure can result in misleading results
6B. V6 models-Attach a timing light to the No. 1cylinder and unnecessary parts replacement. Test the entire ignition
according to its manufacturer's instructions. system-more than one component may be defective.
7. Start the engine and shift into forward gear. Idle speed
must not exceed 900 rpm in gear during this test. Adjust
idle speed if necessary. Indexing Flywheel
8. Observe the timing wheel with the timing light.
a. V4 models-The timing pointer must be left of the If the outboard motor runs erratically, or if a high-speed
number 2 cast in the flywheel See Figure 79. rnisfue is noted, the power pack may be defective. Internal
b. V6 models-The tirning pointer should be near 4-6" power pack malfunctions can cause erratic ignition system
BTDC, indicating QuikStart is functioning. operation. Perform the following procedure to ensure the
9. If QuikStart fails to advance the ignition timing in Step power pack is firing at the correct time.
8, check for proper operation of the power pack and timing 1. Remove the spark plugs.
wheel.
10. While observing the timing marks, momentarily con-
nect the whitefblack temperature switch wire.
a. V4 models-The timing pointer must be right of the
number 2 cast in the flywheel, which indicates that
Quikstart has returned the timing to the normal
setting. See Figure 80.
b. V6 models-The timing pointer should be near 4-6"
ATDC, which indicates that Quikstart has returned
the timing to the normal setting.
11. If the timing does not retard as specified in Step 10,
check the temperature switch, power pack and related
wiring and connectors.

CD6 IGNITION SYSTEM


TROUBLESHOOTING (200 AND 225 HP)

The major components of the CD6 ignition system used


on 200 and 225 hp models include the flywheel,two charge
coils, power coil, six double-wound sensor coils, two
power packs, six ignition coils, shift switch, two tempera-
ture switches and related wiring.
The charge coils and power coil are contained in the
stator assembly and are not serviced separately. The power
coil provides voltage for operation of the SLOW and
QuikStart systems. The six sensor coils (one per cylinder)
are a double-wound design. One coil provides a trigger
signal for ignition and one coil provides a timing signal for
QuikStart operation. The sensor coils are contained in the
timer base assembly and are not serviced separately. The
two power packs are contained in a one-piece assembly
and are not serviced separately.
If the outboard motor is very hard or impossible to start,
begin the troubleshooting procedure at Total Output Test.
If an ignition malfunction is causing an intermittent high-
speed misfire or erratic operation, refer to Indexing Fly-

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TROUBLESHOOTING

2. Position the No. 2 piston at TDC by rotating the fly- If the primary wires are properly connected, venfy wire
wheel clockwise. Insert a pencil or similar tool into the No. and pin location on all timer base and power pack connec-
2 spark plug hole while rotating the flywheel to ensure the tors. See wiring diagrams at end of manual. If wire and pin
piston is at TDC. location are correct, replace the power pack.
3. With the No. 2 piston at TDC, place a mark on the
flywheel directly across from the timing pointer. Label the
mark No. 2. Total Output Test
4. Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 on the remaining cylinders.
NOTE
5 . Reinstall the spark plugs and connect the plug leads. acceptable spark is noted at each spark
gap during the total output test, but the en-
CAUTION gine pops or bacwres during starting or
The outboard motor must be supplied with running, the ignition system may be out of
adequate cooling water while running. time. Make sure the orangehlue primary
Place the motor in a test tank or on a boat in ignition wires are connected to the top igni-
the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at tion coils, the orange wires are connected to
high speed while connected to a flushing the center ignition coils and the or-
device. ange/green wires are connected to the bot-
tom ignition coils. Make sure the spark plug
6. Start the motor and run it at the speed at which the leads are properly connected, theflywheel is
problem is evident. properly located on the crankshaft and the
7. Alternately, connect a timing light to each cylinder. The timing and throttle linkage are properly syn-
timing light should indicatethe cylinder number the timing chronized.
light is connected to. For example, if the timing light is
connected to the No. 2 spark plug wire, the No. 2 mark The total output test determines if the ignition system is
should be visible. In addition, the number should only capable of delivering adequate spark to the spark plugs.
appear near the timing pointer. Perform the output test with the spark plugs installed and
8. If a different cylinder number appears, or if the number properly tightened.
jumps around or appears at other than at the timing pointer,
first make sure the primary ignition wires are properly
1. Disconnect the spark plug leads from the spark plugs. 1
2. Mount a suitable spark tester on the engine and connect
connected. The primary wires must be connected as fol- the spark plug leads to the tester. See Figure 81. Make sure
lows: the spark tester mounting clip is secured to a good clean
a. Orangelblue wires connect to the top ignition coils. engine ground.
b. Orange wires connect to the center ignition coils. 3. Adjust the spark tester spark gap to 7/16 in. (11.1mm).
c. Orangelgreen wires connect to the bottom ignition 4. Connect the cutoff clip and lanyard to the emergency
coils. stop switch, if so equipped.
5. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
a. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, con-
tinue testing at Running Output Test in this chapter.
b. If no spark is noted at cylinders 1,3 and 5, continue
at Shzft Switch Test in this chapter.
c. If acceptable spark is noted on at least one spark gap,
continue testing at Charge Coil Output Test in this
I
chapter. I

d. If no spark is noted at any spark gap, continue testing


at Stop Circuit Test in this chapter.

Stop Circuit Test


I
The following test eliminates the stop circuit as a poten-
tial cause of an ignition malfunction. The key switch and
lanyard emergency stop switch are connected to the power I
pack through the enginewiring harness. Activating the stop

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CHAPTER THREE

circuit shorts the power pack output to ground, which Shift Switch Test
disables the ignition system and stops the engine.
The shift switch momentarily interrupts ignition to cyl-
1. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between
inders 1 , 3 and 5 when th outboard motor is shifted into or
the engine wiring harness and shift switch. See A, Figure
out of gear. This power interruption causes the outboard to
82.
shift easier.
2. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
Perform the following test if no spark is noted on cylin-
a. If good spark is now noted at each spark gap, the ders 1, 3 and 5 during the Total Output Test.
problem is in the shift switch circuit. Continue at 1. Install a spark tester as described under Total Output
Shift Switch Test. Test in this chapter. Adjust the spark gap to 7/16 in. (11.1
b. If no spark is noted, disconnect the two-pin stop 171111).
circuit connector (B, Figure 82) and repeat Step 2. 2. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between
If good spark is now noted, the problem is in the stop the engine wiring harness and the shift switch. See A,
circuit. Continue at Key Switch Ohmmeter Test. I f Figure 82.
there is still no spark, continue at Charge Coil Out- 3. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
put Test. a. If spark is now noted at cylinders 1,3 and 5, continue
at Step 4.
b. If cylinders 1, 3 and 5 still do not have spark,
Key Switch Ohmmeter Test continue at Charge Coil Output Test.
4. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
If the engine will not shut off when the key switch is scale.
turned OFF, test the key switch as outlined in this chapter. 5. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
If the engine will not shut off when the clip is removed and the shift switch end of the connector (A, Figure 82).
from the emergency stop switch, replace the emergency No continuity should be noted. If continuity is present,
stop switch. replace the shift switch and wire harness.
If the engine will not shut off when the key switch is 6. Push down on the shift cable pin to activate the shift
turned OFF and the clip is removed from the emergency switch while observing the meter. Continuity should now
stop switch, check for an open circuit in the blacklyellow, be noted. If not, replace the shift switch and wire harness.
blacklorange and black wires between the power pack and 7. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between
key switch. the engine wiring harness and shift switch. See A, Figure
82. Disconnect the two-pin Amphenol connector between
1. Install the emergency stop switch clip and lanyard.
the power pack and key switch. See B, Figure 82. Discon-
2. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between nect the engine wiring harness connector. See C, Figure
the engine wiring harness and shift switch (A, Figure 82). 82.
3. Disconnect the two-pin Arnphenol connector between 8. Connect the red ohmmeter lead to the blacklyellow wire
the power pack and key switch (B, Figure 82). terminal in the engine wiring harness connector. Connect
4. Connect the black ohmmeter lead to a good engine the black ohmmeter lead to terminal A in the two-pin
ground. Connect the red ohmmeter lead to terminal B Amphenol connector.Note the meter reading, then reverse
(black/yellow wire) in the engine harness two-pin connec- the ohmmeter leads. Note the meter reading.
tor. a. One reading should be infinity and the other should
a. With the key switch in the OFF position, the ohm- be near zero ohm.
meter should indicate continuity. b. If both readings are infmity, or if both are near zero
b. With the key switch in the ON position, the ohmme- ohm, replace the blocking diode or repair or replace
ter should indicate no continuity. If continuity is the engine wiring harness as necessary.
noted, continue at Step 5. 9. With the red ohmmeter lead connected to the blacwyel-
low wire terminal in the engine harness connector (C,
5. Disconnect the engine wiring harness connector (C, Figure 82), connect the black meter lead to terminal B
Figure 82) and note the ohmmeter. (blacklyellow) in the engine harness two-pin connector
a. If no continuity is now present, test the key switch, (Figure 82). The meter should indicate low resistance. If
emergency stop switch and remote control wiring not, repair or replace the engine wiring harness as neces-
harness. sary.
b. If continuity is still present, repair or replace the 10. With the red ohmmeter lead connected to the
engine wiring harness. blacWyellow wire terminal in the engine harness connector

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TROUBLESHOOTING 107

(C, Figure 82), connect the black ohmmeter lead to the Charge Coil Output Test
engine harness end of the one-pin shift switch connector.
Note the meter reading, reverse the ohmmeter leads and Perform the following test to ensure that the charge coil
I

note reading. One reading should be infinity and the other is capable of producing
sufficient voltage to charge the I
reading be near zero. If not, Or the capacitor in the power pack and to make sure the charge
I

engine wiring harness as necessary. coil or charge coil wiring is not shorted to ground. A peak
11. Reconnect all connectors. reading voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform this test.

i
i

1~

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CHAPTER THREE

1. Disconnect the fore and aft two-pin Amphenol connec- 3. Connect the ohmmeter between terminals A and B in
tors between the stator and power pack. the rear two-pin connector. Resistance should be 765-935
2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. ohms.
3. Connect one PRV test lead to a good engine ground. 4. If resistance is not as specified in Steps 2 and 3, replace
Alternately connect the remaining test lead to terminals A the stator assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
and B in the forward two-pin stator connector. See Figure 5. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
83. scale.
4. Crank the engine and note the meter reading at each 6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
connection. and alternately to each terminal in both two-pin connec-
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted charge coil tors. See Figure 86. Note the meter reading at each con-
or charge coil wire@).Locate and repair the shorted nection.
wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as outlined in
a. No continuity (infinity) should be noted at each
Chapter Seven.
connection.
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 5.
5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 with the PRV connected between
ground and terminal A, then terminal B in the rear two-pin
stator connector.
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted charge coil Stator
or charge coil wire(s). Locate and repair the shorted
wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as outlined in
Chapter Seven.
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 6.
6. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal A in the voltmeter
forward two-pin stator connector. See Figure 84. Connect
the red test lead to terminal B in the forward two-pin
connector.
7. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge
coil output should be 130 volts or more.
8. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal A in the
rear two-pin stator connector. Connect the red test lead to
terminal B in the rear connector.
9. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge
coil output should be 130 volts or more.
a. If output at both connectors is 130 volts or more,
reconnect the two-pin connectors and continue at
Sensor Coil Output Test.
b. I f output is less than 130 volts at either connector,
inspect the condition of the charge coil wiring and
connectors. If the wiring and connectors are in ac-
ceptable condition, continue at Charge Coil Resis-
Stator
tance Test.

Charge Coil Resistance Test Peak reading


voltmeter
Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
indicateincreased resistance and may result in unnecessary
parts replacement without solving the basic problem.
1. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
2. Connect the ohmmeter between terminals A and B in
the forward two-pin stator connector. See Figure 85. Re-
sistance should be 765-935 ohms.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 109

b. Continuity between any terminal and ground indi- to determine if the sensor coil is capable of producing a
cates a shorted charge coil or charge coil wire(s). sufficient voltage signal, and to ensure the sensor coil or
Locate and repair the shorted wire(s) or replace the sensor coil wiring is not shorted to ground. A peak reading
stator assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven. voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform this test.
7. Reconnect the stator-to-power pack two-pin connectors. 1. Disconnect both four-pin Amphenol connectors be-
tween the timer base and power pack.
Sensor Coil Output Test 2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 5 (SEN and
5 if using Stevens CD-77).
The sensor coil provides a voltage signal to the power 3. Connect one PRV test lead to a good engine ground.
pack which triggers power pack output to be directed to Alternately connect the remaining test lead to each timer
the correct ignition coil primary circuit. Perform this test base terminal. See Figure 87.

63 Stator

Stator Cables from timer base

T -

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110 CHAPTER THREE

4. Crank the engine while observing the meter at each diode as shown in Figure 90, then reverse
connection. the leads. I f the first connection indicated
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted sensor coil very low resistance (zero ohm), and the sec-
or sensor coil wire(s). Locate and repair the shorted ond connection indicated very high resis-
wire(s) or replace the timer base assembly as out- tance (infinity), the ohmmeter red lead is
lined in Chapter Seven. positive (+). I f the opposite result is noted,
reverse the ohmmeter leads so the red lead is
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 5. positive (+).
5. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal D in the
port timer base connector. Alternately connect the red test 1. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
lead to terminals A, B and C in the port timer base connec-
tor, then terminals A, B and C in the starboard timer base 2. Connect the red (positive) ohmmeter lead to terminal D
connector. See Figure 88. in the port timer base connector. See Figure 91.
6. Crank the engine while observing the meter at each
connection. Sensor coil output should be 0.2 volt or more.
a. If output is 0.2 volt at each connection, continue at
Step 7. @
b. If output is less than 0.2 volt, inspect the timer base
wiring and connections and repair as necessary. If Cables from timer base
the wiring and connections are in acceptable condi-
tion, continue at Sensor Coil Resistance Test.
7. Connect the D terminal in the port timer base terminal
to the D terminal in the port engine harness connectorusing
a jumper lead. See Figure 89.
8. Connect the D terminal in the starboard timer base
terminal to the D terminal in the starboard engine harness
connector using a jumper lead. See Figure 89.
9. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine
ground. Alternately, connect the red test lead to terminals
A, B and C in the starboard timer base connector, then
terminals A, B and C in the port timer base terminal. Crank
the engine while observing the meter at each connection.
a. If output is 0.8 volt or more, continue at Power Pack
Output Test.
b. If output is less than 0.8 volt, inspect the timer base
wiring and connectors and repair as necessary. If the
wiring and connectors are in acceptable condition,
continue at Sensor Coil Resistance Test.
Cables from timer base
Sensor Coil Resistance Test
Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
indicate increasedresistance and may result in unnecessary
parts replacement without solving the basic problem. The
ohmmeter should be calibrated on the R x 1000 or high-
ohm scale when checking for a grounded condition.

NOTE
Ohmmeter polarity must be determined be- to D terminals connector to D terminals
fore proceeding with this test. To do so, cali- cables
brate the meter on the R x 100 or low-ohm
scale. Connect the leads to a known-good

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TROUBLESHOOTING

3. Alternately, connect the black ohmmeter lead to termi-


nals A, B and C in the port timer base terminal, then
terminals A, B and C in the starboard timer base terminal.
Note the meter reading at each connection.

NOTE
The sensor coil resistance specifications in
Step 4 and Step 6 are based on the use of a
Stevens Model AT-1 01, Merc-0-Tronic
Model M-700, or a Fluke 29 Series I1 ohm-
metel: Resistance measured with an ohmme-
ter from another manufacturer may be
different. Internal timer base components
may cause sensor coil resistance readings to
vary depending on individual ohmmeter im-
pedance. Resistance readings may be higher
or lower; but they should be consistent.

4. If using a Stevens Model AT- 101 ohmmeter, sensor coil


resistance should be 330-390 ohms. If using a Merc-O-
Tronic Model M-700 ohmmeter, sensor coil resistance
should be 870-1070 ohms. If using a Fluke 29 Series I1
ohmmeter, sensor coil resistance should be 875-1075 ohms
(Fluke meter must be set on 40 ohms scale). If resistance
is not as specified, replace the timer base assembly as
outlined in Chapter Seven.
5. Next, connect the red ohmmeter lead to terminal D in

69 the port timer base connector. Connect the black ohmmeter


lead to terminal D in the starboard timer base connector.
See Figure 91.
6. Resistance should be 200-260 ohms. If not, replace the
timer base assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
Cables from timer base 7. Next, connect the ohmmeter between a good engine
ground and alternately to each sensor coil terminal in the
port and starboard timer base connector.
8. No continuity should be noted at each connection. If
continuity is noted, locate and repair the grounded timer
base wire(s) or replace the timer base assembly as neces-
sary. See Chapter Seven.
9. If testing is complete, reconnect the timer base termi-
nals.

Power Pack Output Test

WARNING
To prevent accidental starting, remove the
spark plug leads from the spark plugs. Se-
curely ground the plug leads to the power
head, or connect the leads to a spark testel:

A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens load adapt-


er (part No. PL-88) are necessary to test power pack output.
1. Disconnect the primary wires from each ignition coil.

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CHAPTER THREE

2. Connect the primary wire from the No. 1 coil to the red 6. Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 with the red PRV test lead
lead of the PL-88 load adapter. Connect the black load connected to the terminal extender on each remaining
adapter lead to a good engine ground. See Figure 92. ignition coil.
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. a. If output is less than 130 volts on one or more
4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the red load adapter ignition coils, test the charge coil as described in this
lead. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine chapter. If the charge coil is in acceptable condition,
ground. replace the power pack.
5. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Power
b. If no output (zero volt) is noted at one or more
pack output should be 100 volts or more.
ignition coil, test the sensor coils as described in this
6. Repeat Steps 2-5 on the primary wire to each remaining
chapter. If the sensor coils are in acceptable condi-
ignition coil. Output should be 100 volts or more at each
tion, replace the power pack.
primary wire.
a. If output is 100 volts or more at each primary wire, 7. If testing is complete, remove the terminal extenders
test the ignition coil resistance as outlined in this and reconnect the primary wires to their respective ignition
chapter. coils. Make sure the orangelblue wires are attached to the
b. If no output is noted at one primary wire, replace the top coils, the orange wires are attached to the center coils
power pack. See Chapter Seven. and the orangelgreen wires are attached to the bottom coils.
7. If testing is complete, remove the PL-88 load adapter
and reconnect the primary wires to the ignition coils.
Ignition Coil Resistance Test

Running Output Test Because resistance generally increases with tempera-


ture, perform resistance tests with the engine at room
A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens Terminal
temperature (70" F [21° C]). Resistance tests on hot com-
Extenders (part No. TS-77) are necessary to perform the
ponents will indicate increased resistance and may result
running output test. Running the outboard under load is
in unnecessary parts replacement without solving the basic
often necessary to locate the cause of an intermittent
malfunction or high-speed misfire, especially if good spark
is noted during the Total Output Test.Remove the propeller
and install the correct test wheel (Table 16) prior to per-
forming the test.
@ Ground
CAUTION
The outboard motor must be supplied with
adequate cooling water while running. In-
stall the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at
high speed while connected to a flushing
device.
1. Remove the primary wires from each ignition coil.
2. Install a Stevens Terminal Extender (part No. TS-77)
on each coil primary terminal. Connect the primary wires
to the terminal extenders. Make sure the orangelblue pri-
mary wires are connected to the top ignition coils, the
orange primary wires are attached to the center ignition
coils and the orangelgreen primary wires are attached to
the bottom ignition coils.
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the terminal extender
attached to the No. 1 ignition coil. Connect the black test
lead to a good engine ground.
5. Start the engine and run at the speed at which the
malfunction is evident while observing the meter. Running
output should be 130 volts or more.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

problem. Ignition coil resistance can be checked without limit engine speed to approximately 2500 rpm if engine
coil removal. temperature exceeds 203" F (95" C). To deactivate SLOW,
1. Remove the primary wires and the spark plug wires throttle back to idle, allow the engine to cool to 162"F (72"
from the ignition coil assembly. C), then stop the engine.
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1 or low-ohm scale. A blocking diode located in the engine wiring harness is
3. To check primary winding resistance, connect the black used to isolate the SLOW warning system from the other
ohmmeter lead to a good engine ground or to the coil warning systems. Should the blocking diode become
ground tab if the coil is removed. Connect the red ohmme- shorted, the SLOW function will remain activated regard-
ter lead to the coil primary terminal. less of engine temperature.
4. Primary resistance should be 0.05-0.15 ohm. The SLOW function is activated by a signal from the
5. To check secondary winding resistance, calibrate the port or starboard engine temperature switch. The tempera-
ohmmeter on the R x 100 or high-ohm scale. Connect the ture switches are located in the top of each cylinder head.
red ohmmeter lead to the coil primary terminal and the The following conditions will cause the SLOW function
black lead to the spark plug terminal. to remain activated:
6. Secondary resistance should be 225-325 ohms. a. Engine overheated.
7. Repeat Steps 3-6 on each remaining coil. b. Engine temperature switch or switch wire shorted to
8. Replace the coil if resistance is not as specified. ground.
9. To check the spark plug leads, calibrate the ohmmeter c. Blocking diode closed or shorted to ground.
on R x 1 or low-ohm scale. Connect the ohmmeter to each d. Defective power pack.
end of the lead and note the meter. The resistance should The following conditions will prevent the SLOW func-
be nearly zero ohm. tion from operating:
a. Engine temperature switch or switch wire open.
b. Defective power pack.
SLOW Operation and Testing c. Defective power coil.
All models are equipped with the speed limiting over- If the SLOW function is inoperative, test the temperature
heat warning (SLOW) system. The system is designed to switches and SLOW system as follows.
1. Install the outboard motor in a test tank with the correct
test wheel installed. See Table 16.
2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to the manu-
facturer's instructions.
3. Disconnect the port and starboard tanlgreen tempera-
ture switch wires from the engine harness tan wires.
Stator 4. Start the engine and run at approximately 3500 rpm.
5. Connect the engine harness end of the port tan wire to
a clean engine ground and note the engine speed.
6. Throttle back to idle speed, then stop the engine.
7. Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 using the starboard tan wire.
a. If engine speed reduces to approximately 2500 rpm
when each tan wire is grounded, test the temperature
switch as described in this chapter.
b. If engine speed reduces when one temperature
switch tan wire is grounded, but not the other, check
the engine wiring harness and connectors and repair
as necessary.
c. If engine speed does not reduce as specified when
either tan wire is grounded, continue at Step 8.
8. Loosen the power pack and disconnect the orange and
orangehlack power coil wires from the terminal block.
9. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
10. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and alternately to each power coil wire (orange and or-
angehlack). See Figure 93.

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CHAPTER THREE

11. No continuity should be present between ground and If the SLOW function is activated by the no oil, low oil
either power coil wire. or fuel vacuum warning signal, test the engine harness
a. If continuity is noted, either the power coil or power blocking diode as follows.
coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and repair
the shorted wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as
necessary. 1995 Models
b. If no continuity is noted, continue at Step 12.
12. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
1. Disconnect the red engine harness connector.
13. Connect the ohmmeter between the orange and or-
angehlack power coil wires. See Figure 94. 2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature switches
a. If power coil resistance is within 86-106 ohms, from the engine harness (Figure 95, typical).
replace the power pack. 3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
b. If power coil resistance is not within 86-106 ohms, scale.
replace the stator assembly. See Chapter Seven.
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
CAUTION switch tan wire (engine harness side) and the tan wire
Do not start the engine with the orange and terminal in the red engine harness connector. See Figure
orangehlackpower coil wires disconnected. 96.
5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
14. If testing is complete, reconnect the orange and or-
angehlack power coil wires to the terminal block. Rein- 6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
stall the power pack. low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
Blocking Diode Test open and must be replaced.

A blocking diode is used to prevent the SLOW function


from being activated by other engine warning horn sys-
tems. The blocking diode is located in the engine wiring
harness.

Stator

Ohmmeter

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TROUBLESHOOTING

1996-2002 Models I
1. Disconnect the six-pin engine harness connector. This
connector holds several tan wires.
2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature
switches from the engine harness (Figure 95, typical).
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
switch connector tan wire (engine harness end) and the tan
wire terminal in the six-pin engine harness connector.
5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
Engine harness connector
open and must be replaced.
Tan or
tanlblue wire
(temperature
switch)
QuikStart Operation and Testing

All models are equipped with the QuikStart electronic


~
starting system. The QuikStart circuit automatically ad-
vances the ignition timing when the engine temperature is
less than 93-99" F (34-37" C) to improve engine wann-up.
The ignition timing remains advanced until engine tem-
perature exceeds approximately 93-99" F (34-37" C). In
addition, QuikStart also advances the ignition timing for
approximately 5 seconds each time the engine is started,
regardless of engine temperature. To prevent power head
damage due to detonation, the power pack disables
QuikStart at engine speeds exceeding approximately 1100
rpm, regardless of engine temperature.
To determine if QuikStart is functioning properly, pro-
ceed as follows:
1. Remove the propeller and install the correct test wheel
(Table 16).
2. Place the outboard motor in a suitable test tank. Start
the engine and warm it to normal operating temperature.
Engine temperature must be above 96" F (36" C) before
running this test.

NOTE
Make sure engine synchronization and link-
age adjustments are correctly set as outlined
in Chapter Five.

3. Place temporary marks on the flywheel indicating TDC


for all cylinders.
4. Disconnect the whitelblack temperature switch wire
between the power pack and the port temperature switch.
See Figure 97, typical.
5. Attach an accurate tachometer to the power head ac-
cording to its manufacturer's instructions.

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CHAPTER THREE

6. Attach a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder according to b. If the meter indicates high resistance in Step 3,
its manufacturer's instructions. continue at Step 4.
7. Start the engine and shift into forward gear. Idle speed 4. Loosen the power pack and disconnect the orange and
must not exceed 900 rpm in gear during this test. Adjust orangeblack power coil wires from the terminal block.
idle speed if necessary. 5. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
8. Observe the flywheel with the timing light. The No. 1 scale.
cylinder TDC mark should be near the timing pointer, 6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
indicating the QuikStart system is functioning. and alternately to the power coil orange and orangeblack
9. While observing the timing marks, momentarily con- wires. See Figure 98. No continuity should be present
nect the whiteblack temperature switch wire. The timing between either power coil wire and ground. If continuity
mark should shift to the left approximately 1in. (25.4 rnm) is noted, repair the shorted power coil wire or replace the
when the wire is connected, indicating that the QuikStart stator assembly as necessary. See Chapter Seven.
system has returned the timing to the normal setting. 7. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
8. Connect the ohmmeter between the power coil orange
NOTE and orangeblack wires. See Figure 94.
The engine must be stopped before testing
a. If power coil resistance is within 86-106 ohms,
each remaining cylinder to reset the Quik-
Start circuit. replace the power pack.
b. If power coil resistance is not within 86-106 ohms,
10. Stop the engine. Repeat Steps 6-9 for each remaining replace the stator assembly.
cylinder. 9. If testing is complete, reconnect all circuits discon-
a. If one or more cylinders do not react as specified nected during this procedure.
(Step 9), replace the timer base assembly. See Chap-
ter Seven.
b. If no cylinders react as specified (Step 9), refer to QuikStart always on
QuikStart inoperative in this chapter. The following conditions can cause the QuikStart circuit
c. If all cylinders react as specified (Step 9), the Quik- to remain on constantly:
Start circuit is functioning properly.

QuikStart inoperative

The following conditions will cause the QuikStart cir-


cuit to be inoperative:
a. Defective power coil.
b. Defective power pack.
c. Defective timer base (sensor coil).
d. An open circuit in the yellowlred wire between the
power pack and starter solenoid or key switch.
Troubleshoot the QuikStart circuit as follows:
1. Disconnect the whitehlack wire between the port tem-
perature switch and power pack (Figure 97, typical).
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
NOTE
Engine temperature must be less than 89" F
(32" C) in Step 3.
3. Connect the ohmmeter between the temperature switch
whiteblack wire and a good engine ground. The ohmmeter
should indicate no continuity with engine temperature less
than 89"F (32" C).
a. If the meter indicates continuity in Step 3, test the
temperature switch as described in this chapter.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

a. Engine overcooling (not warming up to operating speed misfire or erratic operation, refer to Indexing Fly-
temperature). wheel and Running Output Test. Unless specified other-
b. Defective temperature switch. wise, perform the following ignition system tests in the
c. Defective power pack. sequence given. Skipping tests or jumping around the
d. Defective starter solenoid or key switch. troubleshooting
- procedure
- can result in misleading results
If the QuikStart system remains on constantly when the and unnecessary parts replacement. Test the entire ignition
engine is operated above 1100 rpm, the power pack is system-more than one component may be defective.
defective and must be replaced. If the QuikStart system
remains on constantly regardless of time on and engine
temperature, when the engine is operated below 1100rpm, Indexing Flywheel
continue as follows: If the outboard motor runs erratically, or if a high-speed
1. Check for a defective starter solenoid or key switch, misfire is noted, the power pack may be defective. Internal
which may cause a small voltage to bleed into the yel- power pack malfunctions can cause erratic ignition system
lowlred wire leading to the power pack. This small amount
operation. Perform the following procedure to ensure the
of voltage can activate the QuikStart circuit.
power pack is firing at the correct time.
2. Check for a defective or damaged port side engine
1. Remove the spark plugs.
temperature switch as described in this chapter.
3. Check for an open circuit or loose or corroded connec- 2. Position the No. 2 piston at TDC by rotating the fly-
tions in the whiteblack power pack wire. wheel clockwise. Insert a pencil or similar tool into the No.
4. Check the engine for an overcooling condition as de- 2 spark plug hole while rotating the flywheel to ensure the
piston is at TDC.
scribed in this chapter.
5. If no other problems are noted in Steps 1-4, replace the 3. With the No. 2 piston at TDC, place a mark on the
power pack. See Chapter Seven. flywheel directly across from the timing pointer. Label the
mark No. 2.
4. Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 on the remaining cylinders.
RPM Limiting Power Pack 5. Reinstall the spark plugs and connect the plug leads.
Power packs marked CDL are equipped with an internal CAUTION
rpm limiting device designed to prevent power head dam- The outboard motor must be supplied with
age from overspeeding.On models so equipped, the power adequate cooling water while running.
pack intenupts ignition if engine speed exceeds 6700 rpm. Place the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
Be certain the correct power pack is used if replacement is the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at
necessary. high speed while connected to a flushing
device.

CDS IGNITION SYSTEM 6. Start the motor and run it at the speed at which the
TROUBLESHOOTING problem is evident.
(250 AND 300 HP VS MODELS) 7. Alternately, connect a timing light to each cylinder. The
timing light should indicatethe number of the cylinder that
The major components of the CD8 ignition system is connected to the timing light. For example, if the timing
include the flywheel, two charge coils, power coil, eight light is connected to the No. 2 spark plug wire, the No. 2
double-wound sensor coils, power pack, eight ignition mark should be visible. In addition, the number should
coils, shift switch, two temperature switches and related only appear near the timing pointer.
wiring. 8. If a different cylinder number appears, or if the number
The charge coil and power coil are contained inside the jumps around or appears at other than the timing pointer,
stator assembly and are not serviced separately. The power first make sure the primary ignition wires are properly
coil is used to provide voltage for QuikStart and SLOW connected. The primary wires must be connected as fol-
operation. The eight sensor coils are a double-wound de- lows:
sign and are contained in an one-piece timer base assembly. a. No. 1 coil is connected to the orangeblue wire.
Eight sensor coils are used for QuikStart operation and b. No. 2 coil is connected to the orangelpurple wire.
eight are used for ignition. c. No. 3 coil is connected to the orangelgreen wire.
If the outboard motor is very hard or impossible to start, d. No. 4 coil is connected to the orange/pink wire.
begin the troubleshooting procedure at Total Output Test. e. No. 5 coil is connected to the orange/blue/white
I f an ignition malfunction is causing an intermittent high- wire.

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CHAPTER THREE

f. No. 6 coil is connected to the orangelpurplelwhite e. If no spark is noted at any one spark gap, continue
wire. at Sensor Coil Output Test.
g. No. 7 coil is connected to the orangelgreenlwhite f. If no spark is noted at cylinders 5-8, continue at Shift
wire. Switch Test.
h. No. 8 coil is connected to the orangelpinklwhite g. If no spark is noted at all spark gaps, continue at Stop
wire. Circuit Test.
If the primary wires are properly connected, venfy wire
and pin location on all timer base and power pack connec-
Stop Circuit Test
tors. See wiring diagrams at end of manual. If wire and pin
location are correct, replace the power pack. The following test eliminates the stop circuit as a poten-
tial cause of an ignition malfunction. The key switch and
Total Output Test lanyard emergency stop switch are connected to the power
pack through the engine wiring harness. Activating the stop
The total output test will determineif the ignition system circuit shorts the power pack output to ground, which
is capable of delivering adequate spark to the spark plugs. disables the ignition system and stops the engine.
Perform the output test with the spark plugs installed and 1. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between
properly tightened. the engine wiring harness and shift switch. See B, Figure
1. Disconnect the spark plug leads from the spark plugs. 99.
2. Mount a suitable spark tester on the engine and connect 2. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester.
the spark plug leads to the tester. See Figure 81. Make sure a. If good spark is now noted at each spark gap, the
the spark tester mounting clip is secured to a good clean problem is in the shift switch circuit. Continue at
engine ground. ShiJi-Switch Test.
3. Adjust the spark tester spark gap to 7/16 in. (11.1mm). b. If no spark is noted, disconnect the two-pin stop
4. Connect the cutoff clip and lanyard to the emergency circuit connector (A, Figure 99) and repeat Step 2.
stop switch, if so equipped. If good spark is now noted, the problem is in the stop
circuit. Continue at Key Switch Ohmmeter Test. I f
NOTE there is still no spark, continue at Charge Coil Out-
If acceptable spark is noted at each spark put Test.
gap during the total output test, but the en-
gine pops or backjires during starting or
running, the ignition system may be out of Key Switch Ohmmeter Test
time. Be sure the primary ignition wires are
properly connected. See Indexing the Fly- If the engine will not shut off when the key switch is
wheel. Make sure the spark plug leads are turned OFF, test the key switch as outlined in this chapter.
routed correctly. Make sure the timing and If the engine will not shut off when the clip is removed
throttle linkage are properly synchronized. from the emergency stop switch, replace the emergency
5. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester. stop switch.
a. If acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, but If the engine will not shut off when the key switch is
the engine will not stop after starting, continue at turned OFF and the clip is removed from the emergency
Stop Circuit Test. stop switch, check for an open circuit in the black/yellow,
b. I f acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, but blacklorange and black wires between the power pack and
the outboard has a high-speed misfire, continue at key switch.
Power Pack Output Test and Running Output Test. 1. Install the emergency stop switch clip and lanyard.
c. I f acceptable spark is noted at each spark gap, but 2. D i s c o ~ e cthe
t one-pin Amphenol connector between
the outboard does not start, first venfy that the the engine wiring harness and shift switch (B, Figure 99).
QuikStart system is functioning as outlined under 3. Disconnect the two-pin Amphenol connector between
QuikStart Operation and Testing. I f the QuikStart the power pack and key switch (A, Figure 99).
system is functioning properly, then make sure the 4. Connect the black ohmmeter lead to a good engine
timing pointer is properly located as outlined in ground. Connect the red ohmmeter lead to terminal B
Chapter Five, then check charge coil output as out- (black/yellow wire) in the engine harness two-pin connec-
lined in this chapter. tor.
d. If good spark is noted on at least one spark gap, a. With the key switch in the OFF position, the ohm-
continue at Charge Coil Output Test. meter should indicate continuity.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 119

b. With the key switch in the ON position, the ohmme- Shift Switch Test I

ter should indicate no continuity. If continuity is


noted, continue at Step 5. The shift switch momentarily interrupts ignition to cyl-
inders 5-8 when the outboard motor is shifted into or out
5. Disconnect the engine wiring harness connector (C, of gear. This power interruption causes the outboard to
Figure 99) and note the ohmmeter. shift easier.
a. If no continuity is now present, test the key switch, Perform the following test if no spark is noted on cylin-
emergency stop switch and remote control wiring ders 5-8 during the Total Output Test.
harness. 1. Install a spark tester as described under Total output
b. If continuity is still present, repair or replace the Test in this chapter. Adjust the spark gap to 7/16 in. (11.1
engine wiring harness. 111111).

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CHAPTER THREE

2. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between Charge Coil Output Test
the engine wiring harness and the shift switch. See B,
Figure 99. Perform the following test to ensure the charge coil is
3. Crank the engine while observing the spark tester. capable of producing sufficient voltage to charge the ca-
pacitor properly in the power pack and to make sure the
a. If spark is now noted at cylinders 5-8, continue at charge coil or charge coil wiring is not shorted to ground.
Step 4. A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform
b. If cylinders 5-8 still do not have spark, continue at this test.
Charge Coil Output Test. 1. Disconnect the fore and aft two-pin Arnphenol connec-
4. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm tors between the stator and power pack.
scale.
5. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and the shift switch end of the connector (B, Figure 99).
No continuity should be noted. If continuity is present,
Stator
replace the shift switch and wire harness.
6. Push down on the shift cable pin to activate the shift
switch while observing the meter. Continuity should now
be noted. If not, replace the shift switch and wire harness.
7. Disconnect the one-pin Amphenol connector between Peak reading
the engine wiring harness and shift switch. See B, Figure voltmeter
99. Disconnect the two-pin Amphenol connector between
the power pack and key switch. See A, Figure 99. Discon-
nect the engine wiring harness connector. See C, Figure
99.
8. Connect the red ohmmeter lead to the blacWyellow wire
terminal in the engine wiring harness connector. Connect
the black ohmmeter lead to terminal A in the two-pin
Arnphenol connector. Note the meter reading, then reverse
the ohmmeter leads. Note the meter reading.
a. One reading should be infmity and the other should
be near zero ohm.
b. If both readings are infinity, or if both are near zero
ohm, replace the blocking diode or repair or replace
the engine wiring harness as necessary.
9. With the red ohmmeter lead connected to the blacWye1- @
low wire terminal in the engine harness connector (C,
Figure 99), connect the black meter lead to terminal B Stator
(blacWyellow) in the engine harness two-pin connector
(Figure 99). The meter should indicate low resistance. If
not, repair or replace the engine wiring harness as neces-
sary.
10. With the red ohmmeter lead connected to the
blacWyellow wire terminal in the engineharness connector
(C, Figure 99), connect the black ohmmeter lead to the
engine harness end of the one-pin shift switch connector.
Note the meter reading, reverse the ohmmeter leads and
note reading. One reading should be infinity and the other
reading should be near zero. If not, repair or replace the
engine wiring harness as necessary.
11. Reconnect all connectors.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. 9. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge
3. Connect one PRV test lead to a good engine ground. coil output should be 130 volts or more.
Alternately connect the remaining test lead to terminals A a. If output at both connectors is 130 volts or more,
and B in the forward two-pin stator connector. See Figure reconnect the two-pin connectors and continue at
100. Sensor Coil Output Test.
4. Crank the engine and note the meter reading at each b. If output is less than 130 volts at either connector,
connection. inspect the condition of the charge coil wiring and
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted charge coil connectors. If the wiring and connectors are in ac-
or charge coil wire(s). Locate and repair the shorted ceptable condition, continue at Charge Coil Resis-
wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as outlined in tance Test.
Chapter Seven.
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 5. Charge Coil Resistance Test
5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 with the PRV connected between
ground and terminal A, then terminal B in the rear two-pin Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
stator connector. ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted charge coil temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
or charge coil wire(s). Locate and repair the shorted indicate increased resistance and may result in unnecessary
wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as outlined in parts replacement without solving the basic problem.
Chapter Seven. 1. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 6. 2. Connect the ohmmeter between terminals A and B in
6. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal A in the the forward two-pin stator connector. See Figure 102.
forward two-pin stator connector. See Figure 101. Con- Resistance should be 765-935 ohms.
nect the red test lead to terminal B in the forward two-pin 3. Connect the ohmmeter between terminals A and B in
connector. the rear two-pin connector. Resistance should be 765-935
7. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Charge ohms.
coil output should be 130 volts or more. 4. If resistance is not as specified in Step 2 and Step 3,
8. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal A in the replace the stator assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
rear two-pin stator connector. Connect the red test lead to 5. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
terminal B in the rear connector. scale.

Stator

Ohmmeter

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122 CHAPTER THREE

6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground


and alternately to each terminal in both two-pin connec-
tors. See Figure 103. Note the meter reading at each
connection. Stator
a. No continuity (infinity) should be noted at each
connection.
b. Continuity between any terminal and ground indi-
cates a shorted charge coil or charge coil wire(s).
Locate and repair the shorted wire(s) or replace the
stator assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven. Ohmmeter
7. Reconnect the stator-to-power pack two-pin connec-
tors.

Sensor Coil Output Test

The sensor coil provides a voltage signal to the power


pack which triggers power pack output to be directed to
the correct ignition coil primary circuit. Perform this test
to determine if the sensor coil is capable of producing a
sufficient voltage signal, and to ensure the sensor coil or
sensor coil wiring is not shorted to ground. A peak reading
voltmeter (PRV) is necessary to perform this test.
1. Disconnect both five-pin Amphenol connectors be- *

tween the timer base and power pack.


2. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 5 (SEN and
5 if using Stevens CD-77).
3. Connect one PRV test lead to a good engine ground.
Alternately connect the remaining test lead to each timer
base terminal. See Figure 104.
4. Crank the engine while observing the meter at each Timer base
connection.
a. Any voltage reading indicates a shorted sensor coil
or sensor coil wire(s). Locate and repair the shorted Starboard
wire(s) or replace the timer base assembly as out-
lined in Chapter Seven.
b. If no voltage is noted, continue at Step 5.
5. Connect the black PRV test lead to terminal E in the
port timer base connector. Alternately connect the red test
lead to terminals A, B, C and D in the port timer base
connector, then terminals A, B, C and D in the starboard
timer base connector. See Figure 105.
6. Crank the engine while observing the meter at each
connection. Sensor coil output should be 0.2 volt or more.
a. If output is 0.2 volt at each connection, continue at
Step 7.
b. If output is less than 0.2 volt, inspect the timer base
wiring and connections and repair as necessary. If
the wiring and connections are in acceptable condi-
tion, continue at Sensor Coil Resistance Test.
7. Connect the E tenninal in the port timer base tenninal
to the E terminal in the port engine harness connectorusing
a jumper lead. See Figure 106.

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TROUBLESHOOTING 123

8. Connect the E terminal in the starboard timer base


terminal to the E terminal in the starboard engine harness
connector using a jumper lead. See Figure 106.
Timer base 9. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine
ground. Alternately, connect the red test lead to terminals
A, B, C and D in the starboard timer base connector, then
terminals A, B, C and D in the port timer base terminal.
Crank the engine while observing the meter at each con-
nection.
a. If output is 0.8 volt or more, continue at Power Pack
Output Test.
b. If output is less than 0.8 volt, inspect the timer base
Peak reading voltmeter
wiring and connectors and repair as necessary. If the
wiring and connectors are in acceptable condition,
continue at Sensor Coil Resistance Test.

Sensor Coil Resistance Test


Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine cold (room
temperature). Resistance tests on hot components will
indicateincreased resistance and may result in unnecessary
parts replacement without solving the basic problem. The
ohmmeter should be calibrated on the R x 1000 or high-
ohm scale when checking for a grounded condition.

NOTE
Ohmmeter polarity must be determined be-

63 Timer base
fore proceeding with this test. To do so, cali-
brate the meter on the R x 100 or low-ohm
scale. Connect the leads to a known-good
diode as shown in Figure 107, then reverse

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124 CHAPTER THREE

the leads. If the first connection indicated


very low resistance (zeroohm), and the sec-
ond connection indicated Qeryhigh resis-
@
tance (infinity), the ohmmeter red lead is
positive (+). If the opposite result is noted,
Timer base
reverse the ohmmeter leads so the red lead is
positive (+).

1. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.


2. Connect the red (positive) ohmmeter lead to terminal E
in the port timer base connector. See Figure 108.
3. Alternately, connect the black ohmmeter lead to termi-
nals A, B, C and D in the port timer base terminal, then
terminals A, B, C and D in the starboard timer base
terminal. Note the meter reading at each connection.

NOTE
The sensor coil resistance specijications in
Step 4 and Step 6 are based on the use of a
Stevens Model AT-101, Merc-0-Tronic
Model M-700, or a Fluke 29 Series I1 ohm-
metel:Resistance measured with an ohmme-
ter by another manufacturer may be
different. Internal timer base components
may cause sensor coil resistance readings to
vary depending on individual ohmmeter im-
pedance. Resistance readings may be higher
or lower; but they should be consistent.

4. If using a Stevens Model AT-101 ohmmeter, sensor coil


resistance should be 330-390 ohms. If using a Merc-O-
Tronic Model M-700 ohmmeter, sensor coil resistance
Timer base
should be 870-1070 ohms. If using a Fluke 29 Series II
ohmmeter, sensor coil resistance should be 875-1075ohms
(Fluke meter must be set on 40 ohms scale). If resistance
is not as specified, replace the timer base assembly as
outlined in Chapter Seven.
5. Next, connect the red ohmmeter lead to terminal E in
the port timer base connector. Connect the black ohmmeter
lead to terminal E in the starboard timer base connector.
See Figure 109.
6. Resistance should be 140-180ohms. If not, replace the
timer base assembly as outlined in Chapter Seven.
7. Next, connect the ohmmeter between a good engine
ground and alternately to each sensor coil terminal in the
port and starboard timer base connector.
8. No continuity should be noted at each connection. If
continuity is noted, locate and repair the grounded timer
base wire(s) or replace the timer base assembly as neces-
sary. See Chapter Seven.
9. If testing is complete, reconnect the timer base termi-
nals.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

Power Pack Output Test b. If no output is noted at one primary wire, replace th#
power pack. See Chapter Seven.
WARNING 7. If testing is complete, remove the PL-88 load adapte
To prevent accidental starting, remove the and reconnect the primary wires to the ignition coils.
spark ~ 2 u gleads from the spark plugs. Se- sure the primary ignition wires are connected to the cone
curely ground the plug leads to the power
ignitioncoils. see Indexing Flywheel.
head, or connect the leads to a spark testel:

A peak reading voltmeter (F'RV) and Stevens load adapt-


Running Output Test
er (part No. PL-88) are necessary to test power packoutput.
1. Disconnect the primary wires from each ignition coil. A peak reading voltmeter (PRV) and Stevens Terrninq
2. Connect the primary wire from the No. 1coil to the red Extenders (part No. TS-77) are necessary to perform the

;
lead of the PL-88 load adapter. Connect the black load running output test. Running the outboard under load
adapter lead to a good engine ground. See Figure 110. often necessary to locate the cause of an intermitte t
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500. malfunction or high-speed misfire, especially if good spar
4. Connect the red PRV test lead to the red load adapter is noted during the Total Output Test.Remove the propeller
lead. Connect the black PRV test lead to a good engine and install the correct test wheel (Table 16) prior to ped-
ground.
5. Crank the engine while observing the meter. Power
forming the test. i
I
pack output should be 100 volts or more. CAUTION
6. Repeat Steps 2-5 on the primary wire to each remaining The outboard motor must be supplied with
ignition coil. Output should be 100 volts or more at each adequate cooling water while running. In-
primary wire. stall the motor in a test tank or on a boat in
a. If output is 100 volts or more at each primary wire, the watel: Do not attempt to run the motor at
test ignition coil resistance as outlined in this chap- high speed while connected to a flushing
ter. device.

1. Remove the primary wires from each ignition coil. 1


2. Install a Stevens Terminal Extender (part No.
@ on each coil primary terminal. Connect the
Ground to the terminal extenders.
3. Set the PRV selector switches to POS and 500.
4. Connect the red PRV test lead
attached to the No. 1 ignition coil.
lead to a good engine ground.
5. Start the engine and run at the speed at which the
malfunction is evident while observing the meter. Runni g
output should be 130 volts or more.
6. Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 with the red PRV test lead
connected to the terminal extender on each remaini~g
P
ignition coil. I
a. If output is less than 130
ignition coils, test charge the coil
chapter. If the charge coil is in acceptable
replace the power pack.
b. If no output (zero volt) is noted at
ignition coil, test the sensor coils as
chapter. If the sensor coils are in
tion, replace the power pack.
7. If testing is complete, remove the terminal extend rs C
and reconnect the primary wires to their respective ignitFn
coils. Make sure the primary ignition wires are connec ed
to the correct ignition coils. See Indexing Flywheel. 1

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CHAPTER THREE

Ignition Coil Resistance Test end of the lead and note the meter. The resistance should
be nearly zero ohm.
Because resistance generally increases with tempera-
ture, perform resistance tests with the engine at room
temperature (70' F [21° C]). Resistance tests on hot com- SLOW Operation and Testing
ponents will indicate increased resistance and may result All models are equipped with the speed limiting over-
in unnecessary parts replacement without solving the basic heat waming (SLOW) system. The system is designed to
problem. Ignition coil resistance can be checked without limit engine speed to approximately 2500 rpm if engine
coil removal. temperature exceeds 203" F (95" C). To deactivate SLOW,
1. Remove the primary wires and the spark plug wires throttle back to idle, allow the engine to cool to 162"F (72"
from the ignition coil assembly. C), then stop the engine.
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1 or low-ohm scale. A blocking diode located in the engine wiring harness is
3. To check primary winding resistance, connect the black used to isolate the SLOW warning system from the other
ohmmeter lead to a good engine ground or to the coil warning systems. Should the blocking diode become
ground tab if the coil is removed. Connect the red ohrnrne- shorted, the SLOW function will remain activated regard-
ter lead to the coil primary terminal. less of engine temperature.
4. Primary resistance should be 0.05-0.15 ohm. The SLOW function is activated by a signal from the
5. To check secondary winding resistance, calibrate the port or starboard engine temperature switch. The tempera-
ohmmeter on the R x 100 or high-ohm scale. Connect the ture switches are located in the top of each cylinder head.
red ohmmeter lead to the coil primary terminal and the The following conditions will cause the SLOW function
black lead to the spark plug terminal. to remain activated:
6. Secondary resistance should be 225-325 ohms. a. Engine overheated.
7. Repeat Steps 3-6 on each remaining coil. b. Engine temperature switch or switch wire shorted to
8. Replace the coil if resistance is not as specified. ground.
9. To check the spark plug leads, calibrate the ohmmeter c. Blocking diode closed or shorted to ground.
on R x 1or low-ohm scale. Connect the ohmmeter to each d. Defective power pack.

@
Stator

Stator

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TROUBLESHOOTING

The following conditions will prevent the SLOW func- the engine wiring harness and connectors and repair
I
tion from operating: as necessary.
a. Engine temperature switch or switch wire open. c. If engine speed does not reduce as specified when
b. Defective power pack. either tan wire is grounded, continue at Step 8.
c. Defective power coil.
8. Loosen the power pack and disconnect the orange and
orangehlack power coil wires from the terminal block.
If the SLOW function is inoperative, test the temperature
9. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
switches and SLOW system as follows. scale.
1. Install the outboard motor in a test tank with the correct 10. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
test wheel installed. See Table 16. and alternately to each power coil wire (orange and or-
2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu- angehlack). See Figure 111.
facturer's instructions. 11. No continuity should be present between ground and
3. Disconnect the port and starboard tanlgreen tempera- either power coil wire. l
ture switch wires from the engine harness tan wires. a. If continuity is noted, either the power coil or power
4. Start the engine and let it run at approximately 3500 coil wire(s) is shorted to ground. Locate and repair
rpm. the shorted wire(s) or replace the stator assembly as
5. Connect the engine harness end of the port tan wire to necessary.
I
a clean engine ground and note the engine speed. b. If no continuity is noted, continue at Step 12.
6. Throttle back to idle speed, then stop the engine. 12. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.
7. Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 using the starboard tan wire. 13. Connect the ohmmeter between the orange and or-
angehlack power coil wires. See Figure 112.
a. If engine speed reduces to approximately 2500 rpm
a. If power coil resistance is within 86-106 ohms,
when each tan wire is grounded, test the temperature
switch as described in this chapter. replace the power pack. I
b. If power coil resistance is not within 86-106 ohms,
b. If engine speed reduces when one temperature replace the stator assembly. See Chapter Seven.
switch tan wire is grounded, but not the other, check
CAUTION 1

Do not start the engine with the orange and


orangehlackpower coil wires disconnected.
I
14. If testing is complete, reconnect the orange and or-
angehlack power coil wires to the terminal block. ~ e d -
stall the power pack.

Blocking Diode Test


A blocking diode is used to prevent the SLOW function
from being activated by other engine warning horn sys-
tems. The blocking diode is located in the engine wiring
harness.
If the SLOW function is activated by the no oil, low oil
or fuel vacuum warning signal, test the engine harness
blocking diode as follows.

1995 models

1. Disconnect the red engine harness connector.


2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature switches
from the engine harness (Figure 113,typical).
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-o$n
I
scale.
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
switch tan wire (engine harness side) and the tan wire

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128 CHAPTER THREE

terminal in the red engine harness connector. See Figure


114.
5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
open and must be replaced.

1996-2002 models

1. Disconnect the six-pin engine harness connector. This


connector holds several tan wires.
2. Disconnect the port and starboard temperature
switches from the engine harness (Figure 113, typical). Engine harness connector Tan or
tanlblue wire
3. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm (temperature
scale. switch)
4. Connect the ohmmeter between either temperature
switch connector tan wire (engine harness end) and the tan
wire terminal in the six-pin engine harness connector.
5. Note the ohmmeter reading, then reverse the leads.
6. A high reading (no continuity) in one direction and a
low reading (continuity) in the other should be noted. If
both readings are low, the diode is shorted (closed) and
must be replaced. If both readings are high, the diode is
open and must be replaced.

QuikStart Operation and Testing

Allmodels are equipped with QuikStart electronic start-


ing system. The QuikStart circuit automatically advances
the ignition timing when the engine temperature is less
than 93-99"" F (34-37" C) to improve engine warm-up.
The ignition timing remains advanced until engine tem-
perature exceeds approximately 93-99" F (34-37" C). In
addition, QuikStart also advances the ignition timing for
approximately 5 seconds each time the engine is started,
regardless of engine temperature. To prevent power head
damage due to detonation, the power pack disables
QuikStartat engine speeds exceeding approximately 1100
rpm, regardless of engine temperature.
To determine if QuikStart is functioning properly, pro-
ceed as follows:
1. Remove the propeller and install the correct test wheel
(Table 16).
2. Place the outboard motor in a suitable test tank. Start
the engine and warm it to normal operating temperature.
Engine temperature must be above 96" F (36" C) before
running this test.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

NOTE NOTE
Make sure engine synchronization and link- The engine must be stopped before testing
age adjustments are correctly set as outlined each remaining cylinder to reset the Quik-
in Chapter Five. start circuit.

3. Place temporary marks on the flywheel indicating TDC 10. Stop the engine.
- Repeat Steps 6-9 for each remaining -
for all cylinders. cylinder.
4. Disconnect the whitelblack temperature switch wire a. If one or more cylinders do not react as specified
between the power pack and the port temperature switch. (Step 9), replace the timer base assembly. See Chap-
See Figure 115, typical. ter Seven.
5. Attach an accurate tachometer to the power head ac- b. If no cylinders react as specified (Step 9), refer to
cording to its manufacturer's instructions. QuikStart inoperative in this chapter.
6. Attach a timing light to the No. 1 cylinder according to c. If all cylinders react as specified (Step 9), the Quik-
the manufacturer's instructions. Start circuit is functioning properly.
7. Start the engine and shift into forward gear. Idle speed
must not exceed 900 rpm in gear during this test. Adjust QuikStart inoperative I

idle speed if necessary.


8. Observe the flywheel with the timing light. The No. 1 The following conditions will cause the QuikStart cir-
cylinder TDC mark should be near the timing pointer, cuit to be inoperative:
indicating the QuikStart system is functioning. a. Defective power coil.
9. While observing the timing marks, momentarily con- b. Defective power pack.
nect the whitelblack temperature switch wire. The timing c. Defective timer base (sensor coil[s]).
mark should shift to the left approximately 1 in. (25.4 rnm) d. An open circuit in the yellowlred wire between the
when the wire is connected, indicating that QuikStart has power pack and starter solenoid or key switch.
returned the timing to the normal setting. Troubleshoot the QuikStart circuit as follows:
1. Disconnect the whiteblack wire between the port tem-
perature switch and power pack (Figure 115, typical).
2. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.

NOTE
Engine temperature must be less than 89' F
Stator (32" C ) in Step 3.

3. Connect the ohmmeter between the temperature switch


whiteblack wire and a good engine ground. The ohmmeter
should indicate no continuity (infinity) with engine tem-
perature less than 89" F (32" C).
a. If the meter indicates continuity in Step 3, test the
Ohmmeter
temperature switch as described in this chapter.
b. If the meter indicates no continuity in Step 3, con-
tinue at Step 4.
4. Loosen the power pack and disconnect the orange and
orangeblack power coil wires from the terminal block.
5. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or high-ohm
scale.
6. Connect the ohmmeter between a good engine ground
and alternately to the power coil orange and orangelblack
wires. See Figure 116. No continuity should be present
between either power coil wire and ground. If continuity
is noted, repair the shorted power coil wire or replace the
stator assembly as necessary. See Chapter Seven.
7. Calibrate the ohmmeter on the appropriate scale.

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CHAPTER THREE

8. Connect the ohmmeter between the power coil orange Key Switch Test
and orangelblack wires. See Figure 112.
a. If power coil resistance is within 86-106 ohms, 1995 Models
replace the power pack.
Refer to Figure 117 for this procedure.
b. If power coil resistance is not within 86-106 ohms,
replace the stator assembly. 1. D i s c o ~ e cthe
t negative battery cable from the battery.
9. If testing is complete, reconnect all circuits discon- Disconnect the positive battery cable, then disconnect the
nected during this procedure. key switch wires from the switch.
2. Connect a test lamp or ohmmeter leads between the
switch terminals marked B A n and A. With the switch in
QuikSturt always on the OFF position, no continuity should be noted.
3. Turn the switch to the ON position. The test lamp
The following conditions can cause the QuikStart circuit should light or the meter should show continuity.
to remain on constantly:
4. Turn the switch to the START position. The test lamp
a. Engine overcooling (not warming up to operating
should light or the meter should show continuity.
temperature).
b. Defective temperature switch. 5. Hold the switch key in the START position and move
the test lead from terminal A to terminal S. The lamp
c. Defective power pack.
should light or the meter should show continuity.
d. Defective starter solenoid or key switch.
6. Turn the switch to OFF Move the test leads to the two
If QuikStart remains on constantly when the engine is
terminals marked M. The test lamp should light or the
operated above 1100 rpm, the power pack is defective and
meter should show continuity.
must be replaced. If QuikStart remains on constantly re-
gardless of running time and engine temperature, when the 7. Turn the switch first to the START, then to the ON
engine is operated below 1100 rpm, continue as follows: position. There should be no continuity in either position.
1. Check for a defective starter solenoid or key switch, 8. Turn the switch OFF. Move the test leads to tenninal B
which may cause a small amount of voltage to bleed into and tenninal C. Turn the switch ON. There should be no
the yellowlred wire leading to the power pack. This small continuity. If equipped with a choke primer system, push
amount of voltage can activate the QuikStart circuit. inward on the key and the test lamp should light or the
2. Check for a defective or damaged port side engine meter should show continuity.
temperature switch as described in this chapter. 9. Repeat Step 8 with the switch in the START position.
3. Check for an open circuit or loose or corroded connec- The results should be the same as those in Step 8.
tions in the whitelblack power pack wire.
4. Check the engine for an overcooling condition as de-
scribed in this chapter.
5. If no other problems are noted in Steps 1-4,replace the
power pack. See Chapter Seven.
@ IGNITION SWITCH TERMINALS
(1995 MODELS)

RPM Limiting Power Pack

Power packs marked CDL are equipped with an internal


rpm limiting device designed to prevent power head dam-
age from overspeeding. On models so equipped, the power
pack interrupts ignition if engine speed exceeds 6700 rpm.
Make sure the correct power pack is used if replacement is
necessary.

KEY AND NEUTRAL START SWITCH

The key (ignition) and neutral start switches can be


tested with a self-powered test lamp or an ohmmeter. If
defective, replace the key switch with a marine switch. Do
not use an automotive switch.

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NOTE 7. Turn the switch first to the START, then to the ON posi-
It is possible that the switch may pass an tion. There should be no continuity in either position.
ohmmeter test but still have an internal 8. Turn the switch OFF. Move the test leads to terminal B
short. Ifthe switch passes but does notfunc- and terminal C. Turn the switch ON. There should be no
tion properly, have a high-voltage leakage continuity. Push inward on the key and the test lamp
test performed by a qualified marine spe- should light or the meter should show continuity.
cialist, using a condenser tester
9. Repeat Step 8 with the switch in the START position.
10. Replace the switch if it fails any of the steps in this The results should be the same as those in Step 8.
procedure.
NOTE
It is possible that the switch may pass an
ohmmeter test but still have an internal
1996-2002 Models
short. g t h e switch passes but does notfunc-
Refer to Figure 118 for this procedure. tion properly, have a high-voltage leakage
test performed by a qual$ed marine spe-
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the battery. cialist, using a condenser tester
Disconnect the positive battery cable, then disconnect the
key switch wires from the switch. 10. Replace the switch if it fails any of the steps in this
2. Connect a test lamp or ohmmeter leads between the procedure.
switch terminals marked A and B. With the switch in the
OFF position, no continuity should be noted.
3. Turn the switch to the ON position. The test lamp Neutral Start Switch
should light or the meter should show continuity.
The throttle cam or remote control box neutral start
4. Turn the switch to the START position. The test lamp switch is not adjustable. If it does not prevent the motor
should light or the meter should show continuity. from starting when the throttle is advanced beyond the
5. Hold the switch key in the START position and move START position, replace it.
the test lead from terminal A to terminal S. The lamp To check the neutral start switch, disconnect the nega-
should light or the meter should show continuity. tive battery cable and connect an ohmmeter between the
6. Turn the switch to OFE Move the test leads to the two switch wires. There should be continuity only when the
terminals marked M. The test lamp should light or the me- engine control is in NEUTRAL. If continuity is shown
ter should show continuity. with the engine control in FORWARD or REVERSE or if
the engine cranks in either gear, replace the switch.

FUEL SYSTEM
IGNITION SWITCH TERMINALS
(1996-2002 MODELS) Outboard motor owners often assume the carburetor(s)
is at fault if the engine does not run properly. While fuel
system problems are not uncommon, carburetor adjust-
ment is seldom the answer. In many cases, adjusting the
carburetor only compoundsthe problem by making the en-
gine run worse.

NOTE
Never attempt to adjust the carburetor(s)un-
til the following conditions are confirmed.

a. The ignition timing is correctly adjusted.


b. The engine throttle and ignition linkage have been
correctly synchronized and adjusted.
c. The engine is running at normal operating tempera-
C ture.
d. The outboard is in the water, running in forward gear
with the correct propeller installed.

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CHAPTER THREE

Fuel system troubleshooting should start at the fuel tank leak can cause an increase in fuel consumption. These
and work through the entire fuel delivery system,reserving areas should all be checked before servicing the carburetor.
the carburetors as the final point. The majority of fuel
system problems result from an empty fuel tank, sour fuel,
a plugged fuel filter or a malfunctioning fuel pump. Table Electric Primer System
3 provides a series of symptoms and causes that can be
useful in localizing fuel system problems.
A primer solenoid is used on electric start models. See
Figure 119. When the key switch is pushed inward, the
Troubleshooting solenoid opens electrically and allows fuel to pass from the
fuel pump directly into the intake mamfold in sufficient
When troubleshooting the fuel system, first check the quantity to start the engine.
fuel flow. Remove the fuel tank cap and look into the tank.
If fuel is present, disconnect and ground the spark plug Check the primer solenoid operation by running the
leads to prevent starting. Disconnect the fuel hose from the engine at approximately 2000 rpm and depressing the
carburetor and place it in a suitable container to catch ignition key. If the solenoid is functioning properly, the
discharged fuel. Determine if fuel flows freely from the engine will run rich and drop about 1000 rpm until the key
hose when the primer bulb is squeezed. is released. If the solenoid is suspected of not operating
If no fuel flows from the hose, the fuel valve at the tank properly, shut the engine down and disconnect the pur-
may be shut off or blocked by rust or other foreign material. plelwhite wire from the terminal block. Connect an ohm-
The hose may be plugged or kinked or a primer bulb check meter between the purplelwhite wire and the black primer
valve may be defective. To determine if a restriction is solenoid ground wire. The ohmmeter should indicate 4-7
present in the fuel hose between the fuel pump and tank, ohms. If the solenoid does not perform as specified, repair
connect a suitable vacuum gauge into the fuel deliveryhose or replace the primer solenoid as necesary.
near (before) the fuel pump. Connect the vacuum gauge
using a length of clear plastic hose. Start the outboard (in
the water) and let it run at wide-open throttle while observ-
ing the vacuum gauge. If the gauge indicates more than 4
in. of vacuum, a restriction is present in the fuel line. If
bubbles are present in the clear plastic hose, an air leak is
present in the hose between the fuel tank and vacuum
gauge.
If a good fuel flow from the fuel hose is present, crank
the engine 10-12revolutions to check fuel pump operation.
A good, constant flow of fuel from the hose will result if
the pump is operating properly. If the fuel flow varies from
pulse to pulse, the pump may be failing. See Chapter Six
for fuel pump testing and service procedures.
During a hot engine shut-down, the fuel bowl tempera-
ture can rise above 200"F, causing the fuel inside to boil.
While outboard carburetors are vented to the atmosphere
to prevent this problem, there is a possibility some fuel will
percolate over the high-speed nozzle.
A leaking inlet valve or a defective float will allow an
excessive amount of fuel into the carburetor and intake
manifold. Pressure in the fuel line after the engine is shut
down forces fuel past the leaking inlet valve. This raises
the fuel level, allowing fuel to overflow the carburetor float
bowl.
Excessive fuel consumption may not necessarily mean
an engine or fuel system problem. Marine growth on the
boat's hull, a bent or otherwise damaged propeller or fuel

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TROUBLESHOOTING

ENGINE TEMPERATURE Engine temperature check


AND OVERHEATING (Thennomelt Stik procedure)

Proper engine temperature is critical to good engine At least two Thermomelt Stiks are necessary to check
operation. Internal engine damage will occur if the engine engine temperature. A 125" F (52" C) and a 163" F (73'
overheats. An outboard motor that runs too cool will expe- C) Thermomelt Stik are necessary to check engine tem-
rience the following conditions: perature.
a. Fouled spark plugs. To be accurate, the cooling water inlet temperature
b. Poorlrough idle operation. should be within 60-80" F (18-24" C). Remove the propel- I
c. Loss of wide-open throttle speed. ler and install the correct test wheel (Table 16). place the
d. Excessive fuel consumption. outboard motor in a suitable test tank.
e. Excessive carbon deposits in the combustion cham-
ber. NOTE
A variety of problems can cause an engine to overheat. Do not apply the Thermomelt Stik to the
Some of the most common are a defective thermostat, center of the cylinder head, as this area is
defective water pump or damaged or mislocated water nonnally hotter than 163" F (73" C).
passage restrictors.
1. Mark the top of the cylinder block near the cylinder
head with each Thermomelt Stik. See Figure 121. The
lkoubleshooting mark should appear similar to a chalk mark. Make sure
sufficient material is applied to the metal surface.
Check engine temperature using Markal Thermomelt 2. With the engine at normal operating temperature, run-
Stiks available at your Johnson or Evinrude Dealer. This ning at 900 rpm in forward gear, the 125" F mark should
heat-sensitive stick looks like a large crayon (Figure 120) melt. If not, the engine is running too cool. On thermostat
and is designed to melt at a specific temperature. equipped outboards, the thermostat may be stuck in the
A much more accurate and convenient method for open position, causing the engine to overcool.
checking engine temperature is by using a pyrometer. A 3. With the engine at normal operating temperature, run-
pyrometer is basically a thermometer which is capable of ning at 900 rpm in forward gear, the 163" F mark should
measuring high temperatures. Temperature adapters are not melt. If it does, the engine is overheating. Check for a
available for some digital multimeters which effectively defective water pump or plugged or leaking cooling sys-
convert the meter into a pyrometer. tem. On thermostat-equipped models, the thermostat may
be stuck closed.
4. Increase engine speed to 5000 rpm. The 163" F mark
should still not melt. If it does, the engine is overheating.
Check for a defective water pump, leaking cooling system,
damaged, missing or mislocated water passage restrictors.

Engine temperature check (pyrometer procedure)

For accurate results during the following procedure, the


cooling water temperature should be within 60-80" F (18-
24" C). Remove the propeller and install the correct test
wheel (Table 16), then place the outboard motor in a
suitable test tank.
1. Start the engine and run at 3000 rpm for at least five
minutes to make sure the engine is at operating tempera-
ture.
2. Reduce engine speed and run at 900 rpm for five
minutes. After five minutes, hold the pyrometer probe
against the top of the cylinder head and note the meter
reading. The temperature should be within 125-155" F
(52-68" C).

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CHAPTER THREE

a. If the reading is below the specifled temperature, a. Tan wire-Close at 197-209" F (92-98" C); open at
check for the cause of overcooling. On thermostat 155-185" F (70-84" C).
equipped models, the thermostat may be stuck open. b. Tanlred wire--Close at 174-186"F (79-85" C); open
b. If the reading is above the specified temperature, the at 150-160" F (62-74" C).
engine is overheating. Check for a defective water c. Tadblack wire-Close at 206-218" F (107-103" C);
pump, plugged or leaking cooling system, damaged open at 155-190"F (70-84" C).
or missing restrictor plugs (under cylinder head) or d. Tanblue wire--Close at 234-246" F (110-118" C);
sticking thermostat (closed) on models so equipped. open at 192-222"F (103-117" C).
3. Increase engine speed to 5000 rpm and note the meter.
e. Tadgreen wire-Close at 221-233" F (123-129" C);
Engine temperature must not exceed 120" F (49" C) on open at 155-185"F (70-84" C).
130,250 and 300 hp models, 155" F (68" C) on 200 and
225 hp models and 160" F (71" C) on all other models. If
the temperature exceeds the specified amount, check for a
defective water pump, plugged or leaking cooling system,
damaged, missing or mislocated water passage restrictor
plugs (under cylinder heads) or a thermostat sticking
closed.

Engine Temperature Switches


The engine temperature switch is installed in the cylin-
der head(s) and is designed to activate a warning horn
should engine temperature exceed a specified limit.
To test switch operation,disconnectthe bullet connector,
unscrew the switch cover and remove the switch from the
cylinder head. See Figure 122,typical.

WARNNG
To preventJire or explosion when testing the
temperature switch, be sure to use a suitable
container to heat the oil. Use oil with aflash
point above 300" F (150" C), such as OMC
Cobra 4-Cycle Motor Oil. Never use an open
flame to heat the oil.
1. Connect a self-poweredtest lamp or ohmmeter between
the temperature switch wire and the metal body of the
switch.
2. Place the switch and an accurate thermometer in a
container of engine oil. See Figure 123.Slowly increase
the temperature of the oil using a hot plate or other suitable
heat source. Do not use open flame to heat the oil.

NOTE
If using a self-powered test lamp, the tester
lamp shouldlight when the switch closes and
go out when the switch opens. If using an
ohmmetel; the meter should indicate conti-
nuity when the switch closes and no continu-
ity when the switch opens.
3. While heating the oil, note the color of the switch wire
and observe the following switch closing temperatures.
Then, allow the oil to cool and observe the following
switch opening temperatures:

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TROUBLESHOOTING

f. Whitehlack wire (except 60" V6 and 1993-on 60-70 the fuel. The use of a premium quality outboard motor
hp mode1s)~loseat 93-99' F (34-38" C); open at power head lubricant cannot be overemphasized. The cur-
86-92" F (30-34" C). rent TCW-3 specification for power head lubricants en-
g. White/black wire (60" V6 and 1993-on 60-70 sures that maximum lubrication is delivered with minimal
hp)-<lose at 102-108" F (39-43" C); open at carbon deposit build-up. Using gasoline from a major
87-93" F (30-34" C). brand manufacturer ensures that the fuel contains the de-
h. Tanhlack wire--Close at 206-218" F (107-103" C); tergents necessary to minimize carbon buildup from the
open at 155-190" F (70-84" C). fuel. Fuels that contain alcohol tend to build carbon at an
4. If the switch fails to function as specified, replace it. acceleratedrate. The manufacturer recommends avoiding
alcohol blended fuels whenever possible. Refer to Chap-
ter Four for additional fuel and oil recommendations.
ENGINE
Use OMC Engine Tuner periodically (as described in
Engine (power head) problems are generally the result Chapter Four) to remove carbon deposits from the com-
of a failure in another system, such as the ignition, fuel bustion chamber and piston rings before they can contrib-
(and lubrication) or cooling systems. If a power head is ute to high combustion chamber temperatures.
properly cooled, lubricated, timed and given the correct
airlfuel mixture, the engine should experience no me- I
chanical problems other than normal wear. If a power Preignition i
head fails, the emphasis must be to determine why the
power head failed. Just replacing failed mechanical com- Preignition is the premature ignition of the airlfuel
ponents will do no good if the cause of the failure is not charge in the combustion chamber. Preignition is caused
corrected. by hot spots in the combustion chamber. See Figure 124.
Basically, anything in the combustion chamber that gets
Overheating and Lack of Lubrication hot enough to ignite the airlfuel charge will cause
preignition. Glowing carbon deposits, inadequate cool-
Overheating and lack of lubrication cause the majority ing, improperly installed thread inserts, incorrect heaa
of engine mechanical problems. Anytime an outboard gaskets, sloppy machine work, previous combustion
motor is run, adequate cooling water must be supplied by chamber damage (nicks and scratches) or overheated (too
immersing the gearcase water inlets in the water (test tank hot) spark plugs can all cause preignition. Preignition is
or lake) or using an approved flushing device. The motor usually first noticed in the form of a power loss, but will
must only be run at low speeds when operated on a flush- eventually result in extensive damage to the internal engide
ing device. The motor must never be started without a wa- components (especially pistons) because of excessive com-
ter supply; water pump damage will occur in seconds. bustion chamber pressure and temperature. Preignition dam-
Carbon buildup in a two-stroke outboard motor will age typically looks like an acetylene torch was used to melt
cause premature power head failure. Carbon buildup away the top of the piston. Sometimes the piston will acd-
comes from two possible sources; the lubricating oil and ally have a hole melted through the crown. It is important k~

PREIGNITION I

I
Ignited by hot deposit Regular ignition spark Ignites remaining fuel Flame fronts collide
I
I

I
I

~
I

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CHAPTER THREE

remember that preignition can lead to detonation and deto- 4. Spark advance-Spark occurring too early causes ex-
nation can lead to preignition. Both types of damage may cessive combustion chamber pressures. Spark occurring
be evident when the engine is disassembled. extremely late causes the combustion flame front to
quench along a larger surface area of the cylinder walls,
exceeding the cooling system capacity to remove the heat.
Detonation Both of these situations raise the octane requirements.
5. Operating speed--Propping an engine so that it cannot
Commonly referred to as spark knock or fuel knock, reach the recommended operating speed range is consid-
detonation is the violent, spontaneousexplosion of fuel in ered lugging or over-propping the engine. This is like
the combustion chamber, as opposed to the smooth, pro- trying to drive a manual shift car or truck in too high of
gressive, even burning of the airlfuel mixture that occurs gear. When an engine is over-propped to the point that it
during normal combustion. See Figure 125. When deto- cannot reach its recommended speed,combustion chamber
nation occurs, combustion chamber pressure and tempera- temperatures will skyrocket, increasing the octane require-
ture rise dramatically, creating severe shock waves in the ment.
engine. This will cause severe engine damage. It is not Fuel degrades over time and storage causes the actual
unusual for detonation to break a connecting rod or crank- octane rating of the fuel to drop. Even though the fuel may
shaft in two. have exceeded the manufacturer's recommendations when
Detonation occurs when the octane requirements of the the fuel was fresh, it may have dropped well below recom-
engine exceed the octane of the fuel being used. It does not mendations over time. Use a fuel conditioner, such as
necessarily mean that the wrong fuel is being used. It does OMC 2+4 fuel conditioner to prevent octane deterioration.
mean that at the time of detonation, the engine needed The fuel conditioner must be added to fresh fuel, it will not
higher octane fuel than was being used. All fuel will raise the octane of stale or sour fuel.
spontaneously explode if it is subjectedto enough pressure It is better to properly and safely dispose of questionable
and high enough temperature. fuel and start with a fresh tank, rather than risk a power
The fuel octane requirements of an engine are generally head failure. Power head failure typically occurs in a few
determined by the: seconds or less when an engine is detonating, so rarely can
1. Compression ratio-Higher compression ratios require an operator detect detonation and reduce engine speed in
higher octane fuel. It is important to note that carbon time to save the power head. It is important to remember
buildup in the combustion chamber raises compression that detonation can lead to preignition and preignition can
ratios. lead to detonation. Both types of damage may be evident
2. Combustion chamber temperature-Higher tempera- when the engine is disassembled.
tures require higher octane fuel. Water pump and thermo-
stat malfunctions typically raise the combustion chamber Poor Idle Quality
temperature.
3. Air/fel mixture-Leaner mixtures require higher oc- Poor idle quality can usually be attributed to one of the
tane fuel, richer mixtures require lower octane fuel. following conditions:

DETONATION

Spark occurs Combustion begins Continues and results in Detonation

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TROUBLESHOOTING

1. Overcooling-If the power head does not reach the correctly adjusted for the engine to idle and accelerate
recommended operating temperature, fuel tends to puddle properly. An engine that is too lean at idle will spit or
in the crankcase, resulting in a lean airlfuel ratio in the backfire through the carburetor at idle and hesitate during
combustion chamber. This tends to produce a lean spit or acceleration. Refer to Chapter Six for carburetor adjust-
backfire through the carburetor at idle. Overheating is ments.
usually caused by debris caught in the thermostats and
poppet valve assembly. Refer to the Engine Temperature
and Overheating section in this chapter for engine tem- Misfiring
perature checks.
True misfiring is an ignition system malfunction, gener-
2. Crankcase seal failure-A two-stroke engine cannot ally caused by weak (or erratic) spark or defective spark
function unless the crankcase is adequately sealed. As the plugs. The ignition system is simply not able to deliver
piston travels downward, the crankcase must pressurize enough spark energy to fire the spark plug at the time of
and push the airlfuel mixture into the combustion chamber
the misfire.
as the intake ports are uncovered. Conversely, as the piston
travels upward, the crankcase must create a vacuum to pull Four-stroking is a form of misfire caused by an aidfuel
the airlfuel mixture into the crankcase from the carburetor ratio so rich that it cannot consistently ignite. The term
in preparation for the next cycle. four-stroking comes from the fact that the engine is typi-
cally firing every other revolution (like a four-stroke en-
Leaks in the crankcase cause the aidfuel charge to leak
gine), instead of every revolution. Four-stroking is caused
into the atmosphere under crankcase compression.During
by a fuel system malfunction. Check for excessive fuel
the intake cycle, crankcase leakage will cause air from the pump pressure, carburetor(s) with leaking inlet needle and
atmosphere to be drawn into the crankcase, diluting the seats or fuel primer systems stuck in the on position.
airlfuel charge. The net result is inadequate fuel in the
Mechanical failure (insufficient compression) can cause
combustion chamber. On multiple cylinder engines, each
a misfire at all speeds, but will often cause a cylinder to not
crankcase must be sealed from all other crankcases. Inter-
fire at idle and low speeds, then begin firing at mid-range
nal leakage will allow the airlfuel charge to leak to another
and high speed. Always perform a compression test to
cylinder's crankcase, rather than travel to the correct com-
verify the mechanical integrity of the combustion chamber.
bustion chamber. Refer to Starting Dificulties at the be-
ginning of this chapter for additional information.
3. Fuel recirculation system failure-Multiple cylinder Flat Spots and Hesitation During Acceleration
motors are equipped with a fuel recirculation system de-
signed to collect unburned fuel and oil from the low spots If the engine seems to hesitate or bog when the throttle
of the individual crankcase areas. Since the intake system is opened, check for a restricted main jet in the carbure-
used by two-stroke engines does not completely transfer tor(~),water in the fuel or an excessively lean fuel mixture.
all of the fuel sent through the crankcase to the combustion Incorrect synchronizationof the spark advance to the throt-
chamber (especially during low-speed operation), the re- tle opening (on models with adjustments) can cause flat
circulation system provides a method of collecting the fuel spots and hesitation during acceleration.
and oil pooled in the low spots of the crankcase and
transferring it to the intake ports or intake manifold where
it can be burned. Water Leakage into Cylinder(s)
Correct recirculation system operation is vitally impor- A simple method to check for water leakage into a
tant to efficient engine operation. If the system fails, ex- cylinder is to check the spark plugs. Water in the combus-
cessive amounts of fuel and oil will puddle in the crankcase tion chamber tends to clean the spark plug. If one spark
and not reach the combustion chamber during low-speed plug in a multicylinder engine is clean and the others have
operation, causing a lean mixture. When the engine is normal deposits, a water leak is likely in the cylinder with
accelerated, the puddles of fuel and oil are quickly drawn the clean spark plug. A compression test can also be
into the engine causing a temporary excessively rich mix- performed to check the mechanical integrity of the com-
ture. This will result in poor low-speed performance, poor bustion chamber. The piston crown can be visually in-
acceleration, spark plug fouling, stalling or spitting at idle spected for the absence of carbon deposits. A cylinder
and excessive smoke during acceleration. Refer to Chapter crown that looks steam cleaned is a typical indication of
Six for fuel recirculation system service. water leakage into that combustion chamber. If the exhaust
4. Incorrect carburetor adjustments or carburetor mal- port area can be accessed, look for evidence of hard min-
functions-Each carburetor's idle mixture screw must be eral deposits and the absence of soft, wet carbon deposits.

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CHAPTER THIPEE

Water Damage in Power Head Lower Cylinder(s) compression after the treatment. If the compression is now
within specification, consider changing lubricant and fuel
While water leakage into the combustion chambers is to higher quahty brands. See Chapter Four.
generally caused by defective or failed head gaskets, water
If the compression is still not within specifications after
can also enter the lower cylinder(s) of a power head the Engine Tuner treatment, the motor must be disassem-
through the exhaust ports and carburetor(s). When a steep bled, the defect located and repaired. After the power head
unloading ramp or tilted trailer bed is used to launch the
rebuild, make sure the carburetors and fuel pump are
boat from a trailer and the boat enters the water too quickly,
rebuilt, a new water pump and thermostat(s) are installed
water can be forced into the drive shaft housing and up and all synchronizationand linkage adjustments are made
through the exhaust chamber into the cylinders if the (Chapter Five).
pistons are not covering the exhaust ports.
Sudden deceleration, with the engine shut off, can cause Marine growth on the bottom of the hull and lower
a wave to swamp the engine and enter the exhaust ports or gearcase will drastically reduce the top speed and fuel
through the lower carburetor(s). This is most prevalent economy of any boat. If the motor is in a good state of tune
with stem-heavy boats. Operating a twin engine boat with and has no apparent malfunction, yet fuel economy and top
one engine shut off is considered hazardous because there speed are unacceptable, inspect the bottom of the hull and
is no exhaust back pressure to keep water out of the engine lower gearcase for marine growth and clean as necessary.
that is not running. This is most likely when backing the
boat up with one engine shut off. It is recommended that Power Output Verification
the engine that is not being used (for docking or low speed
maneuvering) be left running at idle speed to reduce the This procedure requires the manufacturer recommended
risk of water entry. test wheel. Test wheel part numbers and minimum test
Water entering a cylinder can result in a bent connecting speed are listed in the Quick Reference Data section at the
rod, a broken piston andlor piston pin, a cracked cylinder front of this manual. A test wheel is designed to apply a
andor cylinder head or any combination of these condi- calibrated load to the engine, while producing minimum
tions. Even if no immediatephysical damage is done to the thrust. This prevents the motor from quickly throwing all
power head, the entry of water will result in rust and of the water out of a test tank, or if on a trailer or tied to a
corrosion of all internal surfaces (bearings, crankshaft, dock, prevents damage to the trailer or dock.
cylinder walls, connecting rods and piston rings).
CAUTION
Do not run the engine without an adequate
Power Loss
water supply and do not exceed 3000 rpm
without an adequate load. Refer to Safety
Several factors can cause a loss of power. Remember that
Precautions at the beginning of this chaptel:
an engine needs 3 things to run properly: compression,fuel
and ignition. Check the mechanical integrity of the com-
To determine if the engine is producing its rated output,
bustion chamber by performing a cranking compression
proceed as follows:
test. Test the ignition system with an air gap tester and
venfy ignition timing at wide-open throttle. Check the fuel 1. Remove the propeller and install the correct test wheel
system for air leaks into the fuel lines and fittings and test (Quick Reference Data). Install the test wheel as you
the fuel pump for adequate output pressure at wide-open would a normal propeller. See Chapter Nine.
throttle. Clean or replace all fuel filters. Remove the car- 2. Connect an accurate tachometer to the power head
buretor(~)and inspect the float chamber for water in the according to its manufacturer's instructions.
fuel and gum or varnish build-up in the metering passages 3. Place the outboard in a test tank, or back the boat and
and jets. Clean all of the carburetors if any debris or trailer into the water until the gearcase is submerged to at
build-up is found in any one carburetor. least its normal operating depth.
If the compression test reveals a mechanical defect in a 4. Start the engine and allow it to warm to normal operat-
combustion chamber, treat the engine with OMC Engine ing temperature. Then shift into FORWARD gear and run
Tuner. Many times the piston rings are stuck to the piston the engine at wide-open throttle while noting the tachome-
and cannot adequately seal to the cylinder walls. Engine ter reading.
Tuner can free stuck piston rings and prevent unnecessary 5. If the engine's speed meets or exceeds the minimum
disassembly if no mechanical damage has yet occurred. rpm listed in the test wheel table, the engine is producing
Follow the instructionson the containerand retest cranking its rated horsepower.

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TROUBLESHOOTING

6. If the engine's speed is less than specified, the engine Piston Seizure
is not producing its rated horsepower. The problem will be
located in one of the following areas: Piston seizure can be caused by insufficient piston-to- I

cylinder bore clearance, improper piston ring end gap, 11


a. Stuck piston rings or excessive carbon deposits in inadequate or inferior lubrication, cooling system failure
the combustion chambers. Remove any carbon de- (overheating), preignition or detonation.
posits from the combustion chambers by using OMC
Engine Tuner as described in Chapter Four.
Excessive Vibration
b. Insufficient cranking compression on one or more
cylinders. Check the cranking compression as de- Excessive vibration can be caused by an engine misfir-
scribed in Chapter Four. ing- on one or more cylinders, loose or broken motor
c. Incorrect synchronization and linkage adjustments. mounts and worn or failed bearings. Gearcase problems
Refer to Chapter Five and perform all synchroniza- that can cause excessive vibration are a bent propeller
tion and linkage adjustments. shaft, damaged propeller or a propeller with marine growth
on the blades. A propeller that is ventilating from damage
d. Ignition system malfunction. Check the ignition sys-
or defects on the leading edge of the gearcase, an improp-
tem spark output as specified in Preliminary checks
in the appropriate ignition section (Chapter Seven). erly mounted speedometer or a depth finder sending unit
or any hull deformity that disturbs the water flow to the
e. Fuel system malfunction. Test the fuel system for propeller can cause excessive vibration.
restrictions and the fuel pump output as described in
this chapter.
Engine Noise
f. Carburetor malfunction. Connect a timing light to
the engine and shine its beam down each carburetor Experience is needed to diagnose engine noises accu-
throat as the engine is run at various speeds. The fuel rately. Noises are difficult to differentiate and harder yet to
plume from each carburetor must be of the same describe. Even a properly assembled two-stroke power
volume and shape as the other carburetor(s). Re- head produces much more mechanical noise than its four-
move and rebuild any suspect carburetors. See Chap- stroke counterpart and a two-stroke power head produces
ter Six. substantial intake (induction) noise. Deep knocking noises
g. If all tests to this point are satisfactory, inspect the usually mean crankshaft main or rod bearing failure. A
reed valves for damage (Chapter Six). If the reed light slapping noise generally comes from a loose piston,
valves are in good condition, the engine may simply however some piston noise is normal, especially during
be worn out (cranking compression even, but low). warm-up. Any knocking noise on acceleration or at high
If so, the engine will have to be rebuilt to achieve its speed could be preignition or detonation and must be
rated output. See Chapter Eight. investigated immediately.

Table I TEST EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS


Description Part No. Manufacturer
Air gap spark tester
Four-cylinder S-48 H Stevens Instruments
Four-cylinder 55-48 Merc-0-Tronic
Six-cylinder 55-68 Merc-0-Tronic
Eight-cylinder S-48 Stevens Instruments
Amphend type terminal tools
Crimping pliers 322696 OMC
Pin insertion tool 322697 OMC
Pin removal tool (male) 322698 OMC
Pin removal tool (female) 322699 OMC
Amphenol connector break out boxes
SA-6 SA-6 Stevens Instruments
Model 55-861 55-861 Merc-0-Tronic

I (continued) I

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140 CHAPTER THREE

Table 1 TEST EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS (continued)


Description Part No. Manufacturer
Deutsch type terminal tools
Crimping pliers 322696 OMC
Terminal service tool 342667 OMC
Terminal sewice klt 507197 OMC
Ignition analyzer
SF75 SF75 Stevens Instruments
Ignition test kit (60" V4 and V6) 434017 OMC
Packard test lead sets
60" V4 437270 OMC
60" V6 434127 OMC
Peak reading voltmeter (PRV)
CD-77 CD-77 Stevens Instruments
Model 781 781 Merc-0-Tronic
Power pack load adaptor PL-88 Stevens Instruments
Standard crimping pliers 500906 OMC
Temperature gun (infrared) 772018 OMC
Terminal extenders (ignition coil) TS-77 Stevens Instruments
Thermomelt Stiks F100,125,163 Stevens Instruments

Table 2 WIRING HARNESS COLOR CODES (TRADITIONAL HARNESSES)


I

Yellowlred

Black/yellow
Black
Purplehhite
Tan
Purple
Protected B+ Redlpurple
Black
Trimhilt circuits
Blue
Trim motor down Green
Bluelwhite
Switching down Greenlwhite
Switching circuit B+ Redhvhite
Rim sender circuit Whlteltan
Black or blacWtan

Table 3 WIRING HARNESS COLOR CODES (MODULAR WIRING HARNESS)


I Color code I
Main harness circuits
Starter engagement Yellowlred
Tachometer Gray
Stop 1 (ignition side) BlackEyellow
Stop 2 (ground side) Blacklwhite
Choke or primer Purplelwhite
Overheat warning Tan
I (continued)

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TROUBLESHOOTING 141

Table 3 WIRING HARNESS COLOR CODES (MODULAR WIRING HARNESS) (continued)


I Color code I
Main harness circuits (continued)
No oil warning Tadyellow
Low oil warning Tanlblack
Warning horn control Tanlblue
Protected B+ Redlpurple
Grounds Black
Trlmltilt circuits
Trim motor up Blue
Trim motor down Green
Switching up Bluelwhite
Switching down Greenlwhite
Switching circult B+ Redlwhite
Trim sender circuit Whitan

Table 4 MINIMUM BATTERY CABLE SIZES (AWG)*


Cable length V4 V6 and V8
1-10 R. (0.3-3.0 m) 4 gauge 4 gauge
11-15 R. (3.4-4.6 m) 3 gauge 2 gauge
16-20 R. (4.9-6.1 m) 1 gauge 1 gauge

Stranded copper cables. Do not use aluminum cables.

Table 5 STARTER SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING


Snn~tom Probable cause Remedy
Low no-load speed
with high current draw Tight or dirty bushings Clean and lubricate bushings
Shorted armature Test armature on growler

Low no-load speed


with low current draw High resistance in the
armature circuit. Check brushes and springs.
Test armature on growler.
Clean and inspect commutator.

High current draw with no rotation Stuck armature Clean and lubricate bushings,
remove internal corrosion.
Internal short to ground Check brush leads for shorts.

No current draw with no rotation Open armature circuit Check brushes and springs.
Test armature on growler.
Clean and inspect commutator.

Starter continues runnlng


after key is released. Solenoid stuck on Replace solenoid.
Key switch failure Test key switch.
Yellowlred lead
circuit malfunction. Remove yellowlred lead from
solenoid. If starter now stops, repair
or replace the yellowlred lead from
the starter switch to the starter solenoid.

(continued)

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142 CHAPTER THREE

Table 5 STARTER SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING* (continued)


Symptom Probable cause Remedy

Starter turns motor over too slowly. Solenoid has high


internal resistance Measure voltage drop across the
solenoid while starter is engaged.
Connect red voltmeter lead to battery
side of solenoid and black voltmeter
lead to the starter side. Measure
voltage with starter engaged.

Mechanicalfailure of
power head or gearcase. Turn flywheel by hand. If resistance
is excessive, remove gearcase and
recheck. Repair gearcase or
power head.

Battery cables too small or


excessively long. Do not use cables smaller than
the manufacturer installed. If
extending cable length, use larger
diameter cables.

Starter spins but starter


drive does not engage. Starter drive is corroded or
needs lubrication. Clean thoroughly and lubricate the
splines under the starter drive.
Starter is not producing
necessaryspeedand
toque to engage the drive. Check the battery charge, battery
cables and connections. Test the
solenoid voltage drop (see Starter
turns motor slowly).
Disassemblethe starter and:
Clean and lubricate bushings
Clean and inspect commutator.
Check brushes and springs.
Test armature on growler.

Table 6 CHARGING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING


Symptom Probable cause Remedy
Battery overcharges
Unregulated system Extended high speed
running Turn on accessories
during high speed runs.
Regulated system Regulator failure Test sense circuit, if OK,
replace regulator.
Stator shorted to ground Perform Stator Resistance Tests

I Battery gasses excessively Overcharging


Defective battery
(internally shorted)
See Battery overcharges.

Substitute another battery and retest.

Battery loses charge


with engine running Alternator failure Test system per text.
Excessive accessory load Perform Current Draw Test.
(continued)
I

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TROUBLESHOOTING 143

Table 6 CHARGING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING (continued)


Symptom Probable cause Remedy
Battery loses charge during storage Current drain from
engine components Perform rectifier or rectifierlregulator
ohmmeter tests.
Current drain from
accessories left on Verify accessories off,
consider installing battery switch.
Defective battery Disconnect battery cables. If battery still
loses charge, battery is defective.

Table 7 IGNITION SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING


Symptom Probable cause Remedy
Engine will not start (spark tests good) Fouled spark plugs Clean or replace spark plugs.
lncorrect timing from
sheared flywheel key Check flywheel key.

Engine backfire Improper timing Check timing.


Incorrect firing order Check primary and secondary
lead routing and connections.
Cracked spark plug insulator Replace spark plugs.

High speed misfire Insufficient spark Perform air gap spark test.
Incorrect spark plug gap Gap spark plugs (if applicable).
Loose electrical connections Check battery connections, engine
harness connections and terminals.
Secondary spark leakage Inspect ignition coils and spark plug leads
for cracks, arcing and evidence of leakage.

Engine pre-ignition Excessively high combustion


chamber temperature. Check for correct spark plugs.
Check for excessive spark advance.
Inspect cooling system.
Check fuel system for restricted
supply (lean mixture).

Spark plug failure Incorrect spark plugs Use correct spark plugs.
Spark plugs not torqued Torque spark plugs.
Airlfuel mixture incorrect Check fuel supply and carburetors.
Excessive carbon buildup Use recommendedfuel and oil.
Engine overheat Inspect cooling system.

Ignition component failure Loose electrical connections Clean and tighten all connections.
Loose mounting (vibration) Tighten mounting hardware.
Overheating Inspect cooling system.
Corrosion (water damage) Locate source of moisture.

Table 8 FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING


I ~nn~tom Probable cause Remedy I
Engine will not start No fuel to carburetors Verify gas in tank.
Check gas tank air vents.
Check gas tank pickup filter.
Clean all fuel filters.
Verify primer bulb operation.
Carburetor failure Rebuild and adjust carburetors.

I (continued)
I

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CHAPTER THREE

Table 8 FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING (continued)


Symptom Probable cause Remedy
Flooding at carburetor Carburetor float malfunction Disassemble suspect carburetor and
replace inlet needle and seat. Adjust
float level.
Excessive fuel pump pressure
overcoming float system. Check fuel pump pressure.
Check for stuck piston rings.

Loss of power, hesitation Restricted fuel supply


on acceleration (lean airlfuel mixture) Clean fuel filters, check fuel lines
for kinks and restrictions. Check
carburetor jets for obstructions.
Air leakage into fuel supply Check aUI connections and hoses
between fuel pickup and fuel pump.

( Engine backfire Lean airlfuel ratio Adjust idle mixture and speed.

Rough operation Water or dirt in fuel Clean fuel system.


Broken or damaged
reed valve(s) Inspect reed valves.

Engine pre-ignition Restricted fuel supply


(lean airlfuel mixture) Clean fuel filters, check fuel lines
for kinks and restrictions. Check
carburetor jets for obstructions.
Low fuel pump pressure Check fuel pump pressure.
Air leakage into fuel supply Check all connections and hoses
between fuel pickup and fuel pump.

Engine detonation Fuel octane does not meet


engine octane requirements Use higher octane fuel.
Check for excessive carbon
buildup in combustion chamber.
See Preignition.

Excessive fuel consumption Carburetor


float malfunction Rebuild and adjust carburetor.
Blocked air bleeds Clean air bleeds.
Gasket failure Replace all gaskets.
Cracked carburetor
casting@) Replace castings as needed.
Incorrect metering jets Install correct jets.
High fuel pump pressure Test fuel pump pressure and
check for stuck piston rings.

Spark plug fouling Fuel mixture too rich See excessive fuel consumption.
Excessive oil in fuel Mix fuel and oil at recommended
ratio. Test oil injection pump.

Table 9 STARTER NO-LOAD CURRENT DRAW TEST SPECIFICATIONS

Model Maximum current RPM

90" V4 5350 (minimum)


60" V4 6500 (minimum)
150,175 hp and 105 jet 10,500 (minimum)
200-300 hp 10,500 (minimum)

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TROUBLESHOOTING

lhble 1 0 STATOR (AUERNATOR) IDENTIFICATION AND RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS


Model System Resistance

90" V4 (cross-flow)
1995 models
65 jet 9 amp regulated
80 jet
Tiller handle 6 amp non-regulated
Remote control 9 amp regulated
85 BackTmller 10 amp regulated
88 and 112 Special
Long shaft (20 in.) 6 amp non-regulated
Extra-long shaft (25 in.) 9 amp regulated
90and 115 hp 9 amp regulated
1996-1997 models
80 jet 9 amp regulated
88,90,112 and 115 Special
Long shaft (20 in.) 6 amp non-regulated
Extra-long shaft (25 in.) 9 amp regulated
1998 models
90 and 115 Special 9 amp regulated
60" V4 (loop-charged)
1995-1997 models
90and115hp 20 amp regulated
1998 models
90,115 hp and 80 jet 20 amp regulated
130 hp 9 amp regulated
150-175 hp and 105 jet 35 amp regulated
200-300 hp 35 amp regulated

Table I 1 BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM OUTPUT SPECIFICATIONS

I RPM
6 amp
non-regulated
9 amp
regulated1
10 amp
regulated
9 amp
regulated2
2 0 amp
regulated
35 amp
regulated I
1000 3.0 amps 5.5 amps 5.0 amps 4.0 amps 10.0 amps 23.0 amps
2000 5.0 amps 8.0 amps 8.0 amps 8.0 amps 18.0 amps 35.0 amps
3000 5.8 amps 9.0 amps 9.5 amps 9.5 amps 19.0 amps 36.0 amps
4000 6.0 amps 9.5 amps 10.0 amps 10.2 amps 19.5 amps 37.0 amps
5000 6.0 amps 9.5 amps 10.0 amps 10.5 amps 20.0 amps 38.0 amps

1.90' (cross-flow) models.


2.90' (loop-charged [I30 hp]) models.

Table 1 2 IGNITION SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION


Model System Features RPM limit
65 jet CD4 - 5800
80 jet (1995-1997 [EO-EU]) CD4 - 5800
80 jet (1998 [EC]) CD4 QuikStart, S.L.0.W 6400
85 BackTroller CD4 - -
88,90,112 and 115 Special CD4 - -
90 and 115 hp (90" models) CD4 - -
90 and 115 hp (60" models) CD4 QuikStart, S.L.O.W. 6400
130 hp CD4 QuikStart, S.L.0.W 6700
150,175 hp and 105 jet OIS2000 QuikStart, S.L.O.W. 6100
200and225hp CD6 QuikStart, S.L.O.W. 6700
250and300hp CD8 QuikStart, S.L.O.W. 6700

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CHAPTER THREE

Table 13 IGNITION COIL RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS


CircuWcomponent Specification
Primary windings 0.05-0.1 5
Secondary windings 225-325
Spark plug leads
Black leads (90" models) 0 (continuity)
Gray leads (60" models)
12.5 in. (318 mm) long 420-620
13.5 in. (343 mm) long 460-660
14.5 in. (368 mm) long 500-700

Table 14 IGNITION SYSTEM RESISTANCE SPECIFICATIONS


Normal (QuikStart)
Model Charge coil sensor coil Power coil
90" v4
6 amp charging system 500-620 30-50 -
9 and 10 amp charging system 430-530 30-50 -
60"v4 1000.1200 - 45-65
130 hp 430-530 35-55 (110-160) 86-106
60" V6 495-605 - 45-65
200-300 hp 765-935 see text 86-106
1. Cross-flow models.
2. Loop-charged models.

Table 15 IGNITION SYSTEM MINIMUM PEAK VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS


Normal (Quiltstart)
Charge coil sensor coi Power coil Power pack output
Model cranking l cranking cranking cranking ( ~ n n i n g )
90" V4 150 0.3 (-) - 150 (230)
60" V4 250 - (-1 50 200 (130)
130 hp 175 0.5 (0.5) - 150 (180)
60" V6 150 - (-1 50 100 (130)
200-300 hp 130 0.2 (0.8) - 100 (130)

Table 16 TEST WHEEL (PROPELLER1 RECOMMENDATIONS


- - - - --

!&andad rotation Counter-rotation


Model OMC part No. OMC part No. Minimum test RPM
85-115 hp (90" V4)
1995 models 382861 - 5000
1996-1998 382861 - 4800
90 hp (60" V4)
Long shaft (20 In.) 382861 - 4500
Extra-long shaft (25 in.) 387388 - 4500
115 hp (60" V4)
Long shaft (20 in.) 382861 - 4800
Extra-long shaft (25 in.) 387388 - 4800
130 hp 387388 398673 5300
(continued)

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TROUBLESHOOTING 147
1

Table 16 TEST WHEEL [PROPELLER) RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)

Model
Standard rotation
OMC part No.
Counter-rotation
OMC part No. Minimum test RPM
~
I

150 hp 387388 398673 4506


175 hp 387388 398673 4800
200and225hp 436080 or 396277 436081 or 398674 5000
250and300hp 396277 398674 5500
65-105 jet models Not applicable

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Chapter Four

Lubrication, Maintenance and Tune-up

The modern outboard motor delivers more power and The recommended fuel is regular or premium unleaded
performance then ever before, with higher compression, gasoline with aminimumpump octane rating of 87. For op-
new and improved electrical systems and other design ad- timum performance and maximum engine life, gasoline
vances. Proper lubrication, maintenance and tune-up have with an octane rating of 89 or higher is recommended. Pre-
thus become increasingly important as ways in which you mium grade gasoline produced by a national brand refin-
can maintain a high level of performance, extend engine ery is specifically recommended. Premium grade
life and extract the maximum economy of operation. gasolines (91-93 octane) contain a high concentration of
You can do your own lubrication, maintenance and detergent and dispersant additives that prevent carbon de-
tune-up if you follow the correct procedures and use com- posits on pistons and rings.
mon sense. The following information is based on recom- The use of alcohol extended gasoline is not recom-
mendations from Johnson and Evinrude that will help you mended. However, gasoline containing not more than 10
keep your outboard motor operating at its peak perfor- percent ethanol alcohol or 5% methanol alcohol with 5%
mance level. Tables 1-5 are located at the end of this chap- cosolvents may be used if it meets the minimum octane re-
ter. quirements. If alcohol extended gasoline is frequently
used, carefully inspect the fuel system at regular intervals.
Replace fuel system components if deterioration, corro-
LUBRICATION sion or leakage is noted.

Proper Fuel Selection CAUTION


Do not use gasoline containing more than
10% ethanol or 5% methanol regardless of
Two-stroke engines are lubricated by mixing oil with the
the octane rating.
fuel. The internal components of the engine are lubricated
as the fueUoil mixture passes through the crankcase and
cylinders. Since outboard fuel serves the dual function of Sour Fuel
producing combustion and distributing the lubrication,
avoid the use of low octane marine white gasoline or any Do not store gasoline for more than 60 days (under ideal
other fuel not intended for use in modern gaso- conditions). Gasoline forms gum and varnish deposits as it
line-powered engines. Among other problems, such fuel ages. Such fuel will cause starting problems, carburetor
has a tendency to cause piston ring sticking and exhaust plugging and poor performance. Use a fuel additive such
port plugging. as OMC 2+4 Fuel Conditioner in the fuel during storage.

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 149

Always use fresh gasoline when mixing fuel for your


outboard.
Recommended Fuel Mixture
I
i
Alcohol Extended Gasoline
NOTE
Ifthe outboard is equipped with oil injection,
read this chapter then refer to Chapter
~
Some gasoline sold for marine use contains alcohol,
Eleven. 1
although this fact may not be advertised. Although the
manufacturer does not recommend using alcohol extended The recommended oil is Evinrude or Johnson ~utboartdI
1
gasoline, testing to date has found that it causes no major Lubricant, Evinrude or Johnson XP Outboard Lubricant qr
OMC 2-Cycle Motor Oil.
deterioration of fuel system components when consumed
immediately after purchase.
I
~I
Gasoline with alcohol slowly absorbs moisture from the CAUTION
atmosphere. When the moisture content of the fuel reaches Do not, under any circumstances, use multi-
approximately one half of one percent, it combines with grade or other high detergent automotive oil
or oil containing metallic additives. Such oil
the alcohol and separates (phase separation) from the is harmful to two-stroke engines, and will
gasoline. This separation does not normally occur in an result in piston scoring, bearing failure or
automobile, as the fuel is generally consumed within a few other engine damage.
days after purchase; however, because boats often remain
idle for days or even weeks, the problem does occur in
marine use. If Evinrude, Johnson or OMC oil is not available, use Ia
good quality oil with the NMMA certification TCW-3.
Moisture and alcohol become very corrosive when
mixed and will cause corrosion of metal components and
deterioration of rubber and plastic fuel system compo-
nents. In addition, the alcohol and water mixture will settle Models without oil injection 1
to the bottom of the fuel tank. If this mixture enters the
engine, it will wash off the oil film and may result in The fuel-oil ratio for normal service is 50:l. Mix 8 .
corrosion and damage to the cylinder walls and other oz. (236 mL) of a recommended oil for each three gallons
4
internal engine components. It will be necessary to drain (11.4 L) of gasoline. To provide the additional lubricank
the fuel tank, flush out the fuel system with clean gasoline, required during the break-in period (first 10 hours df
and if necessary, remove and clean the spark plugs before
the motor can be started.
operation) of a new or rebuilt power head, a 25: 1 fuel-oi
ratio should be used. Mix 16 fl. oz. (473 rnL) of a recomt I
The following is an accepted and widely used field mended oil with each 3 gallons (11.4 L) of gasoline. ~ f t e ~
procedure for detecting alcohol in gasoline. Note that the the first 10 hours of operation (break-in period), switch t
gasoline must be checked prior to mixing with the oil. Use a 50: 1 mixture.
any small transparent bottle or tube that can be capped and
can be provided with graduations or a mark at approxi-
mately 113 full. A pencil mark on a piece of adhesive tape
is sufficient.
Models equipped with oil injection 1
1. Fill the container with water to the 113 full mark.
To provide the additional lubricant required during tht/ I
2. Add gasoline until the container is almost full. Leave a break-in period (fist 10 hours of of a new o{
small air space at the top.
3. Shake the container vigorously, then allow it to set for
3-5 minutes. If the of water appears to have in-
creased, alcohol is present. If the dividing line between the
rebuilt power head, a 50:1 fuelloil mixture should be use
i, th, fuel tank in addition to the normal oil injectio
system. After the first 10hours of operation, first be certai
the oil injection systemis functioning (oil level in reservo$
4
7
I

I
I
water and gasoline becomes cloudy, reference from the droppiog), then switch to straight gasoline in the fuel tank!
center of the cloudy band.
This procedure can not differentiate between types of CAUTION
alcohol (ethanol or methanol), nor is it considered to be If the oil injection system is not used, a 25:l
absolutely accurate from a scientific standpoint, but it is fuel/oil mixture must be used during the
accurate enough to determine if sufficient alcohol is pre- break-in period and a 50:I mixture during 1

sent to cause the user to take precautions. nomzal service.

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CHAPTER FOUR

Correct Fuel Mixing characteristics are not suitable for marine


use.
WARNNG
Gasoline is an extremefire hazard. Never use Proceed as follows to drain and refill the lower unit
gasoline near heat, sparks or flame. Do not lubricant.
smoke while mixing fuel. 1. Disconnect all spark plug wires to prevent accidental
starting.
Mix the fuel and oil outdoors or in a well-ventilated
2. Position the outboard motor in the normal operating
indoor location. Using less than the specified amount of
position. Place a suitable container under the gearcase.
oil can result in insufficient lubrication and serious engine
damage. Using more oil than specified causes spark plug CAUTZON
fouling, erratic carburetor operation, excessive smoking Do not attempt to fill the gearcase without
and rapid carbon accumulation. $rst removing the oil level plug. The gear-
Cleanliness is of prime importance. Even a very small case cannot be completely filled without re-
particle of dirt can cause carburetor problems. Always use moving the plug.
fresh gasoline. Gum and varnish deposits tend to form in
gasoline stored for any length of time. Using sour fuel can
result in carburetor plugging, spark plug fouling and poor
performance.

Consistent Fuel Mixtures

The carburetor idle adjustment is sensitive to fuel mix-


ture variations which result from the use of different oils
and gasolines or from inaccurate measuring and mixing.
This could result in readjustment of the idle needle to
compensate for variations in the fuelloil mixture. To pre-
vent the necessity for constant readjustment of the carbu-
retor from one batch of fuel to the next, always be
consistent. Prepare each batch of fuel exactly the same as
the previous one.
Premixed fuel sold at some marinas is not recommended
for use. The quality and consistency of premixed fuel can
vary greatly. The possibility of engine damage resulting
from using an incorrect fuel mixture far outweighs the
convenience offered by premixed fuel. This is especially RESERVOIR
true if the marina uses alcohol or other additives in its fuel.

Lower Unit Lubrication

Replace the lower unit lubricant after the first 20 hours


of operation and every 100 hours of operation thereafter.
Check the lubricant level every 50 hours of operation and
fill as necessary.
The recommended lubricant for all models is OMC
Ultra-HPF gearcase lube. If Ultra-HPF gearcase lube is not
available, OMC Hi-Vis gearcase lube is an acceptable
substitute.

CAUTZON
Do not use regular automotive gear lube in
the lower drive unit. Its expansion and foam

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 151


~
3. Locate and remove the oil level plug and gasket. See A, 2. Cover the fill plug with a shop towel and carefully and
Figure 1,typical. slowly remove the fill plug, allowing any internal pressure
4. Locate and remove the drain/fill plug and gasket. See to vent before fully removing the plug.
B, Figure 1,typical. 3. The fluid level must be even with the bottom of the fill
plug hole. If necessary, add OMC Power TrimITilt y d
NOTE Power Steering Fluid or Dexron 11automatic transmission
If the lubricant is creamy in color (water fluid to bring the fluid level up to the bottom of the level
contamination) or if metallic particles are hole.
found, the gearcase must be completely dis- I

I
assembled and repaired before returning the CAUTION
unit to service. Do not ove@ll the unit. The oil level rises as
the unit is trimmed down and there must be
5. Allow the gearcase lubricant to drain completely. mom for the t h e m 1 expansion of the fluid
6. To refill, inject the recommended lubricant into the in the reservoir
drainlfill hole until the oil is even with the level plug hole.
4. Install the fill plug and tighten it securely. Then cycle
Without removing the lubricant tube or nozzle, install the
the outboard fully down and up several times to bleed any
level plug and gasket and tighten securely.
air that might be in the system. I
7. Remove the lubricant tube or nozzle and quickly install 5. Recheck the fluid level as described in Step 1 and Step
the drain/fill plug and gasket. Tighten both plugs to 84-86 2. Make sure the fill plug is tightened as follows when
in.-lb. (9.5-9.7 N-m) on all models. finished:
a. Conventional system-Tighten the fill plug to 45-50
Power Trim and Tilt Reservoir Fluid in.-lb. (5.1-5.7 N-m). 1

b. FasTrak system-Tighten the fill plug securely. ,


The fill plug is located on the reservoir. See Figure 2
(conventional system) or Figure 3 (FasTrak system).
1. Trim the outboard to the full UP position. Thoroughly
Power Steering Reservoir Fluid
I
clean the area around the fill plug. Check the fluid level in the power steering reservoir at
least once each season or after every 50 hours of operation.
The engine must be cold and in a vertical position.
1
1. With the engine cold and in avertical position, unsc
the fill plug and dipstick shown in Figure 4.

I
Power steering I
fill plugldipstick
I

I
\ I

I
I
I

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152 CHAPTER FOUR

2. Insert the dipstick into reservoir hole (do not screw plug
into hole), then remove the dipstick.
BUSHINGS, BEARINGS
3. The oil level should be even with the groove in the
AND LINKAGE
dipstick.
4. If the oil level is low, pour OMC Power TrirnITilt and
Power Steering Fluid into the reservoir.
5. Recheck the fluid level, then if it's satisfactory, install
the fill plug.

Other Lubrication Points

Refer to Figures 5-13 for typical lubrication points.

CAUTION
When lubricating the steering cable on mod-
els so equipped, make sure its core is filly
retracted into the cable housing.Lubricating
the cable while extended can cause a hy-
draulic lock to occul:

LINKAGE CARBURETOR
AND SHIFT LINKAGE

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 153

@ POWER STEERING ROD S W m L BRACKET,


TlLT/TRlM LOCK, TILTIRUN LEVER
AND REVERSE LOCK

SHIFT SHAFT
AND LEVER FITTING

Shift lever
shaft and
swivel bracket

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154 CHAPTER FOUR

Saltwater Corrosion of Gearcase Housing and


Propeller Shaft Bearing Housing/Nut
@ SWIVEL BRACKET,
Corrosion that is allowed to accumulate between the TILT LEVER AND SHAFT
gearcase housing and propeller shaft bearing housing can
eventually split the housing and destroy the lower unit
assembly. If the motor is used in saltwater, remove the
propeller and bearing housing (Figure 14) at least once per
year. Refer to Chapter Nine. Clean all corrosion deposits
and dried lubricant from the gearcase and bearing housing
assemblies. Lubricate the bearing housing, O-rings and
screw threads with OMC Gasket Sealing Compound. In-
stall the bearing housing and tighten the screws to specifi-
cation (Chapter Nine).

STORAGE
The major consideration during preparation for storage
is to protect the outboard motor from rust, corrosion and
dirt or other contamination. The manufacturer recom-
mends the following procedure.
1. If the boat is equipped with a built-in fuel tank, add one
ounce of OMC 2+4 Fuel Conditioner to the fuel tank for I
each gallon of fuel tank capacity. Then, fill the tank with
the recommended fuel.
2. Operate the motor in a test tank, on the boat in the water
or with a flushing device connected to the lower unit. Start
the engine and run it at idle speed to allow the stabilized
fuel to circulate into the engine and carburetor(s).
3. Stop the engine after approximately five minutes.
4. Using a 6-gal. (22.7 L) remote fuel tank, prepare the
following storage mixture:
a. Add 5 gal. (19 L) of a recommended fuel.
b. Add 2 qt. (1.9 L) of OMC Storage Fogging Oil.
c. Add 1 pt. (0.5 L) of Evinrude or Johnson Outboard
Lubricant.
d. Add 1 pt. (0.5 L) of OMC 2+4 Fuel Conditioner.
5. Thoroughly blend the mixture in the remote fuel tank.
6. Connect the remote fuel tank to the outboard motor.
7. With the motor in a test tank, in the water or connected
to a flushing device, start the engine and run at 1500 rpm
for five minutes to be sure the fuel delivery system and
carburetor(s) contain stabilized fuel.
NOTE
On models equipped with variable ratio oil-
ing (VRO) do not disconnect the fuel hose
with the engine running in an attempt to run
the carburetors dry. When a low amount of
gasoline is supplied to the VROpump, afuel
mixture with a high oil-to-gasoline ratio is
created. The resulting mixture will cause
excessive oil consumption and diJgiculty re-
starting.

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP

8. Stop the engine and disconnect the remote fuel tank. each cell should not be higher than 3/16 in. (4.8 mm)
9. Remove the spark plugs as described in this chapter. above the perforated baffles.
10. Spray a liberal amount of OMC Storage Fogging Oil d. Lubricate the terminal bolts with grease or petro-
through the spark plug holes into each cylinder. leum jelly.
11, Rotate the flywheel (or timing wheel) clockwise to
distribute the fogging oil throughout the cylinder(s). CAUTION
12. Remove the flushing device or remove the outboard A discharged battery can be damaged by
motor from the test tank or water. Rotate the flywheel or freezing.
timing wheel clockwise several revolutions to drain any
e. With the battery in a fully-charged condition (spe-
water from the water pump. If equipped with power steer-
ing, tilt the unit for at least five minutes so water can drain cific gravity at 1.260-1.275), store in a dry location
from oil cooler, then return unit to upright position. where the temperature will not drop below freezing.
13. Clean and regap, or replace the spark plugs. Do not f. Recharge the battery every 45 days or whenever the
reconnect the spark plug leads. specific gravity drops below 1.230.Before charging,
14. Drain and refill the gearcase as described in this cover the plates with distilled water, but not more
chapter. Check the condition of the level and drainlfillplug than 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) above the battery baffles. The
gaskets and replace as necessary. charge rate should not exceed 6 amps. Discontinue
15. Refer to Figures 5-13 and Table 1 as appropriate and charging when the specific gravity reaches 1.260 at
lubricate the motor at all specified points. 8W F (27" C )
16. Remove and check the propeller condition. Look for g. Before returning the battery to service, remove the
propeller shaft seal damage from fishing line. Clean and excess grease from the terminals, leaving a small
lubricate the propeller shaft with OMC Triple-Guard amount. Make sure the battery is fully charged prior
grease. Reinstall the propeller with a new cotter pin or to installation.
locking tab washer.
17. Clean all external parts of the motor with OMC All- COMPLETE SUBMERSION
Purpose Marine Cleaner and apply a good quality marine
polish. An outboard motor which is lost overboard must be
18. Store the outboard motor in an upright position in a recovered as quickly as possible. If lost in saltwater or
dry and well-ventilated location. freshwater containing sand or silt, disassemble and clean
19. Service the battery as follows: it immediately. Any delay will result in rust and corrosion
a. Disconnect the battery cables from the battery, first of internal components once it has been removed from the
the negative then the positive cable. water.
b. Remove all grease, corrosion or other contamination
If the motor was running when it was lost, do not attempt
from the battery surface.
to start it until it has been disassembled and checked.
c. Check the electrolyte level in each cell and fill with
distilled water as necessary. The electrolyte level in Internal components may be bent or out of alignment and
running the motor may cause severe damage.
Accomplish the following emergency steps immedi-
ately if the motor is recovered from freshwater.

CAUTION
I f if is not possible to disassemble and clean
the motor immediately, resubmerge it in
freshwater to prevent rust and corrosionfor-
mation until such time as it can be properly
serviced.

1. Remove the engine cover.


2. Remove the spark plugs as described in this chapter.
3. Unplug the ignition connectors between the stator as-
sembly and power pack.
4. Disconnect, drain and clean all fuel hoses.
5. Remove the carburetor float bowl drain screw(s) if so
equipped. See Chapter Six.

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CHAPTER FOUR

6. Remove, drain and clean the VRO oil reservoir. Drain 4. Check sacrificial anodes and replace any that are less
and clean all contaminated oil hoses. than two-thirds their original size. To test for proper anode
7. Wash the outside of the motor with clean water to installation, proceed as follows:
remove weeds, mud and other debris. a. Calibrate an ohmmeter on the R x 1000 or hgh-ohm
scale.
CAUTION b. Connect one ohmmeter lead to a good engine ground
If sand or silt has entered the power head or
and the remaining lead to the anode. If necessary,
gearcase, do not try to start the motor or
severe internal damage may occul: clean the anode to ensure a good contact. Low
resistance should be noted.
8. Drain as much water as possible from the power head c. If high resistance is noted, remove the anode and
by placing the motor in a horizontal position. Rotate the thoroughly clean the mounting surfaces of the anode
flywheel or timing wheel by hand with the spark plug holes and motor and the threads of the mounting screws.
facing downward. d. Reinstall the anode and retest as previously de-
scribed. If high resistance is still noted between the
CAUTION anode and motor, replace the anode.
Do notforce the motor if it does not turn over
freely. This may be an indication of internal
damage such as a bent connecting rod or
broken piston.

9. Pour clean engine oil into the cylinders through the


spark plug holes.
10. Remove and disassemble the carburetors as outlined
in Chapter Six.
11. Disassemble the electric starter motor and disconnect
all electrical connections. Wash with clean freshwater.
Spray all electrical components and connections with a
water displacing electrical spray and allow to dry. Reas-
semble the starter motor and reconnect all electrical con-
nections.
12. Reinstall the spark plug(s) and carburetor(s).
13. Mix a fresh tank of fuel at the ratio recommended for
the break-in period as outlined in this chapter.
14. Try to start the motor. If the motor will start, allow it
to run at least 30 minutes.
15. If the motor will not start, try to diagnose the cause,
then repair as necessary. If the engine cannot be started / Flush \ I-
within three hours, disassemble, clean and thoroughly oil / device \ J
all parts.

ANTICORROSION MAINTENANCE

1. Flush the cooling system with freshwater as described


in this chapter after each use in saltwater.Wash the exterior
with freshwater.
2. Dry the exterior of the motor and apply primer over any
paint nicks and scratches. Do not use antifouling paints
containing mercury or copper. Do not paint sacrificial
anodes or the trim tab.
3. Apply OMC Black Neoprene Dip to all exposed elec-
Garden
\ I u
trical connections except the positive tenninal on the
starter solenoid.

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 157

5. If the outboard is operated consistently in saltwater or procedure. It also e l k n a t e s the possibility of residual
polluted or brackish water, shorten the lubricationintervals water being trapped in the dnve shaft housing or other
stated in Table 1by one-half. passageways.

WARNNG
ENGINE FLUSHING When running the outboard motor on a
flushing device, always remove the propeller
to prevent serious personal injury from con-
Periodic engine flushing will prevent salt, sand or silt tact with the moving propellel:
deposits from accumulating in the water passageways.
Perform this procedure whenever an outboard motor is On some V6 and V8 models and all 60" V6 models, a
operated in saltwater or polluted or brackish water. flushing (Figure 15) is located on the rear of the 3
- port
- -
Position the outboard motor in its normal operating engine. On models so equipped, remove the water pump
position during and after the flushing process. This pre- indicator plug and attach a garden hose to the flushingport.
vents water from passing into the power head through the Models equipped with a flushing port can be flushed
drive shaft housing and exhaust ports during the flushmg without starting the engine; however, do not exceed 45 psi
(310 Wa) water pressure.
1A. Models so equipped-Remove the water pump indi-
cator plug from the flushing port (Figure 15). Attach a
suitable garden hose to the flushing port.
1B.All others-Attach the flushing device according to its
manufacturer's instructions.See Figure 16,typical. Attach
a suitable garden hose to the flushing device.
2. Open the water tap partially. Do not use full pressure.
3. Start the motor and run at approximately 1500 rpm.
4. Adjust the water flow so a slight loss of water around
the rubber cups of the flushing device is noted (except
flushing port models).
5. Check the motor to make sure water is being discharged
from the tell tale nozzle. If no water is being discharged,
stop the motor immediately then determine the cause of
the problem.

CAUTION
Flush the motor for at least $ve minutes if
used in saltwatel:

6. Flush the motor until the discharged water is clear, then


stop the motor.
7. After stopping the motor, close the water tap and re-
move the flushing device or disconnect the hose from the
flushing port.

POWER STEERING BELT TENSION

On models equipped with power steering, use the fol-


lowing procedure to adjust belt tension:
1. Loosen the idler housing pivot bolt nuts A, Figure 17.
2. Rotate the adjustment nuts B, Figure 18, on the adjust-
ment rod so belt tension is 25-30 lb. (11.3-13.6kg) meas-
ured at midpoint on the belt between the idler and flywheel
pulleys.

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CHAPTER FOUR

3. Tighten the top pivot bolt nut to 108-132 in.-lb. (12.2- factorily tuned. Any compression problem discovered dur-
14.9N.m), then tighten the lower pivot bolt nut to the same ing the test must be corrected before continuing with the
torque. tune-up procedure.
4. Tighten the adjustment nuts to 108-132 in.-lb. (12.2- 1. Start the engine and warm it to normal operating tem-
14.9 N.m). perature.
5. Recheck belt tension. 2. Remove the spark plugs as described in this chapter.
3. Connect a compression tester to the top spark plug hole
TUNE-UP according to its manufacturer's instructions. See Figure
18.
A tune-up consists of a series of inspections, adjust- 4. Make sure the throttle is in the wide-open position, then
ments and parts replacement to compensate for normal crank the engine through at least four compression strokes.
wear and deterioration of outboard motor components. Record the gauge reading.
Regular tune-up is important to maintain sufficient power, 5. Repeat Step 3 and Step 4 on each remaining cylinder.
performance and economy. The manufacturer recom- The actual readings are not as important as the differences
mends tune-up service be performed every 6 months or 50 in readings between cylinders when interpreting the re-
hours of operation, whichever comes first. If subjected to sults. The lowest cylinder pressure should be at least 80%
limited use, tune the engine at least once per year. of the highest cylinder pressure. A variation of more than
Because proper outboard motor operation depends on a 15 psi (103.4 kPa) indicates a problem with the lower
number of interrelated system functions,a tune-up consist- reading cylinder, such as defective head gasket, worn or
ing of only one or two corrections will seldom give satis- sticking piston rings andlor scored pistons or cylinder
factory results. For best results, a thorough and systematic walls. On V4 and V6 cross flow motors, compare compres-
procedure of analysis and correction is necessary. sion readings from cylinders on the same bank, not cylin-
ders on opposite banks.
Prior to performing a tune-up, flush the outboard motor
If unequal or low compression is noted, pour a table-
as described in this chapter to check for satisfactory water
spoon of engine oil into the suspect cylinder and repeat
pump operation.
Step 3 and Step 4. If the compression increases sigmfi-
The tune-up process recommended by the manufacturer
cantly (10 psi 169 kPa] or more) the piston rings are worn
includes the following:
and should be replaced.
a. Compression test.
If evidence of overheating is noted (discolored or
b. Spark plug service.
scorched paint), but the compression test is normal, check
c. Lower unit and water pump check.
the cylinder(s) visually through the transfer ports for pos-
d. Fuel system service.
sible scoring. A cylinder can be slightly scored and still
e. Remove carbon deposits from combustion cham-
ber(~). deliver a relatively good compression reading. In such a
f. Ignition system service. case, it is also good practice to check the water pump and
g. Battery, starter motor and solenoid check, if so cooling system for possible causes of overheating.
equipped. If the outboard runs normally and the compression test
h. Inspect wiring harness. is acceptable, continue the tune-up procedure.
i. Engine synchronization and adjustment.
j . On-the-water performance test. Spark Plug Selection
Any time the fuel or ignition systems are adjusted or
require parts replacement, the engine timing, synchroniza- NOTE
tion and linkage adjustment must be checked. These pro- The manufacturer recommends using sur-
cedures are described in Chapter Five. Perform the face gap spark plugs if the outboard motor
synchronization and linkage adjustment procedure before is subjected to sustained high-speed opera-
running the performance test. tion.
Evinrude and Johnson outboard motors are equipped
Compression Test with Champion spark plugs selected for average use con-
ditions. Under severe operating conditions, the recom-
An accurate compression test gives an indication of the mended spark plug may foul or overheat. In such cases,
condition of the basic working parts of the engine. It is also check the ignition and carburetion systems to be sure they
an important first step in any tune-up, as a motor with low are operating correctly. If the ignition and fuel systems are
or uneven compression between cylinders cannot be satis- operating properly, replace the spark plug with one of a

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LUBRICATION. MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP

hotter or colder heat range as required. Table 2 shows the Spark Plug Gapping (Conventional Gap Only)
recommended spark plugs for all models covered in this
manual. Carefully adjust the electrode gap on new spark plugs to
ensure reliable, consistent plug operation. Use a special
CAUTION spark plug tool with a round gauge to measure electrode
On 60" V4 and V6 models (OIS ignition), the gap. Figure 21 shows a common spark plug gapping tool.
use of suppression spark plugs is specijically 1. If necessary, install the spark plug's gasket onto the
recommended. Using nonsuppression spark plug. On some brands of plugs, the terminal end (Figure
plugs will result in erratic ignition system 22)must also be screwed onto the plug.
operation.
2. Insert the appropriate size gauge (Table 2) between the
plug electrodes. If the gap is correct, a slight drag will be
noted as the gauge is pulled through. If no drag is noted,
Spark Plug Removal or if the gauge will not pull through, bend the side elec-
trode with the gapping tool (Figure 23)to change the gap
CAUTION as necessary. Remeasure the gap after adjusting. I
When the spark plugs are removed, dirt sur-
rounding the base of the plugs can fall into CAUTION 1

the cylindel; causing serious engine damage. Never close the electrode gap by tapping the 1

plug on a solid sur$ace. Doing so can dam-


1. Blow any foreign material from around the spark plugs age the plug internally. Always use the gap- 1

using compressed air. ping tool to open or close the gap.


2. Disconnect the spark plug wires by twisting the wire
boot back and forth while pulling outward. Pulling on the Spark Plug Installation ,
wire instead of the boot will cause internai damage to the I

wire. Improper installation is a common cause of poor spark


3. Remove the spark plugs using an appropriate size spark plug performance in outboard motors. The gasket on t+
plug wrench or socket. Arrange the plugs in the order plug must be fully compressed against a clean plug seat
removed, so you know which cylinder they were removed for heat transfer to take place effectively. Therefore, the
from. correct plug tightening procedure must be followed. i
4. Examine each spark plug (Figure 19). Compare plug 1. Inspect the spark plug threads in the cylinder head add
condition with Figure 20.Spark plug condition can be an clean with a thread chaser if necessary. See Figure 24.
indicator of engine condition and warn of developing Thoroughly clean the spark plug seating area in the cylin-
trouble. der head prior to installing new plugs.
2. Screw each spark plug into the cylinder head by hanb,
5. Check the make and heat range of each spark plug. All until seated. If force is necessary to turn the plug, it may
should be of the same make and heat range. be cross threaded. Remove the plug and try again.
6. Discard the plugs. Although they could be cleaned and 3. Tighten the plugs using a suitable torque wrench to
reused if in good condition, the best tune-up results will be 18-21 ft.-lb. (24.5-28.6 N.m). If a torque wrench is not
obtained by installing new spark plugs. available, seat the plug finger-tight, then tighten an addi-
tional 114 turn with the appropriate size wrench.
4. Inspect each spark plug wire before reconnecting it. Tf
~
insulation is damaged or deteriorated, install a new wire.
Apply a light coat of OMC Triple-Guard grease to the
ribbed area of the plug ceramic insulator, then push the
wire onto the plug. Make sure the wire terminal is fully
seated on the plug. I

Lower Unit and Water Pump 1

A faulty water pump or one that performs poorly c v


result in extensive engine damage from overheating.
Therefore, it is good practice to replace the pump impell+,

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160 CHAPTER FOUR

SPARK PLUG ANALYSIS


I (CONVENTIONAL GAP SPARK PLUGS) I

A. NormaCLight tan to gray color of insulator d. lmproper fuel-oil ratio.


indicates correct heat range. Few deposits are e. Induction manifold bleed-off passage
present and the electrodes are not burned. obstructed.
B. Core bridging--These defects are caused by f. Worn or defective breaker points.
excessive combustion chamber deposits D. Gap bridging--Similar to core bridging, except the
striking and adhering to the firing end of the combustion particles are wedged or fused between
plug. In this case, they wedge or fuse between the electrodes. Causes are the same.
the electrodeand core nose. They originate from E. Overheating-Badly worn electrodes and
the piston and cylinder head surfaces. Deposits premature gap wear are indicative of this problem,
are formed by one or more of the following: along with a gray or white "blistered" appearance
a. Excessive carbon in cylinder. on the insulator. Caused by one or more of the
b. Use of non-recommendedoils. following:
c. Immediate high-speed operation after a. Spark plug heat range too hot.
prolonged trolling. b. Incorrect propeller usage, causing engine to lug.
d. lmproper fuel-oil ratio. c. Worn or defective water pump.
C. Wet fouling-Damp or wet, black carbon coating d. Restricted water intake or restriction
over entire firing end of plug. Forms sludge in somewhere in the cooling system.
some engines. Caused by one or more of the F. Ash deposits or lead fouling-Ash deposits are light
following: brown to white in color and result from use of fuel
a. Spark plug heat range too cold. or oil additives. Lead fouling produces a yellowish
b. Prolongedtrolling. brown discoloration and can be avoided by using
c. Low-speed carburetor adjustment too rich. unleaded fuels.

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 161

seals and gaskets once per year or anytime the lower unit
is removed for service. See Chapter Nine.

Fuel Lines

1. Inspect all fuel hoses and lines for kinks, leaks, deterio-
ration or other damage.
2. Disconnectthe fuel lines and blow out with compressed
air to dislodge any contamination or foreign material.
3. Coat fuel line fittings sparingly with OMC Gasket
Sealing Compound then reconnect the lines.

Fuel Filter

A disposable, inline fuel filter is used on all models


except 60" V6 models. Service the filter as an assembly
and replace it once per year or sooner if contaminatedfuel
is encountered. In addition to the inline fuel filter, a fdter
screen is used on all models equipped with a diaphragm
fuel pump. The screen is located in the fuel pump, under
the filter cover. On 60" V4 and V6 models, a cartridgetype
fuel filter is installed in the fuel components bracket.
Remove and clean the filter once per year, or sooner if
contaminated fuel is encountered.

Inline &el filter

Refer to Figure 25, typical for this procedure.


1. Remove the clamps securing the fuel hoses to the filter.
2. Remove the hoses from the filter. Discard the filter.
3. Inspect the fuel hoses closely and replace as necessary.
4. Install the hoses on a new filter and clamp securely.

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162 CHAPTER FOUR ~


I

Fuel pump filter screen

1. Remove the screw securing the filter cover to the pump


assembly (Figure 26).
2. Remove the filter screen from the filter cover (A, Fig-
ure 27) or pump housing (B).
3. Remove and discard the filter cover gasket.
4. Clean the screen using OMC Cleaning Solvent. Discard
the screen if it is excessively plugged.
5. Install the filter screen into the filter cover (A, Figure
27).
6. Reinstall the filter cover on the fuel pump, using a new
gasket. Tighten the cover screw securely.
7. Prime the fuel system with the primer bulb and check
the pump and fuel delivery system for leakage.

Cartridgefuel filter (60"V4 and V6 models)

1. Disconnect the air silencer cover retaining screws or


straps, then lift the air silencer cover off the power head.
2. Unscrew the fuel filter nut (Figure 28) and remove the
filter element (3, Figure 29) from the vapor separator
housing. If necessary, disconnect the fuel delivery hose
from the filter fitting.
3. Inspect the filter element and clean it using a mild
aerosol solvent. Dry with compressed air.
4. Inspect the filter gasket (2, Figure 29) and O-ring (D)
and replace if necessary.
5. Replace the filter element if excessive plugging or other
damage is noted.
6. Lightly lubricate the filter O-ring with clean engine oil.
Insert the filter element into the vapor separator housing
and tighten the filter nut securely. Pressurize the fuel
delivery system with the primary bulb to check for leakage.
7. Reinstall the air silencer cover. 1

Fuel Pump (Models without


Variable Ratio Oil Injection)

The fuel pump does not normally require service during


a routine tune-up; however, the fuel pump diaphragm is
fragile and a defective one often produces symptoms that
are misleading. A common malfunction results from a tiny
pinhole or crack in the diaphragm which allows fuel to
enter the crankcase. The additional fuel wet-fouls the spark
plug(s) at idle speed, causing hard starting and stalling at
low speed. The problem may disappear at higher speeds
because the fuel demand is greater at high speeds.

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 163 1


I
Fuel Pump Pressure Test

Check fuel pump pressure by installing a pressure gauge


in the fuel hose between the fuel pump and carburetor(s).
See Figure 30. Perform the fuel pump test with the engine
running in a test tank with the correct test wheel installed
or on a boat in the water.
1. Loosen the fuel tank cap to relieve pressure inside the
tank. Note that the fuel tank must not be more than 24 in.
(61 cm) below the fuel pump.
2. Connect an accurate tachometer to the power head
according to its manufacturer's instructions.
3. Start the engine and observe the pressure gauge and
tachometer. Fuel pressure should be:
a. 1psi (6.9 kPa) at 600 rpm.
b. 1.5 psi (10.3 kPa) at 2500-3000 rpm.
c. 2.5 psi (17.2 kPa) at 4500 rpm.
4. If fuel pump pressure is low, first make sure the inline
FUEL FILTER ASSEMBLY fuel filter and pump filter screen are clean. Disconnect the
(60"MODELS) fuel hose between the fuel tank and pump and clean it with
compressed air. If the filers or fuel hoses are not restricted
or plugged, repair or replace the fuel pump. See Chapter
Six.

Fuel Pump (ModelsEquipped


with Variable Ratio Oil Injection)

The VRO (variable ration oiling) oil injection system is


a combination fuel and oil pump assembly and is operated

4 3 2 1

1. Filter nut
2. Gasket
3. Filter element
2
4. O-ring
5. Clamp 1. Hose
6. Hose 2. T-fitting
3. Fabricated line
4. Pressure gauge

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164 CHAPTER FOUR

by crankcase pulsations. See Chapter Eleven for testing 4. Check the harness connector for corrosion. Clean as
and service on the oil injection system. necessary.
5. If the harness is suspected of contributing to an electri-
cal malfunction, check all wires for continuity and exces-
Battery and Starter Motor Check
siveresistance between the harness connector and terminal
(Electric Start Models)
ends. Repair or replace the harness as necessary.
1. Check the battery state of charge. See Chapter Seven.
2. Connect a voltmeter between the starter motor positive
Removing Combustion Chamber Carbon
terminal and a good engine ground.
3. Crank the engine while noting the meter.
During operation, carbon deposits can accumulate on
a. If the meter indicates 9.5 volts or more but the starter
motor is inoperative, troubleshoot the starting sys- the piston(s), rings and exhaust ports causing decreased
tem as described in Chapter Three. performance and stuck piston rings. To prevent the forma-
tion of excessive deposits, the manufacturer recommends
b. If the voltage is less than 9.5 volts, recheck the
battery and connections. Charge the battery if nec- adding OMC Carbon Guard to each tankful of fuel. If
essary and repeat this test procedure. Carbon Guard is not used regularly, apply OMC Engine
Tuner to the engine at 50 hour intervals. Follow the instruc-
tions on the Engine Tuner container.
Starter Solenoid Check (Electric Start Models)

Test the starter solenoid as outlined in Chapter Three. Performance Test (On Boat)

Internal Wiring Harness Check Before performance testing the engine, make sure the
boat bottom is cleaned of all marine growth and that
1. check the wiring harness for frayed or chafed insula- excessive hook Or rocker is not present in the hull. See
tion. Repair as necessary. Figure 31. Any of these conditions will reduce perform-
2. Check for loose connections between the wires and ance considerably.
terminal ends. Test the boat with an average load and with the motor
3. Check the harness connector for bent electrical pins. tilted at an angle that will allow the boat to ride on an even

I HOOK

*
ROCKER

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP

keel. If equipped with an adjustable trim tab, adjust it to ing range. A propeller with insufficient pitch will allow the
allow the boat to steer in either direction with equal ease. engine to overspeed.
Check the engine speed at wide-open throttle. If not For optimum results, adjust the idle mixture and idle
within the maximum speed range as specified in Chapter speed with the outboard running at idle speed in forward
Five, check the propeller pitch. A propeller with excessive gear, with the correct propeller installed and boat move-
pitch will not allow the engine to reach the correct operat- ment unrestrained.

Table 1 RECOMMENDED PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE'


, d

Component or Recommended OMC lubricant or


SY*~ procedure service manual reference
Lower gearcase
Lubricant level2 Check lubricant level Ultra HPF Gear Lube
Gear lubricant Change lubricant Ultra HPF Gear Lube
Drive shaft splines Remove gearcase and lubricate Moly Lube
Propeller shatt splines Remove propeller and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Water pump Replace impelle? Chapter Nine
Jet pump unit
Bearing housing Lubricate after each use EPMlheel Bearing grease
Mid-section
Swivel housing fittings Lubricate Triple Guard grease
Tilt tube fittings Lubricate Triple Guard grease
Clamp screws Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Engine cowl latches Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Tilt lock linkage Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Tilt lever shawstrap Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Reverse lock linkage Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Shilt linkages Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Steering arm link Clean and lubricate pivot points SAE 30 engine oil
Steering cableham Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Tiller handle Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Power Trim and Tilt
Lubricant Check fluid level Chapter Ten
M m ram ends Clean and lubricate Triple Guard grease
Power head
Electric starter motor Cleanllightly lubricate drive splines Starter Pinion lube
Fuel Filters Clean or replace all fuel filters Chapter Four
IgnRlon system Synchronizationllinkageadjustments Chapter Five
Fuel system Synchronizationllinkageadjustments Chapter Five
lhrottle/shift linkage Clean and lubricate all pivot points Triple Guard grease
Combustion chambers Remove carbon deposits Engine tuner
1. Perform only the items that apply to your specific model engine. Normal service Intervals are 100 hours or once a season,
unless otherwise noted. Cut the intervals in half for severe duty or saltwater applications (accelerated gear lubricant changes
are optional).
2. Recommendedinterval is every 50 hours or 30 days.
3. Replace the impeller annually or each time the gearcase is removed.

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CHAPTER FOUR

Table 2 RECOMMENDED CHAMPION SPARK PLUGS'


I Model Standard Alternate I
90" V4 (cross-flow) QL82C L77JC4
90" V4 (loop-charged) QL78YC QLI~V'
60" V4 and V6 QL78YC QL77JC4
90" V6 and V8 QL78YC QL77JC4

1. Adjust the electrode gap on all conventional spark plugs to 0.030 in. (0.76 rnrn).
2. Use QL77JC4 plugs on oil-injected models.

Table 3 CYLINDER HEAD BOLT TORQUE VALUES


Outboard model Torque specification
90" V4 (cross-flow) 216-240 in.-lb. (24.7-27.1 N rn)
60" V4 and V6 (loop-charged) 240-264 in.-lb. (27.1-29.8 Nm)
90" V6 (loop-charged) 180-204 in.-lb. (20.3-23.1 N rn)
90" V4 and V8 (loop-charged) 216-240 in.-lb. (24.4-27.1 N rn)

Table 4 GEARCASE GEAR RATIO AND APPROXIMATE LUBRICANT CAPACITY


Outboard model Gear ratio Tooth count Lubricant capacity
V4 models
90" (cross-charged) 2:l 13:26 26 oz (769 rnl)
90" (loop-charged) 2.25:l 12:27 33 oz. (976 rnl)
60" (loop-charged)
Long shaft (20 in.) models 2:l 13:26 26 oz. (769 rnl)
Extra-long shaft
(25 in.) models 2.25:l 12:27 33 oz. (976 rnl)
V6 models
Standard ratio 1.86:l 14:26 33 oz. (976 rnl)
High-altitude ratio 2:l 13:26 33 oz. (976 rnl)
V8 models 1.76:l 17:30 71 oz. (2099 rnl)
65-105 jet models Not applicable

Table 5 TEST WHEEL (PROPELLER) RECOMMENDATIONS

I Model
85-115 hp (90" V4 cross-flow)
Standard rotation
OMC part No.
Counter-rotation
OMC part No. Minimum test RPM

1995 models 382861 - 5000


1996-1998 382861 - 4800
90 hp (60" V4)
Long shaft (20 in.) 382861 - 4500
Extra-long shaft (25 in.) 387388 - 4500
115 hp (60" V4)
Long shaft (20 in.) 382861 - 4800
Extra-long shaft (25 in.) 387388 - 4800
130 hp 387388 398673 5300
(continued)

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LUBRICATION, MAINTENANCE AND TUNE-UP 167

Table 5 TEST WHEEL (PROPELLER) RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)


Standard rotation Counte~mtation
Model OMC part No. OMC part No. Minimum test RPM
150 hp 387388 398673 4500
175 hp 387388 398673 4800
200and225hp 436080 or 396277 436081 or 398674 5000
250and300hp 396277 398674 5500
65105 jet models Not applicable

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Chapter Five

Engine Synchronization
and Linkage Adjustments

If an engine is to deliver its maximum efficiency and turer may change adjustment specifications
peak performance, the ignition must be correctly timed during production. The timing and fie1 sys-
and the carburetor operation synchronized with the igni- tem adjustment specifications listed in this
tion. This procedure should always be the final step of chapter may not represent these changes.
tune-up. It must also be performed whenever the fuel or ig-
For all 1998-2002 models, refer tot he EPA
certification plate mounted near the model
nition systems are serviced or adjusted. identification plate o n the engine
Procedures for engine synchronization and linkage ad- midsection,for sparkplug specifications, ig-
justment on Johnson and Evinrude outboard motors differ nition timing and idle speed specifications.
according to model and ignition system. This chapter is di-
vided into self-contained sections dealing with particular REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
modelslignition systems for fast and easy reference.
Each section specifies the appropriate procedure and se- Dynamic engine timing adjustments require the use of a
quence to follow and provides the necessary tune-up data. stroboscopic timing light connected to a spark plug wire.
Read the general information at the beginning of the chap- See Figure 1. While the engine is cranked or operated, the
ter and then select the section pertaining to your outboard.
Tables 1-4 are located at the end of this chapter.

ENGINE TIMING
AND SYNCHRONIZATION

Ignition timing advance and throttle opening must be


synchronized to occur at the proper time for the engine to
perform properly. Synchronizing is the process of timing
the carburetor operation to the ignition spark advance.

CAUTION
To comply with U.S. Environment Protection
Agency (EPA) reuglations, established un-
der the Federal Clean Air Act, the manufac-

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 169

light flashes each time the spark plug fires. When the light An accurate shop tachometer (not the boat's tachometer)
is pointed at the moving flywheel, the mark on the flywheel must be used to determine engine speed during idle and
appears to stand still. When the timing is correctly ad- high-speed adjustments.
justed, the specified mark on the flywheel or timing wheel
is aligned with the stationary timing pointer on the engine. CAUTION
Never operate the engine without cooling
A simple tool, called a throttle shaft amplifier, can be water circulating through the gearcase to the
made with an alligator clip and a length of stiff wire (a power head. Running the motor without
paper clip will do). This tool is designed to be attached to water will damage the waterpump and cause
the throttle shaft and exaggerate throttle shaft movement. the power head to overheat.
This makes it easier to determine the exact instant the
throttle shaft begins to move. Figure 2 shows the tool Some form of water supply is required whenever the
installed. The tool is especially useful on engines where motor is operated during the procedure. Using a test tank
the throttle cam and cam follower are partially hidden by is the most convenient method, although the procedures
the flywheel. To make the tool, enlarge the alligator clip's may be carried out with the boat in the water.
gripping surface by grinding out the front teeth and secure
CAUTION
the wire to the end of the clip. See Figure 3.
Do not use aflushing device to provide water
during synchronization and linkage adjust-
ment. Without the exhaust backpressure of a
submerged engine, the engine will run lean.
The proper test wheel must be used to apply
a load on the propeller shaft or the power
head can be damagedfrom excessive engine
speed.

Follow the step-by-step synchronizing and adjusting


procedures in the exact sequence given to produce smooth,
consistent idle speed and optimum performance through-
out the engine speed range.

65 JET, 80 JET (1995-1997) AND 85-115 HP


(90" V4 CROSS FLOW MODELS)

Disconnect both remote control cables (except tiller


handle models) prior to continuing with the synchronizing
and adjusting procedure.

THROTTLE SHAFT
Timing Pointer Alignment
TOOL CONSTRUCTION
Use the following procedure to checkladjust the align-
ment of the timing pointer with top dead center of the No.
1 (top) piston.
1. Disconnect the spark plug wires and remove the spark
plugs.
2. Loosen the timing pointer mounting screw, move the
pointer to the center of its adjustment slot and retighten the
screw.
3. Turn the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the
TDC mark on the flywheel is approximately 1-112in. (38.1
mm) past the timing pointer.
4. Install OMC Piston Stop Tool (part No. 384887) into
the No. 1 spark plug hole. Screw the tool into the plug hole
until bottomed, then turn the tool plunger inward until it

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170 CHAPTER FIVE

contacts the piston. Secure the plunger in place with the


lockring. See Figure 4.
5. Hold the No. 1 piston finnly against the piston stop tool
by turning the flywheel. While holding the flywheel, place
a mark on the flywheel directly adjacent to the timing
pointer. Label the mark A See Figure 5.
6. Rotate the flywheel in a clockwise direction until the
No. 1 piston contacts the piston stop tool again. Hold the
flywheel so the piston is against the tool, then place another
mark on the flywheel adjacent to the timing pointer. Label
this mark B. See Figure 5.
7. Remove the piston stop tool.
8. Measure the distance between marks A and B using a
flexible scale. Place a mark on the flywheel at the mid- Timing
pointer
point between A and B and label this mark C. See Figure
5.
9. If mark C is in alignment with the TDC mark cast in the
flywheel, the timing pointer is properly adjusted. If not,
turn the flywheel as necessary to align mark C with the
timing pointer. While holding the flywheelin this position,
loosen the timing pointer screw and move the pointer into
alignment with the TDC mark cast in the flywheel. Tighten
the pointer screw securely.
10. Reinstall the spark plugs.

Throttle Cable Adjustment


(Tiller Handle Models)

1. Turn the idle speed control knob on the tiller handle to


the fully counterclockwise (SLOW) position.
2. Make sure the throttle cable mounting bracket is affixed
to the power head in the front mounting hole.
3. Back out the idle speed screw (Figure 6) and the
wide-open stop screw (Figure 7).

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 171

4. Turn the tiller twist grip to the wide-open throttle posi- 7. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to check adjustment.
tion and check the clearance (Figure 8) between the roller
and the end of the slot in the throttle lever. The clearance
(Figure 8) should be approximately 114 in. (6.3 mm). Throttle Valve Synchronization
5. Turn the tiller twist grip to the idle position and check The carburetor throttle valves must be synchronized to
the 9, between the and the Other
open and close simultaneously.The engine will idle poorly
end of the slot in the throttle lever. The clearance (Figure if all throttle valves are not fully closed at idle.
9) should be approximately 114 in. (6.3 mm).
1. Remove the air silencer cover.
6. To adjust the clearance, loosen the locknut and turn the
thumb wheel on the throttle cable as necessary to obtain NOTE
the specified clearance. See Figure 10. The throttle cam must not be in contact with
the cam follower during this procedure.

@ 2. Loosen the throttle cam follower adjustment screw (A,


Figure 11).Move the cam follower away from the throttle
cam.

Throttle lever

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172 CHAPTER FIVE

3. Loosen the adjusting lever screw (B, Figure 11) on the


lower carburetor. Rotate the throttle shafts partially open,
then allow them to snap back to the closed position. Apply
a slight downward pressure on the adjusting link tab to
remove any backlash and tighten the adjustment screw.
4. Move the cam follower while watching the throttle
valves. If the throttle valves do not start to move at exactly
the same time, repeat Steps 2-4.

Cam Follower Pickup


1. Connect a throttle shaft amplifier to the top carburetor
throttle shaft.
2. While observing the throttle shaft amplifier, slowly rotate
the throttle cam. As the amplifier just begins to move, the
embossed mark on the cam (A, Figure 12) should align with
the center of the cam follower (B, F'igure 12).
3. If adjustment is necessary loosen the cam follower
adjustment screw (Figure 13). Make sure the throttle
valves are fully closed, then hold the cam follower in
contact with the throttle cam and in alignment with the
embossed mark, then retighten the cam follower screw
(Figure 13).
4. Repeat Step 2 to check adjustment.

Maximum Spark Advance


NOTE
To load the outboard motor properly when
adjusting maximum spark advance, the out-
board must be in a test tank or on a boat in
the water with the correct test wheel in-
stalled. Do not attempt to adjust the m i -
mum timing with a propeller installed. Do
not run the outboard at wide-open throttle
while connected to aflushing d&ice.

1. If removed, install the spark plugs as described in


Chapter Four.
2. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 (top starboard) spark
plug wire.
3. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu-
facturer's instructions.
4. Start the engine and warm to normal operatingtempera-
ture.
5. Shift into FORWARD gear, then run the motor at a
minimum of 5000 rpm with the timer base fully advanced.
6. Check the timing mark position with the timing light.
Maximum advance timing should be within 27-29" BTDC.
7. If adjustment is necessary, loosen the locknut at the
front of the spark control rod retainer (Figure14, typical).
Rotate the thumb wheel at the retainer as necessary to
obtain the specified timing. Turning the top of the thumb

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATIONAND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 173


I

I
wheel toward the power head advancesthe timing. Turning 5. Tighten the locknut securely and repeat Step 3 to check^
the top of the thumb wheel away from the power head adjustment.
I
retards the timing. I

8. Tighten the locknut and repeat Steps 4-6 to check


adjustment.
Wide-Open Throttle Stop
1. With the motor not running, open the throttle to the^
wide-open position. With the throttle wide open, the car-
Cam Follower Pickup Timing
buretor throttle shaft roll pins should be exactly vertical. I,
1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 (top starboard) spark 2. If the roll pins are not vertical, loosen the wide- open^
plug wire. stop screw locknut (A, Figure 16) and adjust the stop screw I
2. Start the motor. @, Figure 16) as required to position the roll pins vertical ~
3. Move the spark advance lever until the e m b o s s e d when the throttle is wide open. I

the throttle cam is aligned with the center of the cam follower. 3. Tighten the locknut securely and repeat Step 1to check^
At this point, the timing light should indicate 3-5" BTDC. adjustment.
i
4. If adjustment is necessary, loosen the locknut (A, Fig-
ure 15) and turn the thumb wheel @, Figure 15) as Idle Speed Adjustment i
necessary to obtain the specified pickup timing. Turn the
top of the thumb wheel toward the power head to retard Adjust idle speed with the outboard mounted on a boat'
pickup timing and away from the power head to advance in the water, running at normal operating temperature inl
pickup timing. FORWARD gear, with the correct propeller installed and,
the boat's movement unrestrained. I
1. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu-
facturer's instructions. i
2. Start the outboard and warm to normal operating tem- ~
perature.
3. Shift into FORWARD gear and note the idle speed. Idle
speed should be 600-700 rpm (in gear). ~
~
I
I
WARNING I

Do not attempt to adjust ldle speed with the


motor running. Contact with the mtatingjly-
1
wheel can result in serious personal injury.
4. If adjustment is necessary, stop the motor and turn the1
idle speed screw (Figure 17) clockwise to increase idlei
speed or counterclockwise to decrease idle speed.

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CHAPTER FIVE

5. Start the engine and repeat Step 3 to check adjustment. 4. While rotating the propeller shaft, shift the gearcase
6. Install the remote control cables (except tiller handle into FORWARD gear.
models) as described in this chapter. 5. Install the shift cable onto the shift lever pin and secure
with the washer and nut. Tighten the nut securely.
Shift Lever Detent (Tiller Handle Models) NOTE
I f insuficient threads are present for adjust-
1. Place the shift lever in the NEUTRAL position. ment in Step 6, check shifi rod height as
2. If the lower detent spring is not completely engaged in outlined in Chapter Nine.
the shift lever detent notch (Figure IS), loosen the detent
spring screw. Move the spring until it fully engages the 6. Pull the cable firmly to remove any slack, then adjust
notch, then tighten the screw securely. the cable trunnion to fit into the cable anchor pocket.
7. Install the cable trunnion into the anchor pocket. Install
the anchor pocket cover and screw. Tighten the screw to
Install/Adjust Remote Control Cables 60-84 in.-lb. (7-9 N-m).
Throttle cable
1. Extend the throttle cable and lubricate it with OMC
Triple-Guard Grease. Apply Triple-Guard to both cable
anchor pockets on the power head.
2. Make sure the fast idle lever on the remote control
assembly is in the down position.
3. While rotating the propeller shaft, move the remote
control handle from the NEUTRAL position to the FOR-
WARD detent, then halfway back to the NEUTRAL posi-
tion.
4. Push the throttle lever firmly against its stop.
5. Connect the throttle cable casing guide to the throttle
lever using the washer and locknut. Tighten the locknut
securely.
6. Pull on the throttle cable to remove any slack, then place
the trunnion nut into its anchor pocket.
7. Temporarily install the anchor pocket cover and screw.

NOTE
I f throttle cable adjustment is too loose, the
idle speed may be excessive or inconsistent.
I f cable adjustment is too tight, throttle and
shift control effort may be excessive.

8. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear


position, then pull it back slowly to NEUTRAL. Make sure
the idle speed screw is against its stop. If not, remove cable
backlash by adjusting the throttle cable trunnion nut (Fig-
ure 19).

Shift cable

1. Extend the shift cable and lubricate with OMC Triple-


Guard Grease.
2. Make sure the fast idle lever on the remote control
assembly is in the down position.
3. Place the remote control lever in the NEUTRAL posi-
tion, then move the lever to the FORWARD gear position.

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 175

8. Shift the remote control to the NEUTRAL position.


9. Temporarily remove the shift cable and confirm that the
gearcase is still in its NEUTRAL detent. If the gearcase is
in NEUTRAL, reattach the shift cable to the shift lever.
Secure the cable using the washer and nut.
10. If the gearcase is not completely in the NEUTRAL
detent, repeat Step 6 as necessary.

WARNING
Be certain the remote control cables are
attached to the correct levers. To check, lift
thefast idle lever on the remote control while
observing the throttle lever on the power
head. I f the cables are correctly installed, the
throttle cable and lever on the power head
will move when the fast idle lever is lified.

SO JET (1998), 105 JET, 90, 115, 150


AND 175 HP (60" V4 AND V6 MODELS)

Disconnect the throttle cable from the throttle arm and


remove the cable from the trunnion pocket prior to begin-
ning the synchronizing and adjustment procedure.

Timing Pointer Alignment

Use the following procedure to check/adjust the align-


ment of the timing pointer with top dead center of the No.
1 (top) piston.
1. Disconnect the spark plug wires and remove the spark
plugs.
2. Remove the three screws holding the timing wheel
cover. Lift the cover off of the power head.
3. Loosen the timing pointer (A, Figure 20) mounting
screw. Move the pointer to the center of its adjustment slot
then retighten the mounting screw.

CAUTION
Rotate the crankshaft in a clockwise direc-
tion only. Counterclockwise rotation may
damage the water pump impellel:
4. Rotate the crankshaft clockwiseuntil the TDC mark on
the timing wheel is approximately 1in. (25.4 mrn) past the
timing pointer. Rotate the crankshaftby turning the timing
wheel (B, Figure 20) using an appropriate size wrench or
socket as shown in Figure 21.
5. Install OMC Piston Stop Tool (part No. 384887) into
the No. 1 spark plug hole. Screw the tool into the plug hole
until bottomed, then turn the tool plunger inward until it
contacts the piston. Secure the plunger in place with the
lockring. See Figure 22, typical.
6. Hold the No. 1piston firmly against the piston stop tool
by turning the timing wheel. While holding the timing

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176 CHAPTER FIVE

wheel, place a mark on the timing wheel directly adjacent 4. Make sure the throttle cam (E, Figure 25) and cam
to the timing pointer. Label the mark A. See Figure 23, follower O are not touching.
typical. 5. Loosen (but do not remove) the carburetor link screw
7. Continue turning the crankshaft in a clockwise diiec- (Figure 26).
tion until the No. 1 piston contacts the piston stop tool 6. Loosen the throttle shaft connector screws (one each
again. Hold the timing wheel so the piston is against the side on V4, two each side on V6) using a 9/64 in. Allen
tool, then place another mark on the timing wheel adjacent wrench. Do not remove the screws from the connectors.
to the timing pointer. Label this mark B. See Figure 23, See Figure 27 (port) and Figure 28 (starboard).
typical. 7. Looking into the carburetors, make sure all throttle
8. Remove the piston stop tool. valves are fully closed. Apply light pressure to the throttle
9. Using the timing marks molded in the timing wheel, valves to ensure they are fully closed, then tighten the
determine the midpoint between marks A and B. Place a throttle shaft connector screws (Figure 27 and Figure 28).
mark on the timing wheel at the midpoint between A and
B and label this mark C. See Figure 23, typical.
10. If mark C is in alignment with the TDC mark cast in
the timing wheel, the timing pointer is properly adjusted.
If not, turn the timing wheel clockwise to align mark C
with the timing pointer. While holding the timing wheel in
this position, loosen the timing pointer screw and move the
pointer into alignment with the TDC mark cast in the
timing wheel. Tighten the pointer screw securely.
11. Reinstall the spark plugs.

Throttle Valve Synchronization

The carburetor throttle valves must be synchronized to


open and close simultaneously. The engine will idle poorly
if all throttle valves are not fully closed at idle.
1. Disconnect the four air silencerretaining straps (Figure
24) and slide the air silencer off the power head.
2. Loosen (but do not remove) the spark lever screw (B,
Figure 25).
3. Push the spark lever roller (C, Figure 25) rearward.

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 177

8. While holding the throttle linkage in position, securely


tighten the carburetor link screw (Figure 26).
9. Do not retighten the spark lever screw (B, Figure 25)
at this point.

Idle Timing

The following idle timing procedure should provide the


optimum idle quality within a range of 600-700 rpm (in
gear), depending on the propeller used. If idle speed is too
high after adjusting the timing, check the induction system
for air leakage and repair as necessary. If idle speed is too
slow, advance idle timing in small increments until the
desired idle speed is obtained.
OMC Ignition Analyzer (Figure29) from the OMC Test
Kit (part No. 434017) is required to perform timing adjust- 1
ments on the 60" V4 and V6 motors.
1. Remove the voltage regulatorlrectifier cover.
2. Disconnect the timing sensor connector (Figure 30)
from the sensor.

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CHAPTER FIVE

3. Connect OMC Ignition Analyzer to the timing sensor. 6. Disconnect the ignition analyzer from the timing sen-
Move the analyzer selector switch to position A for 150 sor. Reconnect the timing sensor connector to the sensor.
and 175 hp units or position B for 80 jet, 105 jet, 90 and Reinstall the voltage regulatorlrectifier cover.
115 hp units. Connect the analyzer to a fully charged
12-volt battery.
Throttle Pickup Point
4. Loosen the timer base detent screw (Figure 31).
5. Move the outer (A, Figure 32) and inner (B) detent tabs 1. Make sure the spark lever screw (B, Figure 25) is loose.
completely to the front of the detent plate. Make sure the 2. Move the spark lever (A, Figure 33) and throttle link-
timer base lever is contacting its stop on the flywheelcover. age (B) toward the rear of the motor.
6. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise until the timing pointer 3. Slowly move the spark lever (A, Figure 33) forward
is aligned with the 6" ATDC mark on the timing wheel. until the roller (C) just contacts the spark cam (D). Hold
Hold the timing wheel in this position. the spark lever in this position.
7. Hold the inner detent plate in position against the stop 4. Next, slowly move the throttle linkage forward until the
and move the detent plate forward until the CYL light on throttle cam (E, Figure 25) just contacts the throttle cam
the analyzer goes off. follower (F).
8. Mark the location of the inner detent tab on the detent 5. Securely tighten the spark lever screw (B, Figure 25)
plate. without disturbing the position of any linkage.
9. Do not tighten the timer base detent screw or sparklever 6. Move the linkage rearward, then forward to check
screw at this time. Do not disconnect the OMC Ignition adjustment. The timer base and carburetor linkage should
Analyzer from the timing sensor. start to move at exactly the same time. If not, repeat Steps
1-5.
7. Install the timing wheel cover and the air silencer.
Maximum Spark Advance

1. Make sure the spark lever screw (B, Figure 25) is loose.
2. Move the spark lever roller (C, Figure 25) to the
wide-open throttle position.
3. Rotate the crankshaft clockwise until the timing pointer
is aligned with 20" BTDC mark on the timing wheel. Hold
the timing wheel in this position.
4. Move the outer detent tab (A, Figure 32) rearward on
the detent plate until the CYL light on the analyzer goes
off. Make sure the inner detent tab (B, Figure 32) is still
aligned with the mark (made previously), then securely
tighten the timer base detent screw (Figure 31).
5. Move the spark lever back to the idle position.

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 179


~
8. Install the spark plugs. If cable adjustment is too tight, throttle and
9. Install the throttle cable as outlined in this chapter. shi@ control effortmay be excessive.
1. Extend the throttle cable and lubricate it with OMC I

Throttle Cable Installation/Adjustment Triple-Guard Grease. Apply Triple-Guard to both cable


anchor pockets on the power head.
NOTE 2. Make sure the fast idle lever on the remote control
I f throttle cable adjustment is too loose, the assembly is in the down position.
idle speed may be excessive or inconsistent. 3. While rotating the propeller shaft, move the remote
control handle from the NEUTRAL position to the FOR-
WARD detent, then halfway back to the NEUTRAL posi-
tion.
4. Remove the timing wheel cover. Make sure the timer
base lever is contacting the flywheel cover stop.
5. Connect the throttle cable casing guide to the throttle
SPEED CONTROL LINKAGE lever using the washer and cotter clip.
(1995 130 HP) 6. Pull on the throttle cable to remove any slack, then place
the trunnion nut into its anchor pocket.
7. Install the cable retainer and screw. Tighten the screw
to 60-84 in.-lb. (7-9 N-m).
8. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear
1 2 3 position, then pull it back slowly to NEUTRAL. Make sure
the timer base lever contacts its stop on the flywheel cover.
If not, remove backlash by adjusting the throttle cable
trunnion nut.

Timing Pointer Alignment


Use the following procedure to checWadjust the align-
ment of the timing pointer with top dead center of the No.
1 (top) piston.
9 8 7 6 10 5 Refer to Timing Pointer Alignment under 65 jet, 80 jet
and 85-115 hp (90"V4 crossflow models) in this chapter.

1. Throttle cam Throttle Valve Synchronization


2. Mark
3. Cam follower The carburetor throttle valves must be synchronized to
adjusting screw open and close simultaneously.The engine will idle poorly
4. Idle timing screw if all throttle valves are not fully closed at idle.
(under flywheel)
5. Carburetor link
NOTE
adjustment screws
6. Wide-open throttle The throttle cam and the throttle cam fol-
index mark lower must not be touching during this pro-
7. Throttle cam follower cedure.
8. Adjustment knob
9. Lockring 1. Loosen the throttle cam follower adjusting screw (3,
10. Carburetor link Figure 34) and move the c m follower away from the
throttle cam.
2. Back out the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 35) four
full turns.
3. Loosen the two carburetor link adjustment screws (5,
fi Figure 34) not more than 1/2 turn.

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CHAPTER FIVE

4. Next, turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 35) Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment
clockwise until the throttle valves on the port side carbu-
retors just start to open. Then back out the screw just NOTE
enough to close the throttle valves. Lightly press on the If throttle cable adjustment is too loose, the
throttle valves to ensure they are closed. idle speed may be excessive or inconsistent.
If cable adjustment is too tight, throttle and
5. While holding the carburetor link (10, Figure 34) shift control effort may be excessive.
against the stop screw, securelytighten the two link adjust-
ment screws (5). 1. Extend the throttle cable and lubricate it with OMC
6. Open and close the throttle while observing the carbu- Triple-Guard Grease. Apply Triple-Guard to both cable
retor throttle valves. The port and starboard throttle valves anchor pockets on the power head.
must open and close at exactly the same time. 2. Make sure the fast idle lever on the remote control
7. If adjustmentis required, loosen the two carburetor link assembly is in the down position.
adjustment screws (5, Figure 34) not more than 112 turn. 3. While rotating the propeller shaft, move the remote
Turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 35) in or out control handle from the NEUTRAL position to the FOR-
as necessary. Then repeat Steps 5 and 6. WARD detent, then halfway back to the NEUTRAL posi-
8. Do not tighten the throttle cam follower adjusting screw tion.
(3, Figure 34) at this point.

Throttle Cam Follower Pickup Point

Refer to Figure 34 for this procedure.


1. Make sure the throttle cam follower adjusting screw is
loose.
2. Loosen the lockring (9, Figure 34) and rotate the ad-
justment knob (8) counterclockwise until no internal
spring tension is noted.
3. Move the throttle cam follower (7, Figure 34) into
contact with the throttle cam (1).
4. While holding the cam follower against the cam, adjust
the throttle arm stop screw (A, Figure 36) until the mark
(2, Figure 34) on the cam is aligned with the center of the
cam follower roller. Securely tighten the cam follower
adjustment screw when the proper alignment is obtained.
5. Next, turn the throttle arm stop screw (A, Figure 36)
one full turn counterclockwise to create the correct clear-
ance between the throttle cam and cam follower.

Wide-Open Throttle Stop Adjustment

1. Loosen the locknut securing the wide-open throttle stop


screw.
2. With the engine not running, advance the throttle to the
wide-open position.
3. With the throttle wide-open, adjust the wide-open throt-
tle stop screw (B, Figure 36) so the index mark (6, Figure
34) on the throttle cam is facing directly forward and is
perpendicular to the air silencer base.
4. Retighten the locknut securely while holding the stop
screw.

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 181 1


4. Push the throttle lever firmly against its stop. with the rotatingflywheel can result in seri- 1
5. Connect the throttle cable casing guide to the throttle ous personal injury. I
lever using the washer and locknut. Tighten the locknut I

securely. 6. If adjustment is necessary, stop the motor. Loosen thp


6. Pull on the throttle cable to remove any slack, then place locknut and turn the maximum advance screw (C, ~iguI?e
the trunnion nut into its anchor pocket. 36) clockwise to retard or counterclockwise to advance
7. Install the cable retainer and screw. Tighten the screw timing as necessary. One full turn of the screw equal6
to 60-84 in.-lb. (7-9 N.m). approximately loof timing change. 1
8. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear 7. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to check adjustment.
position, then pull it back slowly to NEUTRAL. Make sure
the idle speed screw is against its stop. If not, remove cable
backlash by adjusting the throttle cable trunnion nut.
Idle Timing Adjustment I
I
1
The following idle timing procedure should provide
i
Maximum Spark Advance optimum idle quality within a range of 575-700 rpm (d
gear), depending on the propeller used. If idle speed is to^
NOTE
To load the outboard motor properly when
high after adjusting the timing, check the induction systeq I
for air leakage and repair as necessary. If idle speed is too
adjusting maximum spark advance, the out- slow, advance idle timing in small increments until thf
board must be in a test tank or on a boat in desired idle speed is obtained. I

the water with the correct test wheel in- i


stalled. Do not attempt to adjust the maxi- CAUTION
mum timing with a propeller installed. Do Perform the following procedure with the
not run the outboard at wide-open throttle outboard motor in a test tank with the correct
while connected to a flushing device. test wheel installed, or mounted on a boat in i1
the water with the correct propeller in- i
1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire. stalled. Do not attempt the idle timing ad- I
2. Connect an accurate tachometer to the motor according justments with the outboard running on a
to its manufacturer's instructions. 1
flushing device. i
3. Start the motor and warm to normal operating tempera-
ture. 1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire.
4. Shift into FORWARD gear and advance the throttle to
4500-5000 rpm.
5. Check the timing mark position with the timing light.
2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu
facturer's instructions.
3. Loosen the lockring (9, Figure 34). Then turn the
i
Maximum spark advance should be 17-19" BTDC. lockring and adjustment knob (8) clockwise until fully
I
bottomed. I ,
WARNING
Do not attempt to adjust the spark advance 4. Start the motor and warm to normal operating tempera1
with the nwtor running in Step 6. Contact ture. Engine temperature must be above 96" F (35.6" C)JI
to perform this procedure. I
5. Shift into FORWARD gear. With the motor at idle
speed, in FORWARD
timing light.
check the timing with th

6. Idle timing should be 6-10" ATDC.

WARNING
1~ !
Do not attempt to adjust ignition timing with ~
I
the motor running in Step 7. Contact with the
moving flywheel can result in serious per- ~
sonal injury.

7. If adjustmentis necessary, stopthe engine. urn the idld


1
timing screw (Figure 37) clockwise to advance or couni
terclockwise to retard idle timing. I
8. Next, start the motor and place the remote control leve '
into the FORWARD detent position. I

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182 CHAPTER FIVE.

9. Adjust the throttle arm stop screw (A, Figure 36) to 3. Loosen the two carburetor linkadjustmentscrews (Fig-
obtain 950 rpm. ' ure 40) no more than one-half turn.
10. Without moving the throttle arm position, stop the 4. Turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 39) clock-
motor and turn the adjustment knob (8, Figure 34) coun- wise until the throttle valves on the port carburetors just
terclockwise until the timer base just begins to move. begin to open, then back out the screw just enough to close
Tighten the lockring (9, Figure 34) securely against the the throttle valves.
adjustment knob. 5. While holding the carburetor link against the link stop
11. With the throttle arm stop screw (A, Figure 36) seated screw, tighten the two link adjustment screws (Figure 40).
against the crankcase, rotate the stop screw counterclock-
wise until the throttle cam index mark (2, Figure 34) 6. Remove the air silencer and check operation of the
intersects the center of the cam follower roller (7). Con- throttle valves. Allcarburetorthrottle valves must open and
tinue to turn the stop screw (A, Figure 36) one complete close at exactly the same time. If not, loosen the carburetor
turn counterclockwisefrom this point. link adjustment screws (Figure 40) one-half turn maxi-
mum. Then turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 39)
NOTE in or out as necessary.
After performing the previous adjustments,
the outboard motor should idle between 575-
700 rpm in FORWARD geal: In addition, the 200,225,250 and 300 hp
throttle camfollower roller should not touch
the throttle cam when the remote control is The carburetor throttle valves must be synchronized to
in the NEUTRAL position. Refer to Throttle open and close simultaneously. The engine will idle poorly
Cam Pickup Point in this chapter if incorrect if all throttle valves are not fully closed at idle.
adjustment is noted.

130 HP (1996) AND 200, 225, 250


AND 300 HP (1995 AND 1996)

Disconnect the throttle cable from the throttle arm and


remove from the trunnion pocket before proceeding with
the synchronizing and adjusting procedure.

Timing Pointer Alignment

Use the following procedure to check/adjust the align-


ment of the timing pointer with top dead center of the No.
1 (top) piston.
Refer to Eming Pointer Alignment under 65 jet, 80 jet
(1995-1997)and 85-115 hp (90" V4 crossj7ow models)in
this chapter.

Throttle Valve Synchronization

The carburetor throttle valves must be synchronized to


open and close simultaneously. The engine will idle poorly
if all throttle valves are not fully closed at idle.
1. Loosen the throttle cam follower screw (A, Figure 38,
typical) and move the cam follower (C) away fromthe cam.
The cam (B, Figure 38) and follower (C) must not be
touching during this procedure.
2. Turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 39) coun-
terclockwise four full turns.

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 183

1. Loosen the throttle cam follower screw (A, Figure 38, screw on the starboard throttle shaft connector (B, Figure
typical) and move the cam follower (C) away fromthe cam. 41). 1

The cam (B, Figure 38) and follower (C) must not be 6. Apply light pressure to the carburetor throttle valves to
touching during this procedure. ensure they are fully closed. Tighten the starboard throttle
2. Turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 39) coun- shaft connector screw, then the port throttle shaft connector
terclockwise four full turns. screw. I

3. Loosen the two carburetor linkadjustment screws (Fig- 7. Make sure all throttle valves are fully closed, then
ure 40) no more than one-half turn. tighten the starboard throttle shaft connector screw, then
the port throttle shaft connector screw.
4. Remove the air silencer cover and baffle. 8. Turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure 39) clock-
5. Loosen (but do not remove) the bottom screw on the wise until the throttle valves on the ~ o rcarburetors
t iust
port throttle shaft connector (A, Figure 41) and the top begin to open. Then back out the screwjust enough to close
the throttle valves.
9. While holding the carburetor link against the link stop
screw, tighten the two link adjustment screws (Figure 40).
10. Open and close the throttle while observing the throt-
tle valves. All carburetor throttle valves must open and
close at exactly the same time. If not, loosen the carburetor
link adjustment screws (Figure 40) a maximum of one-
half turn. Then turn the carburetor link stop screw (Figure
39) in or out as necessary.

Throttle Cam Pickup Point I

1. Make sure the throttle cam follower screw (A, Figure I


38) is loose. I

2. Hold the throttle cam follower against the throttle cam


and adjust the throttle arm stop screw (A, Figure 36) until
the mark (E, Figure 38) on the throttle cam is aligned with
the center of the cam follower roller. Once the center of the
roller is aligned with the mark, tighten the cam follower
screw (A, Figure 38).
3. With the throttle arm in the idle position, a 0.005 in.
(0.13 mrn) clearance must be present between the throttle
cam and the cam follower.

Wide-Open Throttle Stop

1. With the motor not running, advance the throttle to the


wide-open position.
2A. 130 hp-Loosen the locknut on the wide-open throkle
stop screw (B, Figure 36). Adjust the wide-open throttle
stop screw until the carburetor throttle valves are fully open
(horizontal).
2B. 200,225,250 and 300 hp-Loosen the locknut on the
wide-open throttle stop screw (Figure 42). Adjust the
wide-open throttle stop screw until the carburetor throttle
valves are fully open (horizontal).
3. Continue adjusting the stop screw until the cam fol-
lower WOT index line (F, Figure 38) faces directly for-
ward and is perpendicular with the air silencer base. Hold
the screw from moving and tighten the locknut.

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CHAPTER FIVE

Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment WARNING


Do not attempt to adjust maximum spark
NOTE advance with the motor running. Contact
If throttle cable adjustment is too loose, the with the moving flywheel can result in seri-
idle speed may be excessive or inconsistent. ous personal injury.
lf cable adjustment is too tight, throttle and
shift control eflort may be excessive. 5. If adjustment is necessary, stop the motor. Loosen the
maximum advance screw locknut and turn the screw (A,
1. Extend the throttle cable and lubricate it with OMC Figure 44) clockwise to retard or counterclockwise to
Triple-Guard Grease. Apply Triple-Guard to both cable advance timing. One full turn in either direction changes
anchor pockets on the power head. t a g approximately one degree.
2. Make sure the fast idle lever on the remote control 6. Tighten the locknut and repeat Steps 3 and 4 to check
assembly is in the down position. adjustment.
3. While rotating the propeller shaft, move the remote
control handle from the NEUTRAL position to the FOR-
WARD detent, then halfway back to the NEUTRAL posi- Idle Speed
tion.
4. Push the throttle lever f d y against its stop. NOIT
The air silencer cover and ba8e must be
5. Connect the throttle cable casing guide to the throttle
installed before the idle speed can be accu-
lever using the washer and locknut. Tighten the locknut rately adjusted.
securely.
6. Pull on the throttle cable to remove any slack, then place Adjust idle speed with the outboard mounted on a boat
the trunnion nut into its anchor pocket. in the water, running at normal operating temperature in
7. Install the cable retainer and screw. Tighten the screw FORWARD gear, with the correct propeller installed and
to 60-84 in.-lb. (7-9 N.m). the boat's movement unrestrained.
8. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear 1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire.
position, then pull it back slowly to NEUTRAL. Make sure 2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu-
the idle speed screw is against its stop. If not, remove cable facturer's instructions.
backlash by adjusting the throttle cable trunnion nut (B,
Figure 43). 3. Start the motor and warm to normal operating tempera-
ture.
4. Shift into FORWARD gear and note idle speed. Idle
Maximum Spark Advance speed in FORWARD gear should be 600-700 rpm on 130,

NOTE
To load the outboard motor properly when
adjusting maximum spark advance, the out-
board must be in a test tank or on a boat in
the water with the correct test wheel in-
stalled. Do not attempt to adjust the maxi-
mum timing with a propeller installed. Do
not run the outboard at wide-open throttle
while connected to a flushing device.

1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire.


2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu-
facturer's instructions.
3. Start the motor and warm to normal operating tempera-
ture.
4. Shift into FORWARD gear. Run the motor at 4500-
5000 rpm and note the timing marks with the timing light.
Maximum spark advance should be 17-19" BTDC on 130,
200,225 and 250 hp models and 15-17" BTDC on 300 hp
models.

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 185

200,225 and 250 hp models and 650-750 rpm on 300 hp 7. With the motor running at the specified idle speed in
models. FORWARD gear, check idle timing. Idle timing should be
as follows:
WARNING a. 130 hp-2-6" ATDC at 600-700 rpm.
Do not attempt to adjust idle speed with the b. 200 and 225 hp--0-4" ATDC at 600-700 rpm.
motor running. Contact with the movingfty- c. 250 hp--0-2" ATDC at 600-700 rpm.
wheel can result in serious personal injury. d. 300 hp-4-10" ATDC at 650-750 rpm.
8. If the idle timing is not correct at the specified engine
5. If adjustment is necessary, stop the motor, Loosen the speed, recheck all linkage adjustments and repair as re-
locknut on the idle timing screw (B, Figure 44). Turn the quired.
screw clockwise to decrease and counterclockwise to in-
crease idle speed.
130, 200, 225 AND 250 HP
6. Tighten the locknut and repeat Steps 3 and 4 to check (1997-2002)
adjustment.
Disconnect the throttle cable from the throttle arm and
remove from the trunnion pocket before proceeding with
the synchronizing and adjusting procedure.

Timing Pointer Alignment

Use the following procedure to checkfadjust the align-


1
ment of the timing pointer with top dead center of the No. 1
(top) piston.
Refer to Timing Pointer Alignment under 65 Jet, 80 Jet
(1995-1997)and 85-115 hp (90" V4 crossflow models) in
this chapter.

Throttle Valve Synchronization

The carburetor throttle valves must be synchronized to


open and close simultaneously.The engine will idle poorly
if all throttle valves are not fully closed at idle.

NOTE
Do not disengage the link (1,Figure 45)dur-
ing the following procedure.

1. Remove the air silencer.


2. Loosen the clamp screws that retain the starboard throt-
tle lever (2, Figure 45) and port throttle lever (3) so the le-
vers can rotate freely on their shafts.
3. Make sure the throttle valves are seated in the closed
position.
4. Move the starboard throttle lever (2, Figure 45) and
throttle cam (4) so the mark (5) on the throttle cam is cen-
tered on the cam follower (6).
5. Tighten the clamp screw on the starboard throttle lever
(2, Figure 45). Make sure the starboard carburetor throttle
valves are closed.
6. Tighten the clamp screw on the port throttle lever (3,
Figure 45). Make sure the port carburetor throttle valves
are closed.

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186 CHAPTER FIVE

SPEED CONTROL LINKAGE


(1997-2002 13OY20Oy
225 AND 250 HP)

1. Link
2. Starboard throttle lever
3. Port throttle lever
4. Throttle cam
5. Mark
6. Cam follower
7. Throttle arm stop screw

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 187

7. Check operation of throttle to be sure throttle valves 7. Install the cable retainer and screw. Tighten the screw
open at the same time. to 60-84 in.-lb. (7-9 N-m).
8. Move the remote control handle to the FORWARD gear
position, then pull it back slowly to NEUTRAL. Make sure
Throttle Cam Pickup Point the idle speed screw is against its stop. If not, remove cable
1. Make sure the throttle cam follower screw (A, Figure backlash by adjusting the throttle cable trunnion nut (B,
38) is loose. Figure 43).
2A. 130 hp-Rotate the throttle arm stop screw (A, Figure
36) so the clearance between the throttle cam (4, Figure Maximum Spark Advance
45) and the cam follower (6) is 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) when 1~

the throttle valves are closed. NOTE


2B. 200, 225 and 250 hp-Rotate the throttle arm stop To load the outboard motor properly when
screw (7, Figure 45) so the clearance between the throttle adjusting maximum spark advance, the out-
cam (4) and the cam follower (6) is 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) board must be in a test tank or on a boat in
when the throttle valves are closed. the water with the correct test wheel in-
stalled. Do not attempt to adjust the rnaxi-
mum timing with a propeller installed. Do
Wide-Open Throttle Stop not run the outboard at wide-open throttle
while connected to a flushing device. I

1. With the motor not running, advance the throttle to the


wide-open position. 1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire.
2A. 130 hp-Loosen the locknut on the wide-open throttle 2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu-
stop screw (B, Figure 36). Adjust the wide-open throttle facturer's instructions.
stop screw until the carburetor throttle valves are fully open 3. Start the motor and warm to normal operating tempera-
(horizontal). Hold the screw from moving and tighten the ture.
locknut. 4. Shift into FORWARD gear. Run the motor at 4500-
2B. 200, 225 and 250 hp-Loosen the locknut on the 5000 rpm and note the timing marks with the timing light.
wide-open throttle stop screw (Figure 42). Adjust the Maximum spark advance should be 17-19".
wide-open throttle stop screw until the carburetor throttle WARNING
valves are fully open (horizontal). Hold the screw from Do not attempt to adjust maximum spark
moving and tighten the locknut. advance with the motor running. Contact
with the moving flywheel can result in seri-
Throttle Cable Installation and Adjustment ous personal injury.

5. If adjustment is necessary, stop the motor. Loosen the


NOTE
I f throttle cable adjustment is too loose, the maximum advance screw locknut and turn the screw (A,
idle speed may be excessive or inconsistent. Figure 44) clockwise to retard or counterclockwise to
If cable adjustment is too tight, throttle and advance timing. One full turn in either direction changes
shift control effort may be excessive. timing approximately 1".
6. Tighten the locknut and repeat Steps 3 and 4 to check
1. Extend the throttle cable and lubricate it with OMC adjustment.
Triple-Guard Grease. Apply Triple-Guard to both cable
anchor pockets on the power head.
2. Make sure the fast idle lever on the remote control Idle Speed
assembly is in the down position. NOTE
3. While rotating the propeller shaft, move the remote con- The air silencer cover and bafle must be
trol handle from the NEUTRAL position to the FORWARD installed before the idle speed can be accu-
detent, then halfway back to the NEUTRAL position. rately adjusted.
4. Push the throttle lever firmly against its stop.
5. Connect the throttle cable casing guide to the throttle Adjust idle speed with the outboard mounted on a boat
lever using the washer and locknut. Tighten the locknut in the water, running at normal operating temperature in
securely. FORWARD gear, with the correct propeller installed and
6. Pull on the throttle cable to remove any slack, then place the boat's movement unrestrained.
the trunnion nut into its anchor pocket. 1. Connect a timing light to the No. 1 spark plug wire.

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188 CHAPTER F I W

2. Connect an accurate tachometer according to its manu- 5. If adjustment is necessary, stop the motor. Loosen the
facturer's instructions. locknut on the idle timing screw (B, Figure 44). Turn the
3. Start the motor and warm to normal operating temper- screw clockwise to decrease and counterclockwise to in-
ature. crease idle speed.
4. Shift into FORWARD gear and note idle speed. Idle 6. Tighten the locknut and repeat Steps 3 and 4 to check
speed in FORWARD gear should be 600-700 rpm on 130, adjustment.
200 and 225 hp models. On 1997 250 hp models, idle 7. With the motor running at the specified idle speed in
speed should be 600-700 rpm. On 1998 250 hp models, FORWARD gear, check idle timing. Idle timing should be
idle speed should be 500-700 rpm. as follows:
a. 130,200and 225 hp-2-6" ATDC at 600-700 rpm.
WARNING b. 250 hp (1997)-4-4" ATDC at 600-700 rpm.
Do not attempt to adjust idle speedwith the c. 250 hp (1998)-1-5" ATDC at 500-700 rpm.
motor running. Contact with the moving 8. If the idle timing is not correct at the specified engine
flywheel can result in serious personal in- speed, recheck all linkage adjustments and repair as re-
july. quired.

Table 1 RECOMMENDED TEST EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS


I Description Part No. Manufacturer
Ball hex screwdriver 327622 OMC
Dial indicator set (for TDC verification) 91-58222A-1 Mercury Marine
Dial indicator set (for TDC verification) 350 EKA Merc-0-Tronic
Piston stop tool 384887 OMC
Timing light 91-99379 Mercury Marine
Timing light Model 712 Merc-0-Tronic
Timing light ST-80 Stevens Instruments
Shop tachometer TD-96 Stevens Instruments
Shop tachometer 67-1OOTA Merc-0-Tronic
Shop tachometer 9149339 Mercury Marine

Table 2 TIMING SPECIFICATIONS


Maximum
Model idle timing Pickup timing spark advance
65 jet, 80 jet (1995-1997),
90" 85-115 hp - 3-5 BTDC 27-29" BTDC
80 jet (1998),
60" 90-115 hp 4" ATDC - 20" BTDC
105 jet 4" ATDC - 22" BTDC
130 hp (1995) 6-10" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
130 hp (1996-1998) 2-6" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
150-175 hp 6" ATDC - 20" BTDC
200-225 hp (1995-1996) 0-4" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
200-225 hp (1997-2002) 2-6" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
250 hp (1995-1996) 0-2" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
250 hp (1997) 0-4" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
250 hp (1998-2002) 1-5" ATDC - 17-19" BTDC
300 hp 6-10" ATDC - 15-17" BTDC

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ENGINE SYNCHRONIZATION AND LINKAGE ADJUSTMENTS 189

Table 3 ENGINE SPEED SPECIFICATIOIS


Model Idle speed (rpm) Full throttle speed (rpm)
65 jet, 80 jet (1995-1997),
90 85-1 15 hp 600-700 4500-5500
80 jet (1998), 60" 90-115 hp 600-700 4500-5500
105 jet, 150-175 hp 600-700 4500-5500
130 hp 600-700 5000-6000
130 hp 600-700 5000-6000
200-225 hp (1995) 650-750 5000-6000
200-225 hp (1996-1998) 600-700 5000-6000
250 hp (1995) 550-650 4500-5500
250 hp (1996) 600-700 4500-5500
250 hp (1997-1998) 600-700 5000-6000
300 hp 650-750 5000-6000

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Chapter Six

Fuel System

This chapter contains removal, overhaul, installation sure on the pump diaphragm. This pressure closes the inlet
and adjustment procedures for fuel pumps, carburetors, check valve and opens the outlet check valve, forcing the
primer solenoids and fuel delivery lines used on the out- fuel into the carburet