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Technisches�Training.

Produktinformation.
N57TU�super�engine.

BMW�Service
General�information

Symbols�used

The�following�symbol�is�used�in�this�document�to�facilitate�better�comprehension�or�to�draw�attention
to�very�important�information:

Contains�important�safety�information�and�information�that�needs�to�be�observed�strictly�in�order�to
guarantee�the�smooth�operation�of�the�system.

Information�status�and�national-market�versions

BMW�Group�vehicles�meet�the�requirements�of�the�highest�safety�and�quality�standards.�Changes
in�requirements�for�environmental�protection,�customer�benefits�and�design�render�necessary
continuous�development�of�systems�and�components.�Consequently,�there�may�be�discrepancies
between�the�contents�of�this�document�and�the�vehicles�available�in�the�training�course.

This�document�basically�relates�to�the�European�version�of�left-hand�drive�vehicles.�Some�operating
elements�or�components�are�arranged�differently�in�right-hand�drive�vehicles�than�shown�in�the
graphics�in�this�document.�Further�differences�may�arise�as�a�result�of�the�equipment�specification�in
specific�markets�or�countries.

Additional�sources�of�information

Further�information�on�the�individual�topics�can�be�found�in�the�following:

• Owner's�Handbook
• Integrated�Service�Technical�Application.

Contact:�conceptinfo@bmw.de

©2012�BMW�AG,�Munich,�Germany

Reprints�of�this�publication�or�its�parts�require�the�written�approval�of�BMW�AG,�Munich

The�information�contained�in�this�document�forms�an�integral�part�of�the�technical�training�of�the
BMW�Group�and�is�intended�for�the�trainer�and�participants�in�the�seminar.�Refer�to�the�latest�relevant
information�systems�of�the�BMW�Group�for�any�changes/additions�to�the�technical�data.

Contact
Gernot�Nehmeyer
Telephone�+49�(0)�89�382�34059
gernot.nehmeyer@bmw.de

Information�status:�February�2012
N57TU�super�engine.
Contents.
1. Models..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5
1.1. History...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2. Introduction............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
2.1. Technical�data............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
2.2. Engine�identification..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.2.1. Engine�designation....................................................................................................................................................... 10
2.2.2. Engine�identification....................................................................................................................................................11
2.3. Modifications............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14

3. Engine�mechanics................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15
3.1. Crankcase...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
3.2. Cylinder�head........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3. Cylinder�head�gasket...................................................................................................................................................................................18
3.4. Crankshaft�drive................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
3.4.1. Crankshaft....................................................................................................................................................................................20
3.4.2. Crankshaft�bearings..................................................................................................................................................... 20
3.4.3. Piston...................................................................................................................................................................................................21
3.4.4. Gudgeon�pin............................................................................................................................................................................ 23
3.4.5. Connecting�rod.................................................................................................................................................................... 23
3.4.6. Connecting�rod�bearing......................................................................................................................................... 24
3.5. Valve�gear.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................24
3.5.1. Timing................................................................................................................................................................................................ 24
3.5.2. Valves.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 25
3.6. Oil�sump........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
3.7. Belt�drive......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
3.7.1. Overview......................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
3.7.2. Torsional�vibration�damper................................................................................................................................28

4. Oil� supply............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
4.1. Overview.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
4.1.1. Ducts�at�engine�housing...................................................................................................................................... 32
4.2. Oil�filter�module.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
4.2.1. Transmission�oil�cooling....................................................................................................................................... 33

5. Cooling�system........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
5.1. Overview.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
5.2. Brake�bleeding�procedure................................................................................................................................................................... 37

6. Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst................................................................................................................................................................39
6.1. Overview.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
N57TU�super�engine.
Contents.
6.2. Intake�air�system.................................................................................................................................................................................................41
6.2.1. Overview......................................................................................................................................................................................... 42
6.2.2. Intake�manifold..................................................................................................................................................................... 43
6.3. Exhaust�emission�system..................................................................................................................................................................... 44
6.3.1. Charger�unit.............................................................................................................................................................................. 46
6.3.2. Functions.......................................................................................................................................................................................49
6.3.3. Switching�points................................................................................................................................................................ 55
6.3.4. NOx�catalyst�storage.................................................................................................................................................. 64
6.3.5. Diesel�particulate�filter............................................................................................................................................. 64
6.3.6. H2S�catalytic�converter.......................................................................................................................................... 64

7. Vacuum�system............................................................................................................................................................................................................................66
7.1. System�overview................................................................................................................................................................................................. 66

8. Fuel�preparation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 75
8.1. Rail............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 76
8.2. High-pressure�pump.................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
8.3. Injector................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 76
8.3.1. Injection�quantity�compensation............................................................................................................. 76
8.4. Oil�leakage�system.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 77

9. Engine�electrical�system........................................................................................................................................................................................... 79
9.1. Preheating�control�unit............................................................................................................................................................................. 83
9.2. New�sensors�and�actuators.............................................................................................................................................................. 83
9.2.1. Glow�element......................................................................................................................................................................... 83
N57TU�super�engine.
1.�Models.
1.1.�History
The�following�tables�provide�an�overview�of�the�existing�N57�engine�versions.

Engine N57D30U0
Development�series E90,�E91,�E92,
E93,�F10*,�F11*
Models 325d,�525d
Power�in�kW�(HP) 150�(204)�rpm
at 3750
Torque�in�Nm�at 430/450*�rpm
1750
Design�and In-line
number�of�cylinders 6
Displacement�in�cm³ 2993
Bore�hole/Stroke�in 84/90
mm
Compression�ratio 16.5�:�1
Valves�per�cylinder 4
Deployment�period since�03/2010
Engine�control DDE7.3

Engine N57D30O0
Series E90,�E91,�E92,
E93,�E70,�E71,�F01,
F02,�F07,�F10,�F11
Models 330d*,�530d,�730d,
X5�xDrive30d,
X6�xDrive�30d
Power�in�kW�(HP) 180�(245)�rpm
at 4000
Torque�in�Nm 520*/540�rpm
at 1750�–�3000
Design�and In-line
number�of�cylinders 6
Displacement�in�cm³ 2993
Bore�hole/Stroke�in 84/90
mm
Compression�ratio 16.5�:�1
Valves�per�cylinder 4
Deployment�period since�09/2008
Engine�control DDE7.3

5
N57TU�super�engine.
1.�Models.
Engine N57D30T0
Series E70,�E71,�F01,
F02,�F07,�F10,�F11
Models 535d*,�740d,
X5�xDrive40d,
X6�xDrive40d
Power�in�kW�(HP) 220*�(300)/225
at (306)�rpm
4400
Torque�in�Nm 600�rpm
at 1500�–�2500
Design�and In-line�6
number�of�cylinders
Displacement�in�cm³ 2993
Bore�hole/Stroke�in 84/90
mm
Compression�ratio 16.5�:�1
Valves�per�cylinder 4
Deployment�period since�9/2009
Engine�control DDE7.3*
DDE7.31

Engine N57D30O1
Series F10,�F11,�F25
Models 530d�(530d
manual�gearbox*),
X3�xDrive30d
Power�in�kW�(HP) 190�(258)�rpm
at 4000
Torque�in�Nm 560�(540*)�rpm
at 1500�–�3000
Design�and In-line
number�of�cylinders 6
Displacement�in�cm³ 2993
Bore�hole/Stroke�in 84/90
mm
Compression�ratio 16.5�:�1
Valves�per�cylinder 4
Deployment�period since�03/2011
Engine�control DDE7.31

6
N57TU�super�engine.
1.�Models.
Engine N57D30T1
Series F10,�F11,
F12,�F13,�F25
Models 535d,�640d,
xDrive30d
Power�in�kW�(HP) 230�(313)�rpm
at 4400
Torque�in�Nm 630�rpm
at 1500�–�2500
Design�and In-line�6
number�of�cylinders
Displacement�in�cm³ 2993
Bore�hole/Stroke�in 84/90
mm
Compression�ratio 16.5�:�1
Valves�per�cylinder 4
Deployment�period 09/2011�on
Engine�control DDE7.31

*�=�related.

7
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.
The�M550d�xDrive�marks�the�start�of�a�new�model�category�-�the�BMW�M�Performance�models�-�and
gives�BMW�a�unique�competitive�edge.�In�its�overall�design�aligned�to�driving�dynamics,�this�model
category�is�only�surpassed�by�the�high-performance�sports�cars�of�BMW�M�GmbH.�This�model�is
aimed�specifically�at�customers�who�want�to�experience�more�feeling�and�power�but�who�do�not�want
to�go�without�the�comfort�of�their�vehicle�and�its�suitability�for�daily�use.

The�N57TU�super�engine�complements�the�diesel�range�in�the�upper�performance�class.�The�new
engine�sets�standards�for�example�in�dynamics,�low�consumption�and�power,�which�are�exceptional�for
a�displacement�of�3�litres.�The�N57TU�engine,�which�is�already�on�the�market�in�the�N57D30O1�and
N57D30T1,�serves�as�the�basis.�Adaptations�have�been�made�and�new�features�added�which�were
necessary�for�the�enormous�performance�data�and�the�high�torque.�The�following�table�provides�an
overview�of�the�models�in�which�the�new�engine�is�used.

Model Exhaust Series Engine Market


emissions introduction
legislation
M550d�xDrive EURO�6 F10 N57D30S1 3/2012
M550d�xDrive EURO�6 F11 N57D30S1 3/2012
X5�M50d EURO�5 E70 N57D30S1 4/2012
X6�M50d EURO�5 E71 N57D30S1 4/2012
750d�xDrive EURO�6 F01 N57D30S1 7/2012
750Ld�xDrive EURO�6 F02 N57D30S1 7/2012

2.1.�Technical�data
The�following�table�compares�the�N57TU�top�engine�to�the�N57TU�super�engine.

8
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.

Full�load�diagram�F10�BMW�535d�xDrive�with�N57D30T1�engine�in�comparison�with�the�M550d�xDrive�with�N57D30S1�engine

Unit N57D30T1 N57D30S1


F10/535d�xDrive F10/M550d�xDrive
Design R6
Displacement [cm³] 2993
Bore�hole/Stroke [mm] 84/90
Power�output [kW�(HP)] 230�(313) 280�(381)
at�engine�speed [rpm] 4400 4000�–�4400
Power�output�per�litre [kW/l] 76,85 93,55
Torque [Nm] 630 740
at�engine�speed [rpm] 1500�–�2500 2000�–�3000
Compression�ratio [ε] 16.5�:�1 16.0�:�1

9
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.
Unit N57D30T1 N57D30S1
F10/535d�xDrive F10/M550d�xDrive
Valves�per�cylinder 4
Fuel�consumption�complying�with [l/100�km] 5.7 6.3
EU
CO2�emissions [g/km] 149 165
Digital�Engine�Electronics�(DME) DDE7.31 DDE7.31
Exhaust�emissions�legislation EURO�5 EURO�6
Maximum�speed [km/h] 250 250
Acceleration�0–100 km/h [s] 5.5 4.7
Vehicle�kerb�weight�DIN/EU [kg] 1795/1870 1895/1970

2.2.�Engine�identification

2.2.1.�Engine�designation
In�the�technical�documentation,�the�engine�designation�is�used�to�ensure�unambiguous�identification
of�the�engine.�Frequently,�however,�only�a�short�designation�is�used.

This�short�form�is�used�so�an�engine�can�be�identified�as�belonging�to�a�specific�engine�family.
Therefore,�the�N57�engine�family�is�often�mentioned�which�is�made�up�of�numerous�engines�such�as
the�N57D30T0,�N57D30O0�and�the�N57D30U0.�For�the�first�redesign�the�family�is�then�called�N57TU
engine,�which�currently�comprises�the�N57D30T1�and�N57D30O1�engine,�and�is�now�supplemented
with�the�N57D30S1.

Position Meaning Index Explanation


1 Engine�developer M,�N BMW�Group
P BMW�M�Sport
S BMW�M�GmbH
W Bought-in�engines
2 Engine�type 1 4-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N18)
2 4-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N20)
4 4-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N47)
5 6-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N57)
6 V8�engine�(e.g.�N63)
7 V12�engine�(e.g.�N74)
8 V10�engine�(e.g.�S85)
3 Change�to�the�basic 0 Basic�engine
engine�concept 1�–�9 Changes,�e.g.�combustion�process
4 Working�method�or A Petrol�engine�transversal�installation
fuel�type�and�possibly B Petrol�engine�longitudinal�installation
installation�position C Diesel�engine�transversal�installation
D Diesel�engine�longitudinal�installation
H Hydrogen�internal�combustion�engine
longitudinal�installation

10
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.
Position Meaning Index Explanation
5�+�6 Displacement�in�1/10 30 3.0�litres�displacement
litre
7 Performance�class K Lowest
U Lower
M Middle
O Upper
T Top
S Super
8 Revision�relevant�to 0 New�development
approval 1�–�9 Redesign

Breakdown�of�N57D30S1�engine�designation

Index Explanation
N BMW�Group�Development
5 6-cylinder�in-line�engine
7 Direct�fuel�injection�and�exhaust�turbocharger
D Diesel�engine�longitudinal�installation
30 3.0�litres�displacement
S Super�performance�class
1 1.�Revision

2.2.2.�Engine�identification
The�engines�have�an�identification�mark�on�the�crankcase�to�ensure�unambiguous�identification
and�classification.�The�engine�identification�is�also�required�for�approval�by�the�authorities.�With�the
N57�top�engine,�this�identification�has�been�developed�further�with�the�number�of�digits�it�contains
being�reduced�from�eight�to�seven.�The�engine�number�can�be�found�on�the�engine�above�the
engine�identification.�This�consecutive�number,�in�conjunction�with�the�engine�identification,�permits
unambiguous�identification�of�each�individual�engine.�The�first�six�digits�correspond�to�the�engine
designation.

11
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.
Position Meaning Index Explanation
1 Engine�developer M,�N BMW�Group
P BMW�M�Sport
S BMW�M�GmbH
W Bought-in�engines
2 Engine�type 1 4-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N18)
2 4-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N20)
4 4-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N47)
5 6-cylinder�in-line�engine�(e.g.�N57)
6 V8�engine�(e.g.�N63)
7 V12�engine�(e.g.�N74)
8 V10�engine�(e.g.�S85)
3 Change�to�the�basic 0 Basic�engine
engine�concept 1�–�9 Changes,�e.g.�combustion�process
4 Working�method�or A Petrol�engine�transversal�installation
fuel�type�and�possibly B Petrol�engine�longitudinal�installation
installation�position C Diesel�engine�transversal�installation
D Diesel�engine�longitudinal�installation
H Hydrogen�internal�combustion�engine
longitudinal�installation
5�+�6 Displacement�in�1/10 30 3.0�litres�displacement
litre
7 Type�test�concerns A Standard
(changes�that�require�a B�–�Z Acc.�to�requirements,�e.g.�ROZ87
new�type�test)

12
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.

N57TU�super�engine,�engine�identification�and�engine�number

Index Explanation
90260017 Running�engine�number
N BMW�Group�Development
5 6-cylinder�in-line�engine
7 Direct�fuel�injection�and�exhaust�turbocharger
D Diesel�engine�longitudinal�installation
30 3.0�litres�displacement
C super�engine

13
N57TU�super�engine.
2.�Introduction.
2.3.�Modifications
System Comment
Engine�mechanics • New�crankcase�with�screw�connection�of�the�cylinder
head�and�the�crankshaft�bearing�via�a�threaded�bolt
(tiebolt�principle)
• Redesigned�cooling�circuit�in�the�cylinder�head�with
coolant�ducts�in�the�cylinder�head�gasket
• Redesigned�cylinder�head�with�larger�valve�diameter�and
new�manufacturing�procedure
• New�piston�with�bronze�bushing
• Gudgeon�pin�with�DLC�coating

Belt�drive • New�vibration�absorber�in�connection�with�the�8-gear
transmission

Oil�supply • Redesigned�and�adapted�oil�supply

Intake�air�system • Newly�developed�intake�air�system�with�three�exhaust
turbochargers�and�new�flaps�for�the�control�of�the
charging�pressure�in�all�operating�conditions

Exhaust�emission�system • Exhaust�emission�system�which�satisfies�the�EURO�6
standard.�Sensors�and�actuators�are�new�or�adapted�on
account�of�the�three�exhaust�turbochargers.�Use�of�a
diesel�particulate�filter�of�NOx�catalyst�storage�and�H2S
catalytic�converter

Fuel�preparation • New�high�pressure�system�with�up�to�2200�bar�injection
pressure,�high�pressure�pump,�rail�and�injectors�adapted
to�the�higher�pressure�ratios

Engine�electrical�system • New�inputs�and�outputs�for�the�connection�of�the�new
sensors�and�actuators.

14
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
3.1.�Crankcase
The�aluminium�crankcase�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�is�a�new�design�and�is�based�on�the�crankcase
of�the�N57TU�engine.�This�new�design�was�necessary�as�the�engine�support�required�additional
connection�points,�the�oil�pressure�switch�needed�to�be�repositioned�and�a�new�medium�ducting
system�(oil�and�cooling�ducts)�for�the�oil�filter�module�supply�was�required.�In�addition,�the�increase�in
performance�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�caused�higher�loads�for�the�crankcase.�This�has�been�taken
into�account�by�making�changes�to�details�and�geometry�to�optimise�its�strength.

As�can�be�seen�in�the�following�graphic,�the�engine�block�has�two�bridge�bore�holes�(6)�and�a�bore�hole
for�the�cooling�jacket�in�order�to�be�better�able�to�dissipate�heat�from�the�bridge�area.

Another�new�feature�is�the�screw�connection�of�the�cylinder�head�and�the�crankshaft�bearing.�The
bolts�are�not�secured�directly�in�the�engine�block�but�in�a�threaded�bolt�installed�in�the�engine�block�at
the�side.�The�reason�for�this�is�the�high�tensile�load�which�the�aluminium�of�the�engine�block�would�not
withstand.�Now�the�cylinder�head�and�the�main�bearing�cap�are�screwed�on�together.�The�main�bearing
caps�are�also�now�more�stable�and�sintered.

15
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.

N57TU�super�engine,�section�of�crankcase

Index Explanation
1 Cylinder�head�bolt
2 Main�bearing�bolt
3 Main�bearing�cap
4 Coolant�duct�in�the�cylinder�head
5 Cylinder�head�gasket

16
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
6 Coolant�duct�in�the�crankcase
7 Coolant�jacket�in�the�crankcase
8 Sealing�cap
9 Threaded�bolt

Further�changes�were�made�to�the�crankcase.�The�ducts�for�the�different�media�have�been�optimised
and�redesigned.�The�following�graphic�provides�an�overview�of�the�various�ducts�in�the�crankcase.

N57TU�super�engine,�overview�of�the�crankcase

Index Explanation
1 Bore�hole�for�cylinder�head�bolts
2 Oil�duct�for�the�oil�spray�nozzle,�timing�chain�lubrication
3 Oil�duct�for�the�chain�tensioner
4 Blow-by�duct
5 Oil�return�duct
6 Coolant�ducts�(bridge�bore�holes)
7 Main�oil�duct�for�the�cylinder�head

17
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
8 Oil�hole,�is�sealed�by�the�cylinder�head�gasket
9 Cooling�jacket
10 Coolant�duct�from�the�oil-to-water�heat�exchanger�return�to�the�cylinder�head
11 Coolant�duct�from�the�cylinder�head�to�the�coolant�pump
12 Oil�duct�for�the�HVA�elements�and�for�the�lubrication�of�the�camshaft
13 Oil�return�duct�from�the�crankcase�ventilation�to�the�oil�sump

3.2.�Cylinder�head
The�cylinder�head�had�to�be�adapted�due�to�the�high�combustion�pressure�and�the�increased�gas
throughput.�The�cylinder�head�is�HIPed.�HIP�stands�for�"Hot�Isostatic�Pressing".�The�cylinder�head�is
manufactured�in�special�plants�under�high�pressure�and�at�high�temperature�under�the�absence�of�air.
Cavities�and�pores�are�prevented�in�the�material�thanks�to�the�high�pressure�and�the�high�temperature
and�thus�properties�such�as�those�in�forging�are�achieved.

The�advantages�of�HIP�are�as�follows:

• High�resistance
• High�breaking�strain
• Long�service�life
• Absence�of�pores�on�surfaces.

3.3.�Cylinder�head�gasket
The�cylinder�head�gasket�is�designed�as�a�three-layer�spring-steel�seal.�A�welded�stopper�seat�is�used
in�the�area�of�the�cylinder�head�gasket�to�achieve�sufficient�contact�pressure�for�the�sealing.�All�layers
are�coated�whereby�the�contact�surfaces�for�the�cylinder�head�and�engine�block�have�a�non-stick
coating.

N57TU�super�engine,�cylinder�head�gasket�structure

18
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
1 Coating
2 Non-stick�coating
3 Upper�spring�steel�layer
4 Middle�spring�steel�layer
5 Welded�stopper�seat
6 Lower�spring�steel�layer
7 Non-stick�coating

On�examination�of�the�cylinder�head�gasket�between�the�spring�steel�layers,�one�striking�point�is�the
integration�of�the�coolant�ducts�in�the�middle�distance�layer.

Only�an�approved�coolant�is�used.�The�use�of�incorrect�or�non-approved�additives�or�sealing
compounds�can�clog�these�fine�coolant�ducts�and�cause�engine�damage�

N57TU�super�engine,�cylinder�head�gasket

19
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
1 Cylinder�head�gasket
2 Spring�steel�layer
3 Middle�spring�steel�layer
4 Coolant�ducts
5 Non-stick�coating
6 Middle�spring�steel�layer�with�size�marking�by�bore�holes

3.4.�Crankshaft�drive

3.4.1.�Crankshaft
The�crankshaft�is�new�and�designed�for�the�high�loads�of�the�N57TU�super�engine.�The�crankshaft�has
four�counterweights.�The�main�bearings�have�a�diameter�of�55�mm�and�the�crankpins�50�mm.

N57TU�super�engine,�crankshaft

3.4.2.�Crankshaft�bearings
The�crankshaft�bearings�are�also�adapted�to�requirements.�The�crankshaft�bearings�are�electroplated
bearings�in�a�lead-free�design�which�are�used�on�the�rod�side�and�also�at�the�cover.

20
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.

N57TU�super�engine,�crankshaft�bearings

Index Explanation
1 Crankshaft�bearing�shell,�housing�side
2 Balance�weights
3 Crankshaft�bearing�shell�with�axial�bearing,�housing�side
4 Crankshaft�bearing�shell,�cover�side
5 Crankshaft�bearing�shell�with�axial�bearing,�cover�side

3.4.3.�Piston
The�pistons�are�adapted�to�the�new�requirements.�The�combustion�chamber�and�injector�are�always
harmonised�with�one�another.�The�piston�skirt�is�graphitised.�(2).�The�gudgeon�pin�boss�has�a�bronze
bushing�to�be�able�to�absorb�and�transfer�the�enormous�forces�during�combustion.�Oil�is�fed�via�the�oil
spray�nozzles�in�an�annular�channel�in�the�piston�crown�for�the�piston�crown�cooling.�Oil�holes�(7,�8,�9)
in�the�annular�channel�ensure�sufficient�lubrication�and�cooling�of�the�gudgeon�pin.

21
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.

N57TU�super�engine,�piston

Index Explanation
1 Bronze�bushing
2 Graphite�coating
3 Bulge�for�oil�spray�nozzle
4 Plain�compression�ring

22
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
5 Minute�ring
6 Oil�scraper�ring�with�spiral�expander
7�–�9 Oil�hole�from�the�annular�channel�to�the�gudgeon�pin�lubrication
10 Oil�hole�for�the�annular�channel

3.4.4.�Gudgeon�pin
The�gudgeon�pin�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�had�to�be�designed�for�the�high�forces.�The�gudgeon�pin
thus�obtained�a�coating�known�from�Formula�1.�This�special�coating�was�used�for�the�first�time�in�the
range�also�for�the�N45B20S�engine�and�is�called�DLC�coating.�DLC�stands�for�"Diamond-like�Carbon"
and�refers�to�the�diamond-like�qualities�of�the�carbon.�The�key�advantage�is�that�the�friction�can�be
reduced.�The�gudgeon�pin�has�a�wall�thickness�of�7.5�mm�in�the�centre.

N57TU�super�engine,�connecting�rod�with�bearing�and�gudgeon�pin

Index Explanation
1 Connecting�rod�bearing,�cover�side
2 Connecting�rod�bearing,�rod�side
3 Connecting�rod
4 Gudgeon�pin

3.4.5.�Connecting�rod
The�connecting�rod�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�has�been�redesigned�to�withstand�the�high
combustion�pressure.�The�"small�connecting�rod�eye"�has�a�diameter�of�32�mm�and�the�"large
connecting�rod�eye"�a�diameter�of�50�mm.�The�profile�of�the�drill�hole�in�the�small�connecting�rod�eye
is�already�known�from�the�N57TU�engine.�The�shaped�hole�reduces�edge�load�by�allowing�the�force
acting�on�the�piston�via�the�gudgeon�pin�to�be�distributed�optimally�across�the�surface�of�the�cylinder
liner.

23
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.

N57TU�engine,�small�connecting�rod�eye

Index Explanation
1 Bushing
2 Connecting�rod

3.4.6.�Connecting�rod�bearing
The�enormous�forces�arising�during�combustion�must�be�transferred�by�the�connecting�rod�bearings.
For�this�reason�the�connecting�rod�bearing�is�designed�as�a�sputter�bearing�on�the�rod�side.

3.5.�Valve�gear

3.5.1.�Timing
The�timing�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�is�the�same�for�all�performance�classes�of�the�N57/N57TU
engine.�The�following�timing�applies�for�the�N57D30U0,�N57D30O0,�N57D30T0,�N57D30O1,
N57D30T1�and�the�N57D30S1�engine.

24
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Intake Exhaust
N57TU N57TU N57TU N57TU
Super Super
Valve�diameter [mm] 27.2 29,2 24.6 26,0
Max.�valve�lift [mm] 8.5 8.5
Spread [crankshaft 100 105
degrees]
Valve�opens [crankshaft 352.4 140.7
degrees]
Valve�closes [crankshaft 567.1 363.9
degrees]
Valve�opening�period [crankshaft 214.7 223.1
degrees]

N57�N57TU�engine,�timing�diagram

3.5.2.�Valves
The�N57TU�super�engine�now�has�larger�intake�and�exhaust�valves�for�improved�ventilation�in
the�combustion�chamber.�The�exhaust�valves�are�manufactured�from�Nimonic�to�satisfy�the�high
requirements.

25
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.

N57TU�super�engine,�valves

Index Explanation
1 Intake�valve
2 Glow�element
3 Injector
4 Exhaust�valve

3.6.�Oil�sump
The�sealing�of�the�oil�sump�to�the�engine�block�is�effected�by�a�panel/rubber�seal.�The�oil�sump�is
manufactured�from�aluminium�and�adapted�to�the�respective�model.

To�ensure�absolute�tightness,�it�is�essential�in�service�situations�to�follow�the�repair�instructions�to�the
letter.

26
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
3.7.�Belt�drive
The�layout�of�the�belt�drive�and�the�assemblies�has�been�adopted�by�the�N57TU�engines.�A
new�torsional�vibration�damper�is�required�for�the�N57TU�super�engine�which�is�aligned�to�the
characteristics�of�the�drive.

3.7.1.�Overview

N57TU�engine,�drive�belt�variant�with�power�steering�pump

Index Explanation
1 Coolant�pump
2 Drive�belt,�single-sided
3 Deflecting�element
4 Alternator
5 A/C�compressor

27
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
6 Power�steering�pump
7 Deflecting�element
8 Tensioning�pulley
9 Torsional�vibration�damper

3.7.2.�Torsional�vibration�damper
The�torsional�vibration�damper�is�optimally�oriented�in�terms�of�function�and�structure�to�the�N57TU
super�engine�with�an�automatic�transmission.�Item�6�is�shown�as�solid�material�in�the�drawing.�It�is,
however,�a�viscose�torsion�vibration�damper,�which�includes�an�inertia�ring�with�high�inertia�torque
stored�in�viscose�fluid.

N57TU�super�engine,�torsional�vibration�damper

Index Explanation
1 Vulcanisation
2 Support
3 Additional�damper
4 Belt�pulley
5 Plain�bearing
6 Viscose�torsion�vibration�damper
7 Thrust�washer

28
N57TU�super�engine.
3.�Engine�mechanics.
Index Explanation
8 Vulcanisation
9 Support
10 Screw
11 Hub
12 Sleeve
13 Support

29
N57TU�super�engine.
4.�Oil�supply.
4.1.�Overview
The�oil�circuit�has�been�adapted�to�the�requirements�of�the�N57TU�super�engine.

N57TU�super�engine,�oil�circuit

Index Explanation
A Oil�sump
B Crankcase
C Cylinder�head
D Oil�filter�module

30
N57TU�super�engine.
4.�Oil�supply.
Index Explanation
1 Oil�pump
2 Pressure-limiting�valve
3 Engine�oil-to-coolant�heat�exchanger
4 Heat�exchanger�bypass�valve
5 Non-return�valve
6 Oil�filter
7 Filter�bypass�valve
8 Lubrication�points�on�the�crankshaft
9 Oil�pressure�switch
10 Chain�tensioner,�upper�timing�chain
11 Oil�spray�nozzles�for�piston�crown�cooling
12 Lubrication�point�connection�for�the�exhaust�turbocharger
13 Oil�spray�nozzle�for�timing�chain
14 Chain�tensioner,�upper�timing�chain
15 Hydraulic�valve�clearance�compensation,�intake�camshaft
16 Lubrication�points�on�intake�camshaft
17 Hydraulic�valve�clearance�compensation,�exhaust�camshaft
18 Lubrication�points�on�exhaust�camshaft

31
N57TU�super�engine.
4.�Oil�supply.
4.1.1.�Ducts�at�engine�housing

N57TU�super�engine,�ducts�at�engine�housing

Index Explanation
1 Coolant�return�in�the�cylinder�head
2 Oil�hole,�is�sealed�by�the�cylinder�head�gasket
3 Main�oil�duct�in�the�cylinder�head
4 Main�oil�duct�in�the�engine�block
5 Oil�duct�to�the�oil/coolant�radiator�bypass
6 Oil�duct�from�the�oil/coolant�radiator�to�the�oil�filter
7 Oil�filter,�drain
8 Oil�duct,�supply�from�the�oil�pump
9 Coolant�duct�return�from�the�oil/coolant�radiator
10 Coolant�duct,�supply�to�the�oil/coolant�radiator
11 Coolant�duct�supply�to�the�coolant�pump�(heater�return�and�gearbox�oil/coolant
heat�exchanger�return)

32
N57TU�super�engine.
4.�Oil�supply.
4.2.�Oil�filter�module
The�route�towards�common�parts�is�completed�with�the�oil�filter�module.�This�module�can�therefore
also�be�found�in�new�diesel�engines�and�features�in�the�N47TU�engine.�The�oil�module�of�the�N57/
U�engine�had�to�be�adapted�to�the�requirements�of�the�N57D30S1�engine.�The�engine�oil�cooler�is
significantly�higher�and�the�base�plate�is�considerably�larger.�The�filter�element�was�also�not�able
to�be�adopted�from�the�N57TU�engine.�Due�to�the�high�oil�flow�rate�a�larger�filter�element�from�the
predecessor�engine�N47D20�had�to�be�used.�The�valves,�the�filter�element,�the�gaskets�and�the
retaining�elements�are�the�same.

N57TU�super�engine,�oil�filter�module

Index Explanation
1 Connection�for�transmission�oil�lines
2 Transmission�oil-to-coolant�heat�exchanger
3 Coolant�connection�from�radiator
4 Connecting�branch�for�heater�return
5 Oil�filter�module�housing
6 Lid�for�oil�filter

4.2.1.�Transmission�oil�cooling
A�transmission�oil�cooling�system�is�used�in�vehicles�with�automatic�transmission.�The�same
transmission�oil�cooler�(thermostat�housing�and�transmission�oil/coolant�heat�exchanger)�is�used�in�the
N57D30S1�as�in�the�N57D30O1�engines�and�N57D30T1�engines.�The�following�graphic�provides�a
rough�overview�of�the�layout.�The�graphic�itself�is�taken�from�the�N47TU�engine.

33
N57TU�super�engine.
4.�Oil�supply.

N57TU�super�engine,�valves�and�thermostats

Index Explanation
1 Filter�bypass�valve
2 Thermostat�for�transmission�oil�cooling
3 Heat�exchanger�bypass�valve
4 Auxiliary�heating�thermostat�for�transmission�oil
5 Non-return�valve
6 Discharge�valve

Filter�bypass�valve

When�a�filter�is�blocked,�the�filter�bypass�valve�ensures�that�engine�oil�reaches�the�lubrication�points�of
the�engine.�It�opens�when�the�differential�pressure�upstream�and�downstream�of�the�oil�filter�is�3.5�bar
±�0.35�bar.

34
N57TU�super�engine.
4.�Oil�supply.
Thermostat�for�transmission�oil

A�thermostat�that�controls�the�transmission�oil�temperature�is�also�integrated�in�the�oil�filter�module.
Transmission�oil�flows�round�the�transmission�oil�thermostat.�If�the�temperature�of�the�transmission
oil�rises�to�≥�79°C,�the�transmission�oil�thermostat�opens�to�allow�coolant�to�pass�from�the�low-
temperature�cooler�of�the�cooling�system�to�the�transmission�oil-to-coolant�heat�exchanger.�At�the
same�time,�the�transmission�oil�thermostat�blocks�the�cooling�circuit�that�runs�from�the�cylinder
crankcase�via�the�auxiliary�heating�thermostat�for�transmission�oil.�The�transmission�oil�is�now�cooled.

Non-return�valve

The�non-return�valve�ensures�that�the�engine�oil�ducts�and�oil�filter�housing�do�not�run�empty�when�the
engine�is�at�a�standstill.�It�opens�the�inlet�of�the�oil�pump�when�the�pressure�exceeds�0.1�bar�±�0.03�bar.

Auxiliary�heating�thermostat�for�transmission�oil

An�important�new�feature�is�the�auxiliary�heating�thermostat�which�is�integrated�into�the�oil�filter
housing�and�ensures�that�the�transmission�oil�heats�up�more�rapidly.�When�the�engine�coolant
temperature�is�<�80�°C�the�transmission�oil�auxiliary�heating�thermostat�is�closed.�Coolant�does�not
flow�through�the�transmission�oil-to-coolant�heat�exchanger.

When�the�engine�coolant�temperature�reaches�≥�80�°C,�the�transmission�oil�auxiliary�thermostat�opens
and�allows�coolant�to�flow�from�the�engine�via�the�transmission�oil�thermostat.�thus�allowing�the�warm
coolant�to�heat�up�the�transmission�oil.

Advantages�for�the�transmission:

• Heated�with�excess�engine�heat
• Quicker�warm-up
• Lower�friction�loss
• Higher�degree�of�shifting�comfort�is�available�more�quickly.

Heat�exchanger�bypass�valve

The�heat�exchanger�bypass�valve�has�the�same�function�as�the�filter�bypass�valve.�If�the�oil�pressure
increases�as�a�result�of�a�blocked�oil-to-water�heat�exchanger,�the�heat�exchanger�bypass�valve�opens
at�a�pressure�of�3.5�±�0.3�bar�thus�allowing�uncooled�lubricating�oil�to�reach�the�lubricating�points.

Discharge�valve

The�discharge�valve�is�integrated�at�the�oil�filter�and�is�thus�changed�when�the�oil�filter�is�renewed.

35
N57TU�super�engine.
5.�Cooling�system.
The�cooling�system�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�is�more�complex�due�to�the�new�components�and
functions.�A�special�brake�bleeding�procedure�is�also�used�for�the�ventilation�of�the�cooling�system.

This�brake�bleeding�procedure�is�also�required�for�vehicles�with�a�bleeding�line�shutoff�valve.�The
bleeding�line�shutoff�valve�is�closed�in�the�warm-up�phase�so�that�the�coolant�volume�of�the�small
cooling�circuit�can�warm�up�quicker.�When�the�engine�is�at�operating�temperature�the�bleeding�line
shutoff�valve�is�open.�The�coolant�in�the�expansion�tank�and�the�related�coolant�lines�is�also�heated�in
the�process.�The�bleeding�line�shutoff�valve�is�not�used�in�the�M550d�xDrive.

5.1.�Overview

N57TU�super�engine,�system�overview�of�cooling�circuit

36
N57TU�super�engine.
5.�Cooling�system.
Index Explanation
1 Low�temperature�of�radiator
2 Radiator,�low�temperature�range
3 Electric�fan
4 Electric�coolant�pump
5 Connecting�line
6 Thermostat
7 Coolant�pump
8 Exhaust-gas�recirculation�cooler
9 Intermediate�charge�air�heat�exchanger
10 Coolant�temperature�sensor,�low�temperature�circuit
11 Exhaust�turbocharger,�low-pressure�stage
12 Bleeding�line,�low�temperature�part
13 Charge�air�heat�exchanger
14 N57TU�super�engine
15 Auxiliary�heating�thermostat�for�transmission�oil
16 Heat�exchanger
17 Engine�oil-to-coolant�heat�exchanger
18 Transmission�oil-to-coolant�heat�exchanger
19 Coolant�valve
20 Thermostat�for�transmission�oil
21 Coolant�temperature�sensor,�engine�outlet
22 Electric�auxiliary�water�pump
23 Expansion�tank
24 Tank�ventilation�line
25 Radiator
26 Radiator�for�the�charge�air�cooling

5.2.�Brake�bleeding�procedure
The�brake�bleeding�procedure�is�necessary�as�the�cooling�circuit�has�been�enhanced�with�electric
coolant�pumps�and�components.

Thus�it�is�now�necessary�that�further�operations�are�required�in�addition�to�the�familiar�bleeding
procedures.�For�example�the�brake�bleeding�procedure�is�initiated�in�the�Digital�Diesel�Electronics.
With�this�brake�bleeding�procedure�it�is�guaranteed�that�the�additional�components�installed�such
as�the�electric�coolant�pumps�for�example�are�brought�to�an�optimal�operating�condition�for�brake

37
N57TU�super�engine.
5.�Cooling�system.
bleeding.�This�condition�is�maintained�automatically�after�initiating�the�brake�bleeding�procedure�for
a�defined�time.�During�this�time�permanent�marginal�conditions�are�checked�and�the�brake�bleeding
procedure�is�automatically�interrupted�if�these�conditions�are�breached.

The�brake�bleeding�procedure�is�necessary�if�one�or�several�of�the�following�components�are�present:

• Bleeding�line�shutoff�valve
• Charge�air�cooling�with�coolant
• Low�temperature,�exhaust-gas�recirculation.

The�following�conditions�are�permanently�monitored�by�the�Digital�Diesel�Electronics�and�have�to�be
observed�to�maintain�the�brake�bleeding�procedure:

• Automatic�transmission�in�position�"N"�or�"P"
• Manual�gearbox�clutch�not�actuated
• Idle�engine�(press�on�accelerator�possible)
• Vehicle�speed�below�3�km/h
• Coolant�temperature�at�engine�start�<�50 °C.

The�brake�bleeding�procedure�can�be�initiated�using�two�different�procedures.

1 Start�of�the�brake�bleeding�procedure�via�diagnosis
2 Manual�start�of�the�brake�bleeding�procedure:
- Ignition�ON
- Accelerator�pedal�pressed�right�down�for�10�seconds
- Start�the�engine�within�30�seconds
- If�the�engine�does�not�start�within�30�seconds,�the�function�is�reset
- Terminal�change�resets�all�counters
- Only�one�attempt�per�terminal�change�is�possible.

After�the�function�has�been�started,�a�counter�runs�(10�min.)�as�long�the�above-mentioned�marginal
conditions�are�satisfied.�After�this�time�has�expired�or�if�there�is�a�breach�of�the�above-mentioned
marginal�conditions,�the�function�automatically�changes�to�normal�operation.�If�the�brake�bleeding
procedure�is�designed�for�a�vehicle�without�an�extended�cooling�circuit,�then�this�has�no�influence�on
any�of�the�components.

The�new�brake�bleeding�procedure�does�not�change�the�previous�procedure�for�bleeding�the�cooling
system�to�a�considerable�extent.�Only�an�additional�brake�bleeding�procedure�is�initiated.

38
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
The�intake�air�and�exhaust�emission�system�have�significant�changes�due�to�the�use�of�three�exhaust
turbochargers.

6.1.�Overview

N57TU�super�engine,�intake�air�and�exhaust�emission�system�with�EURO�6�in�the�F10

Index Explanation
1 Digital�Diesel�Electronics
2 Swirl-flap�actuator
3 N57TU�super�engine
4 Charging�pressure�sensor

39
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Index Explanation
5 Throttle�valve
6 Charge-air�temperature�sensor
7 Charge�air�heat�exchanger
8 Exhaust-gas�recirculation�temperature�sensor
9 Exhaust-gas�recirculation�cooler
10 Pressure�converter,�bypass�flap
11 Vacuum�unit,�bypass�flap
12 Exhaust�recirculation�valve�and�exhaust�recirculation�sensor
13 Vacuum�unit�for�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
14 Electropneumatic�changeover�valve�for�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure
stage�2
15 Electropneumatic�changeover�valve�for�compressor�changeover�flap,�high-
pressure�stage�2
16 Vacuum�unit�compressor�changeover�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
17 High-pressure�stage�1
18 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1
19 High-pressure�stage�2
20 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2
21 Vacuum�unit�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
22 Electropneumatic�changeover�valve�for�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure
stage�2
23 Charging�pressure�sensor�between�low-pressure�stage�and�high-pressure
stage
24 Vacuum�unit,�wastegate�valve
25 Electropneumatic�pressure�converter�for�wastegate�valve
26 Low-pressure�stage
27 Vacuum�unit�bypass�valve,�low-pressure�stage
28 Electropneumatic�changeover�valve�for�bypass�valve,�low-pressure�stage
29 Intake�silencer
30 Hot�film�air�mass�meter
31 Oxygen�sensor�before�NOx�catalyst�storage
32 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�before�NOx�catalyst�storage
33 NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel�particulate�filter
34 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�after�NOx�catalyst�storage
35 Exhaust�gas�pressure�differential�sensor�NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel
particulate�filter

40
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Index Explanation
36 Oxygen�sensor�after�diesel�particulate�filter
37 H2S�catalytic�converter
38 Centre�silencer
39 Rear�silencer,�rear�left
40 Rear�silencer,�rear�right

N57TU�super�engine,�intake�air�and�exhaust�emission�system�EURO�6

Index Explanation
1 Rear�silencer,�rear�right
2 Rear�silencer,�rear�left
3 Centre�silencer
4 H2S�catalytic�converter
5 NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel�particulate�filter

6.2.�Intake�air�system
The�intake�air�system�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�differs�significantly�to�that�of�the�N57TU�top�engine.
The�intake�silencer�is�the�only�similar�part.�This�is�located�at�the�side�at�the�engine.�Changing�the
intake�air�system�still�kept�the�line�length�short�despite�the�use�of�the�three�exhaust�turbochargers�as
the�charge�air�from�the�charge�air�cooler�is�now�fed�into�the�air�intake�via�the�throttle�valve,�directly�at

41
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
the�back�of�the�engine.�The�key�reason�for�this�is�the�high�charging�pressure�which�made�it�necessary
to�design�the�charge�air�coolers�to�cool�coolant.�All�components�of�the�intake�air�system,�in�which
increased�pressure�can�prevail�due�to�the�charging,�are�made�from�aluminium.

The�function�of�the�turbocharging�and�the�exhaust�turbocharger�are�described�in�the�section�entitled
"Exhaust�emission�system".

6.2.1.�Overview
The�following�graphic�shows�the�layout�of�the�intake�air�system.

N57TU�super�engine,�intake�air�system

42
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Index Explanation
A Unfiltered�air
B Purified�air
C Heated�charge�air
D Cooled�charge�air
1 Charge�air�cooler
2 Throttle�valve
3 Intake�silencer�with�filter�element
4 Intake�plenum
5 Unfiltered�air�pipe
6 Unfiltered�air,�intake�snorkel
7 Clean�air�pipe
8 Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate
9 Intake�opening�for�the�low-pressure�stage
10 Intermediate�charge�air�cooler
11 Low-pressure�stage
12 High-pressure�stage�1
13 Charge�air�pipe�for�the�high-pressure�stage�2
14 High-pressure�stage�2
15 Charge�air�pipe�from�the�high-pressure�stage�1�to�the�charge�air�cooler
16 Charge�air�pipe�from�the�high-pressure�stage�2�to�the�charge�air�cooler

6.2.2.�Intake�manifold
The�intake�system�is�made�completely�from�aluminium�to�maintain�the�charging�pressure�of�approx.�3
bar�excess�pressure.�The�swirl�flaps�are�integrated�and�made�from�plastic.

43
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�engine,�differentiated�intake�air�system

Index Explanation
1 Connecting�branch�for�the�mixing�tube�with�introduction�of�exhaust-gas
recirculation
2 Swirl�flap�in�the�swirl�port
3 Swirl�port
4 Gasket
5 Charging�pressure�sensor
6 Swirl-flap�actuator

6.3.�Exhaust�emission�system
The�following�graphic�shows�the�layout�of�the�exhaust�emission�system.

44
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�super�engine,�exhaust�emission�system

Index Explanation
1 Exhaust�manifold
2 High-pressure�stage�1
3 High-pressure�stage�2
4 Low-pressure�stage
5 NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel�particulate�filter
6 H2S�catalytic�converter
7 Centre�silencer
8 Rear�silencer,�rear�right
9 Rear�silencer,�rear�left

The�N57TU�super�engine�can�be�seen�as�a�further�development�of�the�N57TU�top�engine.�Many
innovative�features�and�technologies�are�familiar�from�the�N57TU�top�engine.�For�instance,�in�the
N57TU�super�engine�the�bypass�flap,�low-pressure�stage,�known�from�the�N57TU�top�engine,�is�also
used�for�cooling�on�the�fresh-air�side�of�the�low-pressure�stage.�This�has�two�high-pressure�stages,
which�are�identical�on�the�inside,�the�actual�turbine.�A�time-consuming�and�elaborate�exhaust�re-
treatment�with�NOx�catalyst�storage,�H2S�catalytic�converter�and�diesel�particulate�filter�make�possible
the�fulfilment�of�the�EURO�6�exhaust�emissions�standard.

45
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
6.3.1.�Charger�unit

Design

The�charger�unit�is�very�complex�and�requires�a�specific�procedure�in�the�case�of�repair�which�must�be
followed�in�accordance�with�the�repair�instructions�for�the�dismantling�and�installation.

N57TU�top�engine�turbocharger

46
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Index Explanation
1 Charge�air�heat�exchanger
2 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2
3 High-pressure�stage�2
4 Exhaust�gas�pressure�differential�sensor�NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel
particulate�filter
5 Exhaust�backpressure�sensor�after�NOx�catalyst�storage
6 High-pressure�stage�1
7 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1
8 Intermediate�charge�air�heat�exchanger
9 Low-pressure�stage
10 Oxygen�sensor�before�NOx�catalyst�storage
11 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�before�NOx�storage�catalyst
12 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�after�NOx�storage�catalyst
13 NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel�particulate�filter
14 Oxygen�sensor�after�diesel�particulate�filter
15 Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
16 Turbine�control�flap
17 Compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2

47
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�top�engine�turbocharger

Index Explanation
1 Charge�air�heat�exchanger
3 High-pressure�stage�2
6 High-pressure�stage�1
9 Low-pressure�stage
11 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�before�NOx�storage�catalyst
13 NOx�catalyst�storage�and�diesel�particulate�filter
14 Oxygen�sensor�after�diesel�particulate�filter
16 Vacuum�unit,�turbine�control�flap
18 Vacuum�unit�low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate
19 Throttle�valve
20 Vacuum�line�with�vacuum�distributor
21 Vacuum�reservoir

48
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Index Explanation
22 Vacuum�unit,�wastegate�valve
23 Vacuum�unit,�bypass�flap
24 Exhaust�manifold
25 Exhaust-gas�recirculation�cooler

6.3.2.�Functions

High-pressure�stage�1

The�high-pressure�stage�1�is�the�permanently�driven�small�exhaust�turbocharger.�It�is�fitted�to�the
exhaust�manifold�at�the�top.�A�VNT�exhaust�turbocharger�is�used�for�the�high-pressure�stage�1.

N57TU�super�engine,�high-pressure�stage�1

High-pressure�stage�2

The�high-pressure�stage�2�is�the�connectible�small�exhaust�turbocharger.�It�is�fitted�to�the�exhaust
manifold�at�the�top.�A�VNT�exhaust�turbocharger�is�used�for�the�high-pressure�stage�2.

49
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�super�engine,�high-pressure�stage�2

Low-pressure�stage

The�large�exhaust�turbocharger�is�switched�in�series�to�the�high-pressure�stages�and�includes�the
wastegate�valve.�It�is�attached�to�the�exhaust�manifold�at�the�bottom�and�is�also�supported�by�the
crankcase.�The�low-pressure�stage�is�cooled�on�the�compressor�housing�side�by�the�coolant�like�in
the�N47TU�top�engine�and�N57TU�top�engine.�Cooling�the�compressor�housing�means�compression
power�can�be�increased.�The�oxygen�sensor�is�screwed�on�before�the�NOx�catalyst�storage�in�the
housing�of�the�low-pressure�stage.

N57TU�super�engine,�low-pressure�stage

Charge�air�heat�exchanger

The�compression�heats�up�intensely�by�the�high�charging�pressures.�To�make�available�the�required
cooling�power,�a�charge�air-coolant�heat�exchanger�is�used.�This�charge�air�heat�exchanger�enables
efficient�cooling�of�the�charge�air�with�minimal�spatial�requirement.

50
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�super�engine,�charge�air�heat�exchanger

Intermediate�charge�air�heat�exchanger

The�N57TU�super�engine�is�"ventilated"�by�a�multi-stage�charging�process.�For�instance,�in�charging
mode�the�charge�air�is�already�heated�by�the�low-pressure�compressor.�This�pre-compressed�charge
air�is�then�compressed�by�the�high-pressure�stages�to�the�required�charging�pressure�and�heated
further�by�the�compression.�So�that�the�charge�air�available�at�the�end�of�the�charging�stage�is�not
heated�too�intensely,�the�charge�air�before�the�high-pressure�stages�is�also�cooled�via�the�intermediate
charge�air-coolant�heat�exchanger.�A�higher�charging�pressure�can�thus�be�achieved�at�a�sustainable
charge�air�temperature.

N57TU�super�engine,�intermediate�charge�air�heat�exchanger

Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate

The�low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�enables�the�charge�pressure�to�build�up�more�quickly�from
idle.�With�the�low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�the�intake�path�is�considerably�shorter,�improving�the
dynamics�of�the�build-up�of�charge�pressure.�The�low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�is�operated�via�a
vacuum�unit.�A�vacuum�is�created�in�the�vacuum�unit�by�an�electric�changeover�valve,�and�it�opens
when�a�vacuum�is�applied.�The�bypass�flap,�low-pressure�stage,�is�closed�in�the�basic�setting�(without
vacuum).

51
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�super�engine,�bypass�flap,�low-pressure�stage

Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2

If�it�is�necessary�to�change�from�the�operating�condition�with�two�high-pressure�stages�to�the
operating�condition�with�charging�by�one�high-pressure�stage,�then�the�high-pressure�stage�2�still
works�at�a�higher�speed.�Switching�off�the�high-pressure�stage�2�may�cause�the�air�after�the�high-
pressure�stage�2�to�accumulate�and�may�need�to�be�pumped.�The�air�after�the�compressor�can�be�fed
again�before�the�compressor�by�the�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�a�circuit�arises�and�the
turbine�itself�is�not�braked.�The�activation�is�effected�by�the�Digital�Diesel�Electronics�via�an�electric
changeover�valve,�which�is�used�to�supply�the�vacuum�unit�with�a�vacuum�and�the�recirculated�air�flap,
high-pressure�stage�2,�opens.�The�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed�in�the�basic
setting�(without�vacuum).

N57TU�super�engine,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2

52
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2

The�duct�to�the�charge�air�heat�exchanger�is�closed�via�the�compressor�changeover�valve,�high-
pressure�stage�2.�This�is�necessary�as�in�the�operation�with�only�the�high-pressure�stage�1�the
compressed�air�could�flow�back�via�the�high-pressure�stage�2�to�the�intake�area�of�the�high-pressure
stage�1.�The�compressor�changeover�valve,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed�in�the�basic�setting
(without�vacuum).

N57TU�super�engine,�compressor�changeover�valve,�high-pressure�stage�2

Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2

The�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�on�the�exhaust�gas�side�opens�the�flow�port�to�the
high-pressure�stage�2,�thus�reducing�the�flow�of�exhaust�gas�past�the�high-pressure�stage.�It�is
operated�pneumatically�by�a�vacuum�unit�and�can�be�closed�or�open.�An�electric�changeover�valve
creates�a�vacuum�in�the�vacuum�unit,�which�closes�on�the�application�of�the�vacuum.�The�high-
pressure�stage�2�is�switched�on�or�off�via�the�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2.�The�turbine
control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�opened�in�the�basic�setting�(without�vacuum).

N57TU�super�engine,�turbine�control�flap

53
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Wastegate�valve

The�wastegate�valve�is�opened�increasingly�in�the�area�of�the�transition�in�order�to�prevent�too�high
charging�pressure�and�turbine�pressure.�A�portion�of�the�exhaust�gas�is�fed�via�the�wastegate�valve
to�the�turbines�of�the�low-pressure�stage.�The�wastegate�valve�is�operated�by�an�electropneumatic
vacuum�unit�and�can�be�variably�adjusted.�It�is�controlled�via�an�electropneumatic�pressure�converter.
The�wastegate�valve�is�closed�in�the�basic�setting�(without�vacuum).

N57TU�super�engine,�wastegate�valve

Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1

The�charging�pressure�actuator�enables�regulation�that�is�particularly�well�in�line�with�requirements,
as�the�operating�principle�with�the�variable�turbine�geometry�of�the�high-pressure�stage�enables�even
better�and�more�precise�regulation.�The�VNT�exhaust�turbocharger�responds�even�at�low�engine
speeds�and�can�be�adapted�to�the�exhaust�flow�by�adjusting�the�guide�vanes.

N57TU�super�engine,�charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1

54
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2

The�charging�pressure�actuator�enables�regulation�that�is�particularly�well�in�line�with�requirements,
as�the�operating�principle�with�the�variable�turbine�geometry�of�the�high-pressure�stage�enables�even
better�and�more�precise�regulation.�The�VNT�exhaust�turbocharger�responds�even�at�low�exhaust
flows�and�can�be�optimally�adapted�to�the�exhaust�flow�by�adjusting�the�guide�vanes.�The�high-
pressure�stage�2�is�only�activated�from�speeds�of�approx.�2700�rpm.

N57TU�super�engine,�charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2

6.3.3.�Switching�points
For�optimal�charging�over�the�entire�operating�range�of�the�engine,�the�components�are�controlled�by
the�DDE.�The�switching�points�are�stored�in�a�characteristic�map�that�depends�primarily�on�the�engine
speed�and�load.�There�is�a�flowing�transition�between�the�switching�points.�A�hysteresis�also�ensures
that�there�is�no�nervous�switching�back�and�forth�at�the�switching�points.�The�(greatly�simplified)
diagrams�show�the�different�switch�positions�of�the�multi-stage�turbocharging�at�full�load.

Simplified�diagram

The�switch�points�of�the�N57TU�are�shown�in�more�detail�in�the�following�graphics.

55
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

N57TU�top�engine,�simplified�diagram�of�turbocharging�system

Index Explanation
A Low-pressure�stage
B High-pressure�stage�2�(connectible)
C High-pressure�stage�1�(permanent)
1 Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate
2 Intermediate�charge�air�heat�exchanger
3 Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
4 Compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
5 Charge�air�heat�exchanger
6 Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
7 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1
8 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2
9 Wastegate�valve

56
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Operating�ranges

The�following�graphic�shows�the�operating�ranges�at�full�load�based�on�the�effective�medium�pressure
in�the�cylinder�(P)�above�the�engine�speed�(n).

N57TU�super�engine,�operating�ranges

Index Explanation
1 Operating�range�1
2 Operating�range�2
3 Operating�range�3
4 Operating�range�4
5 Operating�range�5

Components Range�1 Range�2 Range�3 Range�4 Range�5


Low-pressure Open
Closed Closed Closed Closed
stage�bypass�plate (dynamic)
Recirculated�air
flap
Open Open Open Closed Closed
High-pressure
stage�2
Compressor�flap
High-pressure Closed Closed Closed Open Open
stage�2
Turbine�control
Closed Closed Closed Open Open
flap

57
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Components Range�1 Range�2 Range�3 Range�4 Range�5
Wastegate�valve Closed Closed Controlled Closed Controlled
Charging�pressure
actuator
Controlled Controlled Controlled Controlled Controlled
High-pressure
stage�1
Charging�pressure
actuator
Closed Closed Closed Controlled Controlled
High-pressure
stage�2

Operating�range�1

Operating�range�1�includes�driving�off�and�accelerating�from�low�engine�speeds.

58
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Speed�of�rotation Up�to�approx.�1700�rpm
Flap�position • Bypass�flap,�low-pressure�stage,�is�opened�briefly�at
high�load�requirements�and�closed�at�low�loads
• Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�open
• Compressor�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Wastegate�valve�is�closed
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1,�is
controlled�and�the�guide�vanes�are�open�up�to�approx.
25%
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is
closed.

Description�of�the�charging The�exhaust�flow�is�fed�via�the�turbine�wheels�of�the�high-
pressure�stage�and�low-pressure�stage.�At�this�low�speed,
it�is�above�all�the�high-pressure�stage�1�that�is�working;
it�charges�the�engine.�As�the�exhaust�flow�increases,�the
charging�pressure�actuator�opens�the�flow�area�to�keep�the
turbine�operating�to�optimum�efficiency.�The�low-pressure
compressor�is�bypassed�at�high�load�requirements�until
the�point�when�it�can�establish�a�pressure�ratio�itself.�This
reduces�the�vacuum�in�the�intake�area�for�the�high-pressure
compressor�and�creates�a�quicker�build�up�of�charging
pressure.�Better�acceleration�can�be�achieved�from�standstill
by�bypassing�the�low-pressure�stage.
Operating�characteristics�of�the The�high-pressure�stage�automatically�accelerates�to�its
exhaust�turbocharger optimum�efficiency�range.�The�low-pressure�stage�begins�to
work.
Diagram

59
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Operating�range�2

Speed�of�rotation Idle�up�to�approx.�2600�rpm
Flap�position • Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�is�closed
• Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�open
• Compressor�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Wastegate�valve�is�closed
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1,�is
controlled�and�the�guide�vanes�are�open�up�to�approx.
100%
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is
closed.

Description�of�the�charging The�exhaust�flow�goes�completely�over�the�high-pressure
stage�1�and�over�the�low-pressure�stage.�The�fresh�air�goes
over�the�low-pressure�stage�and�the�high-pressure�stage�1
into�the�intake�system.�In�this�area�the�high-pressure�stage
reaches�its�full�power�and�reaches�the�control�limit�of�the
charging�pressure�actuator.
Operating�characteristics�of�the The�high-pressure�stage�1�reaches�maximum�power�at
exhaust�turbocharger increasing�speed,�the�guide�vanes�are�opened�in�the�process.
The�low-pressure�stage�conveys�in�this�range�at�medium
power.
Diagram

60
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Operating�range�3

Speed�of�rotation Approx.�2200�to�2600�rpm
Flap�position • Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�is�closed
• Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�open
• Compressor�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Wastegate�valve�is�controlled
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1,�is
controlled�and�the�guide�vanes�are�open�up�to�approx.
100%
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is
closed.

Description�of�the�charging The�charging�pressure�actuator�of�the�high-pressure�stage
1�opens�the�flow�area�to�maximum.�When�the�maximum
value�has�been�reached�the�charging�pressure�cannot
continue�to�be�retained�and�may�exceed�the�permissible
value.�The�wastegate�valve�is�now�controlled�in�order�to�limit
the�charging�pressure�over�the�low-pressure�stage.
Operating�characteristics�of�the The�high-pressure�stage�1�now�gets�closer�to�its�control�limit.
exhaust�turbocharger The�wastegate�valve�of�the�low-pressure�stage�restricts�the
air�mass�pre-compressed�by�the�high-pressure�stage�1�and
thus�the�charging�pressure.
Diagram

61
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Operating�range�4

Speed�of�rotation from�approx.�2600 rpm
Flap�position • Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�is�closed
• Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Compressor�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�opened
• Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�opened
• Wastegate�valve�is�closed
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1,�is
controlled
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is
controlled.

Description�of�the�charging The�low-pressure�stage�pre-compresses�the�charge�air�and
makes�this�available�to�the�two�high-pressure�stages.�Both
high-pressure�stages�now�increase�the�charging�pressure�and
convey�this�via�the�charge�air�heat�exchanger�to�the�intake
system�and�into�the�combustion�chamber.�The�engine�is�now
charged�in�two�stages�by�the�low-pressure�stage�and�the�two
high-pressure�stages.
Operating�characteristics�of�the The�high-pressure�stage�1�arrives�at�the�control�limit�and�over
exhaust�turbocharger the�low-pressure�stage�and�the�wastegate�valve�is�controlled
by�the�charging�pressure.�The�turbine�control�flap,�high-
pressure�stage�2,�is�now�opened�and�the�high-pressure
stage�2�assumes�its�role.�The�wastegate�valve�is�closed�in
combination�with�the�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure
stage�2�and�the�charging�pressure�controlled�via�the�two
high-pressure�stages.�Both�high-pressure�stages�restrict
the�maximum�charging�pressure�and�ensure�the�supply
of�sufficient�charge�air�until�the�maximum�engine�speed
is�reached.�The�low-pressure�stage�reaches�its�maximum
performance.
Diagram

62
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Operating�range�5

Speed�of�rotation From�approx.�4000 rpm
Flap�position • Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�is�closed
• Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Compressor�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�opened
• Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�opened
• Wastegate�valve�is�controlled
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1,�is
controlled
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is
controlled.

Description�of�the�charging The�low-pressure�stage�pre-compresses�the�charge�air�and
makes�this�available�to�the�two�high-pressure�stages.�Both
high-pressure�stages�now�increase�the�charging�pressure�and
convey�this�via�the�charge�air�heat�exchanger�to�the�intake
system�and�into�the�combustion�chamber.�The�engine�is
charged�in�two�stages�by�the�low-pressure�stage�and�the�two
high-pressure�stages.
Operating�characteristics�of�the The�low-pressure�stage�always�delivers�more�charge�air�and
exhaust�turbocharger charging�pressure�at�increasing�engine�speed.�The�charging
pressure�is�restricted�to�the�maximum�value�via�the�two
high-pressure�stages.�So�that�the�charging�pressure�can�be
restricted,�the�charging�pressure�actuators�are�activated�and
the�cross-section�of�the�turbine�guide�vanes�enlarged.�As�this
guide�vane�adjustment�reaches�the�stop�here�and�a�further
reduction�in�the�charging�pressure�is�no�longer�possible,�the
wastegate�valve�is�also�activated�by�the�low-pressure�stage
and�thus�the�charging�pressure�controlled.
Diagram

63
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.
Emergency�operation

If�the�vacuum�system�fails,�spring�force�moves�the�turbocharge�group�to�the�following�fail-safe
position:

• Low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate�is�closed
• Recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Compressor�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�closed
• Turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�opened
• Wastegate�valve�is�closed
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1,�is�controlled
• Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2,�is�controlled.

This�corresponds�to�the�position�for�the�middle�engine�speed�range�(1500�to�3000�rpm),�i.e.�the
range�in�which�a�diesel�engine�is�normally�operated.�Although�this�contradicts�the�BMW�strategy
of�establishing�the�conditions�for�maximum�power�output�during�emergency�operation,�it�makes
good�sense�in�this�case,�as�the�vehicle�remains�in�a�state�in�which�it�is�much�easier�to�drive.�At�high
engine�speeds�and�load�conditions,�the�bypass�plate�may�be�pushed�open�in�the�direction�of�flow�by
the�charging�pressure�of�the�high-pressure�stage�2�in�the�event�of�a�failure�of�the�vacuum�system.
This�prevents�direct�damage�to�the�components.�Protection�against�any�damage�resulting�from�the
closed�wastegate�valve�is�ensured�as�the�electronic�engine�control�monitors�the�charging�pressure�and
reduces�engine�power�by�a�non-critical�amount�in�the�event�of�excessive�pressures.

6.3.4.�NOx�catalyst�storage
In�the�M550d�xDrive�a�NOx�catalyst�storage�is�used.�The�NOx�catalyst�storage�is�attached�before�the
diesel�particulate�filter.

The�operating�principle�of�the�NOx�catalyst�storage�is�described�in�the�information�bulletin�"N57
engine".

6.3.5.�Diesel�particulate�filter
In�the�M550d�xDrive�the�familiar�diesel�particulate�filter�is�used.�The�diesel�particulate�filter�is
positioned�immediately�after�the�low-pressure�stage.

The�operating�principle�of�the�diesel�particulate�filter�is�described�in�the�information�bulletin�"N57
engine".

6.3.6.�H2S�catalytic�converter
In�the�M550d�xDrive�a�H2S�catalytic�converter�is�used.�The�H2S�catalytic�converter�is�attached�after�the
diesel�particulate�filter.

64
N57TU�super�engine.
6.�Intake�air/exhaust�emission�syst.

The�operating�principle�of�the�H2S�catalytic�converter�is�described�in�the�information�bulletin�"N57
engine".

65
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system
The�vacuum�system�of�the�N57TU�super�engine�is�very�complex.�A�total�of�five�vacuum-controlled
components�are�used�for�the�control�of�the�exhaust�gas�charging.�In�addition,�further�components
are�required�for�the�exhaust-gas�recirculation�and�the�control�of�the�connectible�engine�mount.�The
vacuum�system�in�the�N57TU�super�engine�poses�new�challenges�to�laying�lines�and�contacting.�The
following�graphics�provide�an�overview�of�how�the�vacuum�lines�are�contacted�with�each�other�and
what�components�are�responsible�for�this.

7.1.�System�overview

N57TU�super�engine,�system�overview�of�vacuum�system

Index Explanation
1 Vacuum�pump
2 Non-return�valve
3 Non-return�valve
4 Brake�servo

66
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system
Index Explanation
5 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation
6 Vacuum�unit,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation
7 Vacuum�reservoir
8 Electric�changeover�valve�for�low-pressure�bypass�plate
9 Vacuum�unit�low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate
10 Electric�changeover�valve,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
11 Vacuum�unit,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
12 Pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve
13 Vacuum�unit,�wastegate�valve
14 Electric�changeover�valve,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
15 Vacuum�unit�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
16 Electric�changeover�valve,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
17 Vacuum�unit�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
18 Electric�changeover�valve,�engine�mount
19 Adjustable�engine�mount,�right
20 Adjustable�engine�mount,�left

The�vacuum�lines�are�shown�in�different�colours�for�better�identification.�All�colours�shown�in�the
following�graphic�are�black�in�reality.

67
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system

N57TU�super�engine,�vacuum�reservoir�with�vacuum�supply

Index Explanation
A Vacuum�connection�for�electric�changeover�valve,�engine�mount��0.5�mm
B Vacuum�connection�for�vacuum�reservoir��0.5�mm
C Vacuum�connection�for�vacuum�reservoir��0.5�mm
D Vacuum�connection�for�electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas
recirculation
1 Vacuum�line�(black,�shown�here�in�green�for�better�identification)
2 Vacuum�reservoir
3 Vacuum�line�(black)
4 Electric�changeover�valve,�engine�mount
5 Vacuum�distributor
6 Vacuum�line�(black,�shown�here�in�orange�for�better�identification)
7 Vacuum�line�(black,�shown�here�in�light�blue�for�better�identification)
8 Vacuum�line�(red)
9 Non-return�valve

68
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system

N57TU�super�engine,�vacuum�reservoir�with�vacuum�supply

Index Explanation
1 Electric�changeover�valve�for�low-pressure�bypass�plate
2 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation
3 Electric�changeover�valve,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
4 Electric�changeover�valve,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
5 Electric�changeover�valve,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
6 Vacuum�line�(black,�shown�here�in�light�blue�for�better�identification)�for�the
vacuum�supply�of�the�electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas
recirculation
7 Vacuum�line�(black,�shown�here�in�green�for�better�identification)�from�the
vacuum�reservoir�for�the�supply�of�components�4,�5�and�9
8 Vacuum�line�from�the�vacuum�reservoir�for�the�supply�of�components�1�and�3
9 Pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve
10 Vacuum�distributor�with�four�connections
11 Vacuum�distributor�with�three�connections

69
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system

N57TU�super�engine,�vacuum�line�laying

Index Explanation
1 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�valve,�low-pressure�stage,�vacuum�line,
black�(shown�here�in�green�for�better�identification)
2 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation,�vacuum�line,
red
3 Electric�changeover�valve,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum
line,�black
4 Electric�changeover�valve,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum
line,�blue
5 Electric�changeover�valve,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,
vacuum�line,�red
6 Pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve,�vacuum�line�white

70
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system

N57TU�super�engine,�vacuum�system

Index Explanation
1 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�valve,�low-pressure�stage,�vacuum�line,
black�(shown�here�in�green�for�better�identification)
2 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation,�vacuum�line,
red
3 Electric�changeover�valve,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum
line,�black
4 Electric�changeover�valve,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum
line,�blue
5 Electric�changeover�valve,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,
vacuum�line,�red
6 Pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve,�vacuum�line�white

71
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system
Index Explanation
7 Vacuum�unit,�bypass�flap,�low-pressure�stage,�vacuum�line,�black�(shown�here
in�green�for�better�identification)
8 Vacuum�line,�white,�from�the�pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve
9 Vacuum�unit,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation,�vacuum�line�red
10 Vacuum�line�connector
11 Vacuum�line,�black�(shown�here�in�orange�for�better�identification)
12 Vacuum�unit,�wastegate�valve,�vacuum�line,�black�(shown�here�in�orange�for
better�identification)
13 Vacuum�unit,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum�line,�blue
14 Vacuum�unit,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum�line,�black
15 Vacuum�unit,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2,�vacuum�line,
red

The�following�graphic�is�created�from�photographs�and�provides�a�real�overview�of�the�laying�of�the
vacuum�lines.

72
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system

N57TU�super�engine,�vacuum�line�laying

73
N57TU�super�engine.
7.�Vacuum�system
Index Explanation
1.1 Electric�changeover�valve�for�low-pressure�bypass�plate
1.2 Vacuum�line,�black
1.3 Vacuum�unit�low-pressure�stage�bypass�plate
2.1 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation
2.2 Vacuum�line,�red
2.3 Vacuum�unit,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation
3.1 Electric�changeover�valve,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
3.2 Vacuum�line,�black
3.3 Vacuum�unit,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
4.1 Electric�changeover�valve,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
4.2 Vacuum�line,�blue
4.3 Vacuum�unit�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
5.1 Electric�changeover�valve,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
5.2 Vacuum�line,�red
5.3 Vacuum�unit�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
6.1 Pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve
6.2 Vacuum�line,�white
6.3 Vacuum�unit,�wastegate�valve

74
N57TU�super�engine.
8.�Fuel�preparation.
The�fuel�preparation�has�been�redesigned�and�adapted�to�the�requirements�of�the�N57TU�super
engine.�The�injection�pressure�has�been�raised�to�2200�bar�in�order�to�be�able�to�inject�the�fuel�at�full
load�and�increased�maximum�engine�speed�in�sufficient�quantity�and�atomisation�quality.

The�main�changes�are:

• Rail
• High-pressure�pump
• Injectors.

N57TU�engine,�high-pressure�injection�system

Index Explanation
1 High�pressure�line�from�the�rail�to�the�injector,�cylinder�1
2 Leakage�oil�line
3 High�pressure�line�from�the�rail�to�the�injector,�cylinder�2
4 High�pressure�line�from�the�rail�to�the�injector,�cylinder�3
5 High�pressure�line�from�the�rail�to�the�injector,�cylinder�4
6 High�pressure�line�from�the�rail�to�the�injector,�cylinder�5
7 High�pressure�line�from�the�rail�to�the�injector,�cylinder�6
8 Rail�pressure�sensor
9 Rail
10 Holder,�high-pressure�accumulator�(rail)
11 High�pressure�line�between�high�pressure�pump�and�rail
12 High�pressure�line�between�high�pressure�pump�and�rail

75
N57TU�super�engine.
8.�Fuel�preparation.
8.1.�Rail
The�rail�was�adapted�to�the�higher�pressures�and�is�hot�forged.�The�designation�from�Bosch�is
HFR-22;�this�designation�stands�for�"Hot�Forged�Rail"�and�the�22�for�2200�bar�pressure.�In�addition
to�the�rail,�the�rail�pressure�sensor�and�the�rail�pressure�regulating�valve�have�also�been�adapted�to�the
high�pressure�of�up�to�2200�bar.

8.2.�High-pressure�pump
The�high�pressure�pump�has�also�been�adapted�to�the�high�pressures.�The�designation�from�Bosch
CP4-22/2�stands�for�"Common�Rail�Pump"�and�the�22�for�the�maximum�operating�pressure�of�2200
bar�and�the�last�digit�2�for�the�number�of�pump�pistons.

8.3.�Injector
Injectors�from�Bosch�CRI3–22�are�used.�The�injector�is�aligned�to�the�required�pressure�and�injection
quantities.�The�designation�CRI3–22�means�"Common�Rail�Injector",�3rd�generation�with�2200�bar
injection�pressure.�The�maximum�injection�pressure�is�at�2200�bar�and�is�for�the�new�injectors.

So�that�the�injectors�work�reliably�for�a�long�period,�the�structure�has�been�optimised�and�the�valve
seat�load�reduced�by�the�pressure-balanced�changeover�valve.�The�injector,�however,�has�a�permanent
leak�due�to�the�changeover�valve�adaptations,�which�causes�a�larger�leak�in�the�leakage�oil�line.�The
injectors�only�function�in�a�defined�return�pressure�range�if�a�pressure-retaining�valve�has�been
integrated�in�the�leakage�oil�line�which�maintains�the�return�pressure�in�the�9�-�11�bar�range.�Up�to�now
a�throttle�has�been�installed�in�the�return�line�in�place�of�the�pressure-retaining�valve,�which�realises
the�required�return�pressure.

The�nozzle�geometry�has�also�been�adapted�to�satisfy�the�more�exacting�requirements�of�exhaust
emissions�legislation.�This�adaptation�is�always�effected�in�combination�with�the�combustion�chamber
in�the�piston.

8.3.1.�Injection�quantity�compensation
The�injection�quantity�compensation�is�continued�in�the�familiar�form�and�explained�here�using�the
example�of�the�CRI2.5�injector.�On�account�of�the�tolerance�when�the�injectors�are�produced,�the
fuel�quantity�actually�injected�deviates�slightly�from�the�fuel�quantity�calculated.�This�deviation�is
determined�after�each�injector�is�produced�at�various�operating�points�by�means�of�measurements.
An�adjustment�value�(code)�is�created�for�each�injector�from�these�measurements.�The�adjustment
value�of�each�injector�is�stored�in�the�control�unit�during�vehicle�assembly�after�the�Digital�Diesel
Electronics�has�been�installed.�The�adjustment�values�are�assigned�to�the�individual�cylinders�based
on�the�installation�of�the�injectors.�The�Digital�Diesel�Electronics�uses�these�calibration�values�to�make
minor�corrections�to�the�fuel�injection�rate�and�thereby�reduces�the�cylinder-specific�deviation�of�the
fuel�injection�rate.

76
N57TU�super�engine.
8.�Fuel�preparation.

Injection�quantity�compensation�EURO�6�injector

Index Explanation
1 Seven-position�code�(adjustment�value)
2 Injector�voltage�compensation

When�injectors�are�replaced�or�exchanged,�it�is�essential�to�ensure�that�the�alphanumeric�code�printed
on�each�injector�is�assigned�in�the�Digital�Diesel�Electronics�to�the�correct�cylinder.

Further�information�on�the�injection�quantity�compensation�is�described�in�the�information�bulletin
"N57�engine".

8.4.�Oil�leakage�system
As�a�result�of�the�adaptations�to�the�high-pressure�system�changes�have�also�been�made�to�the�oil
leakage�system.�The�following�graphic�provides�an�overview�of�the�key�changes.

77
N57TU�super�engine.
8.�Fuel�preparation.

N57TU�super�engine,�oil�leakage�system

Index Explanation
1 Pressure-retaining�valve
2 Oil�leakage�hose�with�green�label
3 Connector�(identifying�feature�"corners")

78
N57TU�super�engine.
9.�Engine�electrical�system.
The�engine�electrical�system�has�been�slightly�redesigned.�Some�new�sensors�and�actuators�are
used,�but�these�correspond�to�the�function�and�operating�principle�of�the�sensors�and�actuators�in�the
N57TU�top�engine.�The�following�system�overview�shows�the�components�of�the�EURO�5�version.�The
DDE7.31�assumes�the�function�of�activating�and�evaluating�the�sensors�and�actuators.

79
N57TU�super�engine.
9.�Engine�electrical�system.

N57TU�super�engine�in�the�F10,�system�wiring�diagram�with�EURO�6

80
N57TU�super�engine.
9.�Engine�electrical�system.
Index Explanation
1 Digital�Diesel�Electronics�DDE
2 Temperature�sensor�in�the�DDE�control�unit
3 Ambient�pressure�sensor�in�the�DDE�control�unit
4 Starter�motor
5 Car�Access�System
6 A/C�compressor
7 Refrigerant�pressure�sensor
8 Junction�box
9 Relay,�terminal�30B
10 DDE�main�relay
11 Relay,�terminal�15N
12 Fuel�filter�heating
13 Electric�changeover�valve,�engine�mount
14 Oil�level�sensor�(oil�condition�sensor)
15 Relay,�terminal�15N
16 Electric�changeover�valve,�bypass�flap,�exhaust-gas�recirculation
17a Oxygen�sensor�before�NOx�catalyst�storage�(control�sensor�with�constant
characteristic�curve)
17b Connector,�oxygen�sensor
18a Oxygen�sensor�after�diesel�particulate�filter�(control�sensor�with�constant
characteristic�curve)
18b Connector,�oxygen�sensor
19 Hot�film�air�mass�meter
20 Rail�pressure�regulating�valve
21 Fuel�quantity�control�valve
22 Electric�changeover�valve�for�low-pressure�bypass�plate
23 Electric�changeover�valve,�recirculated�air�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
24 Electric�changeover�valve,�compressor�switching�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
25 Pressure�converter,�wastegate�valve
26 Electric�changeover�valve,�turbine�control�flap,�high-pressure�stage�2
27 Camshaft�sensor
28 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�1
29 Charging�pressure�actuator,�high-pressure�stage�2
30 Air�flaps
31 Intelligent�battery�sensor
32 Electronic�fuel�pump�control

81
N57TU�super�engine.
9.�Engine�electrical�system.
Index Explanation
33 Electric�fuel�pump
34 Glow�elements
35 Preheating�control�unit
36 Diagnostic�connector
37 Alternator
38 Ground�connection
39 DC/DC�converter
40 Relay,�electric�coolant�pump�(low-temperature�circuit)
41 Electric�coolant�pump�(low-temperature�circuit)
42 Piezo�injectors
43 Engine�ventilation�heating�(version�for�cold�countries)
44 Relay�for�electric�fan
45 Electric�fan
46 Fuel�pressure�and�temperature�sensor
47 Charging�pressure�sensor�between�low-pressure�stage�and�high-pressure
stage
48 Crankshaft�sensor
49 Throttle-valve�actuator�and�throttle�valve�sensor
50 Swirl-flap�actuator�and�swirl-flap�sensor
51 EGR�valve�and�exhaust�recirculation�sensor
52 EGR�temperature�sensor
53 Accelerator�pedal�module
54 Rail�pressure�sensor
55 Charging�pressure�sensor
56 Exhaust�backpressure�sensor�upstream�of�exhaust�turbocharger
57 Coolant�temperature�sensor,�low�temperature�circuit
58 Coolant�temperature�sensor,�engine�outlet
59 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�upstream�of�diesel�particulate�filter
60 Exhaust-gas�temperature�sensor�upstream�of�oxidation�catalytic�converter
61 Charge-air�temperature�sensor
62 Exhaust�gas�pressure�differential�sensor�before�and�after�diesel�particulate
filter
63 Oil�pressure�switch
64 Dynamic�Stability�Control�DSC
65 Integrated�Chassis�Management�(ICM)
66 Central�gateway�module�(ZGM)

82
N57TU�super�engine.
9.�Engine�electrical�system.
9.1.�Preheating�control�unit
The�preheating�control�unit�is�secured�to�the�crankcase�for�reasons�of�space�and�is�located�near�the
high�pressure�pump.

N57TU�super�engine,�preheating�control�unit

Glow�element�identification�must�be�performed�when�the�preheating�control�unit�or�glow�elements�are
replaced.

9.2.�New�sensors�and�actuators

9.2.1.�Glow�element
The�service�function�offers�two�functions�which�are�required�for�repairs�to�the�preheating�system:

• Before�replacing�glow�elements�the�safety�data�record�must�be�activated�with�the�service
function.
This�is�necessary�to�ensure�that,�in�the�event�of�a�terminal�change,�the�preheating�control�unit
in�the�interest�of�safety�activates�the�new�glow�elements�with�the�safety�data�record.
• After�replacing�glow�elements�or�the�preheating�control�unit�the�glow�element�identification
must�be�performed�with�the�service�function.

83
N57TU�super�engine.
9.�Engine�electrical�system.
The�service�function�ensures�that�the�correct�data�record�for�the�installed�glow�elements�is
activated�in�the�preheating�control�unit.�An�incorrect�data�record�may�possibly�remain�active�if
glow�element�identification�is�not�performed.�This�may�result�if�functional�restrictions�during
glowing�or�damage�to�the�glow�elements.
The�following�are�checked:
- Does�the�preheating�control�unit�identify�all�the�glow�elements?
- Are�the�correct�glow�elements�installed?
- Is�the�correct�data�record�activated�in�the�preheating�control�unit?

Reason

Different�glow�element�types�are�used�for�the�N47TU�engines�and�the�N57TU�engines�depending�on
the�power�variants.

The�N57D30T1�and�N57D30S1�engines�are�equipped�with�the�Bosch�GLP5�ceramic�glow�elements.

There�are�different�data�records�for�the�preheating�control�unit�to�enable�the�different�glow�element
types�to�be�activated�with�the�correct�voltage�profile�in�each�case.�As�well�as�the�data�records�for
correct�operation�of�the�glow�elements�the�preheating�control�unit�also�contains�the�so-called�safety
data�record.�The�safety�data�record�is�configured�in�such�a�way�that,�in�the�event�of�a�fault�or�incorrect
installation,�all�the�glow�element�types�can�be�energised�without�the�risk�of�damage.�There�are�two
methods�for�identifying�the�glow�element�types�in�the�preheating�control�unit:

1 Identification�is�initiated�automatically�with�each�fully�heating�cycle�after�a�terminal�change.�But
in�this�case�the�preheating�control�unit�can�only�distinguish�between�metallic�and�ceramic�glow
elements.�Identification�is�aborted�if�the�preheating�control�unit�detects�an�excessive�voltage
fluctuation�or�the�signal�for�starter�motor�intervention�becomes�active.�If�an�incorrect�glow
element�type�is�identified�more�than�once,�the�preheating�control�unit�activates�the�safety�data
record.�If�only�one�glow�element�of�the�incorrect�type�is�identified,�the�preheating�control�unit
removes�this�glow�element�from�further�preheating�operations�in�the�current�driving�cycle�and
does�not�activate�the�safety�data�record.
2 A�special�test�preheating�can�be�initiated�by�way�of�the�service�function.�Here�the�safety�data
record�is�always�activated�if�all�the�glow�elements�are�not�clearly�identified.

84
Bayerische�Motorenwerke�Aktiengesellschaft
Händlerqualifizierung�und�Training
Röntgenstraße�7
85716�Unterschleißheim,�Germany