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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.

277

and the third being a blank flange or sures. The pressure relief devices must
equivalent device. The shut-off device be of the type that will resist dynamic
closest to the jacket must be a self- forces including surge.
closing device, which is capable of (2) Except for portable tanks used for
being closed from an accessible posi- oxygen, portable tanks for non-flam-
tion on the portable tank that is re- mable refrigerated liquefied gases (ex-
mote from the valve within 30 seconds cept oxygen) and hydrogen may in ad-
of actuation. This device must actuate dition have frangible discs in parallel
at a temperature of not more than 121 with the reclosing devices as specified
°C (250 °F). in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii) and (e)(4)(iii) of
(2) Each filling and discharge opening this section.
in portable tanks used for the trans- (3) Pressure relief devices must be de-
port of non-flammable refrigerated liq- signed to prevent the entry of foreign
uefied gases must be fitted with at matter, the leakage of gas and the de-
least two mutually independent shut- velopment of any dangerous excess
off devices in series: the first being a pressure.
stop-valve situated as close as reason- (4) Capacity and setting of pressure re-
ably practicable to the jacket and the lief devices. (i) In the case of the loss of
second a blank flange or equivalent de- vacuum in a vacuum-insulated tank or
vice. of loss of 20% of the insulation of a
(3) For sections of piping which can portable tank insulated with solid ma-
be closed at both ends and where liquid terials, the combined capacity of all
product can be trapped, a method of pressure relief devices installed must
automatic pressure relief must be pro- be sufficient so that the pressure (in-
vided to prevent excess pressure build- cluding accumulation) inside the shell
up within the piping. does not exceed 120% of the MAWP.
(4) Each filling and discharge opening (ii) For non-flammable refrigerated
on a portable tank must be clearly liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hy-
marked to indicate its function. drogen, this capacity may be achieved
(5) When pressure-building units are by the use of frangible discs in parallel
used, the liquid and vapor connections with the required safety-relief devices.
to that unit must be provided with a Frangible discs must rupture at nomi-
valve as close to the jacket as reason- nal pressure equal to the test pressure
ably practicable to prevent the loss of of the shell.
contents in case of damage to the pres- (iii) Under the circumstances de-
sure-building unit. A check valve may scribed in paragraphs (e)(4)(i) and
be used for this purpose if it is located (e)(4)(ii) of this section, together with
on the vapor side of the pressure build- complete fire engulfment, the com-
up coil. bined capacity of all pressure relief de-
(6) The materials of construction of vices installed must be sufficient to
valves and accessories must have satis- limit the pressure in the shell to the
factory properties at the lowest oper- test pressure.
ating temperature of the portable (iv) The required capacity of the re-
tank. lief devices must be calculated in ac-
(7) Vacuum insulated portable tanks cordance with CGA Pamphlet S–1.2
are not required to have an inspection (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
opening. [66 FR 33450, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68
(e) Pressure relief devices. (1) Every FR 75748, 75752, Dec. 31, 2003]
shell must be provided with not less
than two independent reclosing pres-
sure relief devices. The pressure relief Subpart I [Reserved]
devices must open automatically at a
pressure not less than the MAWP and Subpart J—Specifications for Con-
be fully open at a pressure equal to tainers for Motor Vehicle
110% of the MAWP. These devices Transportation
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must, after discharge, close at a pres-


sure not lower than 10% below the pres- SOURCE: 29 FR 18975, Dec. 29, 1964, unless
sure at which discharge starts and otherwise noted. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606,
must remain closed at all lower pres- Apr. 5, 1967.

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§ 178.318 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

§ 178.318 Specification MC 201; con- cussion caps may be carried, provided


tainer for detonators and percus- that such space may be closed with a
sion caps. screw cap, and further provided that
each or any such space is entirely sepa-
§ 178.318–1 Scope.
rate from any space provided for any
(a) This specification pertains to a detonator. Each cellular space into
container to be used for the transpor- which a detonator is to be inserted and
tation of detonators and percussion carried shall be capable of being cov-
caps in connection with the transpor- ered by a rotary cover so arranged as
tation of liquid nitroglycerin, desen- to expose not more than one cell at any
sitized liquid nitroglycerin or time, and capable of rotation to such a
diethylene glycol dinitrate, where any place that all cells will be covered at
or all of such types of caps may be used the same time, at which place means
for the detonation of liquid nitroglyc- shall be provided to lock the cover in
erin, desentitized liquid nitroglycerin
place. Means shall be provided to lock
or diethylene glycol dinitrate in blast-
in place the cover for the cells provided
ing operations. This specification is
for the carrying of detonators. The re-
not intended to take the place of any
quirement that not more than one cell
shipping or packing requirements of
this Department where the caps in be exposed at one time need not apply
question are themselves articles of in the case of detonators, although
commerce. spaces for such caps and detonators
(b) [Reserved] shall be separate. Sufficient annular
space shall be provided inside the cover
[29 FR 18975, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 for such detonators that, when the
FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt.
cover is closed, there will be sufficient
178–60, 44 FR 70733, Dec. 10, 1979]
space to accommodate the wires cus-
§ 178.318–2 Container. tomarily attached to such caps. If the
material is of such a nature as to re-
(a) Every container for detonators
quire treatment to prevent the absorp-
and percussion caps coming within the
scope of this specification shall be con- tion of moisture, such treatment shall
structed entirely of hard rubber, be applied as shall be necessary in
phenolresinous or other resinous mate- order to provide against the penetra-
rial, or other nonmetallic, nonsparking tion of water by permeation. A suitable
material, except that metal parts may carrying handle shall be provided, ex-
be used in such locations as not in any cept for which handle no part of the
event to come in contact with any of container may project beyond the exte-
the caps. Space shall be provided so rior of the body.
that each detonator of whatever nature (b) Exhibited in plates I and II are
may be inserted in an individual cell in line drawings of a container for deto-
the body of the container, into which nators and percussion caps, illustrative
each such cap shall snugly fit. There of the requirements set forth in
shall be provided no more than twenty § 178.318–2(a). These plates shall not be
(20) such cellular spaces. Space may be construed as a part of this specifica-
provided into which a plurality of per- tion.
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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.320

§ 178.318–3 Marking. tention or containment function and


provides no structural support to the
Each container must be marked as
cargo tank.
prescribed in § 178.2(b).
Baffle means a non-liquid-tight trans-
[Amdt. 178–40, 41 FR 38181, Sept. 9, 1976, as verse partition device that deflects,
amended at 66 FR 45185, Aug. 28, 2001] checks or regulates fluid motion in a
tank.
§ 178.320 General requirements appli- Bulkhead means a liquid-tight trans-
cable to all DOT specification cargo verse closure at the ends of or between
tank motor vehicles.
cargo tanks.
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(a) Definitions. For the purpose of this Cargo tank means a bulk packaging
subchapter: that:
Appurtenance means any attachment (1) Is a tank intended primarily for
to a cargo tank that has no lading re- the carriage of liquids, gases, solids, or

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§ 178.320 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

semi-solids and includes appur- (3) To the same engineering drawings


tenances, reinforcements, fittings, and and calculations, except for minor
closures (for tank, see §§ 178.337–1, variations in piping that do not affect
178.338–1, or 178.345–1, as applicable); the lading retention capability of the
(2) Is permanently attached to or cargo tank;
forms a part of a motor vehicle, or is (4) Of the same materials of construc-
not permanently attached to a motor tion;
vehicle but that, by reason of its size, (5) To the same cross-sectional di-
construction, or attachment to a mensions;
motor vehicle, is loaded or unloaded (6) To a length varying by no more
without being removed from the motor than 5 percent;
vehicle; and (7) With the volume varying by no
(3) Is not fabricated under a speci- more than 5 percent (due to a change in
fication for cylinders, intermediate length only); and
bulk containers, multi-unit tank car (8) For the purposes of § 178.338 only,
tanks, portable tanks, or tank cars. with the same insulation system.
Cargo tank motor vehicle means a External self-closing stop valve means a
motor vehicle with one or more cargo self-closing stop valve designed so that
tanks permanently attached to or the self-stored energy source is located
forming an integral part of the motor outside the cargo tank and the welded
vehicle. flange.
Cargo tank wall means those parts of Extreme dynamic loading means the
the cargo tank that make up the pri- maximum loading a cargo tank motor
mary lading retention structure, in- vehicle may experience during its ex-
cluding shell, bulkheads, and fittings pected life, excluding accident loadings
and, when closed, yield the minimum resulting from an accident, such as
volume of a completed cargo tank overturn or collision.
motor vehicle. Flange means the structural ring for
Charging line means a hose, tube, guiding or attachment of a pipe or fit-
pipe, or a similar device used to pres- ting with another flange (companion
surize a tank with material other than flange), pipe, fitting or other attach-
the lading. ment.
Companion flange means one of two Inspection pressure means the pres-
mating flanges where the flange faces sure used to determine leak tightness
are in contact or separated only by a of the cargo tank when testing with
thin leak-sealing gasket and are se- pneumatic pressure.
cured to one another by bolts or Internal self-closing stop valve means a
clamps. self-closing stop valve designed so that
Connecting structure means the struc- the self-stored energy source is located
ture joining two cargo tanks. inside the cargo tank or cargo tank
Constructed and certified in accordance sump, or within the welded flange, and
with the ASME Code means a cargo the valve seat is located within the
tank is constructed and stamped in ac- cargo tank or within one inch of the
cordance with Section VIII of the external face of the welded flange or
ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- sump of the cargo tank.
chapter), and is inspected and certified Lading means the hazardous material
by an Authorized Inspector. contained in a cargo tank.
Constructed in accordance with the Loading/unloading connection means
ASME Code means a cargo tank is con- the fitting in the loading/unloading
structed in accordance with Section line farthest from the loading/unload-
VIII of the ASME Code with authorized ing outlet to which the loading/unload-
exceptions (see §§ 178.346 through ing hose, pipe, or device is attached.
178.348) and is inspected and certified Loading/unloading outlet means a
by a Registered Inspector. cargo tank outlet used for normal load-
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Design type means one or more cargo ing/unloading operations.


tanks that are made— Loading/unloading stop valve means
(1) To the same specification; the stop valve farthest from the cargo
(2) By the same manufacturer; tank loading/unloading outlet to which

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.320

the loading/unloading connection is at- Multi-specification cargo tank motor ve-


tached. hicle means a cargo tank motor vehicle
Manufacturer means any person en- equipped with two or more cargo tanks
gaged in the manufacture of a DOT fabricated to more than one cargo tank
specification cargo tank, cargo tank specification.
motor vehicle, or cargo tank equip- Normal operating loading means the
ment that forms part of the cargo tank loading a cargo tank motor vehicle
wall. This term includes attaching a may be expected to experience rou-
cargo tank to a motor vehicle or to a tinely in operation.
motor vehicle suspension component Nozzle means a subassembly con-
that involves welding on the cargo sisting of a pipe or tubular section with
tank wall. A manufacturer must reg- or without a welded or forged flange on
ister with the Department in accord- one end.
ance with subpart F of part 107 in sub- Outlet means any opening in the shell
part A of this chapter. or head of a cargo tank, (including the
Maximum allowable working pressure means for attaching a closure), except
or MAWP means the maximum pres- that the following are not outlets: a
sure allowed at the top of the tank in threaded opening securely closed dur-
its normal operating position. The ing transportation with a threaded
MAWP must be calculated as pre- plug or a threaded cap, a flanged open-
scribed in Section VIII of the ASME ing securely closed during transpor-
Code. In use, the MAWP must be great- tation with a bolted or welded blank
er than or equal to the maximum lad- flange, a manhole, a gauging device, a
ing pressure conditions prescribed in thermometer well, or a pressure relief
§ 173.33 of this subchapter for each ma- device.
terial transported. Outlet stop valve means the stop valve
at a cargo tank loading or unloading
Maximum lading pressure. See
outlet.
§ 173.33(c).
Pipe coupling means a fitting with in-
Minimum thickness means the min- ternal threads on both ends.
imum required shell and head (and baf- Rear bumper means the structure de-
fle and bulkhead when used as tank re- signed to prevent a vehicle or object
inforcement) thickness needed to meet from under-riding the rear of another
the specification. The minimum thick- motor vehicle. See § 393.86 of this title.
ness is the greatest of the following val- Rear-end tank protection device means
ues: (1)(i) For MC 330, MC 331, and MC the structure designed to protect a
338 cargo tanks, the specified minimum cargo tank and any lading retention
thickness found the applicable speci- piping or devices in case of a rear end
fication(s); or collision.
(ii) For DOT 406, DOT 407 and DOT Self-closing stop valve means a stop
412 cargo tanks, the specified minimum valve held in the closed position by
thickness found in Tables I and II of means of self-stored energy, that opens
the applicable specification(s); or only by application of an external force
(iii) For MC 300, MC 301, MC 302, MC and that closes when the external force
303, MC 304, MC 305, MC 306, MC 307, MC is removed.
310, MC 311, and MC 312 cargo tanks, Shell means the circumferential por-
the in-service minimum thickness pre- tion of a cargo tank defined by the
scribed in Tables I and II of basic design radius or radii excluding
§ 180.407(i)(5) of this subchapter, for the the bulkheads.
minimum thickness specified by Tables Stop valve means a valve that stops
I and II of the applicable specifica- the flow of lading.
tion(s); or Sump means a protrusion from the
(2) The thickness necessary to meet bottom of a cargo tank shell designed
with the structural integrity and acci- to facilitate complete loading and un-
dent damage requirements of the appli- loading of lading.
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cable specification(s); or Tank means a container, consisting


(3) The thickness as computed per of a shell and heads, that forms a pres-
the ASME Code requirements (if appli- sure tight vessel having openings de-
cable). signed to accept pressure tight fittings

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§ 178.337 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

or closures, but excludes any appur- (c) Exceptions to the ASME Code. Un-
tenances, reinforcements, fittings, or less otherwise specified, when excep-
closures. tions are provided in this subpart from
Test pressure means the pressure to compliance with certain paragraphs of
which a tank is subjected to determine the ASME Code, compliance with those
structural integrity. paragraphs is not prohibited.
Toughness of material means the capa- [Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37055, Sept. 7, 1990, as
bility of a material to absorb energy amended by Amdt. 178–98, 58 FR 33306, June
represented by the area under a stress 16, 1993; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51339, Oct. 1,
strain curve (indicating the energy ab- 1996; 68 FR 19277, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52370,
sorbed per unit volume of the material) Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75752, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR
up to the point of rupture. 43532, July 20, 2011]
Vacuum cargo tank means a cargo
tank that is loaded by reducing the § 178.337 Specification MC 331; cargo
tank motor vehicle primarily for
pressure in the cargo tank to below at- transportation of compressed gases
mospheric pressure. as defined in subpart G of part 173
Variable specification cargo tank of this subchapter.
means a cargo tank that is constructed
in accordance with one specification, § 178.337–1 General requirements.
but that may be altered to meet an- (a) ASME Code construction. Tanks
other specification by changing relief must be—
device, closures, lading discharge de- (1) Seamless or welded construction,
vices, and other lading retention de- or a combination of both;
vices. (2) Designed, constructed, certified,
Void means the space between tank and stamped in accordance with Sec-
heads or bulkheads and a connecting tion VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see
structure. § 171.7 of this subchapter);
Welded flange means a flange at- (3) Made of steel or aluminum; how-
tached to the tank by a weld joining ever, if aluminum is used, the cargo
the tank shell to the cylindrical outer tank must be insulated and the haz-
surface of the flange, or by a fillet weld ardous material to be transported must
joining the tank shell to a flange be compatible with the aluminum (see
shaped to fit the shell contour. §§ 178.337–1(e)(2), 173.315(a) table, and
(b) Design certification. (1) Each cargo 178.337–2(a)(1) of this subchapter); and
tank or cargo tank motor vehicle de- (4) Covered with a steel jacket if the
sign type, including its required acci- cargo tank is insulated and used to
dent damage protection device, must transport a flammable gas (see
be certified to conform to the specifica- § 173.315(a) table Note 11 of this sub-
tion requirements by a Design Certi- chapter).
fying Engineer who is registered in ac- (b) Design pressure. The design pres-
cordance with subpart F of part 107 of sure of a cargo tank authorized under
this title. An accident damage protec- this specification shall be not less than
tion device is a rear-end protection, the vapor pressure of the commodity
overturn protection, or piping protec- contained therein at 115 °F. or as pre-
tion device. scribed for a particular commodity in
(2) The Design Certifying Engineer § 173.315(a) of this subchapter, except
shall furnish to the manufacturer a that in no case shall the design pres-
certificate to indicate compliance with sure of any cargo tank be less than 100
the specification requirements. The p.s.i.g. nor more than 500 p.s.i.g.
certificate must include the sketches,
drawings, and calculations used for cer- NOTE 1: The term design pressure as used in
tification. Each certificate, including this specification, is identical to the term
MAWP as used in the ASME Code.
sketches, drawings, and calculations,
shall be signed by the Design Certi- (c) Openings. (1) Excess pressure relief
fying Engineer. valves shall be located in the top of the
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(3) The manufacturer shall retain the cargo tank or heads.


design certificate at his principal place (2) A chlorine cargo tank shall have
of business for as long as he manufac- only one opening. That opening shall
tures DOT specification cargo tanks. be in the top of the cargo tank and

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–1

shall be fitted with a nozzle that meets provisions in Section VIII of the ASME
the following requirements: Code under which it is constructed.
(i) On a cargo tank manufactured on Where postweld heat treatment is re-
or before December 31, 1974, the nozzle quired, the cargo tank must be treated
shall be protected by a dome cover as a unit after completion of all the
plate which conforms to either the welds in and/or to the shells and heads.
standard of The Chlorine Institute, The method must be as prescribed in
Inc., Dwg. 103–3, dated January 23, 1958, Section VIII of the ASME Code. Welded
or to the standard specified in para- attachments to pads may be made after
graph (c) (2) (ii) of this section. postweld heat treatment. A cargo tank
(ii) On a cargo tank manufactured on used for anhydrous ammonia must be
or after January 1, 1975, the nozzle postweld heat treated. The postweld
shall be protected by a manway cover heat treatment must be as prescribed
which conforms to the standard of The in Section VIII of the ASME Code, but
Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 103–4, in no event at less than 1,050 § F cargo
dated September 1, 1971. tank metal temperature.
(d) Reflective design. Every (g) Definitions. The following defini-
uninsulated cargo tank permanently tions apply to §§ 178.337–1 through
attached to a cargo tank motor vehicle 178.337–18:
shall, unless covered with a jacket Emergency discharge control means the
made of aluminum, stainless steel, or ability to stop a cargo tank unloading
other bright nontarnishing metal, be operation in the event of an uninten-
painted a white, aluminum or similar tional release. Emergency discharge
reflecting color on the upper two-thirds control can utilize passive or off-truck
of area of the cargo tank. remote means to stop the unloading
(e) Insulation. (1) Each cargo tank re- operation. A passive means of emer-
quired to be insulated must conform gency discharge control automatically
with the use and performance require- shuts off the flow of product without
ments contained in §§ 173.315(a) table the need for human intervention with-
and 178.337–1 (a)(3) and (e)(2) of this in 20 seconds of an unintentional re-
subchapter. lease caused by a complete separation
(2) Each cargo tank intended for of the liquid delivery hose. An off-
chlorine; carbon dioxide, refrigerated truck remote means of emergency dis-
liquid; or nitrous oxide, refrigerated charge control permits a qualified per-
liquid service must have suitable insu- son attending the unloading operation
lation of such thickness that the over- to close the cargo tank’s internal self-
all thermal conductance is not more closing stop valve and shut off all mo-
than 0.08 Btu per square foot per °F dif- tive and auxiliary power equipment at
ferential per hour. The conductance a distance from the cargo tank motor
must be determined at 60 °F. Insulation vehicle.
material used on cargo tanks for ni- Excess flow valve, integral excess flow
trous oxide, refrigerated liquid must be valve, or excess flow feature means a
noncombustible. Insulating material component that will close automati-
used on cargo tanks for chlorine must cally if the flow rate of a gas or liquid
be corkboard or polyurethane foam, through the component reaches or ex-
with a minimum thickness of 4 inches, ceeds the rated flow of gas or liquid
or 2 inches minimum thickness of ce- specified by the original valve manu-
ramic fiber/fiberglass of 4 pounds per facturer when piping mounted directly
cubic foot minimum density covered by on the valve is sheared off before the
2 inches minimum thickness of fiber. first valve, pump, or fitting down-
(f) Postweld heat treatment. Postweld stream from the valve.
heat treatment must be as prescribed Internal self-closing stop valve means a
in the ASME Code except that each primary shut off valve installed in a
cargo tank constructed in accordance product discharge outlet of a cargo
with Part UHT of Section VIII of the tank and designed to be kept closed by
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ASME Code must be postweld heat self-stored energy.


treated. Each chlorine cargo tank must Primary discharge control system
be fully radiographed and postweld means a primary shut-off installed at a
heat treated in accordance with the product discharge outlet of a cargo

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§ 178.337–2 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

tank consisting of an internal self-clos- identified representatives of the De-


ing stop valve that may include an in- partment of Transportation.
tegral excess flow valve or an excess (4) The direction of final rolling of
flow feature, together with linkages the shell material shall be the circum-
that must be installed between the ferential orientation of the cargo tank
valve and remote actuator to provide shell.
manual and thermal on-truck remote (b) For a chlorine cargo tank. Plates,
means of closure. the manway nozzle, and anchorage
[Order 59–B, 30 FR 579, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig- shall be made of carbon steel which
nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967] meets the following requirements:
(1) For a cargo tank manufactured on
EDITORIAL NOTE: For FEDERAL REGISTER ci-
or before December 31, 1974—
tations affecting § 178.337–1, see the List of
CFR Sections Affected which appears in the (i) Material shall conform to ASTM A
Finding Aids section of the printed volume 300, ‘‘Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels
and at www.fdsys.gov. for Service at Low Temperatures’’
(IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter);
§ 178.337–2 Material. (ii) Material shall be Class 1, Grade
(a) General. (1) All material used for A, flange or firebox quality;
construction of the cargo tank and ap- (iii) Plate impact test specimens, as
purtenances must be suitable for use required under paragraph (a) of this
with the commodities to be trans- section, shall be of the Charpy keyhole
ported therein and must conform to notch type; and
the requirements in Section II of the (iv) Plate impact test specimens
ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- shall meet the impact test require-
chapter) and/or requirements of the ments in paragraph (a) of this section
American Society for Testing and Ma- in both the longitudinal and transverse
terials in all respects. directions of rolling at a temperature
(2) Impact tests are required on steel of minus 45.5 C. (¥50 °F.).
used in the fabrication of each cargo (2) For a cargo tank manufactured on
tank constructed in accordance with or after January 1, 1975—
part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME (i) Material shall conform to ASTM A
Code. The tests must be made on a lot 612 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter),
basis. A lot is defined as 100 tons or less Grade B or A 516/A 516M (IBR, see § 171.7
of the same heat treatment processing of this subchapter), Grade 65 or 70;
lot having a thickness variation no (ii) Material shall meet the Charpy
greater than plus or minus 25 percent. V-notch test requirements of ASTM A
The minimum impact required for full 20/A 20M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
size specimens must be 20 foot-pounds chapter); and
in the longitudinal direction at ¥30 (iii) Plate impact test specimens
°F., Charpy V-Notch and 15 foot-pounds shall meet the impact test require-
in the transverse direction at ¥30 °F., ments in paragraph (a) of this section
Charpy V-Notch. The required values in both the longitudinal and transverse
for subsize specimens must be reduced directions of rolling at a temperature
in direct proportion to the cross-sec- of minus 40 °C. (¥40 °F.).
tional area of the specimen beneath the (c) A cargo tank in anhydrous ammo-
notch. If a lot does not meet this re- nia service must be constructed of
quirement, individual plates may be steel. The use of copper, silver, zinc or
accepted if they individually meet this their alloys is prohibited. Baffles made
requirement. from aluminum may be used only if
(3) The fabricator shall record the joined to the cargo tank by a process
heat, and slab numbers, and the cer- not requiring postweld heat treatment
tified Charpy impact values, where re- of the cargo tank.
quired, of each plate used in each cargo [Order 59–B, 30 FR 579, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig-
tank on a sketch showing the location nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]
of each plate in the shell and heads of
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

EDITORIAL NOTE: For FEDERAL REGISTER ci-


the cargo tank. Copies of each sketch tations affecting § 178.337–2, see the List of
shall be provided to the owner and re- CFR Sections Affected which appears in the
tained for at least five years by the Finding Aids section of the printed volume
fabricator and made available to duly and at www.fdsys.gov.

134

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–3

§ 178.337–3 Structural integrity. (c) Shell design. Shell stresses result-


(a) General requirements and accept- ing from static or dynamic loadings, or
ance criteria. (1) Except as provided in combinations thereof, are not uniform
paragraph (d) of this section, the max- throughout the cargo tank motor vehi-
imum calculated design stress at any cle. The vertical, longitudinal, and lat-
point in the cargo tank may not exceed eral normal operating loadings can
the maximum allowable stress value occur simultaneously and must be
prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME combined. The vertical, longitudinal
Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- and lateral extreme dynamic loadings
chapter), or 25 percent of the tensile occur separately and need not be com-
strength of the material used. bined.
(2) The relevant physical properties (1) Normal operating loadings. The fol-
of the materials used in each cargo lowing procedure addresses stress in
tank may be established either by a the tank shell resulting from normal
certified test report from the material operating loadings. The effective stress
manufacturer or by testing in conform- (the maximum principal stress at any
ance with a recognized national stand- point) must be determined by the fol-
ard. In either case, the ultimate tensile lowing formula:
strength of the material used in the de- S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy ¥ Sx)2 + Ss2]0.5
sign may not exceed 120 percent of the
ultimate tensile strength specified in Where:
either the ASME Code or the ASTM (i) S = effective stress at any given
standard to which the material is man- point under the combination of static
ufactured. and normal operating loadings that can
(3) The maximum design stress at occur at the same time, in psi.
any point in the cargo tank must be (ii) Sy = circumferential stress gen-
calculated separately for the loading erated by the MAWP and external pres-
conditions described in paragraphs (b), sure, when applicable, plus static head,
(c), and (d) of this section. Alternate in psi.
test or analytical methods, or a com- (iii) Sx = The following net longitu-
bination thereof, may be used in place dinal stress generated by the following
of the procedures described in para- static and normal operating loading
graphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, if conditions, in psi:
the methods are accurate and (A) The longitudinal stresses result-
verifiable. ing from the MAWP and external pres-
(4) Corrosion allowance material may sure, when applicable, plus static head,
not be included to satisfy any of the in combination with the bending stress
design calculation requirements of this generated by the static weight of the
section. fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle,
(b) Static design and construction. (1) all structural elements, equipment and
The static design and construction of appurtenances supported by the cargo
each cargo tank must be in accordance tank wall;
with Section VIII of the ASME Code. (B) The tensile or compressive stress
The cargo tank design must include resulting from normal operating longi-
calculation of stresses generated by de- tudinal acceleration or deceleration. In
sign pressure, the weight of lading, the each case, the forces applied must be
weight of structure supported by the 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the
cargo tank wall, and the effect of tem- suspension assembly, applied at the
perature gradients resulting from lad- road surface, and as transmitted to the
ing and ambient temperature extremes. cargo tank wall through the suspension
When dissimilar materials are used, assembly of a trailer during decelera-
their thermal coefficients must be used tion; or the horizontal pivot of the
in calculation of thermal stresses. truck tractor or converter dolly fifth
(2) Stress concentrations in tension, wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the
bending and torsion which occur at fixed dolly during acceleration; or an-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

pads, cradles, or other supports must choring and support members of a


be considered in accordance with ap- truck during acceleration and decelera-
pendix G in Section VIII of the ASME tion, as applicable. The vertical reac-
Code. tion must be calculated based on the

135

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§ 178.337–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

static weight of the fully loaded cargo (C) The lateral shear stress generated
tank motor vehicle, all structural ele- by a normal operating lateral accelera-
ments, equipment and appurtenances tive force equal to 0.2 times the
supported by the cargo tank wall. The vertical reaction at each suspension as-
following loadings must be included: sembly of a trailer, applied at the road
(1) The axial load generated by a surface, and as transmitted to the
decelerative force; cargo tank wall through the suspension
(2) The bending moment generated by assembly of a trailer, and the hori-
a decelerative force; zontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth
(3) The axial load generated by an ac- wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and
support members of a truck, as applica-
celerative force; and
ble. The vertical reaction must be cal-
(4) The bending moment generated by culated based on the static weight of
an accelerative force; and the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehi-
(C) The tensile or compressive stress cle, all structural elements, equipment
generated by the bending moment re- and appurtenances supported by the
sulting from normal operating vertical cargo tank wall; and
accelerative force equal to 0.35 times (D) The torsional shear stress gen-
the vertical reaction at the suspension erated by the same lateral forces as de-
assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal scribed in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(C) of this
pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) section.
or turntable; or anchoring and support (2) Extreme dynamic loadings. The fol-
members of a truck, as applicable. The lowing procedure addresses stress in
vertical reaction must be calculated the tank shell resulting from extreme
based on the static weight of the fully dynamic loadings. The effective stress
loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all (the maximum principal stress at any
structural elements, equipment and ap- point) must be determined by the fol-
purtenances supported by the cargo lowing formula:
tank wall.
S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy ¥ Sx)2 + Ss2]0.5
(iv) Ss = The following shear stresses
generated by the following static and Where:
normal operating loading conditions, (i) S = effective stress at any given
in psi: point under a combination of static
(A) The static shear stress resulting and extreme dynamic loadings that can
from the vertical reaction at the sus- occur at the same time, in psi.
pension assembly of a trailer, and the (ii) Sy = circumferential stress gen-
horizontal pivot of the upper coupler erated by MAWP and external pressure,
(fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring when applicable, plus static head, in
and support members of a truck, as ap- psi.
plicable. The vertical reaction must be (iii) Sx = the following net longitu-
calculated based on the static weight dinal stress generated by the following
of the fully loaded cargo tank motor static and extreme dynamic loading
vehicle, all structural elements, equip- conditions, in psi:
ment and appurtenances supported by (A) The longitudinal stresses result-
the cargo tank wall; ing from the MAWP and external pres-
(B) The vertical shear stress gen- sure, when applicable, plus static head,
erated by a normal operating accelera- in combination with the bending stress
tive force equal to 0.35 times the generated by the static weight of the
vertical reaction at the suspension as- fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle,
sembly of a trailer; or the horizontal all structural elements, equipment and
pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) appurtenances supported by the tank
or turntable; or anchoring and support wall;
members of a truck, as applicable. The (B) The tensile or compressive stress
vertical reaction must be calculated resulting from extreme longitudinal
based on the static weight of the fully acceleration or deceleration. In each
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all case the forces applied must be 0.7
structural elements, equipment and ap- times the vertical reaction at the sus-
purtenances supported by the cargo pension assembly, applied at the road
tank wall; surface, and as transmitted to the

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–3

cargo tank wall through the suspension or turntable; or anchoring and support
assembly of a trailer during decelera- members of a truck, as applicable. The
tion; or the horizontal pivot of the vertical reaction must be calculated
truck tractor or converter dolly fifth based on the static weight of the fully
wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all
fixed dolly during acceleration; or the structural elements, equipment and ap-
anchoring and support members of a purtenances supported by the cargo
truck during acceleration and decelera- tank wall;
tion, as applicable. The vertical reac- (C) The lateral shear stress generated
tion must be calculated based on the by an extreme lateral accelerative
static weight of the fully loaded cargo force equal to 0.4 times the vertical re-
tank motor vehicle, all structural ele- action at the suspension assembly of a
ments, equipment and appurtenances trailer, applied at the road surface, and
supported by the cargo tank wall. The as transmitted to the cargo tank wall
following loadings must be included: through the suspension assembly of a
(1) The axial load generated by a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the
decelerative force; upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turn-
(2) The bending moment generated by table; or anchoring and support mem-
a decelerative force; bers of a truck, as applicable. The
(3) The axial load generated by an ac- vertical reaction must be calculated
celerative force; and based on the static weight of the fully
(4) The bending moment generated by loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all
an accelerative force; and structural elements, equipment and ap-
(C) The tensile or compressive stress purtenances supported by the cargo
generated by the bending moment re- tank wall; and
sulting from an extreme vertical accel-
(D) The torsional shear stress gen-
erative force equal to 0.7 times the
erated by the same lateral forces as de-
vertical reaction at the suspension as-
scribed in paragraph (c)(2)(iv)(C) of this
sembly of a trailer, and the horizontal
section.
pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel)
or turntable; or the anchoring and sup- (d) In order to account for stresses
port members of a truck, as applicable. due to impact in an accident, the de-
The vertical reaction must be cal- sign calculations for the cargo tank
culated based on the static weight of shell and heads must include the load
the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehi- resulting from the design pressure in
cle, all structural elements, equipment combination with the dynamic pres-
and appurtenances supported by the sure resulting from a longitudinal de-
cargo tank wall. celeration of ‘‘2g’’. For this loading
(iv) Ss = The following shear stresses condition the stress value used may
generated by static and extreme dy- not exceed the lesser of the yield
namic loading conditions, in psi: strength or 75 percent of the ultimate
(A) The static shear stress resulting tensile strength of the material of con-
from the vertical reaction at the sus- struction. For cargo tanks constructed
pension assembly of a trailer, and the of stainless steel the maximum design
horizontal pivot of the upper coupler stress may not exceed 75 percent of the
(fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring ultimate tensile strength of the type
and support members of a truck, as ap- steel used.
plicable. The vertical reaction must be (e) The minimum metal thickness for
calculated based on the static weight the shell and heads on tanks with a de-
of the fully loaded cargo tank motor sign pressure of 100 psig or more must
vehicle, all structural elements, equip- be 4.75 mm (0.187 inch) for steel and 6.86
ment and appurtenances supported by mm (0.270 inch) for aluminum, except
the cargo tank wall; for chlorine and sulfur dioxide tanks.
(B) The vertical shear stress gen- In all cases, the minimum thickness of
erated by an extreme vertical accelera- the tank shell and head shall be deter-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

tive force equal to 0.7 times the mined using structural design require-
vertical reaction at the suspension as- ments in Section VIII of the ASME
sembly of a trailer, and the horizontal Code or 25% of the tensile strength of
pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) the material used. For a cargo tank

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§ 178.337–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

used in chlorine or sulfur dioxide serv- there will be no adverse effect upon the
ice, the cargo tank must be made of lading retention integrity of the cargo
steel. A corrosion allowance of 20 per- tank if any force less than that pre-
cent or 2.54 mm (0.10 inch), whichever scribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
is less, must be added to the thickness tion is applied from any direction. The
otherwise required for sulfur dioxide thickness of the mounting pad may not
and chlorine tank material. In chlorine be less than that of the shell wall or
cargo tanks, the wall thickness must head wall to which it is attached, and
be at least 1.59 cm (0.625 inch), includ- not more than 1.5 times the shell or
ing corrosion allowance. head thickness. However, a pad with a
(f) Where a cargo tank support is at- minimum thickness of 0.25 inch may be
tached to any part of the cargo tank
used when the shell or head thickness
wall, the stresses imposed on the cargo
is over 0.25 inch. If weep holes or tell-
tank wall must meet the requirements
in paragraph (a) of this section. tale holes are used, the pad must be
(g) The design, construction, and in- drilled or punched at the lowest point
stallation of an attachment, appur- before it is welded to the tank. Each
tenance to the cargo tank, structural pad must—
support member between the cargo (i) Be fabricated from material deter-
tank and the vehicle or suspension mined to be suitable for welding to
component, or accident protection de- both the cargo tank material and the
vice must conform to the following re- material of the appurtenance or struc-
quirements: tural support member; a Design Certi-
(1) Structural members, the suspen- fying Engineer must make this deter-
sion sub-frame, accident protection mination considering chemical and
structures, and external circumferen- physical properties of the materials
tial reinforcement devices must be and must specify filler material con-
used as sites for attachment of appur- forming to the requirements in Section
tenances and other accessories to the VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7
cargo tank, when practicable. of this subchapter).
(2) A lightweight attachment to the (ii) Be preformed to an inside radius
cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip, no greater than the outside radius of
brake line clip, skirting structure,
the cargo tank at the attachment loca-
lamp mounting bracket, or placard
tion.
holder must be of a construction hav-
ing lesser strength than the cargo tank (iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each
wall materials and may not be more direction from any point of attachment
than 72 percent of the thickness of the of an appurtenance or structural sup-
material to which it is attached. The port member. This dimension may be
lightweight attachment may be se- measured from the center of the at-
cured directly to the cargo tank wall if tached structural member.
the device is designed and installed in (iv) Have rounded corners, or other-
such a manner that, if damaged, it will wise be shaped in a manner to mini-
not affect the lading retention integ- mize stress concentrations on the shell
rity of the tank. A lightweight attach- or head.
ment must be secured to the cargo (v) Be attached by continuous fillet
tank shell or head by a continuous welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity
weld or in such a manner as to preclude may only be for the purpose of pre-
formation of pockets which may be- venting an intersection between the fil-
come sites for corrosion. Attachments let weld and a tank or jacket seam
meeting the requirements of this para- weld.
graph are not authorized for cargo
tanks constructed under part UHT in [Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37056, Sept. 7, 1990, as
Section VIII of the ASME Code. amended by Amdt. 178–104, 59 FR 49135, Sept.
(3) Except as prescribed in para- 26, 1994; Amdt. 178–105, 60 FR 17401, Apr. 5,
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

graphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section, 1995; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996;
the welding of any appurtenance to the 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19279, Apr.
18, 2003; 68 FR 52370, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75753,
cargo tank wall must be made by at-
Dec. 31, 2003]
tachment of a mounting pad so that

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–8

§ 178.337–4 Joints. § 178.337–5 Bulkheads, baffles and ring


stiffeners.
(a) Joints shall be as required in Sec-
tion VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see (a) Not a specification requirement.
§ 171.7 of this subchapter), with all un- (b) [Reserved]
dercutting in shell and head material [Order 59–B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig-
repaired as specified therein. nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]
(b) Welding procedure and welder per-
formance must be in accordance with § 178.337–6 Closure for manhole.
Section IX of the ASME Code. In addi- (a) Each cargo tank marked or cer-
tion to the essential variables named tified after April 21, 1994, must be pro-
therein, the following must be consid- vided with a manhole conforming to
ered as essential variables: Number of paragraph UG–46(g)(1) and other appli-
passes; thickness of plate; heat input cable requirements in Section VIII of
per pass; and manufacturer’s identi- the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this
fication of rod and flux. When fabrica- subchapter), except that a cargo tank
tion is done in accordance with part constructed of NQT steel having a ca-
UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code, pacity of 3,500 water gallons or less
filler material containing more than may be provided with an inspection
0.08 percent vanadium must not be opening conforming to paragraph UG–
used. The number of passes, thickness 46 and other applicable requirements of
of plate, and heat input per pass may the ASME Code instead of a manhole.
not vary more than 25 percent from the (b) The manhole assembly of cargo
procedure or welder qualifications. tanks constructed after June 30, 1979,
Records of the qualifications must be may not be located on the front head of
retained for at least 5 years by the the cargo tank.
cargo tank manufacturer and must be
made available to duly identified rep- [Amdt. 178–7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969, as
amended by Amdt. 178–52, 43 FR 58820, Dec.
resentatives of the Department and the
18, 1978; Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25017, June 12,
owner of the cargo tank. 1989; 55 FR 21038, May 22, 1990; 56 FR 27876,
(c) All longitudinal shell welds shall June 17, 1991; 58 FR 12905, March 8, 1993;
be located in the upper half of the Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR
cargo tank. 75753, Dec. 31, 2003]
(d) Edge preparation of shell and
head components may be by machine § 178.337–7 Overturn protection.
heat processes, provided such surfaces (a) See § 178.337–10.
are remelted in the subsequent welding (b) [Reserved]
process. Where there will be no subse-
[Order 59–B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig-
quent remelting of the prepared surface
nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]
as in a tapered section, the final 0.050
inch of material shall be removed by § 178.337–8 Openings, inlets, and out-
mechanical means. lets.
(e) The maximum tolerance for mis-
(a) General. The requirements in this
alignment and butting up shall be in
paragraph (a) apply to MC 331 cargo
accordance with the requirement in
tanks except for those used to trans-
Section VIII of the ASME Code.
port chlorine. The requirements for in-
(f) Substructures shall be properly lets and outlets on chlorine cargo
fitted before attachment, and the weld- tanks are in paragraph (b) of this sec-
ing sequence shall be such as to mini- tion.
mize stresses due to shrinkage of (1) An opening must be provided on
welds. each cargo tank used for the transpor-
[Order 59–B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig- tation of liquefied materials to permit
nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967] complete drainage.
EDITORIAL NOTE: For FEDERAL REGISTER ci-
(2) Except for gauging devices, ther-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

tations affecting § 178.337–4, see the List of mometer wells, pressure relief valves,
CFR Sections Affected which appears in the manhole openings, product inlet open-
Finding Aids section of the printed volume ings, and product discharge openings,
and at www.fdsys.gov. each opening in a cargo tank must be

139

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§ 178.337–8 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

closed with a plug, cap, or bolted ing connection area. The loading/un-
flange. loading connection area is where hoses
(3) Except as provided in paragraph or hose reels are connected to the per-
(b) of this section, each product inlet manent metal piping. Linkages be-
opening, including vapor return lines, tween closures and remote operators
must be fitted with a back flow check must be corrosion resistant and effec-
valve or an internal self-closing stop tive in all types of environmental con-
valve located inside the cargo tank or ditions incident to discharge of prod-
inside a welded nozzle that is an inte- uct.
gral part of the cargo tank. The valve (iii) All parts of a valve inside a
seat must be located inside the cargo cargo tank or within a welded flange
tank or within 2.54 cm (one inch) of the must be made of material that will not
external face of the welded flange.
corrode or deteriorate in the presence
Damage to parts exterior to the cargo
of the lading.
tank or mating flange must not pre-
vent effective seating of the valve. All (iv) An excess flow valve, integral ex-
parts of a valve inside a cargo tank or cess flow valve, or excess flow feature
welded flange must be made of mate- must close if the flow reaches the rated
rial that will not corrode or deteriorate flow of a gas or liquid specified by the
in the presence of the lading. original valve manufacturer when pip-
(4) Except as provided in paragraphs ing mounted directly on the valve is
(a)(5), (b), and (c) of this section, each sheared off before the first valve,
liquid or vapor discharge outlet must pump, or fitting downstream from the
be fitted with a primary discharge con- excess flow valve, integral excess flow
trol system as defined in § 178.337–1(g). valve, or excess flow feature.
Thermal remote operators must acti- (v) An integral excess flow valve or
vate at a temperature of 121.11°C (250 the excess flow feature of an internal
°F) or less. Linkages between closures self-closing stop valve may be designed
and remote operators must be corro- with a bypass, not to exceed 0.1016 cm
sion resistant and effective in all types (0.040 inch) diameter opening, to allow
of environmental conditions incident equalization of pressure.
to discharging of product. (vi) The internal self-closing stop
(i) On a cargo tank over 13,247.5 L valve must be designed so that the self-
(3,500 gallons) water capacity, thermal stored energy source and the valve seat
and mechanical means of remote clo- are located inside the cargo tank or
sure must be installed at the ends of within 2.54 cm (one inch) of the exter-
the cargo tank in at least two diago- nal face of the welded flange. Damage
nally opposite locations. If the loading/ to parts exterior to the cargo tank or
unloading connection at the cargo tank mating flange must not prevent effec-
is not in the general vicinity of one of tive seating of the valve.
the two locations specified in the first (5) A primary discharge control sys-
sentence of this paragraph (a)(4)(i), ad- tem is not required on the following:
ditional means of thermal remote clo-
(i) A vapor or liquid discharge open-
sure must be installed so that heat
ing of less than 11⁄4 NPT equipped with
from a fire in the loading/unloading
connection area or the discharge pump an excess flow valve together with a
will activate the primary discharge manually operated external stop valve
control system. The loading/unloading in place of an internal self-closing stop
connection area is where hoses or hose valve.
reels are connected to the permanent (ii) An engine fuel line on a truck-
metal piping. mounted cargo tank of not more than
3⁄4 NPT equipped with a valve having an
(ii) On a cargo tank of 13,247.5 L (3,500
gallons) water capacity or less, a ther- integral excess flow valve or excess
mal means of remote closure must be flow feature.
installed at or near the internal self- (iii) A cargo tank motor vehicle used
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

closing stop valve. A mechanical to transport refrigerated liquids such


means of remote closure must be in- as argon, carbon dioxide, helium, kryp-
stalled on the end of the cargo tank ton, neon, nitrogen, and xenon, or mix-
furthest away from the loading/unload- tures thereof.

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–9

(6) In addition to the internal self- lief devices, must be at least 4 times
closing stop valve, each filling and dis- the design pressure of the cargo tank.
charge line must be fitted with a stop Additionally, the burst pressure may
valve located in the line between the not be less than 4 times any higher
internal self-closing stop valve and the pressure to which each pipe, pipe fit-
hose connection. A back flow check ting, hose or other pressure part may
valve or excess flow valve may not be be subjected to in service. For chlorine
used to satisfy this requirement. service, see paragraph (b)(7) of this sec-
(7) An excess flow valve may be de- tion.
signed with a bypass, not to exceed a (2) Pipe joints must be threaded,
0.1016 centimeter (0.040 inch) diameter welded, or flanged. If threaded pipe is
opening, to allow equalization of pres-
used, the pipe and fittings must be
sure.
Schedule 80 weight or heavier, except
(b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlo-
for sacrificial devices. Malleable metal,
rine tanks. The inlet and discharge out-
lets on a cargo tank used to transport stainless steel, or ductile iron must be
chlorine must meet the requirements used in the construction of primary
of § 178.337–1(c)(2) and must be fitted valve body parts and fittings used in
with an internal excess flow valve. In liquid filling or vapor equalization.
addition to the internal excess flow Stainless steel may be used for internal
valve, the inlet and discharge outlets components such as shutoff discs and
must be equipped with an external stop springs except where incompatible with
valve (angle valve). Excess flow valves the lading to be transported. Where
must conform to the standards of The copper tubing is permitted, joints must
Chlorine Institute, Inc., as follows: be brazed or be of equally strong metal
(1) A valve conforming to The Chlo- union type. The melting point of the
rine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 101–7 (IBR, brazing material may not be lower
see § 171.7 of this subchapter), must be than 538 °C (1,000 °F). The method of
installed under each liquid angle valve. joining tubing may not reduce the
(2) A valve conforming to The Chlo- strength of the tubing.
rine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 106–6 (IBR, (3) Each hose coupling must be de-
see § 171.7 of this subchapter), must be signed for a pressure of at least 120 per-
installed under each gas angle valve. cent of the hose design pressure and so
(c) Discharge outlets on carbon dioxide, that there will be no leakage when con-
refrigerated liquid, cargo tanks. A dis- nected.
charge outlet on a cargo tank used to (4) Piping must be protected from
transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated damage due to thermal expansion and
liquid is not required to be fitted with contraction, jarring, and vibration.
an internal self-closing stop valve. Slip joints are not authorized for this
[64 FR 28049, May 24, 1999, as amended at 66 purpose.
FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19279, Apr. 18, (5) [Reserved]
2003; 68 FR 75753, Dec. 31, 2003] (6) Cargo tank manufacturers and
§ 178.337–9 Pressure relief devices, fabricators must demonstrate that all
piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. piping, valves, and fittings on a cargo
tank are free from leaks. To meet this
(a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See
requirement, the piping, valves, and
§ 173.315(i) of this subchapter.
fittings must be tested after installa-
(2) On cargo tanks for carbon dioxide
or nitrous oxide see § 173.315 (i) (9) and tion at not less than 80 percent of the
(10) of this subchapter. design pressure marked on the cargo
(3) Each valve must be designed, con- tank.
structed, and marked for a rated pres- (7) A hose assembler must:
sure not less than the cargo tank de- (i) Permanently mark each hose as-
sign pressure at the temperature ex- sembly with a unique identification
pected to be encountered. number.
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(b) Piping, valves, hose, and fittings. (1) (ii) Demonstrate that each hose as-
The burst pressure of all piping, pipe sembly is free from leaks by per-
fittings, hose and other pressure parts, forming the tests and inspections in
except for pump seals and pressure re- § 180.416(f) of this subchapter.

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§ 178.337–10 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

(iii) Mark each hose assembly with § 178.337–10 Accident damage protec-
the month and year of its original pres- tion.
sure test. (a) All valves, fittings, pressure relief
(8) Chlorine cargo tanks. Angle valves devices, and other accessories to the
on cargo tanks intended for chlorine tank proper shall be protected in ac-
service must conform to the standards cordance with paragraph (b) of this sec-
of the Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. tion against such damage as could be
104–8 or ‘‘Section 3, Pamphlet 166, caused by collision with other vehicles
Angle Valve Guidelines for Chlorine or objects, jack-knifing and over-
Bulk Transportation.’’ (IBR, see § 171.7 turning. In addition, pressure relief
of this subchapter). Before installation, valves shall be so protected that in the
each angle valve must be tested for event of overturn of the vehicle onto a
leakage at not less than 225 psig using hard surface, their opening will not be
dry air or inert gas. prevented and their discharge will not
(c) Marking inlets and outlets. Except be restricted.
for gauging devices, thermometer (b) The protective devices or housing
wells, and pressure relief valves, each must be designed to withstand static
cargo tank inlet and outlet must be loading in any direction equal to twice
marked ‘‘liquid’’ or ‘‘vapor’’ to des- the weight of the tank and attach-
ignate whether it communicates with ments when filled with the lading,
liquid or vapor when the cargo tank is using a safety factor of not less than
filled to the maximum permitted fill- four, based on the ultimate strength of
ing density. A filling line that commu- the material to be used, without dam-
nicates with vapor may be marked age to the fittings protected, and must
‘‘spray-fill’’ instead of ‘‘vapor.’’ be made of metal at least 3⁄16-inch
(d) Refrigeration and heating coils. (1) thick.
Refrigeration and heating coils must (c) Rear-end tank protection. Rear-end
be securely anchored with provisions tank protection devices must:
for thermal expansion. The coils must (1) Consist of at least one rear bump-
be pressure tested externally to at er designed to protect the cargo tank
least the cargo tank test pressure, and and all valves, piping and fittings lo-
internally to either the tank test pres- cated at the rear of the cargo tank
sure or twice the working pressure of from damage that could result in loss
the heating/refrigeration system, of lading in the event of a rear end col-
whichever is higher. A cargo tank may lision. The bumper design must trans-
not be placed in service if any leakage mit the force of the collision directly
occurs or other evidence of damage is to the chassis of the vehicle. The rear
found. The refrigerant or heating me- bumper and its attachments to the
dium to be circulated through the coils chassis must be designed to withstand
must not be capable of causing any ad- a load equal to twice the weight of the
verse chemical reaction with the cargo loaded cargo tank motor vehicle and
tank lading in the event of leakage. attachments, using a safety factor of
The unit furnishing refrigeration may four based on the tensile strength of
the materials used, with such load
be mounted on the motor vehicle.
being applied horizontally and parallel
(2) Where any liquid susceptible to
to the major axis of the cargo tank.
freezing, or the vapor of any such liq- The rear bumper dimensions must also
uid, is used for heating or refrigera- meet the requirements of § 393.86 of this
tion, the heating or refrigeration sys- title; or
tem shall be arranged to permit com-
(2) Conform to the requirements of
plete drainage. § 178.345–8(d).
[Order 59–B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig- (d) Chlorine tanks. A chlorine tank
nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967] must be equipped with a protective
EDITORIAL NOTE: For FEDERAL REGISTER ci- housing and a manway cover to permit
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

tations affecting § 178.337–9, see the List of the use of standard emergency kits for
CFR Sections Affected which appears in the controlling leaks in fittings on the
Finding Aids section of the printed volume dome cover plate. For tanks manufac-
and at www.fdsys.gov. tured on or after October 1, 2009, the

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–14

housing and manway cover must con- § 178.337–12 [Reserved]


form to the Chlorine Institute, Inc.,
Dwg. 137–5 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- § 178.337–13 Supporting and anchor-
chapter). ing.
(e) Piping and fittings. Piping and fit- (a) A cargo tank that is not perma-
tings must be grouped in the smallest nently attached to or integral with a
practicable space and protected from
vehicle chassis must be secured by the
damage as required in this section.
(f) Shear section. A shear section or use of restraining devices designed to
sacrificial device is required for the prevent relative motion between the
valves specified in the following loca- cargo tank and the vehicle chassis
tions: when the vehicle is in operation. Such
(1) A section that will break under restraining devices must be readily ac-
strain must be provided adjacent to or cessible for inspection and mainte-
outboard of each valve specified in nance.
§ 178.337–8(a)(3) and (4). (b) On a cargo tank motor vehicle de-
(2) Each internal self-closing stop signed and constructed so that the
valve, excess flow valve, and check cargo tank constitutes in whole or in
valve must be protected by a shear sec- part the structural member used in
tion or other sacrificial device. The place of a motor vehicle frame, the
sacrificial device must be located in cargo tank must be supported by exter-
the piping system outboard of the stop nal cradles. A cargo tank mounted on a
valve and within the accident damage motor vehicle frame must be supported
protection to prevent any accidental
by external cradles or longitudinal
loss of lading. The failure of the sac-
members. Where used, the cradles must
rificial device must leave the protected
lading protection device and its attach- subtend at least 120 degrees of the shell
ment to the cargo tank wall intact and circumference.
capable of retaining product. (c) The design calculations of the
support elements must satisfy the re-
[Order 59–B, 30 FR 581, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig-
quirements of § 178.337–3, (a), (b), (c),
nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]
and (d).
EDITORIAL NOTE: For FEDERAL REGISTER ci- (d) Where any cargo tank support is
tations affecting § 178.337–10, see the List of
CFR Sections Affected which appears in the attached to any part of a cargo tank
Finding Aids section of the printed volume head, the stresses imposed upon the
and at www.fdsys.gov. head must be provided for as required
in paragraph (c) of this section.
§ 178.337–11 Emergency discharge con-
trol. [68 FR 19280, Apr. 18, 2003]
(a) Emergency discharge control equip-
§ 178.337–14 Gauging devices.
ment. Emergency discharge control
equipment must be installed in a liquid (a) Liquid level gauging devices. See
discharge line as specified by product § 173.315(h) of this subchapter.
and service in § 173.315(n) of this sub- (b) Pressure gauges. (1) See § 173.315(h)
chapter. The performance and certifi- of this subchapter.
cation requirements for emergency dis- (2) Each cargo tank used in carbon
charge control equipment are specified dioxide, refrigerated liquid or nitrous
in § 173.315(n) of this subchapter and are oxide, refrigerated liquid service must
not a part of the cargo tank motor ve- be provided with a suitable pressure
hicle certification made under this
gauge. A shut-off valve must be in-
specification.
stalled between the pressure gauge and
(b) Engine fuel lines. On a truck-
mounted cargo tank, emergency dis- the cargo tank.
charge control equipment is not re- (c) Orifices. See § 173.315(h) (3) and (4)
quired on an engine fuel line of not of this subchapter.
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more than 3⁄4 NPT equipped with a [Amdt. 178–29, 38 FR 27599, Oct. 5, 1973, as
valve having an integral excess flow amended by Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25018, June
valve or excess flow feature. 12, 1989; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1,
[64 FR 28050, May 24, 1999] 1996]

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§ 178.337–15 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

§ 178.337–15 Pumps and compressors. method, or ultrasonic testing in ac-


cordance with appendix 12 in Section
(a) Liquid pumps or gas compressors,
VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent
if used, must be of suitable design, ade-
magnets must not be used to perform
quately protected against breakage by
collision, and kept in good condition. the magnetic particle inspection.
They may be driven by motor vehicle (c) All defects found shall be re-
power take-off or other mechanical, paired, the cargo tanks shall then
electrical, or hydraulic means. Unless again be postweld heat treated, if such
they are of the centrifugal type, they heat treatment was previously per-
shall be equipped with suitable pres- formed, and the repaired areas shall
sure actuated by-pass valves permit- again be tested.
ting flow from discharge to suction or [Order 59–B, 30 FR 582, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig-
to the cargo tank. nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended
(b) A liquid chlorine pump may not by Amdt. 178–7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969;
be installed on a cargo tank intended Amdt. 178–99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt.
for the transportation of chlorine. 178–118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75753,
Dec. 31, 2003]
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25018, June 12, 1989, as
amended by Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. § 178.337–17 Marking.
1, 1996]
(a) General. Each cargo tank certified
§ 178.337–16 Testing. after October 1, 2004 must have a corro-
(a) Inspection and tests. Inspection of sion-resistant metal name plate
materials of construction of the cargo (ASME Plate) and specification plate
tank and its appurtenances and origi- permanently attached to the cargo
nal test and inspection of the finished tank by brazing, welding, or other suit-
cargo tank and its appurtenances must able means on the left side near the
be as required by Section VIII of the front, in a place accessible for inspec-
ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- tion. If the specification plate is at-
chapter) and as further required by this tached directly to the cargo tank wall
specification, except that for cargo by welding, it must be welded to the
tanks constructed in accordance with tank before the cargo tank is postweld
part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME heat treated.
Code the original test pressure must be (1) The plates must be legibly marked
at least twice the cargo tank design by stamping, embossing, or other
pressure. means of forming letters into the
(b) Weld testing and inspection. (1) metal of the plate, with the informa-
Each cargo tank constructed in accord- tion required in paragraphs (b) and (c)
ance with part UHT in Section VIII of of this section, in addition to that re-
the ASME Code must be subjected, quired by the ASME Code, in char-
after postweld heat treatment and hy- acters at least 3/16 inch high (par-
drostatic tests, to a wet fluorescent enthetical abbreviations may be used).
magnetic particle inspection to be All plates must be maintained in a leg-
made on all welds in or on the cargo ible condition.
tank shell and heads both inside and (2) Each insulated cargo tank must
out. The method of inspection must have additional plates, as described, at-
conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII tached to the jacket in the location
of the ASME Code except that perma- specified unless the specification plate
nent magnets shall not be used. is attached to the chassis and has the
(2) On cargo tanks of over 3,500 gal- information required in paragraphs (b)
lons water capacity other than those and (c) of this section.
described in paragraph (b)(1) of this (3) The information required for both
section unless fully radiographed, a the name and specification plate may
test must be made of all welds in or on be displayed on a single plate. If the in-
the shell and heads both inside and formation required by this section is
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outside by either the wet fluorescent displayed on a plate required by the


magnetic particle method conforming ASME, the information need not be re-
to appendix U in Section VIII of the peated on the name and specification
ASME Code, liquid dye penetrant plates.

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.337–18

(4) The specification plate may be at- specification plate in accordance with
tached to the cargo tank motor vehicle this section:
chassis rail by brazing, welding, or (1) Cargo tank motor vehicle manu-
other suitable means on the left side facturer (CTMV mfr.).
near the front head, in a place acces- (2) Cargo tank motor vehicle certifi-
sible for inspection. If the specification cation date (CTMV cert. date).
plate is attached to the chassis rail, (3) Cargo tank manufacturer (CT
then the cargo tank serial number as- mfr.).
signed by the cargo tank manufacturer (4) Cargo tank date of manufacture
must be included on the plate. (CT date of mfr.), month and year.
(b) Name plate. The following infor- (5) Maximum weight of lading (Max.
mation must be marked on the name Payload), in pounds
plate in accordance with this section:
(6) Lining materials (Lining), if ap-
(1) DOT-specification number MC 331
plicable.
(DOT MC 331).
(7) Heating system design pressure
(2) Original test date (Orig. Test
(Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applica-
Date).
ble.
(3) MAWP in psig.
(8) Heating system design tempera-
(4) Cargo tank design temperature
ture (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if ap-
(Design Temp. Range) lll °F to
plicable.
lll °F.
(5) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in (9) Cargo tank serial number, as-
pounds. signed by cargo tank manufacturer (CT
(6) Maximum design density of lading serial), if applicable.
(Max. Lading density), in pounds per NOTE 1 TO PARAGRAPH (c): See § 173.315(a) of
gallon. this chapter regarding water capacity.
(7) Material specification number— NOTE 2 TO PARAGRAPH (c): When the shell
shell (Shell matl, yyy***), where ‘‘yyy’’ and head materials are the same thickness,
is replaced by the alloy designation they may be combined (Shell & head matl,
yyy***).
and ‘‘***’’ is replaced by the alloy type.
(8) Material specification number— (d) The design weight of lading used
heads (Head matl. yyy***), where in determining the loading in §§ 178.337–
‘‘yyy’’ is replaced by the alloy designa- 3(b), 178.337–10(b) and (c), and 178.337–
tion and ‘‘***’’ by the alloy type. 13(a) and (b), must be shown as the
(9) Minimum Thickness—shell (Min. maximum weight of lading marking re-
Shell-thick), in inches. When minimum quired by paragraph (c) of this section.
shell thicknesses are not the same for
different areas, show (topll, sidell, [68 FR 19280, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52370, Sept.
3, 2003, as amended at 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6,
bottomll, in inches). 2003]
(10) Minimum thickness—heads (Min.
heads thick.), in inches. § 178.337–18 Certification.
(11) Manufactured thickness—shell
(Mfd. Shell thick.), topll, sidell, (a) At or before the time of delivery,
bottomll, in inches. (Required when the cargo tank motor vehicle manufac-
additional thickness is provided for turer must supply and the owner must
corrosion allowance.) obtain, a cargo tank motor vehicle
(12) Manufactured thickness—heads manufacturer’s data report as required
(Mfd. Heads thick.), in inches. (Re- by Section VIII of the ASME Code
quired when additional thickness is (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and
provided for corrosion allowance.) a certificate stating that the com-
(13) Exposed surface area, in square pleted cargo tank motor vehicle con-
feet. forms in all respects to Specification
MC 331 and the ASME Code. The reg-
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (b): When the shell and istration numbers of the manufacturer,
head materials are the same thickness, they the Design Certifying Engineer, and
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may be combined, (Shell&head matl, the Registered Inspector, as appro-


yyy***).
priate, must appear on the certificates
(c) Specification plate. The following (see subpart F, part 107 in subchapter A
information must be marked on the of this chapter).

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§ 178.338 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

(1) For each design type, the certifi- certificate, or certificates, will include
cate must be signed by a responsible of- sufficient sketches, drawings, and
ficial of the manufacturer and a Design other information to indicate the loca-
Certifying Engineer; and tion, make, model, and size of each
(2) For each cargo tank motor vehi- valve and the arrangement of all piping
cle, the certificate must be signed by a associated with the cargo tank.
responsible official of the manufac- (6) The certificate must contain a
turer and a Registered Inspector. statement indicating whether or not
(3) When a cargo tank motor vehicle the cargo tank was postweld heat
is manufactured in two or more stages, treated for anhydrous ammonia as
each manufacturer who performs a specified in § 178.337–1(f).
manufacturing function or portion (b) The owner shall retain the copy of
thereof on the incomplete cargo tank the data report and certificates and re-
motor vehicle must provide to the suc- lated papers in his files throughout his
ceeding manufacturer, at or before the ownership of the cargo tank motor ve-
time of delivery, a certificate that hicle and for at least one year there-
states the function performed by the after; and in the event of change in
manufacturer, including any certifi- ownership, retention by the prior
cates received from previous manufac- owner of nonfading photographically
turers, Registered Inspectors, and De- reproduced copies will be deemed to
sign Certifying Engineers. satisfy this requirement. Each motor
(4) Specification shortages. When a carrier using the cargo tank motor ve-
cargo tank motor vehicle is manufac- hicle, if not the owner thereof, shall
tured in two or more stages, the manu- obtain a copy of the data report and
facturer of the cargo tank must attach certificate and retain them in his files
the name plate and specification plate during the time he uses the cargo tank
as required by § 178.337–17(a) and (b) motor vehicle and for at least one year
without the original date of certifi- thereafter.
cation stamped on the specification [Order 59–B, 30 FR 583, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesig-
plate. Prior manufacturers must list nated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]
the specification requirements that are
not completed on the Certificate of EDITORIAL NOTE: For FEDERAL REGISTER ci-
tations affecting § 178.337–18, see the List of
Compliance. When the cargo tank
CFR Sections Affected which appears in the
motor vehicle is brought into full com- Finding Aids section of the printed volume
pliance with the applicable specifica- and at www.fdsys.gov.
tion, the cargo tank motor vehicle
manufacturer must have a Registered § 178.338 Specification MC–338; insu-
Inspector stamp the date of certifi- lated cargo tank motor vehicle.
cation on the specification plate and
issue a Certificate of Compliance to the § 178.338–1 General requirements.
owner of the cargo tank motor vehicle. (a) For the purposes of this section—
The Certificate of Compliance must (1) Design pressure means the
list the actions taken to bring the ‘‘MAWP’’ as used in Section VIII of the
cargo tank motor vehicle into full ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
compliance. In addition, the certificate chapter), and is the gauge pressure at
must include the date of certification the top of the tank.
and the person (manufacturer, carrier (2) Design service temperature means
or repair organization) accomplishing the coldest temperature for which the
compliance. tank is suitable (see §§ 173.318 (a)(1) and
(5) The certificate must state wheth- (f) of this subchapter).
er or not it includes certification that (b) Each cargo tank must consist of a
all valves, piping, and protective de- suitably supported welded inner vessel
vices conform to the requirements of enclosed within an outer shell or jack-
the specification. If it does not so cer- et, with insulation between the inner
tify, the installer of any such valve, vessel and outer shell or jacket, and
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piping, or device shall supply and the having piping, valves, supports and
owner shall obtain a certificate assert- other appurtenances as specified in this
ing complete compliance with these subchapter. For the purpose of this
specifications for such devices. The specification, tank means inner vessel

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.338–2

and jacket means either the outer shell § 178.338–3(b), may not exceed 25 percent
or insulation cover. of the minimum specified tensile
(c) Each tank must be designed, con- strength.
structed, certified, and stamped in ac- [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27703, June 16, 1983, as
cordance with Section VIII of the amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; Amdt.
ASME Code. 178–104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; 66 FR
(d) The exterior surface of the tank 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]
must be insulated with a material com-
patible with the lading. § 178.338–2 Material.
(1) Each cargo tank must have an in- (a) All material used in the construc-
sulation system that will prevent the tion of a tank and its appurtenances
tank pressure from exceeding the pres- that may come in contact with the lad-
sure relief valve set pressure within the ing must be compatible with the lading
specified holding time when the tank is to be transported. All material used for
loaded with the specific cryogenic liq- tank pressure parts must conform to
uid at the design conditions of— the requirements in Section II of the
(i) The specified temperature and ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
pressure of the cryogenic liquid, and chapter). All material used for evacu-
(ii) The exposure of the filled cargo ated jacket pressure parts must con-
tank to an average ambient tempera- form to the chemistry and steelmaking
ture of 85 °F. practices of one of the material speci-
(2) For a cargo tank used to transport fications of Section II of the ASME
oxygen, the insulation may not sustain Code or the following ASTM Specifica-
combustion in a 99.5 percent oxygen at- tions (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
mosphere at atmospheric pressure chapter): A 242, A 441, A 514, A 572, A
when contacted with a continuously
588, A 606, A 633, A 715, A 1008/A 1008M,
heated glowing platinum wire. The
A 1011/A 1011M.
cargo tank must be marked in accord- (b) All tie-rods, mountings, and other
ance with § 178.338–18(b)(7). appurtenances within the jacket and
(3) Each vacuum-insulated cargo
all piping, fittings and valves must be
tank must be provided with a connec-
of material suitable for use at the low-
tion for a vacuum gauge to indicate the
est temperature to be encountered.
absolute pressure within the insulation (c) Impact tests are required on all
space. tank materials, except materials that
(e) The insulation must be com-
are excepted from impact testing by
pletely covered by a metal jacket. The
the ASME Code, and must be per-
jacket or the insulation must be so
formed using the procedure prescribed
constructed and sealed as to prevent
in Section VIII of the ASME Code.
moisture from coming into contact (d) The direction of final rolling of
with the insulation (see § 173.318(a)(3) of the shell material must be the circum-
this subchapter). Minimum metal ferential orientation of the tank shell.
thicknesses are as follows: (e) Each tank constructed in accord-
Jacket evacu- Jacket not ance with part UHT in Section VIII of
ated evacuated the ASME Code must be postweld heat
Type metal
Gauge Inches Gauge Inches treated as a unit after completion of
all welds to the shell and heads. Other
Stainless steel .............. 18 0.0428 22 0.0269
Low carbon mild steel .. 12 0.0946 14 0.0677 tanks must be postweld heat treated as
Aluminum ..................... ........... 0.125 ........... 0.1000 required in Section VIII of the ASME
Code. For all tanks the method must
(f) An evacuated jacket must be in be as prescribed in the ASME Code.
compliance with the following require- Welded attachments to pads may be
ments: made after postweld heat treatment.
(1) The jacket must be designed to (f) The fabricator shall record the
sustain a minimum critical collapsing heat and slab numbers and the certified
pressure of 30 psig. Charpy impact values of each plate
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

(2) If the jacket also supports addi- used in the tank on a sketch showing
tional loads, such as the weight of the the location of each plate in the shell
tank and lading, the combined stress, and heads of the tank. A copy of the
computed according to the formula in sketch must be provided to the owner

147

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§ 178.338–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

of the cargo tank and a copy must be ture gradients resulting from lading
retained by the fabricator for at least and ambient temperature extremes.
five years and made available, upon re- When dissimilar materials are used,
quest, to any duly identified represent- their thermal coefficients must be used
ative of the Department. in calculation of the thermal stresses.
(Approved by the Office of Management and (2) Stress concentrations in tension,
Budget under control number 2137–0017) bending, and torsion which occur at
pads, cradles, or other supports must
[Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27703 and 27713, June 16,
1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; be considered in accordance with ap-
68 FR 19281, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, pendix G in Section VIII of the ASME
2003; 70 FR 34076, June 13, 2005] Code.
(c) Stresses resulting from static and
§ 178.338–3 Structural integrity. dynamic loadings, or a combination
(a) General requirements and accept- thereof, are not uniform throughout
ance criteria. (1) Except as permitted in the cargo tank motor vehicle. The fol-
paragraph (d) of this section, the max- lowing is a simplified procedure for cal-
imum calculated design stress at any culating the effective stress in the
point in the tank may not exceed the tank resulting from static and dynamic
lesser of the maximum allowable stress loadings. The effective stress (the max-
value prescribed in section VIII of the imum principal stress at any point)
ASME Code, or 25 percent of the tensile must be determined by the following
strength of the material used. formula:
(2) The relevant physical properties
S = 0.5 (Sy + Sx) ±(0.25(Sy ¥ Sx)2 + Ss2) 0.5
of the materials used in each tank may
be established either by a certified test Where:
report from the material manufacturer
or by testing in conformance with a (1) S = effective stress at any given
recognized national standard. In either point under the most severe combina-
case, the ultimate tensile strength of tion of static and dynamic loadings
the material used in the design may that can occur at the same time, in psi.
not exceed 120 percent of the minimum (2) Sy = circumferential stress gen-
ultimate tensile strength specified in erated by internal and external pres-
either the ASME Code or the ASTM sure when applicable, in psi.
standard to which the material is man- (3) Sx = the net longitudinal stress, in
ufactured. psi, generated by the following loading
(3) The maximum design stress at conditions:
any point in the tank must be cal- (i) The longitudinal tensile stress
culated separately for the loading con- generated by internal pressure;
ditions described in paragraphs (b), (c), (ii) The tensile or compressive stress
and (d) of this section. Alternate test generated by the axial load resulting
or analytical methods, or a combina- from a decelerative force applied inde-
tion thereof, may be used in lieu of the pendently to each suspension assembly
procedures described in paragraphs (b), at the road surface using applicable
(c), and (d) of this section, if the meth- static loadings specified in § 178.338–13
ods are accurate and verifiable. (b);
(4) Corrosion allowance material may (iii) The tensile or compressive stress
not be included to satisfy any of the generated by the bending moment re-
design calculation requirements of this sulting from a decelerative force ap-
section. plied independently to each suspension
(b) Static design and construction. (1) assembly at the road surface using ap-
The static design and construction of plicable static loadings specified in
each tank must be in accordance with § 178.338–13 (b);
appendix G in Section VIII of the (iv) The tensile or compressive stress
ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- generated by the axial load resulting
chapter). The tank design must include from an accelerative force applied to
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

calculation of stress due to the design the horizontal pivot of the fifth wheel
pressure, the weight of lading, the supporting the vehicle using applicable
weight of structures supported by the static loadings specified in § 178.338–13
tank wall, and the effect of tempera- (b);

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.338–3

(v) The tensile or compressive stress component or accident protection de-


generated by the bending moment re- vice must conform to the following re-
sulting from an accelerative force ap- quirements:
plied to the horizontal pivot of the (1) Structural members, the suspen-
fifth wheel supporting the vehicle sion subframe, accident protection
using applicable static loadings speci- structures and external circumferen-
fied in § 178.338–13 (b); and tial reinforcement devices must be
(vi) The tensile or compressive stress used as sites for attachment of appur-
generated by a bending moment pro- tenances and other accessories to the
duced by a vertical force using applica- cargo tank, when practicable.
ble static loadings specified in § 178.338– (2) A lightweight attachment to the
13 (b). cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip,
(4) Ss = The following shear stresses brakeline clip, skirting structure, lamp
that apply, in psi,: The vectorial sum mounting bracket, or placard holder
of the applicable shear stresses in the must be of a construction having lesser
plane under consideration, including strength than the cargo tank wall ma-
direct shear generated by the static terials and may not be more than 72
vertical loading; direct lateral and tor- percent of the thickness of the mate-
sional shear generated by a lateral ac- rial to which it is attached. The light-
celerative force applied at the road sur- weight attachment may be secured di-
face, using applicable static loads spec- rectly to the cargo tank wall if the de-
ified in § 178.338–13 (b) vice is designed and installed in such a
(d) In order to account for stresses manner that, if damaged, it will not af-
due to impact in an accident, the de- fect the lading retention integrity of
sign calculations for the tank shell and the tank. A lightweight attachment
heads must include the load resulting must be secured to the cargo tank shell
from the design pressure in combina- or head by a continuous weld or in such
tion with the dynamic pressure result- a manner as to preclude formation of
ing from a longitudinal deceleration of pockets that may become sites for cor-
‘‘2g’’. For this loading condition the rosion. Attachments meeting the re-
stress value used may not exceed the quirements of this paragraph are not
lesser of the yield strength or 75 per- authorized for cargo tanks constructed
cent of the ultimate tensile strength of under part UHT in Section VIII of the
the material of construction. For a ASME Code.
cargo tank constructed of stainless (3) Except as prescribed in para-
steel, the maximum design stress may graphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section,
not exceed 75 percent of the ultimate the welding of any appurtenance the
tensile strength of the type steel used. cargo tank wall must be made by at-
(e) The minimum thickness of the tachment of a mounting pad so that
shell or heads of the tank must be 0.187 there will be no adverse effect upon the
inch for steel and 0.270 inch for alu- lading retention integrity of the cargo
minum. However, the minimum thick- tank if any force less than that pre-
ness for steel may be 0.110 inches pro- scribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
vided the cargo tank is: tion is applied from any direction. The
(1) Vacuum insulated, or thickness of the mounting pad may not
(2) Double walled with a load bearing be less than that of the shell or head to
jacket designed to carry a propor- which it is attached, and not more
tionate amount of structural loads pre- than 1.5 times the shell or head thick-
scribed in this section. ness. However, a pad with a minimum
(f) Where a tank support is attached thickness of 0.187 inch may be used
to any part of the tank wall, the when the shell or head thickness is
stresses imposed on the tank wall must over 0.187 inch. If weep holes or tell-
meet the requirements in paragraph (a) tale holes are used, the pad must be
of this section. drilled or punched at the lowest point
(g) The design, construction and in- before it is welded to the tank. Each
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stallation of an attachment, appur- pad must:


tenance to the cargo tank or structural (i) Be fabricated from material deter-
support member between the cargo mined to be suitable for welding to
tank and the vehicle or suspension both the cargo tank material and the

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§ 178.338–4 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

material of the appurtenance or struc- ing sequence must minimize stresses


tural support member; a Design Certi- due to shrinkage of welds.
fying Engineer must make this deter- (e) Filler material containing more
mination considering chemical and than 0.05 percent vanadium may not be
physical properties of the materials used with quenched and tempered steel.
and must specify filler material con- (f) All tank nozzle-to-shell and noz-
forming to the requirements in Section zle-to-head welds must be full penetra-
IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of tion welds.
this subchapter).
(ii) Be preformed to an inside radius (Approved by the Office of Management and
no greater than the outside radius of Budget under control number 2137–0017)
the cargo tank at the attachment loca- [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27704 and 27713, June 16,
tion. 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984;
(iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]
direction from any point of attachment
of an appurtenance or structural sup- § 178.338–5 Stiffening rings.
port member. This dimension may be (a) A tank is not required to be pro-
measured from the center of the at- vided with stiffening rings, except as
tached structural member. prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME
(iv) Have rounded corners, or other- Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
wise be shaped in a manner to mini- chapter).
mize stress concentrations on the shell (b) If a jacket is evacuated, it must
or head. be constructed in compliance with
(v) Be attached by continuous fillet § 178.338–1(f). Stiffening rings may be
welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity used to meet these requirements.
may only be for the purpose of pre-
venting an intersection between the fil- [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983, as
let weld and a tank or jacket seam amended at 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]
weld.
§ 178.338–6 Manholes.
[Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37057, Sept. 7, 1990, as
amended by Amdt. 178–89, 56 FR 27876, June (a) Each tank in oxygen service must
17, 1991; 56 FR 46354, Sept. 11, 1991; 68 FR be provided with a manhole as pre-
19281, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 scribed in Section VIII of the ASME
FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003] Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
chapter).
§ 178.338–4 Joints.
(b) Each tank having a manhole must
(a) All joints in the tank, and in the be provided with a means of entrance
jacket if evacuated, must be as pre- and exit through the jacket, or the
scribed in Section VIII of the ASME jacket must be marked to indicate the
Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- manway location on the tank.
chapter), except that a butt weld with (c) A manhole with a bolted closure
one plate edge offset is not authorized. may not be located on the front head of
(b) Welding procedure and welder per- the tank.
formance tests must be made in ac-
cordance with Section IX of the ASME [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983, as
Code. Records of the qualification must amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; 68 FR
75754, Dec. 31, 2003]
be retained by the tank manufacturer
for at least five years and must be
§ 178.338–7 Openings.
made available, upon request, to any
duly identified representative of the (a) The inlet to the liquid product
Department, or the owner of the cargo discharge opening of each tank in-
tank. tended for flammable ladings must be
(c) All longitudinal welds in tanks at the bottom centerline of the tank.
and load bearing jackets must be lo- (b) If the leakage of a single valve,
cated so as not to intersect nozzles or except a pressure relief valve, pressure
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

supports other than load rings and control valve, full trycock or gas phase
stiffening rings. manual vent valve, would permit loss
(d) Substructures must be properly of flammable material, an additional
fitted before attachment and the weld- closure that is leak tight at the tank

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.338–9

design pressure must be provided out- (7) All fittings must be rated for the
board of such valve. maximum tank pressure and suitable
[Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983]
for the coldest temperature to which
they will be subjected in actual serv-
§ 178.338–8 Pressure relief devices, ice.
piping, valves, and fittings. (8) All piping, valves, and fittings
(a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank must be grouped in the smallest prac-
pressure relief device must be designed, ticable space and protected from dam-
constructed, and marked in accordance age as required by § 178.338–10.
with § 173.318(b) of this subchapter. (9) When a pressure-building coil is
(b) Piping, valves, and fittings. (1) The used on a tank designed to handle oxy-
burst pressure of all piping, pipe fit- gen or flammable ladings, the vapor
tings, hoses and other pressure parts, connection to that coil must be pro-
except for pump seals and pressure re- vided with a valve or check valve as
lief devices, must be at least 4 times close to the tank shell as practicable to
the design pressure of the tank. Addi- prevent the loss of vapor from the tank
tionally, the burst pressure may not be in case of damage to the coil. The liq-
less than 4 times any higher pressure uid connection to that coil must also
to which each pipe, pipe fitting, hose or be provided with a valve.
other pressure part may be subjected [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983, as
to in service. amended by Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25019, June
(2) Pipe joints must be threaded, 12, 1989]
welded or flanged. If threaded pipe is
used, the pipe and fittings must be § 178.338–9 Holding time.
Schedule 80 weight or heavier. Malle- (a) ‘‘Holding time’’ is the time, as de-
able metals must be used in the con- termined by testing, that will elapse
struction of valves and fittings. Where from loading until the pressure of the
copper tubing is permitted, joints shall contents, under equilibrium conditions,
be brazed or be of equally strong metal reaches the level of the lowest pressure
union type. The melting point of the control valve or pressure relief valve
brazing materials may not be lower setting.
than 1000 °F. The method of joining (b) Holding time test. (1) The test to
tubing may not reduce the strength of determine holding time must be per-
the tubing, such as by the cutting of formed by charging the tank with a
threads. cryogenic liquid having a boiling point,
(3) Each hose coupling must be de- at a pressure of one atmosphere, abso-
signed for a pressure of at least 120 per- lute, no lower than the design service
cent of the hose design pressure and so temperature of the tank. The tank
that there will be no leakage when con- must be charged to its maximum per-
nected. mitted filling density with that liquid
(4) Piping must be protected from and stabilized to the lowest practical
damage due to thermal expansion and pressure, which must be equal to or
contraction, jarring, and vibration. less than the pressure to be used for
Slip joints are not authorized for this loading. The cargo tank together with
purpose. its contents must then be exposed to
(5) All piping, valves and fittings on a ambient temperature.
cargo tank must be proved free from (2) The tank pressure and ambient
leaks. This requirement is met when temperature must be recorded at 3-
such piping, valves, and fittings have hour intervals until the pressure level
been tested after installation with gas of the contents reaches the set-to-dis-
or air and proved leak tight at not less charge pressure of the pressure control
than the design pressure marked on the valve or pressure relief valve with the
cargo tank. This requirement is appli- lowest setting. This total time lapse in
cable to all hoses used in a cargo tank, hours represents the measured holding
except that hose may be tested before time at the actual average ambient
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

or after installation on the tank. temperature. This measured holding


(6) Each valve must be suitable for time for the test cryogenic liquid must
the tank design pressure at the tank be adjusted to an equivalent holding
design service temperature. time for each cryogenic liquid that is

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§ 178.338–10 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

to be identified on or adjacent to the (ii) The rated holding time (RHT)


specification plate, at an average ambi- must be calculated as follows:
ent temperature of 85 °F. This is the RHT = [(U2 ¥ U1) W] / q
rated holding time (RHT). The marked
rated holding time (MRHT) displayed Where:
on or adjacent to the specification RHT = rated holding time, in hours
plate (see § 178.338–18(c)(10)) may not ex- U1 and U2 = internal energy for the combined
ceed this RHT. liquid and vapor lading at the pressure of-
(c) Optional test regimen. (1) If more fered for transportation, and the set pres-
sure of the applicable pressure control
than one cargo tank is made to the
valve or pressure relief valve, respectively,
same design, only one cargo tank must Btu/lb.
be subjected to the full holding time W = total weight of the combined liquid and
test at the time of manufacture. How- vapor lading in the cargo tank, pounds.
ever, each subsequent cargo tank made q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo
to the same design must be perform- tank with lading, Btu/hr.
ance tested during its first trip. The (iii) The MRHT (see § 178.338–18(b)(9)
holding time determined in this test of this subchapter) may not exceed the
may not be less than 90 percent of the RHT.
marked rated holding time. This test
must be performed in accordance with [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983; 48
§§ 173.318(g)(3) and 177.840(h) of this sub- FR 50442, Nov. 1, 1983, as amended at 49 FR
24316, June 12, 1984; 49 FR 43965, Nov. 1, 1984;
chapter, regardless of the classification
59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR
of the cryogenic liquid. 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 57634, Oct. 6, 2003; 71
(2) Same design. The term ‘‘same de- FR 54397, Sept. 14, 2006]
sign’’ as used in this section means
cargo tanks made to the same design § 178.338–10 Accident damage protec-
type. See § 178.320(a) for definition of tion.
‘‘design type’’. (a) All valves, fittings, pressure relief
(3) For a cargo tank used in nonflam- devices and other accessories to the
mable cryogenic liquid service, in place tank proper, which are not isolated
of the holding time tests prescribed in from the tank by closed intervening
paragraph (b) of this section, the shut-off valves or check valves, must
marked rated holding time (MRHT) be installed within the motor vehicle
may be determined as follows: framework or within a suitable colli-
(i) While the cargo tank is sta- sion resistant guard or housing, and
tionary, the heat transfer rate must be appropriate ventilation must be pro-
determined by measuring the normal vided. Each pressure relief device must
evaporation rate (NER) of the test be protected so that in the event of the
cryogenic liquid (preferably the lading, upset of the vehicle onto a hard sur-
where feasible) maintained at approxi- face, the device’s opening will not be
mately one atmosphere. The calculated prevented and its discharge will not be
heat transfer rate must be determined restricted.
from: (b) Each protective device or housing,
q = [n(D h)(85¥t1)] / [ts ¥ tf] and its attachment to the vehicle
structure, must be designed to with-
Where:
stand static loading in any direction
q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo that it may be loaded as a result of
tank with lading, Btu/hr.
n = normal evaporation rate (NER), which is
front, rear, side, or sideswipe collision,
the rate of evaporation, determined by the or the overturn of the vehicle. The
test of a test cryogenic liquid in a cargo static loading shall equal twice the
tank maintained at a pressure of approxi- loaded weight of the tank and attach-
mately one atmosphere, absolute, lb/hr. ments. A safety factor of four, based on
D h = latent heat of vaporization of test fluid the tensile strength of the material,
at test pressure, Btu/lb. shall be used. The protective device or
ts = average temperature of outer shell dur-
the housing must be made of steel at
ing test, °F.
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

t1 = equilibrium temperature of lading at least 3⁄16-inch thick, or other material


maximum loading pressure, °F. of equivalent strength.
tf = equilibrium temperature of test fluid at (c) Rear-end tank protection. Rear-end
one atmosphere, °F. tank protections devices must:

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.338–12

(1) Consist of at least one rear bump- such pressure into the cargo tank. If
er designed to protect the cargo tank the jacket is not evacuated, the seat of
and piping in the event of a rear-end the valve must be inside the tank, in
collision. The rear-end tank protection the opening nozzle or flange, or in a
device design must transmit the force companion flange bolted to the nozzle.
of the collision directly to the chassis If the jacket is evacuated, the re-
of the vehicle. The rear-end tank pro- motely controlled valve must be lo-
tection device and its attachments to cated as close to the tank as prac-
the chassis must be designed to with- ticable.
stand a load equal to twice the weight (2) Each remotely controlled shut off
of the loaded cargo tank and attach- valve must be provided with on-vehicle
ments, using a safety factor of four remote means of automatic closure,
based on the tensile strength of the both mechanical and thermal. One
materials used, with such load being means may be used to close more than
applied horizontally and parallel to the one remotely controlled valve. Cable
major axis of the cargo tank. The rear- linkage between closures and remote
end tank protection device dimensions operators must be corrosion resistant
must meet the requirements of § 393.86 and effective in all types of environ-
of this title and extend vertically to a ment and weather. The thermal means
height adequate to protect all valves must consist of fusible elements actu-
and fittings located at the rear of the ated at a temperature not exceeding
cargo tank from damage that could re- 121 °C (250 °F), or equivalent devices.
sult in loss of lading; or The loading/unloading connection area
(2) Conform to the requirements of is where hoses are connected to the
§ 178.345–8(b). permanent metal piping. The number
(d) Every part of the loaded cargo and location of remote operators and
tank, and any associated valve, pipe, thermal devices shall be as follows:
enclosure, or protective device or (i) On a cargo tank motor vehicle
structure (exclusive of wheel assem- over 3,500 gallons water capacity, re-
blies), must be at least 14 inches above mote means of automatic closure must
level ground. be installed at the ends of the cargo
tank in at least two diagonally oppo-
[Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27705, June 16, 1983, as
amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; Amdt. site locations. If the loading/unloading
178–99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; 68 FR 19282, connection at the cargo tank is not in
Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003] the general vicinity of one of these lo-
cations, at least one additional ther-
§ 178.338–11 Discharge control devices. mal device must be installed so that
(a) Excess-flow valves are not re- heat from a fire in the loading/unload-
quired. ing connection area will activate the
(b) Each liquid filling and liquid dis- emergency control system.
charge line must be provided with a (ii) On a cargo tank motor vehicle of
shut-off valve located as close to the 3,500 gallons water capacity or less, at
tank as practicable. Unless this valve least one remote means of automatic
is manually operable at the valve, the closure must be installed on the end of
line must also have a manual shut-off the cargo tank farthest away from the
valve. loading/unloading connection area. At
(c) Except for a cargo tank that is least one thermal device must be in-
used to transport argon, carbon diox- stalled so that heat from a fire in the
ide, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, loading/unloading connection area will
xenon, or mixtures thereof, each liquid activate the emergency control sys-
filling and liquid discharge line must tem.
be provided with an on-vehicle re- [Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27705, June 16, 1983, as
motely controlled self-closing shutoff amended by Amdt. 178–105, 59 FR 55173, Nov.
valve. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; 68 FR 19282,
(1) If pressure from a reservoir or Apr. 18, 2003]
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

from an engine-driven pump or com-


pressor is used to open this valve, the § 178.338–12 Shear section.
control must be of fail-safe design and Unless the valve is located in a rear
spring-biased to stop the admission of cabinet forward of and protected by the

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§ 178.338–13 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

bumper (see § 178.338–10(c)), the design (iv) Laterally of 2.


and installation of each valve, damage (b) When a loaded tank is supported
to which could result in loss of liquid within the vacuum jacket by struc-
or vapor, must incorporate a shear sec- tural members, the design calculations
tion or breakage groove adjacent to, for the tank and its structural mem-
and outboard of, the valve. The shear bers must be based on a safety factor of
section or breakage groove must yield four and the tensile strength of the ma-
or break under strain without damage terial at ambient temperature. The en-
to the valve that would allow the loss hanced tensile strength of the material
of liquid or vapor. The protection spec- at actual operating temperature may
ified in § 178.338–10 is not a substitute be substituted for the tensile strength
for a shear section or breakage groove. at ambient temperature to the extent
[Amdt. 178–77, 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984]
recognized in the ASME Code for static
loadings. Static loadings must take
§ 178.338–13 Supporting and anchor- into consideration the weight of the
ing. tank and the structural members when
(a) On a cargo tank motor vehicle de- the tank is filled to the design weight
signed and constructed so that the of lading (see Appendix G of Section
cargo tank constitutes in whole or in VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code),
part the structural member used in multiplied by the following factors.
place of a motor vehicle frame, the Static loadings must take into consid-
cargo tank or the jacket must be sup- eration the weight of the tank and the
structural members when the tank is
ported by external cradles or by load
filled to the design weight of lading
rings. For a cargo tank mounted on a
(see appendix G in Section VIII of the
motor vehicle frame, the tank or jack-
ASME Code), multiplied by the fol-
et must be supported by external cra-
lowing factors. When load rings in the
dles, load rings, or longitudinal mem-
jacket are used for supporting the
bers. If cradles are used, they must
tank, they must be designed to carry
subtend at least 120 degrees of the
the fully loaded tank at the specified
cargo tank circumference. The design
static loadings, plus external pressure.
calculations for the supports and load-
Minimum static loadings must be as
bearing tank or jacket, and the support
follows:
attachments must include beam stress,
(1) Vertically downward of 2;
shear stress, torsion stress, bending
(2) Vertically upward of 11⁄2;
moment, and acceleration stress for (3) Longitudinally of 11⁄2; and, (4) Lat-
the loaded vehicle as a unit, using a erally of 11⁄2.
safety factor of four, based on the ten-
sile strength of the material, and static [68 FR 19282, Apr. 18, 2003, as amended at 68
loading that uses the weight of the FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]
cargo tank and its attachments when
§ 178.338–14 Gauging devices.
filled to the design weight of the lading
(see appendix G in Section VIII of the (a) Liquid level gauging devices. (1) Un-
ASME Code) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this less a cargo tank is intended to be
subchapter), multiplied by the fol- filled by weight, it must be equipped
lowing factors. The effects of fatigue with one or more gauging devices,
must also be considered in the calcula- which accurately indicate the max-
tions. Minimum static loadings must imum permitted liquid level at the
be as follows: loading pressure, in order to provide a
(1) For a vacuum-insulated cargo minimum of two percent outage below
tank— the inlet of the pressure control valve
(i) Vertically downward of 2; or pressure relief valve at the condition
(ii) Vertically upward of 2; of incipient opening of that valve. A
(iii) Longitudinally of 2; and fixed-length dip tube, a fixed trycock
(iv) Laterally of 2. line, or a differential pressure liquid
(2) For any other insulated cargo level gauge must be used as the pri-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

tank— mary control for filling. Other gauging


(i) Vertically downward of 3; devices, except gauge glasses, may be
(ii) Vertically upward of 2; used, but not as the primary control
(iii) Longitudinally of 2; and for filling.

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.338–16

(2) The design pressure of each liquid § 178.338–16 Inspection and testing.
level gauging device must be at least (a) General. The material of construc-
that of the tank. tion of a tank and its appurtenances
(3) If a fixed length dip tube or must be inspected for conformance to
trycock line gauging device is used, it Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR,
must consist of a pipe or tube of small see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The tank
diameter equipped with a valve at or must be subjected to either a hydro-
near the jacket and extending into the static or pneumatic test. The test pres-
cargo tank to a specified filling height. sure must be one and one-half times
The fixed height at which the tube ends the sum of the design pressure, plus
in the cargo tank must be such that static head of lading, plus 101.3 kPa
the device will function when the liq- (14.7 psi) if subjected to external vacu-
uid reaches the maximum level per- um, except that for tanks constructed
mitted in loading. in accordance with Part UHT in Sec-
(4) The liquid level gauging device tion VIII of the ASME Code the test
used as a primary control for filling pressure must be twice the design pres-
must be designed and installed to accu- sure.
rately indicate the maximum filling (b) Additional requirements for pneu-
level at the point midway of the tank matic test. A pneumatic test may be
both longitudinally and laterally. used in place of the hydrostatic test.
(b) Pressure gauges. Each cargo tank Due regard for protection of all per-
must be provided with a suitable pres- sonnel should be taken because of the
sure gauge indicating the lading pres- potential hazard involved in a pneu-
sure and located on the front of the matic test. The pneumatic test pres-
jacket so it can be read by the driver in sure in the tank must be reached by
the rear view mirror. Each gauge must gradually increasing the pressure to
have a reference mark at the cargo one-half of the test pressure. There-
tank design pressure or the set pres- after, the test pressure must be in-
sure of the pressure relief valve or pres- creased in steps of approximately one-
tenth of the test pressure until the re-
sure control valve, whichever is lowest.
quired test pressure has been reached.
(c) Orifices. All openings for dip tube Then the pressure must be reduced to a
gauging devices and pressure gauges in value equal to four-fifths of the test
flammable cryogenic liquid service pressure and held for a sufficient time
must be restricted at or inside the to permit inspection of the cargo tank
jacket by orifices no larger than 0.060- for leaks.
inch diameter. Trycock lines, if pro- (c) Weld inspection. All tank shell or
vided, may not be greater than 1⁄2-inch head welds subject to pressure shall be
nominal pipe size. radiographed in accordance with Sec-
[Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27706, June 16, 1983, as tion VIII of the ASME Code. A tank
amended at 49 FR 24317, June 12, 1984] which has been subjected to inspection
by the magnetic particle method, the
§ 178.338–15 Cleanliness. liquid penetrant method, or any meth-
A cargo tank constructed for oxygen od involving a material deposit on the
service must be thoroughly cleaned to interior tank surface, must be cleaned
remove all foreign material in accord- to remove any such residue by scrub-
ance with CGA G–4.1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of bing or equally effective means, and all
this subchapter). All loose particles such residue and cleaning solution
from fabrication, such as weld beads, must be removed from the tank prior
dirt, grinding wheel debris, and other to final closure of the tank.
(d) Defect repair. All cracks and other
loose materials, must be removed prior
defects must be repaired as prescribed
to the final closure of the manhole of
in Section VIII of the ASME Code. The
the tank. Chemical or solvent cleaning
welder and the welding procedure must
with a material compatible with the
be qualified in accordance with Section
intending lading must be performed to
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IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of


remove any contaminants likely to
this subchapter). After repair, the tank
react with the lading.
must again be postweld heat-treated, if
[68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003] such heat treatment was previously

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§ 178.338–17 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

performed, and the repaired areas must quired by Section VIII of the ASME
be retested. Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
(e) Verification must be made of the chapter), in characters at least 3/16
interior cleanliness of a tank con- inch high (parenthetical abbreviations
structed for oxygen service by means may be used). All plates must be main-
that assure that all contaminants that tained in a legible condition.
are likely to react with the lading have (2) Each insulated cargo tank must
been removed as required by § 178.338– have additional plates, as described, at-
15. tached to the jacket in the location
[Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27706, June 16, 1983, as specified unless the specification plate
amended at 49 FR 24317, June 12, 1984; 49 FR is attached to the chassis and has the
42736, Oct. 24, 1984; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003] information required in paragraphs (b)
and (c) of this section.
§ 178.338–17 Pumps and compressors. (3) The information required for both
(a) Liquid pumps and gas compressors, the name and specification plate may
if used, must be of suitable design, ade- be displayed on a single plate. If the in-
quately protected against breakage by formation required by this section is
collision, and kept in good condition. displayed on a plate required by Sec-
They may be driven by motor vehicle tion VIII of the ASME Code, the infor-
power take-off or other mechanical, mation need not be repeated on the
electrical, or hydraulic means. Unless name and specification plates.
they are of the centrifugal type, they (4) The specification plate may be at-
shall be equipped with suitable pres- tached to the cargo tank motor vehicle
sure actuated by-pass valves permit- chassis rail by brazing, welding, or
ting flow from discharge to suction to other suitable means on the left side
the tank. near the front head, in a place acces-
(b) A valve or fitting made of alu- sible for inspection. If the specification
minum with internal rubbing or abrad- plate is attached to the chassis rail,
ing aluminum parts that may come in then the cargo tank serial number as-
contact with oxygen (cryogenic liquid) signed by the cargo tank manufacturer
may not be installed on any cargo tank must be included on the plate.
used to transport oxygen (cryogenic (b) Name plate. The following infor-
liquid) unless the parts are anodized in mation must be marked on the name
accordance with ASTM B 580 (IBR, see plate in accordance with this section:
§ 171.7 of this subchapter).
(1) DOT-specification number MC 338
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25020, June 12, 1989, as (DOT MC 338).
amended at 55 FR 37058, Sept. 7, 1990; 67 FR (2) Original test date (Orig, Test
61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003] Date).
§ 178.338–18 Marking. (3) MAWP in psig.
(4) Cargo tank test pressure (Test P),
(a) General. Each cargo tank certified
in psig.
after October 1, 2004 must have a corro-
sion-resistant metal name plate (5) Cargo tank design temperature
(ASME Plate) and specification plate (Design Temp. Range) ll °F to ll
permanently attached to the cargo °F.
tank by brazing, welding, or other suit- (6) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in
able means on the left side near the pounds.
front, in a place accessible for inspec- (7) Maximum design density of lading
tion. If the specification plate is at- (Max. Lading density), in pounds per
tached directly to the cargo tank wall gallon.
by welding, it must be welded to the (8) Material specification number—
tank before the cargo tank is postweld shell (Shell matl, yyy * * *), where
heat treated. ‘‘yyy’’ is replaced by the alloy designa-
(1) The plates must be legibly marked tion and ‘‘* * *’’ is replaced by the
by stamping, embossing, or other alloy type.
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means of forming letters into the (9) Material specification number—


metal of the plate, with the informa- heads (Head matl. yyy * * *), where
tion required in paragraphs (b) and (c) ‘‘yyy’’ is replaced by the alloy designa-
of this section, in addition to that re- tion and ‘‘* * *’’ by the alloy type.

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.338–19
NOTE: When the shell and heads materials NOTE 2 TO PARAGRAPH (c): When the shell
are the same thickness, they may be com- and head materials are the same thickness,
bined, (Shell & head matl, yyy * * *). they may be combined (Shell & head matl,
yyy***).
(10) Weld material (Weld matl.).
(11) Minimum Thickness-shell (Min. (d) The design weight of lading used
Shell-thick), in inches. When minimum in determining the loading in §§ 178.338–
shell thicknesses are not the same for 3 (b), 178.338–10 (b) and (c), and 178.338–
different areas, show (top ll, side 13 (b), must be shown as the maximum
ll, bottom ll, in inches). weight of lading marking required by
(12) Minimum thickness-heads (Min paragraph (c) of this section.
heads thick.), in inches. [68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003, as amended at 68
(13) Manufactured thickness-shell FR 57634, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31,
(Mfd. Shell thick.), top ll, side ll, 2003]
bottom ll, in inches. (Required when
additional thickness is provided for § 178.338–19 Certification.
corrosion allowance.) (a) At or before the time of delivery,
(14) Manufactured thickness-heads the manufacturer of a cargo tank
(Mfd. Heads thick.), in inches. (Re- motor vehicle shall furnish to the
quired when additional thickness is owner of the completed vehicle the fol-
provided for corrosion allowance.) lowing:
(15) Exposed surface area, in square (1) The tank manufacturer’s data re-
feet. port as required by the ASME Code
(c) Specification plate. The following (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and
information must be marked on the a certificate bearing the manufactur-
specification plate in accordance with er’s vehicle serial number stating that
this section: the completed cargo tank motor vehi-
(1) Cargo tank motor vehicle manu- cle conforms to all applicable require-
facturer (CTMV mfr.). ments of Specification MC 338, includ-
(2) Cargo tank motor vehicle certifi- ing Section VIII of the ASME Code
cation date (CTMV cert. date). (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) in
(3) Cargo tank manufacturer (CT effect on the date (month, year) of cer-
mfr.). tification. The registration numbers of
(4) Cargo tank date of manufacture the manufacturer, the Design Certi-
(CT date of mfr.), month and year. fying Engineer, and the Registered In-
spector, as appropriate, must appear on
(5) Maximum weight of lading (Max.
the certificates (see subpart F, part 107
Payload), in pounds.
in subchapter B of this chapter).
(6) Maximum loading rate in gallons
(2) A photograph, pencil rub, or other
per minute (Max. Load rate, GPM).
facsimile of the plates required by
(7) Maximum unloading rate in gal-
paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 178.338-18.
lons per minute (Max Unload rate). (b) In the case of a cargo tank vehicle
(8) Lining materials (Lining), if ap- manufactured in two or more stages,
plicable. each manufacturer who performs a
(9) ‘‘Insulated for oxygen service’’ or manufacturing operation on the incom-
‘‘Not insulated for oxygen service’’ as plete vehicle or portion thereof shall
appropriate. furnish to the succeeding manufac-
(10) Marked rated holding time for at turer, at or before the time of delivery,
least one cryogenic liquid, in hours, a certificate covering the particular
and the name of that cryogenic liquid operation performed by that manufac-
(MRHT ll hrs, name of cryogenic liq- turer, and any certificates received
uid). Marked rated holding marking for from previous manufacturers, Reg-
additional cryogenic liquids may be istered Inspectors, and Design Certi-
displayed on or adjacent to the speci- fying Engineers. The certificates must
fication plate. include sufficient sketches, drawings,
(11) Cargo tank serial number (CT se- and other information to indicate the
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rial), as assigned by cargo tank manu- location, make, model and size of each
facturer, if applicable. valve and the arrangement of all piping
NOTE 1 TO PARAGRAPH (c): See § 173.315(a) of associated with the tank. Each certifi-
this chapter regarding water capacity. cate must be signed by an official of

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§§ 178.340–178.343 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

the manufacturing firm responsible for Baffle means a non-liquid-tight trans-


the portion of the complete cargo tank verse partition device that deflects,
vehicle represented thereby, such as checks or regulates fluid motion in a
basic tank fabrication, insulation, tank.
jacket, or piping. The final manufac- Bulkhead means a liquid-tight trans-
turer shall furnish the owner with all verse closure at the ends of or between
certificates, as well as the documents cargo tanks.
required by paragraph (a) of this sec- Charging line means a hose, tube,
tion. pipe, or similar device used to pres-
(c) The owner shall retain the data surize a tank with material other than
report, certificates, and related papers the lading.
throughout his ownership of the cargo Companion flange means one of two
tank. In the event of change of owner- mating flanges where the flange faces
ship, the prior owner shall retain non- are in contact or separated only by a
fading photographically reproduced thin leak sealing gasket and are se-
copies of these documents for at least cured to one another by bolts or
one year. Each operator using the clamps.
cargo tank vehicle, if not the owner
Connecting structure means the struc-
thereof, shall obtain a copy of the data
ture joining two cargo tanks.
report and the certificate or certifi-
cates and retain them during the time Constructed and certified in conform-
he uses the cargo tank and for at least ance with the ASME Code means the
one year thereafter. cargo tank is constructed and stamped
in accordance with the ASME Code,
(Approved by the Office of Management and and is inspected and certified by an Au-
Budget under control number 2137–0017) thorized Inspector.
[Amdt. 178–77, 48 FR 27707 and 27713, June 16, Constructed in accordance with the
1983, as amended by Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR ASME Code means the cargo tank is
37058, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178–99, 58 FR 51534, constructed in accordance with the
Oct. 1, 1993; 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 68 FR
ASME Code with the authorized excep-
75755, Dec. 31, 2003]
tions (see §§ 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348)
§§ 178.340–178.343 [Reserved] and is inspected and certified by a Reg-
istered Inspector.
§ 178.345 General design and construc- External self-closing stop-valve means
tion requirements applicable to a self-closing stop-valve designed so
Specification DOT 406 (§ 178.346), that the self-stored energy source is lo-
DOT 407 (§ 178.347), and DOT 412 cated outside the cargo tank and the
(§ 178.348) cargo tank motor vehi-
cles. welded flange.
Extreme dynamic loading means the
§ 178.345–1 General requirements. maximum single-acting loading a cargo
(a) Specification DOT 406, DOT 407 tank motor vehicle may experience
and DOT 412 cargo tank motor vehicles during its expected life, excluding acci-
must conform to the requirements of dent loadings.
this section in addition to the require- Flange means the structural ring for
ments of the applicable specification guiding or attachment of a pipe or fit-
contained in §§ 178.346, 178.347 or 178.348. ting with another flange (companion
(b) All specification requirements are flange), pipe, fitting or other attach-
minimum requirements. ment.
(c) Definitions. See § 178.320(a) for the Inspection pressure means the pres-
definition of certain terms used in sure used to determine leak tightness
§§ 178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348. In of the cargo tank when testing with
addition, the following definitions pneumatic pressure.
apply to §§ 178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and Internal self-closing stop-valve means a
178.348: self-closing stop-valve designed so that
Appurtenance means any cargo tank the self-stored energy source is located
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

accessory attachment that has no lad- inside the cargo tank or cargo tank
ing retention or containment function sump, or within the welded flange, and
and provides no structural support to the valve seat is located within the
the cargo tank. cargo tank or within one inch of the

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–1

external face of the welded flange or under a load in order to prevent dam-
sump of the cargo tank. age to any lading retention part or de-
Lading means the hazardous material vice. The device must break under
contained in a cargo tank. strain at no more than 70 percent of
Loading/unloading connection means the strength of the weakest piping ele-
the fitting in the loading/unloading ment between the cargo tank and the
line farthest from the loading/unload- sacrificial device. Operation of the sac-
ing outlet to which the loading/unload- rificial device must leave the remaining
ing hose or device is attached. piping and its attachment to the cargo
Loading/unloading outlet means the tank intact and capable of retaining
cargo tank outlet used for normal load- lading.
ing/unloading operations. Self-closing stop-valve means a stop-
Loading/unloading stop-valve means valve held in the closed position by
the stop valve farthest from the cargo means of self-stored energy, which
tank loading/unloading outlet to which
opens only by application of an exter-
the loading/unloading connection is at-
nal force and which closes when the ex-
tached.
ternal force is removed.
MAWP. See § 178.320(a).
Multi-specification cargo tank motor ve- Shear section means a sacrificial de-
hicle means a cargo tank motor vehicle vice fabricated in such a manner as to
equipped with two or more cargo tanks abruptly reduce the wall thickness of
fabricated to more than one cargo tank the adjacent piping or valve material
specification. by at least 30 percent.
Normal operating loading means the Shell means the circumferential por-
loading a cargo tank motor vehicle tion of a cargo tank defined by the
may be expected to experience rou- basic design radius or radii excluding
tinely in operation. the closing heads.
Nozzle means the subassembly con- Stop-valve means a valve that stops
sisting of a pipe or tubular section with the flow of lading.
or without a welded or forged flange on Sump means a protrusion from the
one end. bottom of a cargo tank shell designed
Outlet means any opening in the shell to facilitate complete loading and un-
or head of a cargo tank, (including the loading of lading.
means for attaching a closure), except Tank means a container, consisting
that the following are not outlets: A of a shell and heads, that forms a pres-
threaded opening securely closed dur- sure tight vessel having openings de-
ing transportation with a threaded signed to accept pressure tight fittings
plug or a threaded cap, a flanged open- or closures, but excludes any appur-
ing securely closed during transpor- tenances, reinforcements, fittings, or
tation with a bolted or welded blank closures.
flange, a manhole, or gauging devices, Test pressure means the pressure to
thermometer wells, and safety relief which a tank is subjected to determine
devices.
pressure integrity.
Outlet stop-valve means the stop-valve
Toughness of material means the capa-
at the cargo tank loading/unloading
outlet. bility of a material to absorb the en-
Pipe coupling means a fitting with in- ergy represented by the area under the
ternal threads on both ends. stress strain curve (indicating the en-
Rear bumper means the structure de- ergy absorbed per unit volume of the
signed to prevent a vehicle or object material) up to the point of rupture.
from under-riding the rear of a motor Vacuum cargo tank means a cargo
vehicle. See § 393.86 of this title. tank that is loaded by reducing the
Rear-end tank protection device means pressure in the cargo tank to below at-
the structure designed to protect a mospheric pressure.
cargo tank and any lading retention Variable specification cargo tank
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

piping or devices in case of a rear end means a cargo tank that is constructed
collision. in accordance with one specification,
Sacrificial device means an element, but which may be altered to meet an-
such as a shear section, designed to fail other specification by changing relief

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§ 178.345–2 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

device, closures, lading discharge de- (2) The strength of the connecting
vices, and other lading retention de- structure joining multiple cargo tanks
vices. in a cargo tank motor vehicle must
Void means the space between tank meet the structural design require-
heads or bulkheads and a connecting ments in § 178.345–3. Any void within
structure. the connecting structure must be
Welded flange means a flange at- equipped with a drain located on the
tached to the tank by a weld joining bottom centerline that is accessible
the tank shell to the cylindrical outer and kept open at all times. For carbon
surface of the flange, or by a fillet weld steel, self-supporting cargo tanks, the
joining the tank shell to a flange drain configuration may consist of a
shaped to fit the shell contour. single drain of at least 1.0 inch diame-
(d) A manufacturer of a cargo tank ter, or two or more drains of at least
must hold a current ASME certificate 0.5 inch diameter, 6.0 inches apart, one
of authorization and must be registered of which is located as close to the bot-
with the Department in accordance tom centerline as practicable. Vapors
with part 107, subpart F of this chapter. trapped in a void within the connecting
(e) All construction must be certified structure must be allowed to escape to
by an Authorized Inspector or by a the atmosphere either through the
Registered Inspector as applicable to drain or a separate vent.
the cargo tank. (j) Variable specification cargo tank. A
(f) Each cargo tank must be designed cargo tank that may be physically al-
and constructed in conformance with tered to conform to another cargo tank
the requirements of the applicable specification must have the required
cargo tank specification. Each DOT 412 physical alterations to convert from
cargo tank with a ‘‘MAWP’’ greater one specification to another clearly in-
than 15 psig, and each DOT 407 cargo dicated on the variable specification
tank with a maximum allowable work- plate.
ing pressure greater than 35 psig must
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25020, June 12, 1989, as
be ‘‘constructed and certified in con- amended at 55 FR 37058, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
formance with Section VIII of the 178–105, 59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178–
ASME Code’’ (IBR, see § 171.7 of this 118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 66 FR 45387,
subchapter) except as limited or modi- 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003;
fied by the applicable cargo tank speci- 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31,
fication. Other cargo tanks must be 2003; 70 FR 56099, Sept. 23, 2005; 76 FR 43532,
‘‘constructed in accordance with Sec- July 20, 2011]
tion VIII of the ASME Code,’’ except as
§ 178.345–2 Material and material
limited or modified by the applicable thickness.
cargo tank specification.
(g) Requirements relating to parts (a) All material for shell, heads,
and accessories on motor vehicles, bulkheads, and baffles must conform to
which are contained in part 393 of the Section II of the ASME Code (IBR, see
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regula- § 171.7 of this subchapter) except as fol-
tions of this title, are incorporated lows:
into these specifications. (1) The following steels are also au-
(h) Any additional requirements pre- thorized for cargo tanks ‘‘constructed
scribed in part 173 of this subchapter in accordance with the ASME Code’’,
that pertain to the transportation of a Section VIII.
specific lading are incorporated into ASTM A 569
these specifications. ASTM A 570
(i) Cargo tank motor vehicle composed ASTM A 572
of multiple cargo tanks. (1) A cargo tank ASTM A 622
motor vehicle composed of more than ASTM A 656
one cargo tank may be constructed ASTM A 715
ASTM A 1008/ A 1008M, ASTM A 1011/A 1011M
with the cargo tanks made to the same
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

specification or to different specifica- (2) Aluminum alloys suitable for fu-


tions. Each cargo tank must conform sion welding and conforming with the
in all respects with the specification 0, H32 or H34 tempers of one of the fol-
for which it is certified. lowing ASTM specifications may be

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–3

used for cargo tanks ‘‘constructed in § 178.345–3 Structural integrity.


accordance with the ASME Code’’: (a) General requirements and accept-
ASTM B–209 Alloy 5052 ance criteria. (1) The maximum cal-
ASTM B–209 Alloy 5086 culated design stress at any point in
ASTM B–209 Alloy 5154 the cargo tank wall may not exceed the
ASTM B–209 Alloy 5254 maximum allowable stress value pre-
ASTM B–209 Alloy 5454 scribed in Section VIII of the ASME
ASTM B–209 Alloy 5652 Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub-
chapter), or 25 percent of the tensile
All heads, bulkheads and baffles must strength of the material used at design
be of 0 temper (annealed) or stronger conditions.
tempers. All shell materials shall be of (2) The relevant physical properties
H 32 or H 34 tempers except that the of the materials used in each cargo
lower ultimate strength tempers may tank may be established either by a
be used if the minimum shell certified test report from the material
thicknesses in the tables are increased manufacturer or by testing in conform-
in inverse proportion to the lesser ulti- ance with a recognized national stand-
mate strength. ard. In either case, the ultimate tensile
(b) Minimum thickness. The minimum strength of the material used in the de-
thickness for the shell and heads (or sign may not exceed 120 percent of the
baffles and bulkheads when used as minimum ultimate tensile strength
tank reinforcement) must be no less specified in either the ASME Code or
than that determined under criteria for the ASTM standard to which the mate-
minimum thickness specified in rial is manufactured.
§ 178.320(a). (3) The maximum design stress at
(c) Corrosion or abrasion protection. any point in the cargo tank must be
When required by 49 CFR part 173 for a calculated separately for the loading
particular lading, a cargo tank or a conditions described in paragraphs (b)
part thereof, subject to thinning by and (c) of this section. Alternate test
corrosion or mechanical abrasion due or analytical methods, or a combina-
to the lading, must be protected by tion thereof, may be used in place of
providing the tank or part of the tank the procedures described in paragraphs
with a suitable increase in thickness of (b) and (c) of this section, if the meth-
material, a lining or some other suit- ods are accurate and verifiable. TTMA
able method of protection. RP 96–01, Structural Integrity of DOT
(1) Corrosion allowance. Material 406, DOT 407, and DOT 412 Cylindrical
added for corrosion allowance need not Cargo Tanks, may be used as guidance
be of uniform thickness if different in performing the calculations.
rates of attack can reasonably be ex- (4) Corrosion allowance material may
pected for various areas of the cargo not be included to satisfy any of the
tank. design calculation requirements of this
(2) Lining. Lining material must con- section.
sist of a nonporous, homogeneous ma- (b) ASME Code design and construc-
terial not less elastic than the parent tion. The static design and construc-
metal and substantially immune to at- tion of each cargo tank must be in ac-
tack by the lading. The lining material cordance with Section VIII of the
must be bonded or attached by other ASME Code. The cargo tank design
appropriate means to the cargo tank must include calculation of stresses
wall and must be imperforate when ap- generated by the MAWP, the weight of
plied. Any joint or seam in the lining the lading, the weight of structures
must be made by fusing the materials supported by the cargo tank wall and
together, or by other satisfactory the effect of temperature gradients re-
means. sulting from lading and ambient tem-
perature extremes. When dissimilar
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25021, June 12, 1989, as
materials are used, their thermal coef-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

amended at 55 FR 37059, Sept. 7, 1990; 56 FR


27876, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178–97, 57 FR 45465, ficients must be used in the calculation
Oct. 1, 1992; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. of thermal stresses.
1, 1996; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75755, (1) Stress concentrations in tension,
Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 34076, June 13, 2005] bending and torsion which occur at

161

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§ 178.345–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

pads, cradles, or other supports must (A) The longitudinal stresses result-
be considered in accordance with ap- ing from the MAWP and external pres-
pendix G in Section VIII of the ASME sure, when applicable, plus static head,
Code. in combination with the bending stress
(2) Longitudinal compressive buck- generated by the static weight of the
ling stress for ASME certified vessels fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle,
must be calculated using paragraph all structural elements, equipment and
UG–23(b) in Section VIII of the ASME appurtenances supported by the cargo
Code. For cargo tanks not required to tank wall;
be certified in accordance with the (B) The tensile or compressive stress
ASME Code, compressive buckling resulting from normal operating longi-
stress may be calculated using alter- tudinal acceleration or deceleration. In
native analysis methods which are ac- each case, the forces applied must be
curate and verifiable. When alternative 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the
methods are used, calculations must suspension assembly, applied at the
include both the static loads described road surface, and as transmitted to the
in this paragraph and the dynamic cargo tank wall through the suspension
loads described in paragraph (c) of this assembly of a trailer during decelera-
section. tion; or the horizontal pivot of the
(3) Cargo tank designers and manu- truck tractor or converter dolly fifth
facturers must consider all of the con- wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the
ditions specified in § 173.33(c) of this fixed dolly during acceleration; or an-
subchapter when matching a cargo choring and support members of a
tank’s performance characteristic to truck during acceleration and decelera-
the characteristic of each lading trans- tion, as applicable. The vertical reac-
ported. tion must be calculated based on the
(c) Shell design. Shell stresses result- static weight of the fully loaded cargo
ing from static or dynamic loadings, or tank motor vehicle, all structural ele-
combinations thereof, are not uniform ments, equipment and appurtenances
throughout the cargo tank motor vehi-
supported by the cargo tank wall. The
cle. The vertical, longitudinal, and lat-
following loadings must be included:
eral normal operating loadings can
(1) The axial load generated by a
occur simultaneously and must be
combined. The vertical, longitudinal decelerative force;
and lateral extreme dynamic loadings (2) The bending moment generated by
occur separately and need not be com- a decelerative force;
bined. (3) The axial load generated by an ac-
(1) Normal operating loadings. The fol- celerative force; and
lowing procedure addresses stress in (4) The bending moment generated by
the cargo tank shell resulting from an accelerative force; and
normal operating loadings. The effec- (C) The tensile or compressive stress
tive stress (the maximum principal generated by the bending moment re-
stress at any point) must be deter- sulting from normal operating vertical
mined by the following formula: accelerative force equal to 0.35 times
the vertical reaction at the suspension
S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy¥Sx)2 + SS2]0.5
assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal
Where: pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel)
(i) S = effective stress at any given or turntable; or anchoring and support
point under the combination of static members of a truck, as applicable. The
and normal operating loadings that can vertical reaction must be calculated
occur at the same time, in psi. based on the static weight of the fully
(ii) Sy = circumferential stress gen- loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all
erated by the MAWP and external pres- structural elements, equipment and ap-
sure, when applicable, plus static head, purtenances supported by the cargo
in psi. tank wall.
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

(iii) Sx = The following net longitu- (iv) SS = The following shear stresses
dinal stress generated by the following generated by the following static and
static and normal operating loading normal operating loading conditions,
conditions, in psi: in psi:

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–3

(A) The static shear stress resulting and extreme dynamic loadings that can
from the vertical reaction at the sus- occur at the same time, in psi.
pension assembly of a trailer, and the (ii) Sy = circumferential stress gen-
horizontal pivot of the upper coupler erated by MAWP and external pressure,
(fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring when applicable, plus static head, in
and support members of a truck, as ap- psi.
plicable. The vertical reaction must be (iii) Sx = the following net longitu-
calculated based on the static weight dinal stress generated by the following
of the fully loaded cargo tank motor static and extreme dynamic loading
vehicle, all structural elements, equip- conditions, in psi:
ment and appurtenances supported by
(A) The longitudinal stresses result-
the cargo tank wall;
ing from the MAWP and external pres-
(B) The vertical shear stress gen-
sure, when applicable, plus static head,
erated by a normal operating accelera-
in combination with the bending stress
tive force equal to 0.35 times the
vertical reaction at the suspension as- generated by the static weight of the
sembly of a trailer; or the horizontal fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle,
pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) all structural elements, equipment and
or turntable; or anchoring and support appurtenances supported by the tank
members of a truck, as applicable. The wall;
vertical reaction must be calculated (B) The tensile or compressive stress
based on the static weight of the fully resulting from extreme longitudinal
loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all acceleration or deceleration. In each
structural elements, equipment and ap- case the forces applied must be 0.7
purtenances supported by the cargo times the vertical reaction at the sus-
tank wall; pension assembly, applied at the road
(C) The lateral shear stress generated surface, and as transmitted to the
by a normal operating lateral accelera- cargo tank wall through the suspension
tive force equal to 0.2 times the assembly of a trailer during decelera-
vertical reaction at each suspension as- tion; or the horizontal pivot of the
sembly of a trailer, applied at the road truck tractor or converter dolly fifth
surface, and as transmitted to the wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the
cargo tank wall through the suspension fixed dolly during acceleration; or the
assembly of a trailer, and the hori- anchoring and support members of a
zontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth truck during acceleration and decelera-
wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and tion, as applicable. The vertical reac-
support members of a truck, as applica- tion must be calculated based on the
ble. The vertical reaction must be cal- static weight of the fully loaded cargo
culated based on the static weight of tank motor vehicle, all structural ele-
the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehi- ments, equipment and appurtenances
cle, all structural elements, equipment supported by the cargo tank wall. The
and appurtenances supported by the following loadings must be included:
cargo tank wall; and (1) The axial load generated by a
(D) The torsional shear stress gen- decelerative force;
erated by the same lateral forces as de- (2) The bending moment generated by
scribed in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(C) of this a decelerative force;
section. (3) The axial load generated by an ac-
(2) Extreme dynamic loadings. The fol- celerative force; and
lowing procedure addresses stress in (4) The bending moment generated by
the cargo tank shell resulting from ex- an accelerative force; and
treme dynamic loadings. The effective (C) The tensile or compressive stress
stress (the maximum principal stress generated by the bending moment re-
at any point) must be determined by sulting from an extreme vertical accel-
the following formula: erative force equal to 0.7 times the
S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy ¥ Sx)2 + SS2]0.5 vertical reaction at the suspension as-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

sembly of a trailer, and the horizontal


Where: pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel)
(i) S = effective stress at any given or turntable; or the anchoring and sup-
point under a combination of static port members of a truck, as applicable.

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§ 178.345–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

The vertical reaction must be cal- § 178.346–2, § 178.347–2, or § 178.348–2, as


culated based on the static weight of applicable.
the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehi- (e) For a cargo tank mounted on a
cle, all structural elements, equipment frame or built with integral structural
and appurtenances supported by the supports, the calculation of effective
cargo tank wall. stresses for the loading conditions in
(iv) SS = The following shear stresses paragraph (c) of this section may in-
generated by static and extreme dy- clude the structural contribution of
namic loading conditions, in psi: the frame or the integral structural
(A) The static shear stress resulting supports.
from the vertical reaction at the sus- (f) The design, construction, and in-
pension assembly of a trailer, and the stallation of an attachment, appur-
horizontal pivot of the upper coupler tenance to a cargo tank, structural
(fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring support member between the cargo
and support members of a truck, as ap- tank and the vehicle or suspension
plicable. The vertical reaction must be component must conform to the fol-
calculated based on the static weight lowing requirements:
of the fully loaded cargo tank motor (1) Structural members, the suspen-
vehicle, all structural elements, equip- sion sub-frame, accident protection
ment and appurtenances supported by structures and external circumferen-
the cargo tank wall; tial reinforcement devices must be
(B) The vertical shear stress gen- used as sites for attachment of appur-
erated by an extreme vertical accelera- tenances and other accessories to the
tive force equal to 0.7 times the cargo tank, when practicable.
vertical reaction at the suspension as- (2) A lightweight attachment to a
sembly of a trailer, and the horizontal cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip,
pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) brake line clip, skirting structure,
or turntable; or anchoring and support lamp mounting bracket, or placard
members of a truck, as applicable. The holder must be of a construction hav-
vertical reaction must be calculated ing lesser strength than the cargo tank
based on the static weight of the fully wall materials and may not be more
loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all than 72 percent of the thickness of the
structural elements, equipment and ap- material to which it is attached. The
purtenances supported by the cargo lightweight attachment may be se-
tank wall; cured directly to the cargo tank wall if
(C) The lateral shear stress generated the device is designed and installed in
by an extreme lateral accelerative such a manner that, if damaged, it will
force equal to 0.4 times the vertical re- not affect the lading retention integ-
action at the suspension assembly of a rity of the tank. A lightweight attach-
trailer, applied at the road surface, and ment must be secured to the cargo
as transmitted to the cargo tank wall tank shell or head by continuous weld
through the suspension assembly of a or in such a manner as to preclude for-
trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the mation of pockets which may become
upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turn- sites for corrosion.
table; or anchoring and support mem- (3) Except as prescribed in para-
bers of a truck, as applicable. The graphs (f)(1) and (f)(2) of this section,
vertical reaction must be calculated the welding of any appurtenance to the
based on the static weight of the fully cargo tank wall must be made by at-
loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all tachment of a mounting pad so that
structural elements, equipment and ap- there will be no adverse effect upon the
purtenances supported by the cargo lading retention integrity of the cargo
tank wall; and tank if any force less than that pre-
(D) The torsional shear stress gen- scribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
erated by the same lateral forces as de- tion is applied from any direction. The
scribed in paragraph (c)(2)(iv)(C) of this thickness of the mounting pad may not
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

section. be less than that of the shell or head to


(d) In no case may the minimum which it is attached, and not more
thickness of the cargo tank shells and than 1.5 times the shell or head thick-
heads be less than that prescribed in ness. However, a pad with a minimum

164

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–5

thickness of 0.187 inch may be used (b) Where practical all welds must be
when the shell or head thickness is easily accessible for inspection.
over 0.187 inch. If weep holes or tell- [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25022, June 12, 1989, as
tale holes are used, the pad must be amended by Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51341, Oct.
drilled or punched at the lowest point 1, 1996; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]
before it is welded to the tank. Each
pad must: § 178.345–5 Manhole assemblies.
(i) Be fabricated from material deter- (a) Each cargo tank with capacity
mined to be suitable for welding to greater than 400 gallons must be acces-
both the cargo tank material and the sible through a manhole at least 15
material of the appurtenance or struc- inches in diameter.
tural support member; a Design Certi- (b) Each manhole, fill opening and
fying Engineer must make this deter- washout assembly must be structurally
mination considering chemical and capable of withstanding, without leak-
physical properties of the materials age or permanent deformation that
and must specify filler material con- would affect its structural integrity, a
forming to the requirements of the static internal fluid pressure of at least
ASME Code (incorporated by reference; 36 psig, or cargo tank test pressure,
see § 171.7 of this subchapter). whichever is greater. The manhole as-
(ii) Be preformed to an inside radius sembly manufacturer shall verify com-
no greater than the outside radius of pliance with this requirement by
the cargo tank at the attachment loca- hydrostatically testing at least one
tion. percent (or one manhole closure,
whichever is greater) of all manhole
(iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each
closures of each type produced each 3
direction from any point of attachment months, as follows:
of an appurtenance or structural sup-
(1) The manhole, fill opening, or
port member. This dimension may be washout assembly must be tested with
measured from the center of the struc- the venting devices blocked. Any leak-
tural member attached. age or deformation that would affect
(iv) Have rounded corners, or other- the product retention capability of the
wise be shaped in a manner to mini- assembly shall constitute a failure.
mize stress concentrations on the shell (2) If the manhole, fill opening, or
or head. washout assembly tested fails, then
(v) Be attached by continuous fillet five more covers from the same lot
welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity must be tested. If one of these five cov-
may only be for the purpose of pre- ers fails, then all covers in the lot from
venting an intersection between the fil- which the tested covers were selected
let weld and the tank or jacket seam are to be 100% tested or rejected for
weld. service.
(c) Each manhole, filler and washout
[Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37059, Sept. 7, 1990, as
cover must be fitted with a safety de-
amended by Amdt. 178–89, 56 FR 27876, June
17, 1991; Amdt. 178–104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26,
vice that prevents the cover from open-
1994; Amdt. 178–105, 59 FR 55173, 55174 and ing fully when internal pressure is
55175, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; present.
Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR (d) Each manhole and fill cover must
58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; be secured with fastenings that will
68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003; 74 FR 16143, Apr. 9, prevent opening of the covers as a re-
2009] sult of vibration under normal trans-
portation conditions or shock impact
§ 178.345–4 Joints. due to a rollover accident on the road-
(a) All joints between the cargo tank way or shoulder where the fill cover is
shell, heads, baffles, baffle attaching not struck by a substantial obstacle.
rings, and bulkheads must be welded in (e) On cargo tank motor vehicles
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

conformance with Section VIII of the manufactured after October 1, 2004,


ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- each manhole assembly must be per-
chapter). manently marked on the outside by
stamping or other means in a location

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§ 178.345–6 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

visible without opening the manhole § 178.345–7 Circumferential reinforce-


assembly or fill opening, with: ments.
(1) Manufacturer’s name; (a) A cargo tank with a shell thick-
(2) Test pressure ll psig; ness of less than 3⁄8 inch must be cir-
(3) A statement certifying that the cumferentially reinforced with bulk-
manhole cover meets the requirements heads, baffles, ring stiffeners, or any
in § 178.345–5. combination thereof, in addition to the
(f) All components mounted on a cargo tank heads.
manhole cover that form part of the (1) Circumferential reinforcement
lading retention structure of the cargo must be located so that the thickness
tank wall must withstand the same and tensile strength of the shell mate-
static internal fluid pressure as that rial in combination with the frame and
required for the manhole cover. The reinforcement produces structural in-
component manufacturer shall verify tegrity at least equal to that pre-
compliance using the same test proce- scribed in § 178.345–3 and in such a man-
dure and frequency of testing as speci- ner that the maximum unreinforced
fied in § 178.345–5(b). portion of the shell does not exceed 60
inches. For cargo tanks designed to be
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25022, June 12, 1989, as loaded by vacuum, spacing of circum-
amended by Amdt. 178–105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. ferential reinforcement may exceed 60
3, 1994; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003; 74 FR 16144,
inches provided the maximum
Apr. 9, 2009]
unreinforced portion of the shell con-
§ 178.345–6 Supports and anchoring. forms with the requirements in Section
VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7
(a) A cargo tank with a frame not in- of this subchapter).
tegral to the cargo tank must have the (2) Where circumferential joints are
tank secured by restraining devices to made between conical shell sections, or
eliminate any motion between the between conical and cylindrical shell
tank and frame that may abrade the sections, and the angle between adja-
tank shell due to the stopping, start- cent sections is less than 160 degrees,
ing, or turning of the cargo tank motor circumferential reinforcement must be
vehicle. The design calculations of the located within one inch of the shell
support elements must include the joint, unless otherwise reinforced with
stresses indicated in § 178.345–3(b) and structural members capable of main-
as generated by the loads described in taining shell stress levels authorized in
§ 178.345–3(c). Such restraining devices § 178.345–3. When the joint is formed by
must be readily accessible for inspec- the large ends of adjacent conical shell
tion and maintenance, except that in- sections, or by the large end of a con-
sulation and jacketing are permitted to ical shell and a cylindrical shell sec-
cover the restraining devices. tion, this angle is measured inside the
shell; when the joint is formed by the
(b) A cargo tank designed and con-
small end of a conical shell section and
structed so that it constitutes, in
a cylindrical shell section, it is meas-
whole or in part, the structural mem-
ured outside the shell.
ber used in lieu of a frame must be sup-
(b) Except for doubler plates and
ported in such a manner that the re-
knuckle pads, no reinforcement may
sulting stress levels in the cargo tank cover any circumferential joint.
do not exceed those specified in
(c) When a baffle or baffle attach-
§ 178.345–3(a). The design calculations of ment ring is used as a circumferential
the support elements must include the reinforcement member, it must
stresses indicated in § 178.345–3(b) and produce structural integrity at least
as generated by the loads described in equal to that prescribed in § 178.345–3
§ 178.345–3(c). and must be circumferentially welded
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25023, June 12, 1989, as to the cargo tank shell. The welded
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

amended by Amdt. 178–105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. portion may not be less than 50 percent
3, 1994; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, of the total circumference of the cargo
1996] tank and the length of any unwelded
space on the joint may not exceed 40

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–8

times the shell thickness unless rein- (5) Hat shaped or open channel ring
forced external to the cargo tank. stiffeners which prevent visual inspec-
(d) When a ring stiffener is used as a tion of the cargo tank shell are prohib-
circumferential reinforcement mem- ited on cargo tank motor vehicles con-
ber, whether internal or external, rein- structed of carbon steel.
forcement must be continuous around
[Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37060, Sept. 7, 1990, as
the circumference of the cargo tank
amended by Amdt. 178–89, 56 FR 27876, June
shell and must be in accordance with 17, 1991; 56 FR 46354, Sept. 11, 1991; Amdt. 178–
the following: 104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178–118,
(1) The section modulus about the 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31,
neutral axis of the ring section parallel 2003]
to the shell must be at least equal to
that derived from the applicable for- § 178.345–8 Accident damage protec-
mula: tion.
I/C = 0.00027WL, for MS, HSLA and SS; (a) General. Each cargo tank motor
or vehicle must be designed and con-
I/C = 0.000467WL, for aluminum alloys; structed in accordance with the re-
quirements of this section and the ap-
Where:
plicable individual specification to
I/C = Section modulus in inches 3
W = Tank width, or diameter, inches
minimize the potential for the loss of
L = Spacing of ring stiffener, inches; i.e., the lading due to an accident.
maximum longitudinal distance from the (1) Any dome, sump, or washout
midpoint of the unsupported shell on one cover plate projecting from the cargo
side of the ring stiffener to the midpoint of tank wall that retains lading in any
the unsupported shell on the opposite side tank orientation, must be as strong
of the ring stiffener.
and tough as the cargo tank wall and
(2) If a ring stiffener is welded to the have a thickness at least equal to that
cargo tank shell, a portion of the shell specified by the appropriate cargo tank
may be considered as part of the ring specification. Any such projection lo-
section for purposes of computing the cated in the lower 1⁄3 of the tank cir-
ring section modulus. This portion of cumference (or cross section perimeter
the shell may be used provided at least for non-circular cargo tanks) that ex-
50 percent of the total circumference of tends more than half its diameter at
the cargo tank is welded and the length the point of attachment to the tank or
of any unwelded space on the joint does more than 4 inches from the cargo tank
not exceed 40 times the shell thickness. wall, or located in the upper 2⁄3 of the
The maximum portion of the shell to tank circumference (or cross section
be used in these calculations is as fol- perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks)
lows: that extends more than 1⁄4 its diameter
or more than 2 inches from the point of
Number of circum- Shell sec- attachment to the tank must have ac-
ferential ring stiffener- J1 tion
to-shell welds cident damage protection devices that
1 .................................. ..................................... 20t are:
2 .................................. Less than 20t ............. 20t+J (i) As specified in this section;
2 .................................. 20t or more ................. 40t
(ii) 125 percent as strong as the other-
1 where:
wise required accident damage protec-
t=Shell thickness, inches;
J=Longitudinal distance between parallel circumferential tion device; or
ring stiffener-to-shell welds. (iii) Attached to the cargo tank in
(3) When used to meet the vacuum re- accordance with the requirements of
quirements of this section, ring stiff- paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
eners must be as prescribed in Section (2) Outlets, valves, closures, piping,
VIII of the ASME Code. or any devices that if damaged in an
(4) If configuration of internal or ex- accident could result in a loss of lading
ternal ring stiffener encloses an air from the cargo tank must be protected
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

space, this air space must be arranged by accident damage protection devices
for venting and be equipped with drain- as specified in this section.
age facilities which must be kept oper- (3) Accident damage protection de-
ative at all times. vices attached to the wall of a cargo

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§ 178.345–8 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

tank must be able to withstand or de- tank circumference (or cross section
flect away from the cargo tank the perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks)
loads specified in this section. They that could be damaged in an accident
must be designed, constructed and in- that may result in the loss of lading
stalled so as to maximize the distribu- must be protected by a bottom damage
tion of loads to the cargo tank wall and protection device, except as provided
to minimize the possibility of ad- by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and
versely affecting the lading retention § 173.33(e) of this subchapter. Outlets,
integrity of the cargo tank. Accident projections and piping may be grouped
induced stresses resulting from the ap- or clustered together and protected by
propriate accident damage protection a single protection device.
device requirements in combination (1) Any bottom damage protection
with the stresses from the cargo tank device must be able to withstand a
operating at the MAWP may not result force of 155,000 pounds (based on the ul-
in a cargo tank wall stress greater timate strength of the material) from
than the ultimate strength of the ma- the front, side, or rear, uniformly dis-
terial of construction using a safety tributed over each surface of the de-
factor of 1.3. Deformation of the pro- vice, over an area not to exceed 6
tection device is acceptable provided square feet, and a width not to exceed
the devices being protected are not 6 feet. Suspension components and
damaged when loads specified in this structural mounting members may be
section are applied. used to provide all, or part, of this pro-
(4) Any piping that extends beyond tection. The device must extend no less
an accident damage protection device than 6 inches beyond any component
must be equipped with a stop-valve and that may contain lading in transit.
a sacrificial device such as a shear sec- (2) A lading discharge opening
tion. The sacrificial device must be lo- equipped with an internal self-closing
cated in the piping system outboard of stop-valve need not conform to para-
the stop-valve and within the accident graph (b)(1) of this section provided it
damage protection device to prevent is protected so as to reasonably assure
any accidental loss of lading. The de- against the accidental loss of lading.
vice must break at no more than 70 This protection must be provided by a
percent of the load that would be re- sacrificial device located outboard of
quired to cause the failure of the pro- each internal self-closing stop-valve
tected lading retention device, part or and within 4 inches of the major radius
cargo tank wall. The failure of the sac- of the cargo tank shell or within 4
rificial device must leave the protected inches of a sump, but in no case more
lading retention device and its attach- than 8 inches from the major radius of
ment to the cargo tank wall intact and the tank shell. The device must break
capable of retaining product. at no more than 70 percent of the load
(5) Minimum road clearance. The min- that would be required to cause the
imum road clearance of any cargo tank failure of the protected lading reten-
motor vehicle component or protection tion device, part or cargo tank wall.
device located between any two adja- The failure of the sacrificial device
cent axles on a vehicle or vehicle com- must leave the protected lading reten-
bination must be at least one-half inch tion device or part and its attachment
for each foot separating the component to the cargo tank wall intact and capa-
or device from the nearest axle of the ble of retaining product.
adjacent pair, but in no case less than (c) Each closure for openings, includ-
twelve (12) inches, except that the min- ing but not limited to the manhole,
imum road clearance for landing gear filling or inspection openings, and each
or other attachments within ten (10) valve, fitting, pressure relief device,
feet of an axle must be no less than ten vapor recovery stop valve or lading re-
(10) inches. These measurements must taining fitting located in the upper 2⁄3
be calculated at the gross vehicle of a cargo tank circumference (or cross
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

weight rating of the cargo tank motor section perimeter for non-circular
vehicle. tanks) must be protected by being lo-
(b) Each outlet, projection or piping cated within or between adjacent roll-
located in the lower 1⁄3 of the cargo over damage protection devices, or by

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–8

being 125 percent of the strength that (2) The dimensions of the rear-end
would be provided by the otherwise re- cargo tank protection device shall con-
quired damage protection device. form to the following:
(1) A rollover damage protection de- (i) The bottom surface of the rear-end
vice on a cargo tank motor vehicle protection device must be at least 4
must be designed and installed to with- inches below the lower surface of any
stand loads equal to twice the weight part at the rear of the cargo tank
of the loaded cargo tank motor vehicle motor vehicle which contains lading
applied as follows: normal to the cargo during transit and not more than 60
tank shell (perpendicular to the cargo inches from the ground when the vehi-
tank surface); and tangential (perpen- cle is empty.
dicular to the normal load) from any (ii) The maximum width of a notch,
direction. The stresses shall not exceed indentation, or separation between sec-
the ultimate strength of the material tions of a rear-end cargo tank protec-
of construction. These design loads tion device may not exceed 24 inches. A
may be considered to be uniformly dis- notched, indented, or separated rear-
tributed and independently applied. If end protection device may be used only
more than one rollover protection de- when the piping at the rear of the
vice is used, each device must be capa- cargo tank is equipped with a sacrifi-
ble of carrying its proportionate share cial device outboard of a shut-off valve.
of the required loads and in each case
(iii) The widest part of the motor ve-
at least one-fourth the total tangential
hicle at the rear may not extend more
load. The design must be proven capa-
than 18 inches beyond the outermost
ble of carrying the required loads by
ends of the device or (if separated) de-
calculations, tests or a combination of
tests and calculations. vices on either side of the vehicle.
(2) A rollover damage protection de- (3) The structure of the rear-end pro-
vice that would otherwise allow the ac- tection device and its attachment to
cumulation of liquid on the top of the the vehicle must be designed to satisfy
cargo tank, must be provided with a the conditions specified in paragraph
drain that directs the liquid to a safe (d)(1) of this section when subjected to
point of discharge away from any an impact of the cargo tank motor ve-
structural component of the cargo hicle at rated payload, at a decelera-
tank motor vehicle. tion of 2 ‘‘g’’. Such impact must be
(d) Rear-end tank protection. Each considered as being uniformly applied
cargo tank motor vehicle must be pro- in the horizontal plane at an angle of
vided with a rear-end tank protection 10 degrees or less to the longitudinal
device to protect the cargo tank and axis of the vehicle.
piping in the event of a rear-end colli- (e) Longitudinal deceleration protec-
sion and reduce the likelihood of dam- tion. In order to account for stresses
age that could result in the loss of lad- due to longitudinal impact in an acci-
ing. Nothing in this paragraph relieves dent, the cargo tank shell and heads
the manufacturer of responsibility for must be able to withstand the load re-
complying with the requirements of sulting from the design pressure in
§ 393.86 of this title and, if applicable, combination with the dynamic pres-
paragraph (b) of this section. The rear- sure resulting from a longitudinal de-
end tank protection device must con- celeration of 2 ‘‘g’’. For this loading
form to the following requirements: condition, the allowable stress value
(1) The rear-end cargo tank protec- used may not exceed the ultimate
tion device must be designed so that it strength of the material of construc-
can deflect at least 6 inches hori- tion using a safety factor of 1.3. Per-
zontally forward with no contact be- formance testing, analytical methods,
tween any part of the cargo tank or a combination thereof, may be used
motor vehicle which contains lading to prove this capability provided the
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

during transit and with any part of the methods are accurate and verifiable.
rear-end protection device, or with a For cargo tanks with internal baffles,
vertical plane passing through the out- the decelerative force may be reduced
board surface of the protection device. by 0.25 ‘‘g’’ for each baffle assembly,

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§ 178.345–9 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

but in no case may the total reduction ment is located outboard of the lading
in decelerative force exceed 1.0 ‘‘g’’. retention system.
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25023, June 12, 1989, as [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25025, June 12, 1989, as
amended at 55 FR 37061, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. amended at 55 FR 37061, Sept. 7, 1990, Amdt.
178–105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178– 178–89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178–
118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996]
18, 2003]
§ 178.345–10 Pressure relief.
§ 178.345–9 Pumps, piping, hoses and (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped
connections.
to relieve pressure and vacuum condi-
(a) Suitable means must be provided tions in conformance with this section
during loading or unloading operations and the applicable individual specifica-
to ensure that pressure within a cargo tion. The pressure and vacuum relief
tank does not exceed test pressure. system must be designed to operate
(b) Each hose, piping, stop-valve, lad- and have sufficient capacity to prevent
ing retention fitting and closure must cargo tank rupture or collapse due to
be designed for a bursting pressure of over-pressurization or vacuum result-
the greater of 100 psig or four times the ing from loading, unloading, or from
MAWP. heating and cooling of lading. Pressure
(c) Each hose coupling must be de- relief systems are not required to con-
signed for a bursting pressure of the form to the ASME Code.
greater of 120 psig or 4.8 times the (b) Type and construction of relief sys-
MAWP of the cargo tank, and must be tems and devices. (1) Each cargo tank
designed so that there will be no leak- must be provided with a primary pres-
age when connected. sure relief system consisting of one or
(d) Suitable provision must be made more reclosing pressure relief valves. A
to allow for and prevent damage due to secondary pressure relief system con-
expansion, contraction, jarring, and vi- sisting of another pressure relief valve
bration. Slip joints may not be used for in parallel with the primary pressure
this purpose in the lading retention relief system may be used to augment
system. the total venting capacity of the cargo
(e) Any heating device, when in- tank. Non-reclosing pressure relief de-
stalled, must be so constructed that vices are not authorized in any cargo
tank except when in series with a re-
the breaking of its external connec-
closing pressure relief device. Gravity
tions will not cause leakage of the
actuated reclosing valves are not au-
cargo tank lading.
thorized on any cargo tank.
(f) Any gauging, loading or charging
(2) When provided by § 173.33(c)(1)(iii)
device, including associated valves,
of this subchapter, cargo tanks may be
must be provided with an adequate
equipped with a normal vent. Such
means of secure closure to prevent
vents must be set to open at not less
leakage. than 1 psig and must be designed to
(g) The attachment and construction prevent loss of lading through the de-
of each loading/unloading or charging vice in case of vehicle overturn.
line must be of sufficient strength, or (3) Each pressure relief system must
be protected by a sacrificial device, be designed to withstand dynamic pres-
such that any load applied by loading/ sure surges in excess of the design set
unloading or charging lines connected pressure as specified in paragraphs
to the cargo tank cannot cause damage (b)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section. Set
resulting in loss of lading from the pressure is a function of MAWP as set
cargo tank. forth in paragraph (d) of this section.
(h) Use of a nonmetallic pipe, valve (i) Each pressure relief device must
or connection that is not as strong and be able to withstand dynamic pressure
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heat resistant as the cargo tank mate- surge reaching 30 psig above the design
rial is authorized only if such attach- set pressure and sustained above the
set pressure for at least 60 milliseconds
with a total volume of liquid released

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–10

not exceeding one gallon before the re- the required vent capacity is main-
lief device recloses to a leak-tight con- tained.
dition. This requirement must be met (d) Settings of pressure relief system.
regardless of vehicle orientation. This The set pressure of the pressure relief
capability must be demonstrated by system is the pressure at which it
testing. An acceptable method is out- starts to open, allowing discharge.
lined in TTMA RP No. 81–97 ‘‘Perform- (1) Primary pressure relief system. The
ance of Spring Loaded Pressure Relief set pressure of each primary relief
Valves on MC 306, MC 307, MC 312, DOT valve must be no less than 120 percent
406, DOT 407, and DOT 412 Tanks’’ (in- of the MAWP, and no more than 132
corporated by reference; see § 171.7 of percent of the MAWP. The valve must
this subchapter). reclose at not less than 108 percent of
(ii) After August 31, 1995, each pres- the MAWP and remain closed at lower
sure relief device must be able to with- pressures.
stand a dynamic pressure surge reach- (2) Secondary pressure relief system.
ing 30 psig above the design set pres- The set pressure of each pressure relief
sure and sustained above the design set valve used as a secondary relief device
pressure for at least 60 milliseconds must be not less than 120 percent of the
with a total volume of liquid released MAWP.
not exceeding 1 L before the relief (e) Venting capacity of pressure relief
valve recloses to a leak-tight condi- systems. The pressure relief system (pri-
tion. This requirement must be met re- mary and secondary, including piping)
gardless of vehicle orientation. This must have sufficient venting capacity
capability must be demonstrated by to limit the cargo tank internal pres-
testing. TTMA RP No. 81, cited in para- sure to not more than the cargo tank
graph (b)(3)(i) of this section, is an ac- test pressure. The total venting capac-
ity, rated at not more than the cargo
ceptable test procedure.
tank test pressure, must be at least
(4) Each reclosing pressure relief
that specified in table I, except as pro-
valve must be constructed and in-
vided in § 178.348–4.
stalled in such a manner as to prevent
unauthorized adjustment of the relief TABLE I—MINIMUM EMERGENCY VENT CAPACITY
valve setting. [In cubic feet free air/hour at 60 °F and 1 atm.]
(5) No shut-off valve or other device
Cubic feet
that could prevent venting through the Exposed area in square feet free air per
pressure relief system may be installed hour
in a pressure relief system. 20 ....................................................................... 15,800
(6) The pressure relief system must 30 ....................................................................... 23,700
be mounted, shielded and drainable so 40 ....................................................................... 31,600
50 ....................................................................... 39,500
as to minimize the accumulation of 60 ....................................................................... 47,400
material that could impair the oper- 70 ....................................................................... 55,300
ation or discharge capability of the 80 ....................................................................... 63,300
90 ....................................................................... 71,200
system by freezing, corrosion or block- 100 ..................................................................... 79,100
age. 120 ..................................................................... 94,900
(c) Location of relief devices. Each 140 ..................................................................... 110,700
160 ..................................................................... 126,500
pressure relief device must commu- 180 ..................................................................... 142,300
nicate with the vapor space above the 200 ..................................................................... 158,100
lading as near as practicable to the 225 ..................................................................... 191,300
250 ..................................................................... 203,100
center of the vapor space. For example, 275 ..................................................................... 214,300
on a cargo tank designed to operate in 300 ..................................................................... 225,100
350 ..................................................................... 245,700
a level attitude, the device should be 400 ..................................................................... 265,000
positioned at the horizontal and trans- 450 ..................................................................... 283,200
verse center of the cargo tank; on 500 ..................................................................... 300,600
550 ..................................................................... 317,300
cargo tanks sloped to the rear, the de- 600 ..................................................................... 333,300
vice should be located in the forward 650 ..................................................................... 348,800
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half of the cargo tank. The discharge 700 ..................................................................... 363,700


from any device must be unrestricted. 750 ..................................................................... 378,200
800 ..................................................................... 392,200
Protective devices which deflect the 850 ..................................................................... 405,900
flow of vapor are permissible provided 900 ..................................................................... 419,300

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§ 178.345–11 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

TABLE I—MINIMUM EMERGENCY VENT percent of the average value for the de-
CAPACITY—Continued vices tested.
[In cubic feet free air/hour at 60 °F and 1 atm.] (3) The rated flow capacity derived
for each device model must be certified
Cubic feet
Exposed area in square feet free air per by a responsible official of the device
hour manufacturer.
950 ..................................................................... 432,300 (h) Marking of pressure relief devices.
1,000 .................................................................. 445,000 Each pressure relief device must be
NOTE 1: Interpolate for intermediate sizes. permanently marked with the fol-
lowing:
(1) Primary pressure relief system. Un- (1) Manufacturer’s name;
less otherwise specified in the applica-
(2) Model number;
ble individual specification, the pri-
(3) Set pressure, in psig; and
mary relief system must have a min-
imum venting capacity of 12,000 SCFH (4) Rated flow capacity, in SCFH at
per 350 square feet of exposed cargo the rating pressure, in psig.
tank area, but in any case at least one [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25025, June 12, 1989, as
fourth the required total venting ca- amended at 55 FR 21038, May 22, 1990; 55 FR
pacity for the cargo tank. 37062, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178–89, 56 FR 27877,
(2) Secondary pressure relief system. If June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178–105, 59 FR 55175, Nov.
the primary pressure relief system does 3, 1994; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1,
not provide the required total venting 1996; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45389,
capacity, additional capacity must be Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003]
provided by a secondary pressure relief
§ 178.345–11 Tank outlets.
system.
(f) Certification of pressure relief de- (a) General. As used in this section,
vices. The manufacturer of any pressure ‘‘loading/unloading outlet’’ means any
relief device, including valves, fran- opening in the cargo tank wall used for
gible (rupture) disks, vacuum vents and loading or unloading of lading, as dis-
combination devices must certify that tinguished from outlets such as man-
the device model was designed and hole covers, vents, vapor recovery de-
tested in accordance with this section vices, and similar closures. Cargo tank
and the appropriate cargo tank speci- outlets, closures and associated piping
fication. The certificate must contain must be protected in accordance with
sufficient information to describe the § 178.345–8.
device and its performance. The certifi- (b) Each cargo tank loading/unload-
cate must be signed by a responsible of- ing outlet must be equipped with an in-
ficial of the manufacturer who ap- ternal self-closing stop-valve, or alter-
proved the flow capacity certification. natively, with an external stop-valve
(g) Rated flow capacity certification located as close as practicable to the
test. Each pressure relief device model cargo tank wall. Each cargo tank load-
must be successfully flow capacity cer- ing/unloading outlet must be in accord-
tification tested prior to first use. De- ance with the following provisions:
vices having one design, size and set (1) Each loading/unloading outlet
pressure are considered to be one
must be fitted with a self-closing sys-
model. The testing requirements are as
tem capable of closing all such outlets
follows:
in an emergency within 30 seconds of
(1) At least 3 devices of each specific
actuation. During normal operations
model must be tested for flow capacity
the outlets may be closed manually.
at a pressure not greater than the test
pressure of the cargo tank. For a de- The self-closing system must be de-
vice model to be certified, the capac- signed according to the following:
ities of the devices tested must fall (i) Each self-closing system must in-
within a range of plus or minus 5 per- clude a remotely actuated means of
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

cent of the average for the devices test- closure located more than 10 feet from
ed. the loading/unloading outlet where ve-
(2) The rated flow capacity of a de- hicle length allows, or on the end of
vice model may not be greater than 90 the cargo tank farthest away from the

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–13

loading/unloading outlet. The actu- liquid level. Gauge glasses are not per-
ating mechanism must be corrosion-re- mitted.
sistant and effective in all types of en- [Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37062, Sept. 7, 1990, as
vironment and weather. amended by Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51342, Oct.
(ii) If the actuating system is acci- 1, 1996]
dentally damaged or sheared off during
transportation, each loading/unloading § 178.345–13 Pressure and leakage
outlet must remain securely closed and tests.
capable of retaining lading. (a) Each cargo tank must be pressure
(iii) When required by part 173 of this and leakage tested in accordance with
subchapter for materials which are this section and §§ 178.346–5, 178.347–5, or
flammable, pyrophoric, oxidizing, or 178.348–5.
Division 6.1 (poisonous liquid) mate- (b) Pressure test. Each cargo tank or
rials, the remote means of closure cargo tank compartment must be test-
must be capable of thermal activation. ed hydrostatically or pneumatically.
The means by which the self-closing Each cargo tank of a multi-cargo tank
motor vehicle must be tested with the
system is thermally activated must be
adjacent cargo tanks empty and at at-
located as close as practicable to the
mospheric pressure. Each closure, ex-
primary loading/unloading connection
cept pressure relief devices and load-
and must actuate the system at a tem-
ing/unloading venting devices rated at
perature not over 250 °F. In addition,
less than the prescribed test pressure,
outlets on these cargo tanks must be
must be in place during the test. If the
capable of being remotely closed manu- venting device is not removed during
ally or mechanically. the test, such device must be rendered
(2) Bottom loading outlets which dis- inoperative by a clamp, plug or other
charge lading into the cargo tank equally effective restraining device,
through fixed internal piping above the which may not prevent the detection of
maximum liquid level of the cargo leaks, or damage the device. Restrain-
tank need not be equipped with a self- ing devices must be removed imme-
closing system. diately after the test is completed.
(c) Any loading/unloading outlet ex- (1) Hydrostatic method. Each cargo
tending beyond an internal self-closing tank, including its domes, must be
stop-valve, or beyond the innermost ex- filled with water or other liquid having
ternal stop-valve which is part of a similar viscosity, the temperature of
self-closing system, must be fitted with which may not exceed 100 °F. The cargo
another stop-valve or other leak-tight tank must then be pressurized as pre-
closure at the end of such connection. scribed in the applicable specification.
(d) Each cargo tank outlet that is not The pressure must be gauged at the top
a loading/unloading outlet must be of the cargo tank. The prescribed test
equipped with a stop-valve or other pressure must be maintained for at
leak-tight closure located as close as least 10 minutes during which time the
practicable to the cargo tank outlet. cargo tank must be inspected for leak-
Any connection extending beyond this age, bulging, or other defect.
closure must be fitted with another (2) Pneumatic method. A pneumatic
stop-valve or other leak-tight closure test may be used in place of the hydro-
at the end of such connection. static test. However, pneumatic pres-
sure testing may involve higher risk
[Amdt. 178–89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991, as than hydrostatic testing. Therefore,
amended by Amdt. 178–97, 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, suitable safeguards must be provided to
1992; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996] protect personnel and facilities should
failure occur during the test. The cargo
§ 178.345–12 Gauging devices.
tank must be pressurized with air or an
Each cargo tank, except a cargo tank inert gas. Test pressure must be
intended to be filled by weight, must be reached gradually by increasing the
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

equipped with a gauging device that in- pressure to one half of test pressure.
dicates the maximum permitted liquid Thereafter, the pressure must be in-
level to within 0.5 percent of the nomi- creased in steps of approximately one
nal capacity as measured by volume or tenth of the test pressure until test

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§ 178.345–14 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

pressure is reached. Test pressure must ing, embossing or other means in char-
be held for at least 5 minutes. The pres- acters at least 3⁄16 inch high. The infor-
sure must then be reduced to the in- mation required by paragraphs (b) and
spection pressure which must be main- (c) of this section may be combined on
tained while the entire cargo tank sur- one specification plate.
face is inspected for leakage and other (b) Nameplate. Each cargo tank must
sign of defects. The inspection method have a corrosion resistant nameplate
must consist of coating all joints and permanently attached to it. The fol-
fittings with a solution of soap and lowing information, in addition to any
water or other equally sensitive meth- applicable information required by the
od. ASME Code, must be marked on the
(c) Leakage test. The cargo tank with tank nameplate (parenthetical abbre-
all its accessories in place and operable viations may be used):
must be leak tested at not less than 80 (1) DOT-specification number DOT
percent of tank’s MAWP with the pres- XXX (DOT XXX) where ‘‘XXX’’ is re-
sure maintained for at least 5 minutes. placed with the applicable specification
(d) Any cargo tank that leaks, bulges number. For cargo tanks having a vari-
or shows any other sign of defect must able specification plate, the DOT-speci-
be rejected. Rejected cargo tanks must fication number is replaced with the
be suitably repaired and retested suc- words ‘‘See variable specification
cessfully prior to being returned to plate.’’
service. The retest after any repair (2) Original test date, month and
must use the same method of test year (Orig. Test Date).
under which the cargo tank was origi- (3) Tank MAWP in psig.
nally rejected. (4) Cargo tank test pressure (Test P),
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25026, June 12, 1989, as in psig.
amended at 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. (5) Cargo tank design temperature
178–105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178– range (Design temp. range),l °F to l
118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR 58631, °F.
Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003] (6) Nominal capacity (Water cap.), in
gallons.
§ 178.345–14 Marking.
(7) Maximum design density of lading
(a) General. The manufacturer shall (Max. lading density), in pounds per
certify that each cargo tank motor ve- gallon.
hicle has been designed, constructed (8) Material specification number—
and tested in accordance with the ap- shell (Shell matl, yyy***), where ‘‘yyy’’
plicable Specification DOT 406, DOT 407 is replaced by the alloy designation
or DOT 412 (§§ 178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and ‘‘***’’ by the alloy type.
178.348) cargo tank requirements and, (9) Material specification number—
when applicable, with Section VIII of heads (Head matl, yyy***), where
the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this ‘‘yyy’’ is replaced by the alloy designa-
subchapter). The certification shall be tion and ‘‘***’’ by the alloy type.
accomplished by marking the cargo
tank as prescribed in paragraphs (b) NOTE: When the shell and heads materials
are the same thickness, they may be com-
and (c) of this section, and by pre-
bined, (Shell&head matl, yyy***).
paring the certificate prescribed in
§ 178.345–15. Metal plates prescribed by (10) Weld material (Weld matl.).
paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this (11) Minimum thickness—shell (Min.
section, must be permanently attached shell-thick), in inches. When minimum
to the cargo tank or its integral sup- shell thicknesses are not the same for
porting structure, by brazing, welding different areas, show (top l, side l,
or other suitable means. These plates bottom l, in inches).
must be affixed on the left side of the (12) Minimum thickness—heads (Min.
vehicle near the front of the cargo tank heads thick.), in inches.
(or the frontmost cargo tank of a (13) Manufactured thickness—shell
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

multi-cargo tank motor vehicle), in a (Mfd. shell thick.), top l, side l, bot-
place readily accessible for inspection. tom l, in inches. (Required when addi-
The plates must be permanently and tional thickness is provided for corro-
plainly marked in English by stamp- sion allowance.)

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.345–14

(14) Manufactured thickness—heads (e) Variable specification cargo tank.


(Mfd. heads thick.), in inches. (Re- Each variable specification cargo tank
quired when additional thickness is must have a corrosion resistant metal
provided for corrosion allowance.) variable specification plate attached to
(15) Exposed surface area, in square it. The mounting of this variable speci-
feet. fication plate must be such that only
(c) Specification plate. Each cargo the plate identifying the applicable
tank motor vehicle must have an addi- specification under which the tank is
tional corrosion resistant metal speci- being operated is legible.
fication plate attached to it. The speci- (1) The following information must
fication plate must contain the fol- be included (parenthetical abbrevia-
lowing information (parenthetical ab- tions are authorized):
breviations may be used):
Specification DOT XXX (DOT XXX), where
(1) Cargo tank motor vehicle manu-
‘‘XXX’’ is replaced with the applicable speci-
facturer (CTMV mfr.). fication number.
(2) Cargo tank motor vehicle certifi-
cation date (CTMV cert. date), if dif- Required
Equipment required
ferent from the cargo tank certifi- rating 1
cation date.
(3) Cargo tank manufacturer (CT Pressure relief devices:
mfr.). Pressure actuated llllll
type.
(4) Cargo tank date of manufacture
Frangible type ........... llllll
(CT date of mfr.), month and year.
Lading discharge de- llllll
(5) Maximum weight of lading (Max. vices.
Payload), in pounds. Top ............................. llllll
(6) Maximum loading rate in gallons Bottom ....................... llllll
per minute (Max. Load rate, GPM). Pressure unloading llllll
(7) Maximum unloading rate in gal- fitting.
lons per minute (Max. Unload rate). Closures:
(8) Lining material (Lining), if appli- Manhole ..................... llllll
cable. Fill openings .............. llllll
(9) Heating system design pressure Discharge openings .... llllll
(Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applica- 1 Required rating—to meet the applicable

ble. specification.
(10) Heating system design tempera- (2) If no change of information in the
ture (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if ap- specification plate is required, the let-
plicable. ters ‘‘NC’’ must follow the rating re-
(d) Multi-cargo tank motor vehicle. For quired. If the cargo tank is not so
a multi-cargo tank motor vehicle hav- equipped, the word ‘‘None’’ must be in-
ing all its cargo tanks not separated by serted.
any void, the information required by (3) Those parts to be changed or
paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section added must be stamped with the appro-
may be combined on one specification priate MC or DOT Specification mark-
plate. When separated by a void, each ings.
cargo tank must have an individual (4) The alterations that must be
nameplate as required in paragraph (b) made in order for the tank to be modi-
of this section, unless all cargo tanks fied from one specification to another
are made by the same manufacturer must be clearly indicated on the manu-
with the same materials, manufactured facturer’s certificate and on the vari-
thickness, minimum thickness and to able specification plate.
the same specification. The cargo tank
motor vehicle may have a combined [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25027, June 12, 1989, as
nameplate and specification plate. amended at 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
When only one plate is used, the plate 178–99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 178–104,
59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178–105, 59
must be visible and not covered by in-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5,


sulation. The required information 1995; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996;
must be listed on the plate from front 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18,
to rear in the order of the cor- 2003; 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75756,
responding cargo tank location. Dec. 31, 2003]

175

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§ 178.345–15 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

§ 178.345–15 Certification. manufacturer, at or before the time of


(a) At or before the time of delivery, delivery, a certificate covering the par-
the manufacturer of a cargo tank ticular operation performed by that
motor vehicle must provide certifi- manufacturer, including any certifi-
cation documents to the owner of the cates received from previous manufac-
cargo tank motor vehicle. The registra- turers, Registered Inspectors, and De-
tion numbers of the manufacturer, the sign Certifying Engineers. Each certifi-
Design Certifying Engineer, and the cate must indicate the portion of the
Registered Inspector, as appropriate, complete cargo tank motor vehicle rep-
must appear on the certificates (see resented thereby, such as basic cargo
subpart F, part 107 in subchapter A of tank fabrication, insulation, jacket,
this chapter). lining, or piping. The final manufac-
(b) The manufacturer of a cargo tank turer shall provide all applicable cer-
motor vehicle made to any of these tificates to the owner.
specifications must provide: (e) Specification shortages. If a cargo
(1) For each design type, a certificate
tank is manufactured which does not
signed by a responsible official of the
meet all applicable specification re-
manufacturer and a Design Certifying
Engineer certifying that the cargo quirements, thereby requiring subse-
tank motor vehicle design meets the quent manufacturing involving the in-
applicable specification; and stallation of additional components,
(2) For each ASME cargo tank, a parts, appurtenances or accessories,
cargo tank manufacturer’s data report the cargo tank manufacturer may affix
as required by Section VIII of the the name plate and specification plate,
ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this sub- as required by § 178.345–14 (b) and (c),
chapter). For each cargo tank motor without the original date of certifi-
vehicle, a certificate signed by a re- cation stamped on the specification
sponsible official of the manufacturer plate. The manufacturer shall state the
and a Registered Inspector certifying specification requirements not com-
that the cargo tank motor vehicle is plied with on the manufacturer’s Cer-
constructed, tested and completed in tificate of Compliance. When the cargo
conformance with the applicable speci- tank is brought into full compliance
fication. with the applicable specification, the
(c) The manufacturer of a variable Registered Inspector shall stamp the
specification cargo tank motor vehicle date of compliance on the specification
must provide: plate. The Registered Inspector shall
(1) For each design type, a certificate issue a Certificate of Compliance stat-
signed by a responsible official of the ing details of the particular operations
manufacturer and a Design Certifying performed on the cargo tank, and the
Engineer certifying that the cargo date and person (manufacturer, carrier,
tank motor vehicle design meets the
or repair organization) accomplishing
applicable specifications; and
the compliance.
(2) For each variable specification
cargo tank motor vehicle, a certificate [Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990, as
signed by a responsible official of the amended by Amdt. 178–98, 58 FR 33306, June
manufacturer and a Registered Inspec- 16, 1993; Amdt. 178–105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3,
tor certifying that the cargo tank 1994; Amdt. 178–118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996;
motor vehicle is constructed, tested 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]
and completed in conformance with the
applicable specifications. The certifi- § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo
tank motor vehicle.
cate must include all the information
required and marked on the variable § 178.346–1 General requirements.
specification plate.
(d) In the case of a cargo tank motor (a) Each Specification DOT 406 cargo
vehicle manufactured in two or more tank motor vehicle must meet the gen-
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

stages, each manufacturer who per- eral design and construction require-
forms a manufacturing operation on ments in § 178.345, in addition to the
the incomplete vehicle or portion specific requirements contained in this
thereof shall provide to the succeeding section.

176

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.346–2

(b) MAWP: The MAWP of each cargo cated farther from the top and bottom
tank must be no lower than 2.65 psig centerline than 16 percent of the shell’s
and no higher than 4 psig. circumference.
(c) Vacuum loaded cargo tanks must (ii) For a self-supporting cargo tank,
not be constructed to this specifica- no more than two such joints may be
tion. used on the top of the tank. They may
(d) Each cargo tank must be ‘‘con- not be located farther from the top
structed in accordance with Section centerline than 12.5 percent of the
VIII of the ASME Code’’ (IBR, see shell’s circumference.
§ 171.7 of this subchapter) except as (iii) Compliance test. Two test speci-
modified herein: mens of the material to be used in the
(1) The record-keeping requirements manufacture of a cargo tank must be
contained in the ASME Code Section tested to failure in tension. The test
VIII do not apply. Parts UG–90 through specimens must be of the same
94 in Section VIII do not apply. Inspec- thicknesses and joint configuration as
tion and certification must be made by the cargo tank, and joined by the same
an inspector registered in accordance welding procedures. The test specimens
with subpart F of part 107. may represent all the tanks that are
(2) Loadings must be as prescribed in made of the same materials and weld-
§ 178.345–3. ing procedures, have the same joint
(3) The knuckle radius of flanged configuration, and are made in the
heads must be at least three times the same facility within 6 months after the
material thickness, and in no case less tests are completed. Before welding,
than 0.5 inch. Stuffed (inserted) heads the fit-up of the joints on the test
may be attached to the shell by a fillet specimens must represent production
weld. The knuckle radius and dish ra- conditions that would result in the
dius versus diameter limitations of least joint strength. Evidence of joint
UG–32 do not apply. Shell sections of
fit-up and test results must be retained
cargo tanks designed with a non-cir-
at the manufacturers’ facility.
cular cross section need not be given a
(iv) Weld joint efficiency. The lower
preliminary curvature, as prescribed in
UG–79(b). value of stress at failure attained in
(4) Marking, certification, data re- the two tensile test specimens shall be
ports, and nameplates must be as pre- used to compute the efficiency of the
scribed in §§ 178.345–14 and 178.345–15. joint as follows: Determine the failure
(5) Manhole closure assemblies must ratio by dividing the stress at failure
conform to §§ 178.345–5 and 178.346–5. by the mechanical properties of the ad-
(6) Pressure relief devices must be as jacent metal; this value, when multi-
prescribed in § 178.346–3. plied by 0.75, is the design weld joint ef-
(7) The hydrostatic or pneumatic test ficiency.
must be as prescribed in § 178.346–5. (10) The requirements of paragraph
(8) The following paragraphs in parts UW–9(d) in Section VIII of the ASME
UG and UW in Section VIII of the Code do not apply.
ASME Code do not apply: UG–11, UG– [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25028, June 12, 1989, as
12, UG–22(g), UG–32(e), UG–34, UG–35, amended at 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
UG–44, UG–76, UG–77, UG–80, UG–81, 178–89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178–
UG–96, UG–97, UW–13(b)(2), UW–13.1(f) 105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; 65 FR 58631,
and the dimensional requirements Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR
found in Figure UW–13.1. 19285, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]
(9) Single full fillet lap joints with-
out plug welds may be used for arc or § 178.346–2 Material and thickness of
gas welded longitudinal seams without material.
radiographic examination under the The type and thickness of material
following conditions: for DOT 406 specification cargo tanks
(i) For a truck-mounted cargo tank, must conform to § 178.345–2, but in no
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

no more than two such joints may be case may the thickness be less than
used on the top half of the tank and no that determined by the minimum
more than two joints may be used on thickness requirements in § 178.320(a).
the bottom half. They may not be lo- The following Tables I and II identify

177

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§ 178.346–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

the specified minimum thickness val-


ues to be employed in that determina-
tion.
TABLE I—SPECIFIED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF HEADS (OR BULKHEADS AND BAFFLES WHEN USED AS
TANK REINFORCEMENT) USING MILD STEEL (MS), HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY STEEL (HSLA),
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL (SS), OR ALUMINUM (AL)—EXPRESSED IN DECIMALS OF AN INCH
AFTER FORMING
Volume capacity in gallons per inch of length

14 or less Over 14 to 23 Over 23


Material
HSLA HSLA HSLA
MS AL MS AL MS AL
SS SS SS

Thickness .............................................. .100 .100 .160 .115 .115 .173 .129 .129 .187

TABLE II—SPECIFIED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SHELL USING MILD STEEL (MS), HIGH STRENGTH LOW
ALLOY STEEL (HSLA), AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL (SS), OR ALUMINUM (AL)—EXPRESSED IN
DECIMALS OF AN INCH AFTER FORMING 1
Cargo tank motor vehicle rated capacity (gallons) MS SS/HSLA AL

More than 0 to at least 4,500 ........................................................................................................ 0.100 0.100 0.151


More than 4,500 to at least 8,000 ................................................................................................. 0.115 0.100 0.160
More than 8,000 to at least 14,000 ............................................................................................... 0.129 0.129 0.173
More than 14,000 .......................................................................................................................... 0.143 0.143 0.187
1 Maximum distance between bulkheads, baffles, or ring stiffeners shall not exceed 60 inches.

[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25028, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178–
105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§ 178.346–3 Pressure relief. tion. This requirement must be met re-


(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped gardless of vehicle orientation. This
with a pressure relief system in accord- capability must be demonstrated by
ance with § 178.345–10 and this section. testing. TTMA RP No. 81 (IBR, see
(b) Type and construction. In addition § 171.7 of this subchapter), cited at
to the pressure relief devices required § 178.345–10(b)(3)(i), is an acceptable test
in § 178.345–10: procedure.
(1) Each cargo tank must be equipped (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. (1)
with one or more vacuum relief de- Notwithstanding the requirements in
vices; § 178.345–10(d), the set pressure of each
(2) When intended for use only for primary relief valve must be not less
lading meeting the requirements of than 110 percent of the MAWP or 3.3
§ 173.33(c)(1)(iii) of this subchapter, the psig, whichever is greater, and not
cargo tank may be equipped with a more than 138 percent of the MAWP.
normal vent. Such vents must be set to The valve must close at not less than
open at not less than 1 psig and must the MAWP and remain closed at lower
be designed to prevent loss of lading pressures.
through the device in case of vehicle (2) Each vacuum relief device must
upset; and be set to open at no more than 6 ounces
(3) Notwithstanding the requirements vacuum.
in § 178.345–10(b), after August 31, 1996,
(d) Venting capacities. (1) Notwith-
each pressure relief valve must be able
standing the requirements in § 178.345–
to withstand a dynamic pressure surge
10 (e) and (g), the primary pressure re-
reaching 30 psig above the design set
pressure and sustained above the set lief valve must have a venting capacity
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

pressure for at least 60 milliseconds of at least 6,000 SCFH, rated at not


with a total volume of liquid released greater than 125 percent of the tank
not exceeding 1 L before the relief test pressure and not greater than 3
valve recloses to a leak-tight condi-

178

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.347–1

psig above the MAWP. The venting ca- mination of Vapor Tightness of Gaso-
pacity required in § 178.345–10(e) may be line Delivery Tank Using Pressure-
rated at these same pressures. Vacuum Test’’) may not be used to sat-
(2) Each vacuum relief system must isfy the leakage test requirements of
have sufficient capacity to limit the this paragraph. A cargo tank tested in
vacuum to 1 psig. accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e) may
(3) If pressure loading or unloading be marked as specified in § 180.415 of
devices are provided, the relief system this subchapter.
must have adequate vapor and liquid
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989, as
capacity to limit the tank pressure to
amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
the cargo tank test pressure at max- 178–105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994. Redesig-
imum loading or unloading rate. The nated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29,
maximum loading and unloading rates 1996; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]
must be included on the metal speci-
fication plate. § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo
tank motor vehicle.
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989, as
amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. § 178.347–1 General requirements.
178–105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994. Redesig-
nated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, (a) Each specification DOT 407 cargo
1996; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75756, tank motor vehicle must conform to
Dec. 31, 2003] the general design and construction re-
quirements in § 178.345 in addition to
§ 178.346–4 Outlets. the specific requirements contained in
(a) All outlets on each tank must this section.
conform to § 178.345–11 and this section. (b) Each tank must be of a circular
(b) External self-closing stop-valves cross-section and have an MAWP of at
are not authorized as an alternative to least 25 psig.
internal self-closing stop-valves on (c) Any cargo tank motor vehicle
loading/unloading outlets. built to this specification with a
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989. Re- MAWP greater than 35 psig or any
designated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, cargo tank motor vehicle built to this
Apr. 29, 1996] specification designed to be loaded by
vacuum must be constructed and cer-
§ 178.346–5 Pressure and leakage tests. tified in accordance with Section VIII
(a) Each cargo tank must be tested in of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of
accordance with § 178.345–13 and this this subchapter). The external design
section. pressure for a cargo tank loaded by
(b) Pressure test. Test pressure must vacuum must be at least 15 psi.
be as follows: (d) Any cargo tank motor vehicle
(1) Using the hydrostatic test meth- built to this specification with a
od, the test pressure must be the great- MAWP of 35 psig or less or any cargo
er of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank motor vehicle built to this speci-
tank MAWP. fication designed to withstand full vac-
(2) Using the pneumatic test method, uum but not equipped to be loaded by
the test pressure must be the greater of vacuum must be constructed in accord-
5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank ance with Section VIII of the ASME
MAWP, and the inspection pressure Code.
must be the cargo tank MAWP. (1) The record-keeping requirements
(c) Leakage test. A cargo tank used to contained in Section VIII of the ASME
transport a petroleum distillate fuel Code do not apply. The inspection re-
that is equipped with vapor recovery quirements of parts UG–90 through 94
equipment may be leakage tested in do not apply. Inspection and certifi-
accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To cation must be made by an inspector
satisfy the leakage test requirements registered in accordance with subpart
of this paragraph, the test specified in F of part 107.
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted (2) Loadings must be as prescribed in


using air. The hydrostatic test alter- § 178.345–3.
native permitted under Appendix A to (3) The knuckle radius of flanged
40 CFR Part 60 (‘‘Method 27—Deter- heads must be at least three times the

179

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§ 178.347–2 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

material thickness, and in no case less those to be used in the manufacture of


than 0.5 inch. Stuffed (inserted) heads a cargo tank bulkhead must be tested
may be attached to the shell by a fillet to failure in tension. The test specimen
weld. The knuckle radius and dish ra- must be of the same thickness and
dius versus diameter limitations of joined by the same welding procedure.
UG–32 do not apply for cargo tank The test specimens may represent all
motor vehicles with a MAWP of 35 psig the tanks that are made in the same
or less. facility within 6 months after the tests
(4) Marking, certification, data re- are completed. Before welding, the fit-
ports and nameplates must be as pre-
up of the joints on the test specimens
scribed in §§ 178.345–14 and 178.345–15.
must represent production conditions
(5) Manhole closure assemblies must
conform to § 178.347–3. that would result in the least joint
(6) Pressure relief devices must be as strength. Evidence of joint fit-up and
prescribed in § 178.347–4. test results must be retained at the
(7) The hydrostatic or pneumatic test manufacturer’s facility for at least 5
must be as prescribed in § 178.347–5. years.
(8) The following paragraphs in parts (vi) Acceptance criteria: The ratio of
UG and UW in Section VIII the ASME the actual tensile stress at failure to
Code do not apply: UG–11, UG–12, UG– the actual tensile strength of the adja-
22(g), UG–32(e), UG–34, UG–35, UG–44, cent material of all samples of a test
UG–76, UG–77, UG–80, UG–81, UG–96, lot must be greater than 0.85.
UG–97, UW–12, UW–13(b)(2), UW–13.1(f),
and the dimensional requirements [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989, as
found in Figure UW–13.1. amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
178–89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; 65 FR 58632,
(9) UW–12 in Section VIII of the
Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR
ASME Code does not apply to a weld
19285, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003;
seam in a bulkhead that has not been 76 FR 3388, Jan. 19, 2011; 76 FR 43532, July 20,
radiographically examined, under the 2011]
following conditions:
(i) The strength of the weld seam is § 178.347–2 Material and thickness of
assumed to be 0.85 of the strength of material.
the bulkhead.
(ii) The welded seam must be a full (a) The type and thickness of mate-
penetration butt weld. rial for DOT 407 specification cargo
(iii) No more than one seam may be tanks must conform to § 178.345–2, but
used per bulkhead. in no case may the thickness be less
(iv) The welded seam must be com- than that determined by the minimum
pleted before forming the dish radius thickness requirements in § 178.320(a).
and knuckle radius. Tables I and II identify the specified
(v) Compliance test: Two test speci- minimum thickness values to be em-
mens of materials representative of ployed in that the determination:
TABLE I—SPECIFIED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF HEADS (OR BULKHEADS AND BAFFLES WHEN USED AS
TANK REINFORCEMENT) USING MILD STEEL (MS), HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY STEEL (HSLA),
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL (SS), OR ALUMINUM (AL)—EXPRESSED IN DECIMALS OF AN INCH
AFTER FORMING
10 or Over 10 Over 14 Over 18 Over 22 Over 26
Volume capacity in gallons per inch Over 30
less to 14 to 18 to 22 to 26 to 30

Thickness (MS) ....................................................... 0.100 0.100 0.115 0.129 0.129 0.143 0.156
Thickness (HSLA) ................................................... 0.100 0.100 0.115 0.129 0.129 0.143 0.156
Thickness (SS) ........................................................ 0.100 0.100 0.115 0.129 0.129 0.143 0.156
Thickness (AL) ........................................................ 0.160 0.160 0.173 0.187 0.194 0.216 0.237
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

180

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Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT § 178.348–1

TABLE II—SPECIFIED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SHELL USING MILD STEEL (MS), HIGH STRENGTH LOW
ALLOY STEEL (HSLA), AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL (SS), OR ALUMINUM (AL)—EXPRESSED IN
DECIMALS OF AN INCH AFTER FORMING
10 or Over 10 Over 14 Over 18 Over 22 Over 26
Volume capacity in gallons per inch Over 30
less to 14 to 18 to 22 to 26 to 30

Thickness (MS) ....................................................... 0.100 0.100 0.115 0.129 0.129 0.143 0.156
Thickness (HSLA) ................................................... 0.100 0.100 0.115 0.129 0.129 0.143 0.156
Thickness (SS) ........................................................ 0.100 0.100 0.115 0.129 0.129 0.143 0.156
Thickness (AL) ........................................................ 0.151 0.151 0.160 0.173 0.194 0.216 0.237

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178–
104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§ 178.347–3 Manhole assemblies. must be included on the metal speci-


fication plate.
Each manhole assembly must con-
form to § 178.345–5, except that each [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989, as
manhole assembly must be capable of amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990. Redes-
withstanding internal fluid pressures of ignated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, Apr.
29, 1996; 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011]
40 psig or test pressure of the tank,
whichever is greater. § 178.347–5 Pressure and leakage test.
[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989. Re- (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in
designated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, accordance with § 178.345–13 and this
Apr. 29, 1996] section.
(b) Pressure test. Test pressure must
§ 178.347–4 Pressure relief.
be as follows:
(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped (1) Using the hydrostatic test meth-
with a pressure and vacuum relief sys- od, the test pressure must be at least 40
tem in accordance with § 178.345–10 and psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, which-
this section. ever is greater.
(b) Type and construction. Vacuum re- (2) Using the pneumatic test method,
lief devices are not required for cargo the test pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5
tank motor vehicles that are designed times tank MAWP, whichever is great-
to be loaded by vacuum in accordance er, and the inspection pressure is tank
with § 178.347–1(c) or built to withstand MAWP.
full vacuum in accordance with [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989. Re-
§ 178.347–1(d). designated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934,
(c) Pressure settings of relief valves. Apr. 29, 1996]
The setting of pressure relief valves
must be in accordance with § 178.345– § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo
tank motor vehicle.
10(d).
(d) Venting capacities. (1) The vacuum § 178.348–1 General requirements.
relief system must limit the vacuum to
(a) Each specification DOT 412 cargo
less than 80 percent of the design vacu-
tank motor vehicle must conform to
um capability of the cargo tank.
the general design and construction re-
(2) If pressure loading or unloading quirements in § 178.345 in addition to
devices are provided, the relief system the specific requirements of this sec-
must have adequate vapor and liquid tion.
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

capacity to limit the tank pressure to (b) The MAWP of each cargo tank
the cargo tank test pressure at max- must be at least 5 psig.
imum loading or unloading rate. The (c) The MAWP for each cargo tank
maximum loading or unloading rate designed to be loaded by vacuum must

181

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§ 178.348–2 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

be at least 25 psig internal and 15 psig tion need not be given a preliminary
external. curvature, as prescribed in UG–79(b).
(d) Each cargo tank having a MAWP (iv) Marking, certification, data re-
greater than 15 psig must be of circular ports, and nameplates must be as pre-
cross-section. scribed in §§ 178.345–14 and 178.345–15.
(e) Each cargo tank having a— (v) Manhole closure assemblies must
(1) MAWP greater than 15 psig must conform to §§ 178.345–5.
be ‘‘constructed and certified in con- (vi) Pressure relief devices must be as
formance with Section VIII of the prescribed in § 178.348–4.
ASME Code’’ (IBR, see § 171.7 of this (vii) The hydrostatic or pneumatic
subchapter); or test must be as prescribed in § 178.348–5.
(2) MAWP of 15 psig or less must be (viii) The following paragraphs in
parts UG and UW in Section VIII of the
‘‘constructed in accordance with Sec-
ASME Code do not apply: UG–11, UG–
tion VIII of the ASME Code,’’ except as
12, UG–22(g), UG–32(e), UG–34, UG–35,
modified herein:
UG–44, UG–76, UG–77, UG–80, UG–81,
(i) The recordkeeping requirements UG–96, UG–97, UW–13(b)(2), UW–13.1(f),
contained in Section VIII of the ASME and the dimensional requirements
Code do not apply. Parts UG–90 found in Figure UW–13.1.
through 94 in Section VIII do not
apply. Inspection and certification [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25031, June 12, 1989, as
must be made by an inspector reg- amended at 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
178–89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; 65 FR 58632,
istered in accordance with subpart F of Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 fR
part 107. 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]
(ii) Loadings must be as prescribed in
§ 178.345–3. § 178.348–2 Material and thickness of
(iii) The knuckle radius of flanged material.
heads must be at least three times the (a) The type and thickness of mate-
material thickness, and in no case less rial for DOT 412 specification cargo
than 0.5 inch. Stuffed (inserted) heads tanks must conform to § 178.345–2, but
may be attached to the shell by a fillet in no case may the thickness be less
weld. The knuckle radius and dish ra- than that determined by the minimum
dius versus diameter limitations of thickness requirements in § 178.320(a).
UG–32 do not apply for cargo tank The following Tables I and II identify
motor vehicles with a MAWP of 15 psig the ‘‘Specified Minimum Thickness’’
or less. Shell sections of cargo tanks values to be employed in that deter-
designed with a non-circular cross sec- mination.
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182

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TABLE I—SPECIFIED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF HEADS (OR BULKHEADS AND BAFFLES WHEN USED AS TANK REINFORCEMENT) USING MILD STEEL
(MS), HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY STEEL (HSLA), AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL (SS), OR ALUMINUM (AL)—EXPRESSED IN DECIMALS OF AN

14:56 Jan 03, 2012


INCH AFTER FORMING
Volume capacity (gallons per inch) 10 or less Over 10 to 14 Over 14 to 18 18 and over

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Lading density at 60 °F in pounds per gallon ..................................... 10 lbs Over Over Over 10 lbs Over Over Over 10 lbs Over Over 10 lbs Over Over
and 10 to 13 to 16 lbs and 10 to 13 to 16 lbs and 10 to 13 to and 10 to 13 to
less 13 lbs 16 lbs less 13 lbs 16 lbs less 13 lbs 16 lbs less 13 lbs 16 lbs
Thickness (inch), steel ......................................................................... .100 .129 .157 .187 .129 .157 .187 .250 .157 .250 .250 .157 .250 .312
Thickness (inch), aluminum ................................................................. .144 .187 .227 .270 .187 .227 .270 .360 .227 .360 .360 .227 .360 .450

PO 00000
TABLE II—SPECIFIED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SHELL USING MILD STEEL (MS), HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY STEEL (HSLA), AUSTENITIC STAINLESS
STEEL (SS), OR ALUMINUM (AL)—EXPRESSED IN DECIMALS OF AN INCH AFTER FORMING

Frm 00195
Volume capacity in gallons per inch 10 or less Over 10 to 14 Over 14 to 18 18 and over

Lading density at 60 °F in pounds per gallon ..................................... 10 lbs Over Over Over 10 lbs Over Over Over 10 lbs Over Over 10 lbs Over Over

Fmt 8010
and 10 to 13 to 16 lbs and 10 to 13 to 16 lbs and 10 to 13 to and 10 to 13 to
less 13 lbs 16 lbs less 13 lbs 16 lbs less 13 lbs 16 lbs less 13 lbs 16 lbs

183
Thickness (steel):
Distances between heads (and bulkheads baffles and ring
stiffeners when used as tank reinforcement):

Sfmt 8010
36 in. or less ............................................................ .100 .129 .157 .187 .100 .129 .157 .187 .100 .129 .157 .129 .157 .187
Over 36 in. to 54 inches .......................................... .100 .129 .157 .187 .100 .129 .157 .187 .129 .157 .187 .157 .250 .250
Over 54 in. to 60 inches .......................................... .100 .129 .157 .187 .129 .157 .187 .250 .157 .250 .250 .187 .250 .312
Thickness (aluminum):
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin., DOT

Distances between heads (and bulkheads baffles and ring


stiffeners when used as tank reinforcement):
36 in. or less ............................................................ .144 .187 .227 .270 .144 .187 .227 .270 .144 .187 .227 .187 .227 .270
Over 36 in. to 54 inches .......................................... .144 .187 .227 .270 .144 .187 .227 .270 .187 .227 .270 .157 .360 .360
Over 54 in. to 60 inches .......................................... .144 .187 .227 .270 .187 .227 .270 .360 .227 .360 .360 .270 .360 .450

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§ 178.348–2
§ 178.348–3 49 CFR Ch. I (10–1–11 Edition)

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25031, June 12, 1989; 54 FR 28750, July 7, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37065,
Sept. 7, 1990; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§ 178.348–3 Pumps, piping, hoses and Formula in Nonmetric Units


connections.
Q = 37,980,000 A0.82 (ZT)0.5 / (LC)(M0.5)
Each pump and all piping, hoses and
Where:
connections on each cargo tank motor
vehicle must conform to § 178.345–9, ex- Q = The total required venting capacity, in
cubic meters of air per hour at standard
cept that the use of nonmetallic pipes, conditions of 15.6 °C and 1 atm (cubic feet
valves, or connections are authorized of air per hour at standard conditions of 60
on DOT 412 cargo tanks. °F and 14.7 psia);
T = The absolute temperature of the vapor at
[Amdt. 178–89, 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990. Re- the venting conditions—degrees Kelvin (
designated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, °C+273) [degrees Rankine ( °F+460)];
Apr. 29, 1996] A = The exposed surface area of tank shell—
square meters (square feet);
§ 178.348–4 Pressure relief. L = The latent heat of vaporization of the
(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped lading—calories per gram (BTU/lb);
with a pressure and vacuum relief sys- Z = The compressibility factor for the vapor
(if this factor is unknown, let Z equal 1.0);
tem in accordance with § 178.345–10 and M = The molecular weight of vapor;
this section. C = A constant derived from (K), the ratio of
(b) Type and construction. Vacuum re- specific heats of the vapor. If (K) is un-
lief devices are not required for cargo known, let C = 315.
tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum C = 520[K(2/(K+1))[(K∂1)/(K¥1)]]0.5
or built to withstand full vacuum. Where:
(c) Pressure settings of relief valves. K = Cp / Cv
The setting of the pressure relief de- Cp = The specific heat at constant pressure,
vices must be in accordance with in -calories per gram degree centigrade
§ 178.345–10(d), except as provided in (BTU/lb °F.); and
paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Cv = The specific heat at constant volume, in
-calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/
(d) Venting capacities. (1) The vacuum lb °F.).
relief system must limit the vacuum to
less than 80 percent of the design vacu- [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989, as
amended at 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt.
um capability of the cargo tank.
178–104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994. Redesig-
(2) If pressure loading or unloading nated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29,
devices are provided, the pressure relief 1996; 72 FR 55696, Oct. 1, 2007; 72 FR 59146,
system must have adequate vapor and Oct. 18, 2007]
liquid capacity to limit tank pressure
to the cargo tank test pressure at the § 178.348–5 Pressure and leakage test.
maximum loading or unloading rate. (a) Each cargo tank must be tested in
The maximum loading and unloading accordance with § 178.345–13 and this
rates must be included on the metal section.
specification plate. (b) Pressure test. Test pressure must
(3) Cargo tanks used in dedicated be as follows:
service for materials classed as corro- (1) Using the hydrostatic test meth-
sive material, with no secondary haz- od, the test pressure must be at least
ard, may have a total venting capacity 1.5 times MAWP.
which is less than required by § 178.345– (2) Using the pneumatic test method,
10(e). The minimum total venting ca- the test pressure must be at least 1.5
pacity for these cargo tanks must be times tank MAWP, and the inspection
wreier-aviles on DSK3TPTVN1PROD with CFR

determined in accordance with the fol- pressure is tank MAWP.


lowing formula (use of approximate [Amdt. 178–89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989. Re-
values given for the formula is accept- designated by Amdt. 178–112, 61 FR 18934,
able): Apr. 29, 1996]

184

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