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4.41 1.1 Determine the dimensions, in both the FLT system and the MLT system, for (a) the product of mass umes velocity, (b) the product of force times volume, and (c) kinetic energy divided by area. mT! (4) mass x velocity = (MCT) Sine Famer? mass x velocity = (FL tr YILT) = Er FL? (eT 203) = Ltr N. (b) force x volume ul. (c) Kinetic energg - Flo pyHl area L — 1.2 1.2 Verify the dimensions, in both the FLT and MLT systems, of the following quantities which appear in Table 1.1: (a) angular velocity, (b) en- ergy, (c) moment of inertia (area), (d) power, and (e) pressure. angular displacemest 77 (@) angular velocity = a = me = (5) energy ~ capacity of body + co work Since work = force x distane, Chergy = FL or with font * energy = (et )(L) 2 ML? () memend of inerha(area) = second moment of arca = (47)(L*) = _L* (A) power = rate of doing work = Fl: per7 = 2 Wir ir) 2 meer? - force» Fo + py? Ce, = ae = ) pressure = TT ye (mt ?)e?) = Me '? Ue 4.3 Verify the dimensions, in both the FLT system and the stem, of the following quantities which appear in Table acceleration, (b) stress, (c) moment of a force, (d) vol- ume, and (e) work. (@) acceleration = velocity = toa rT +ime T = (L) stress = force 7 area Since F2 mtr} 2 stress = a = AL'T ce) tnement of a force = force x distance = FL Sfair dl = Ae? (a) volume = Cengts) 7 = L? (@) work ut force x distance = FL LT UL = Mitr I 1.4 14 If P is a force and x a length, what are the dimensions (in the FLT system) of (a) dP/ dx, (b) &P/dx’, and (6) §P dx? dL dk 2f= fae (4) irs FL (4) PL sf 2 el3 dx} es = © [Pa = FL 1.5 1.5 Ifwisavelocity, x alength, and atime, what are the dimensions (in the MLT system) of (a) au/at, (b) Fulaxat, and (c) f (aulat) dx? 2 @) 5 zg = LT = = | + 6) 2% 2 LT 2 72 axdd (L)(7) — ©) [4 de = ar) 4) = 1°? " a (a) VAV = (r-Wt)ler) = ltr? (not dimensionless) 4) VE 2 (TL) 2 ere es (4) yp (12 r=!) = L°T (dimension less ) le) V2 = (ere) (L277) 3 LIT? (rot_dinensionless) -! ur ri (not dimensionless ) ve LV @) 17 1.7 Dimensionless combinations of quan- tities (commonly called dimensionless parame- ters) play an important role in fluid mechanics. Make up five possible dimensionless parameters by using combinations of some of the quantities listed in Table 1.1. Some possible examplesi acceleration x time 7" CL T 27) +L? T? velocity (LT-') Frequency xtime = (TINT) = (velocity) . (ur7)* 5 er7e = (eT 2 7 length x acceleration (L)(L rT) forcex time. (ENT) . FMT? ry Prementum (M4 ™m LT!) ler yur) density x velocity x lempth , (me2ltr ML) dynamic viscosity ML 7 FLT? = MLer? 1.8 1.8 The force, P, that is exerted on a spher- ical particle moving slowly through a liquid is given by the equation P= 3muDV where jis a fluid property (viscosity) having di- mensions of FL~*T, D is the particle diameter, and V is the particle velocity. What are the di- mensions of the constant, 32? Would you classify this equation as a general homogeneous equa- tion? P= 30uDV Fle baled [rls (err 37 1s dimensjon less, and the equation’ és a general homogeneous eguation. Yes. 4.9 According to information found in an old hydraulics book, the energy loss per unit weight of fluid flowing through a nozzle connected to a hose can be estimated by the formula hh = (0.04 to 0.09)(D/dy'V?/2g where / is the energy loss per unit weight, D the hose diameter. d the nozzle tip diameter, V the fluid velocity in the hose, and g the acceleration of gravity. Do you think this equation is valid in any system of units? Explain. R= (0.04 o0.09)(2)* ¥ i EE} bors oo( SERIE [1] = [0.0% 40.09] [L] Since each term tn The eguation must have the Same dimensions, the Constant term (0.04 4 0.09) rust be di rmensionless. Thus, The eguntiby Is & general home geneous Epub That 1s Valid th any system of anits. Yes. 1.10 4.10 The pressure difference, Ap, across a partial blockage in an artery (called a stenosis) is approximated by the equation cosity (FLT), p the blood density (ML~), D the artery diameter, Ag the area of the unob- structed artery, and A, the area of the stenosis. Determine the dimensions of the constants K, and K,,. Would this equation be valid in any sys- tem of units? Vv 0 : ap = K+ x (4 1) ove where V is the blood velocity, , the blood vis- Ao _ Voy? p= ky Ad + ka lad apy a2 2 ate foc T= fa) SIE) LES -] EEL] [re’] = [k, | { FL? + {ku} frc*] Since each term must have the same dimensions, Ky, and Ky are dimensionless, Thus, the equation is a general homo geneous eguation that would be valicl tn ang Consistent system of units. Yes 4.14 Assume that the speed of sound, ¢, in a fluid depends of an elastic modulus, E,, with dimensions FL~2, and the fluid dk p, in the form c = (E,)"(p)". If this is to be a dimen- sionally homogeneous equation, what are the values for a and b? Is your result consistent with the standard formula for the speed of sound? (See Eq. 1.19.) ES ay Since C3 LT"! SFL psFl ty? [sr] ( 2%] ° For a dimensionally homogeneous epuakion each term tn the eguation must have the same dimensions. Thus, the vight hand side of £3.01) must have The dimensions of LT! There fore, ath=o (to elimnate F) 2h=-1 C40 sabisty Cond'pon onT) 2at¢b=-l Ch absty conditen on L) rt Lillows Thet ast and bz-d So Met This result i's Consistent. with The shrndard toriula fr the Speed ef sound. yes. 1.12 1.12 A formula to estimate the volume rate of flow, Q, flowing over a dam of length, B, is given by the equation Q = 3.09BH*" where H is the depth of the water above the top Q= 307 Bu of the dam (called the head). This formula gives Q in ft’/s when B and H are in feet. Is the con- stant, 3.09, dimensionless? Would this equation be valid if units other than feet and seconds were used? ler] = Bore] [LI" (37-] 2 [x00] [1 Since each term in the eguation must have the same dimensions the constant 32.09 rust have dimensions Vari rl of L*7~' and is therefore not dimensionless, No. Since the constant has dimensions its value will change with « change in units. No. 1.14 Make use of Table 1.3 to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 10.2 in./min, (b) 4.81 slugs, (c) 3.02 Ib, (d) 73.1 ft/s*, (e) 0.0234 Ib:s/fe’. @ jo2™ = (102 % )(esmx0 2) few) = -3 vm = 4arxlo”° Ss 432 om (b) 441 slegsz (491 shgs) (2459-410 4)- 70,2 49 (e) 3.02 b= (R02 )(4eve H) = saen A 3/4: (37/4) (aorraw' SB ) 2 223 & 32 a Ibes [bes Ms () 0,0234 = (0.0234 "SS, ) (4 T8PXID “ame ) bet « (0. onay “ed (uretan 4 Te 1.15 1.15 Make use of Table 1.4 to express the following quantities in BG units: (a) 14.2 km, (b) 8.14 N/m’, (c) 1.61 kg/m’, (d) 0.0320 N-m/s, (e) 5.67 mm/hr. (a) 142 4m = (42210%m) (3201 )= 466x108 H a) BKB, = (814% ) (0 366000? FE) = sexi? 4 Mw I ms 4 slugs. 5 ce) Lb) =& = (os , ) (oxi Fe). 31216 sts a cd) 6.0320 %" = (0.0320 M2) (1 5tbx10' al ) M = 23bx10” aay = (2) 547 Mt = (Sb7 x10" a2) (2281) Lhe = 5/7 x10" ee 1.16 1.16 Make use of Appendix A to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 160 acre, (b) 742 Btu, (c) 240 miles, (d) 79.1 hp, (e) 60.3 °F. #e* 5 amt (4) 160 acre = (lel acre) (4 35t.«10" Z,) (2290x10 z=) = 6.47/10 m* 3S 5 = 1.0 oF l= 783x10° J (r¥2 ary) (i SS x/ 2) 7.8310" J (4) 7¥2 BTU (é) 240 mi = (B40 me) (1609x109 =) = 3.8L 410 om Gd) 79%./ hp= (741 hp ) (1457 x10? al S90 x/0 W # (623-32) = 15.7°C = 189 K te) 7, kK 15.7 °C + 273 4 1.17 Verify the conversion relationships for (a) acre, (b) bar, and (c) U.S. liquid gallon found in Appendix A. (a) Shee | acre = #3560 FL% Chy definition) it follevs thet - 3 / acre =( #3560 2M" LEY) (2, 296304 x10 ex) 3 = HA OKbIS6Y X10 am” 3 Thus, tmultiply | acre by Eb¥LESEH XID fo Convert to tn?. _ S) Since 1 bar = 10° dynes/em> (by definitisa ) ib bls that lb atx dues Vip Mes Md tm , = 10° Thus, rualtiply 1 bar by 105 to converd to N/m? 3? Lo. (2) Siice 1 US. gallon = 231 Ia (by definition) vt follows That / gal =(23/ In, > )(zs4 x an)? = 2ITGEUIE X10 Ann -3 Thus, multiply | VS. Gallon be 3.285¢NS x) Lo Convert to m?. ¥ Exact by cdetinrtibn, 1.18 1.18 For Table 1.3 verify the conversion re- lationships for: (a) area, (b) density, (c) velocity, and (d) specific weight. Use the basic conversion relationships: 1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 Ib = 4.4482 N; and 1 slug = 14.594 kg. (a) / #*= (I flo sora) 2a" 0.09290 am ye Thus, multiply tt? by 9.270 E-2 t+ convert to m*, th) 7 Slug = (] slog hy \[ 1 fe d/o (1 shed ) (9.5% ft) la a Re = S/S5.4 Fas Thus, multiply slug fe? by S1S¥ E+2 to convert to ko /m?3 ee) y He [| ft) (0.3049 @)= O 3049 & Thus, multiply tt/s bg 3.048 E-1 to convert to mS. w)f_Lée? a te ( a) Havers f [wana | = 171% Thus, multiply I6/A? by L5TLEt2 + convert to N/m, 1.19 1.19 For Table 1.4 verify the conversion re- lationships for: (a) acceleration, (b) density, (©) pressure, and (d) volume flowrate. Use the basic conversion relationships: 1 m = 3.2808 ft; 1N = 0.22481 Ib; and 1 kg = 0.068521 slug. (a) (hs (1% C2808 ft )= 3.28/ bt 2 Thus, rrultiply m/s? by 3.d8) to convert to ft/s2, As. (; 48) slugs)[ Lam _ | &) | Bes (| Sh )(o.ovssar Se4*) aaah - -3 sl = 1. fo x10 = Thus, multiply Ay Jem? by 1.940 E-3 to convert to slug/Le3. Mo (| M.) (oazye: 2 )f te | rn (| me) n 2) (3 2908)? Ft* = noeg x? 2 Thus, mulbiply N/m? by 2.084 F-2 to convert to Ib/ Fe”, 33 3 (d) | a =(I am?) [ @ 2008) |. 35.31 Thas, mult iply m/s by 3531 Et! to convert to ft/s, 1.20 1.20 Water flows from a large drainage pipe at a rate of 1500 gal/min. What is this volume rate of flow in m?/s and in liters/min? = Mm? flowrate = (/500 gal ) (6,309x10° “s ) Pain —_ gal min = 2% x10" ae? Since | liter = 10? m3, flowrate = (9% x10? an?) (102 shes) bes) anin 5680 Liters 1.21 1.24 A tank of oil has a mass of 30 slugs. (a) Determine its weight in pounds and in new- tons at the earth’s surface. (b) What would be its mass (in slugs) and its weight (in pounds) if lo- cated on the moon’s surface where the gravita- tional attraction is approximately one-sixth that at the earth’s surface? ca) weight 2 mass x g = (30 slugs) (222 = (30 slugs) (4454 x ) (481 %)= Yeron 706 bh 66) mass = 30 slugs (rmass does not depend on gravitation) attraction ) weight (2 slugs ) (222 “) = Jel lb @ 1.22 1.22 A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Determine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/s? weight Mass = “a 300 N_ = 306 4g Ze) — for gs 40 4e/s> weight = (30.0 4g ) (404) (0.3048 &) 373 N 1.23 1.23 An important dimensionless parameter __the Froude number using SI units for V. g, and in certain types of fluid flow problems is the Froude _€. Explain the significance of the results of these number defined as V/Vgl, where Vis a velocity, calculations. 8 the acceleration of gravity, and (a length. De- termine the value of the Froude number for V = 10 ft/s, g = 32.2 ft/s’, and { = 2 ft. Recalculate Ln 86 units, vo, ot _ i (32.2 )(24) Ln SI units: V=(lo & ) (2.3049 F)- 305 @ = 43! {é & w s2 R= (24) (0.3048 2): 0.610 m Thus, 305 F Vv ———— = 125 ge Visi %)eiom The value of a dimensionless Parameter is independent ef the unit system. es 1.24 — The specific weight of a certain liquid is 85.3 Ib/ft. Determine its density and specific gravity. ib peeks 853 ys 2s slugs 4 322 # Ft slags 26S wy soz poe st . @ # slugs Cot * A G4 oe 1.25 1.25 The density of a certain type of jet fuel is 805 kg/m*. Determine its specific gravity and specific weight. z SG = A = 505 ps = 0,905 a= Ber Toe y=P9 = (905 ££.) (4.81 %)= 7970 BM 1.26 1.26 An open, rigid-walled, cylindrical tank contains 4 ft* of water at 40 °F, Over a 24-hour period of time the water temperature varies from 40 °F to 90 °F, Make use of the data in Appendix B to determine how much the volume of water will change. For a tank diameter of 2 ft, would the corresponding change in water depth be very noticeable? Explain. mass of water = W*P where ts the volume and 2 The densty. Since the mass must vemain Constant as The temperature @hanges OS ye = ae ay From Table B.1 A bs - 1,940 Slets OF - bas bay @ goo = 1 FAL E Therelore, from £4.04) sh “ 2 GAN ED yon ges n° 143) 28, Thus, The sacvease ja volume (3 4)9l -#o00= 20186 ft? The change 1h Wweter depth, AL, a Gael fb 4+ . 0) 8b Ft7 ~ 4a= 7 oN = 592KI0 LL= 0.0Tbin a = @ft)* 7% This small change in clepth would not be very hotrceable, No. Mote: A slightly different value for SL will be obtained if specific wergnt of water Is used feTher Than density. This 1s due to the fact that there is seme ancertuitty in the fourth dignitiant figure oF these tuto values, and fe Solubion 3 sensitive te This unartenty 1.28 1.28 A liquid when poured into a graduated cylinder is found to weigh @ N when occupying 2 volume of 500 ml (milliliters). Determine its spe- cific weight, density, and specific gravity. _ weight _ &N = oo FH volume (0,500 2) (10 3m? ms (6.5008) (10% qe) 3 NW. - = [6 410 78 163 xj AS p= 4 9.81 2 “m3 st ——— 3 hy 163 x10 F3 Pere — The 163 My d 10 ms 5G = 1.29 4.29. The information on a can of pop indicates that the can contains 355 mL. The mass of a full can of pop is 0.369 kg while an empty can weighs 0.153 N. Determine the specific weight, density, and specific gravity of the pop and compare your results with the corresponding values for water at 20 °C. Express your results in SI units. Weight of Fluid a) Y= Plame of Fluid tolal weignt = massx g = O3bthg (981% )= thaw weight ef con= ©. 153 3 . Volume of Fluid = 55xW2L) (072 = £55-x10 om? Thus, trom Eg. l1) ye Bb2N - 0153N os = 7776 x, SSF X 10m =—— P- 3 7.8) 24 s* oy 2 . 79678 Acer 1000 BE Nes? 4 = 996 2S = 79 A8, 4 5G = 0.946 For water a& 20°C (see Table 8.2 Appendix B) = “os 4. sp = Bye 1789-3 5 Oa 16.2% | SG =0.9982 4 comparison of These Values hr Watley with These fer The pop shows Thad The specie weight, density, gad specie gravity & The pop are al] Slightly Jower Than The Corresponding Values for water. 1.30* 1.30* The variation in the density of water, p, with temperature, T, in the range 20°C = T= 60 °C, is given in the following table. Density (kg/m) | 998.2 | 997.1 | 995.7 994.1 | 992.2 988.1 eeeerronlians! =a lagi salraqlonlieay Use these data to determine an empirical equa- tion of the form p = c, + cP + eT? which can be used to predict the density over the range indicated. Compare the predicted values with the data given. What is the density of water at 42.1°C? 7o solve This problem use POLREG. IG EIU III IOI OIE IO ICI ICR ICI CIO IO IIR TOR A AOI AR AA ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for any order polynomial of the form: +k ** y = dO + ditx + d2¥x°2 + d3¥x°3 + ... ced SESS EE SS OEIC OE OS ORE OOO OIRO CO COGS ARIAT AR IOI IK Enter number of terms in the polynomial: 3 Enter number of data points: 7 inter data points (X , Y) 20,998.2 25,997.21 30,995. 35,994. 40,992, 45,990, 50,988. Wa www fereneraeey The coefficients of the polynomial are: d2 = -4.0953E-03 di = -5.3332E-02 dO = +1. 0009E+03 x Y Y(predicted) +2,0000E+01 +9.9820E+02 +9.9825E+02 +2.5000E+01 +9.9710E+02 +9.9706E+02 +3.,0000E+01 +9.9570E+02 +9,9566E+02 +3.5000E+01 +9.9410E+02 +9. 9407E+02 +4,Q000E+01 +9.9220E+02 +9.9226E+02 +4,5000E+01 +9.9020E+02 +9,9026E+02 +5.0000E+01 +9.8810E+02 +9.8805E+02 Thus, T 004095 T* Note that P (predicted ) & th goed agreement \y)'th e (green). At T= 4#2./ °C, 2 P= 100l~ 0.08333 (42.1%) ~ 0.004088 (42.1%) = 991.5 28, 1.32 1.32 The density of oxygen contained in a tank is 2.0 kg/m* when the temperature is 25 °C. Determine the gage pressure of the gas if the atmospheric pressure is 97 kPa (2.0 48 (asta 2) [aster 209)a] 155 4h, Gbs) BC9¢9¢) = Tas, ~ Bin * I p=PRT [55 4B -97AR = FORE 1.33 Nitrogen is compressed to a density of 5 kg/m? under an absolute pressure of 425 kPa. Determine the temperature in degrees Celsius. A CEL PR (5 on Nat 37) = 296K Te = UP - 273 = 286K-~aq3 = /13%¢ 1.34 A closed tank having a volume of 2 ft? is filled with 0.30 Ib of a gas. A pressure gage attached to the tank reads 12 psi when the gas temperature is 80 °F. There is some question as to whether the gas in the tank is oxygen or helium. Which do you think it is? Explain how you arrived at your answer. 2304 : ° Z = weight = aan Fr inne © (428 lew) 2 slags = Abb K ID os Since pr Zz with ps (2+ 167) pore Catmosphene pressure assumed to be & 1467 psia ) and with T= (bor +#b0)°R st Allows thet (24.7 i.) (4 i int) Lie shegs BR (S¥OR) 7 iS #3 From Table 7? Rah S5KX107 for oxygen ana Re /22x10% Feb feb Ay helium, ohgR Thus, trom £g.l1) 1h the Gas Is oxygen -3 ana te feluim -+ p> 2 Te = E77 X10 as n24¢2 x10 * (1) A Comparisou of These Values with The actual density of the gas ii the tank indicates That The gas rnust be Ok ygen. 1.36 136 Atire having a volume of 3 ft* contains air at a gage pressure of 26 psi and a temperature of 70 °F. Determine the density of the air and the weight of the air contained in the tire. p= - = Gabe a7) (ree) = 6 4p x10? sass (176 FA) [(r e400) weight = pg x volume = (Gapce? slats) (322 re) (348) = 0.622 1.37 A compressed air tank contains # kg of air at a tem- perature of 80°C. A gage on the tank reads 300 kPa. Determine the volume of the tank. volume = T0425. r 3 n AP (Boor 101) x0 Fre = 349. #4 mm? f= RT ——— oe (ana g, ) [Gore + 27) k] 843 3 volume = ——~£ —— = 2.02 am 39 Re ee mes 1.38 138* Develop a computer program for cal- culating the density of an ideal gas when the gas pressure in pascals (abs), the temperature in de- grees Celsius, and the gas constant in J/kg-K are specified. For an deal gas paPRT So that - 2 C? Rr where pls absolute pressure, and T bs @bsolute temperature. Thus, Jf the temperature is in *C Then T> °C + 273.15 A computer program for calculehig follows. 100 cls 110 Bint ers S edo S OS OKO IORI IOIO KORO IES ERI OREO ORI RoC! 120 print "** This program calculates the density of an **" 130 print "** ideal gas when the absolute pressure ae 140 print "** in Pascals, the temperature in degrees C, **" 150 print "** and the gas constant in J/ke*K are yee 160 print "** specified en 170 Birt HEBER EBS B HES AIO AS KIORISIORIITORIKIOOEAC IOI TOKAI OKA AK 180 print 190 input "Enter absolute pressure in Pascals, P = ",p 200 input "Enter temperature in degs Celsius, T = ",t 210 input "Enter gas constant, R = ",r 220 tk=t+273.15 230 dens=p/(r*tk) 240 print 280 print using "The density of the gas is +#. ###H* kg/m3" ;dens Example: Gleulate fbr pr 200k. tempemtyre = 20°C, and Re 2871S hy k. a ’ SOE OS CEOS OSSD OI ODIODIIOFOEI SEACH OCIA S EI AKIOI IRI AIRE ** This program calculates the density of an ** ** ideal gas when the absolute pressure ** ** in Pascals, the temperature in degrees C, ** #* and the gas constant in J/kg*K are ** ** specified ee JESSIE IORI OR ICICI CII OIA GOI IE TODOS ICI AOA CI OOK AOE TAK Enter absolute pressure in Pascals, P = 200E3 Enter temperature in degs Celsius, T = 20 Enter gas constant, R = 287 The density of the gas is +2.3772E+00 kg/m3 aoe 1.31* Repeat Problem 138 for the case in which the pressure is given in psi (gage). the tempera ture in degrees Fahrenheit, and the gas constant in ft-lb/slug°R. For an ideal I per & so that “RT where p 1s absolute pressure, and T 1s absolute Fem perature . Thus, Wf Femperature in FF, dnd pressure sh pst, Then TF 44587 ond pe [plpse]+ py, (psc) 3 A computer program for Calculating Fellows. 100 cls THO int Hebd rddebon OSS E ES ESS SOSOSI SSE ORS IAI EK EM 120 print "** This program calculates the density of an **" 130 print "** ideal gas when the gage pressure in psi, **" 140 print "** the atmospheric pressure in psia, the ae 150 print "** temperature in degrees F, and the gas eH 155 print "** constant in ft*lb/slug*degR are specified **" 260 (Bint obroRSo EK SS COS SR OS OBOE OEE TER SSE KOGEI KCK OE 170 print 2 180 input "Enter gage pressure in psi, P = ",p 190 input "Enter temperature in degrees Farhenheit, T = ",t 200 input "Enter gas constant, R = ",r 205 input "Enter atmospheric pressure in psia, Patm = ",patm 210 pabs=(ptpatm)*144 220 tket+459.67 230 240 print 250 print using "The density of the gas is +#.####°°°* slug/ft3";dens Example: Gleulate ? & = Yo psc, temperature = /00°F, Reba = (7 Psh@, and Re rte Ft1b/ slg R. JESSIE OISISIOSI IOI SCRIO BS GSORI ICI AE IORI ADI AIA IA ** This program calculates the density of an ** ** ideal gas when the gage pressure in psi, ** ** the atmospheric pressure in psia, the ** ** temperature in degrees F, and the gas ¥ ** constant in ft*lb/slug*degR are specified ** JERE OSORIO IORI CECI CIOOI OO EE II IOI II TOR A OR A Enter gage pressure in psi, P = 40 Enter temperature in degrees Farhenheit, T Enter gas constant, R = 1716 Enter atmospheric pressure in psia, Patm = 14.7 100 The density of the gas is +8.2016E-03 slug/ft3 1.40 1.40 — Make use of the data in Appendix B to determine the dynamic viscosity of mercury at 75 °F, Express your answer in BG units, r ~ 5S fr. _£ een ee PB LEG 32) = & (75% 32) = A3.9°C From Fig, &/ in A ppendix B: Cmercarg af 15°F (43.9%) 2 LSxO rus 2 (isi WE 3.099 x10) ES ~ pS (bes Va =) ( =2E) 31x10 an 1.41 4.44 Determine the ratio of the dynamic viscosity of water 10 air at a temperature of 70 °C. Compare this value with the corresponding ratio of kinematic viscosities. Assume the ait is at standard atmospheric pressure. From Table 8.2 ia Appendiz Bi =t _ <7 2 (fer water at 70°C) (Pe = #02 x10 wi Vs %13¢xi0 From Table 4 in Appendix. 8: = “5 2 Chr air at 70°) Pee 288 410 SME» Ye 197 KIO a Thus, e fino _ Faye 410 19.9 7. - ale 2.03 K 10 <7 Vo = eae Vari 497 x10 = 2loxjo* 1.42 The kinematic viscosity and specific gravity of aliquid are 3.5.x 10°* m?/s and 0.79, respectively. What is the dy- namic viscosity of the liquid in ST units? hove (= (56) Mg eve) fez fasnw? 2) (0.79 «107 44): 1.43 143 A liquid has a specific weight of 59 Ib/ft® and a dynamic viscosity of 2.75 Ib-s/ft?, Determine its kinematic viscosity Sie V2 an P24 Ve Ae = (275 es) (322) _ 150 es 57 a — 1.44 — The viscosity of a certain fluid is 5 x 10~ poise. Determine its viscosity in both ST and BG units. From Appendiz A Wor’ “8 wes = [pas Thus, (5 210 * poise pt Ws = Sujo* Ns f 10 “poise ) ( Wes) = ° es Poke and From Table 14 feo (Bx 1o* Hes ) (2.084 x10" ee.) = 14x10 tes oa 1.45 1.45 — The kinematic viscosity of oxygen at 20 °C and a pressure of 150 kPa (abs) is 0.104 stokes. Determine the dynamic viscosity of oxygen at this temperature and pressure. Arup pe #4. rsox 1X, : er (268.8 92D] (e's tara] 7 oa V= 0,/oy stokes = O/0¢ —= Je (0.10% 2°) (so oe \ (497 4) -5 -e = 2.05 «/d AR 2 gos nie? NS. 4s am 1.46 4.46 Determine from Figs. B.1 and B.2 in Appendix B the dynamic and kinematic viscosity of kerosene at 40 °C. Express your answer in both SI and BG units. From Fig, B,/: 73 ae A (kerosene at Yore) 2 hx 10 aise? LS) (acegni* (sC unite) ye 2.3%)0° eS (Baunite) From Fr, 8.2: 6 2 Y (Kerosne at Jot) # 4x & (SE units) 15x 10 EP Ge units) 1.47 1.47 SAE 30 oil at 60 °F flows through a 2-in.-diameter pipe with a mean velocity of 5 ft/s. Determine the value of the Reynolds number (see Example 1.4). : ~3 Ibes 2 1.77 Sleas 80x Lbs e a fe ) Re = PUD 2 (utr PENSE) (BH Va Box io? bes Fé: = 184% 1.48 1.48 — Calculate the Reynolds numbers for the flow of water and for air through a 3-mm-diam- eter tube, if the mean velocity is 3 m/s and the temperature is 30 °C in both cases (see Example 1.4). Assume the air is at standard atmospheric feared For water at 30°C (trom Table B.2 i Append'y B): 4 - sx! ME f= 795.7 4, oe 1995 0108 Pe a vod “7 Ba, #2) (2. Re = @ ~ (795.7 24) (3 Z) (2.003 m) = 14,200 - 7.975 £j07* MS aa For acr at 30'¢ ( trom Table 8.4 in Appendix B): = Ae = -5 Ms - 2 LIGS Ts PF 186x100 ; 44 2a hee & VD _ (1.168 Fra) (3 3) (6.008) a & 1.86 x10° LS ras 1.49 For air at standard atmospheric pressure the values of the constants that appear in the Sutherland equation (Eq. 1.10) are C = 1.458 x 10* kg/(m-s:K'*) and $ = 110.4 K. Use these values to predict the viscosity of air at 10 °C and 90 °C and compare with values given in Table B.4 in Appendix B. 2 7 3 - CT? (ise 20* At, ) 72 p= 2 —=— = ans: Ke Tts se T+ llo4k For T= /0°C = [0°C + A73,15 = 283.15 Kk, ~6 34 1.459 x10) (483,15 K - Pe oe c Ye Lus«1eF Mes Ag3,IS K + 110,4 —— ae From Table BH, Ae Le w1o® Mee For T= 70°C = 90°C + APIS = 363,5K, From Table 8.4, Pe Zin xjo*® Ms (145g x 107°)( 363,16 n)% -5 = 213x100 Ms 3635 K + O04 2 ym 1.50* 1.50* Use the values of viscosity of air given in Table B.4 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C to determine the constants C and S which appear in the Sutherland equation (Eq. 1.10). Compare your results with the values given in Problem 1.49. (Hint: Rewrite the equation in the form Te _ (1 Ss Mm _(1\r.5 # (e)r c and plot T*2/ versus T. From the slope and in- tercept of this curve C and S can be obtained.) Equation 1.10 Can be written in The form ah gis Ss oe =(¢)T+ c and with the deta from Table BY: Tic) Tk) J (sla) ° ABS Lue ® ao A936 182 X10" Yo 31315 187K )0~ bo 393,15 ha7 xo 80 35815 2.07 x Jo* (00 37315 2574 10~ ~) Tye [ bye s)] 2540x108 2.758 x 08 4.963 x108 3.087% 108 2. 06x10 3, 322.X10 A plot of TM/e vs. T 1 shown below: 35x10" z 1.50* (cont ) Since The data plot as an approximate straight Ine, Fg.) aan be represented by an eguetion of The fe mm Yr bx te where yu TYe ) xXwT, b~ Vo, ana am S/e, To obtain a and b use LINREGA, FEE ESOC BIS RIOKIOSI SISSIES OR SE IOSIORISEIIORIORI OIA ARAKI ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of the form y = a+b * x ** SEO OS OBO SIERO OE ESE SISOS OS FOSS OSS ISCO RIA AA Number of points: 6 Input X, 2? 273.15,2.640E8 293.15,2.758E8 313.15,2.963E8 333.15,3.087E8 353.15,3.206E8 373.15,3.322E8 2 2 ? 2 ? +7. 44 1E+O7 +6. 969E+05 x Y Y(predicted) +2.7315E+02 +2.6400E+08 +2,6476E+08 +2.9315E+02 +2.7580E+08 +2.7869E+08 #3,1315E+02 +2.9630E+08 +2.9263E+08 +3.3315E+02 +3.0870E+08 +3.0657E+08 +3,5315E+02 +3.2060E+08 +3.2051E+08 +3.7315Et02 +3.3220E+08 +3, 3444E+08 Thus, babs 6.969% 0% ~6 so that C= Lax” ks fimis» K*) ana oe Seas 74 x1 Cc and therefore Ss /07 K These values hr Cand S are in good agreement w/'th values given in Problem 1.49 . 1.51 1.51 — Foracertain liquid ¢ = 7.1 x 10-S1b-s/ ft? at 40 °F andy: = 1.9 x 10-5 Ib-s/ft’ at 150 °F. ‘Make use of these data to determine the constants D and B which appear in Andrade’s equation (Eq. 1.11). What would be the viscosity at 80 °F? B Vi DeT™ (23,10) AL T= Gore 45467) = 49901°R) he aint Sy and -F jbp at T= (50% 145-467) 60767 eR, ws LF x10 Bs Take the logarithm of both sides of Eg. hil to yield tn p= Ble) + 4nd a Substitute above values of fe and T into Ey.tl) te give Ln (71 210%) = 8 e44)* 4nd (2) Ln (14 21077) = 8 laa) ten @) and solve Egs.(a) and(3) simultaneously for Band D, Subtuet £4.03) trem £4. (2) 40 give An msi? \. 8 +--+) L4a1ee 494,67 04,67 and B= 3650. Substtute this value of B int &4. (2) fo gleld tn (7.141077) = 3650 (akin) + 44D and “ D=4¥77K 10%, Thus, Bz 3650 nd De h77410" AL T= 0° + 459,67 = 534.67 Bese / 2 497x10 e $3767 = 4/3 X10 -F les 1.52* A plot of /h p vs. 1.52* Use the value of the viscosity of water given in Table B.2 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C to determine the constants D and B which appear in Andrade’s equation (Eq. 1.11). Calculate the value of the viscosity at 50 °C and compare with the value given in Table B.2. (Hint: Rewrite the equation in the form Ing = (B) E+ InD and plot In x versus 1/7. From the slope and intercept of this curve B and D can be obtained. If a nonlinear curve fitting program is available the constants can be obtained directly from Eq. 1.11 without rewriting the equation.) Eguation (1 can be written i» the form In x 28) = + InD and with The cata trom Table BZ ° TT) Th) WT) Alm’) Inf eo 2731s 3.Lb/ £10° L787 x07 ~ 6.327 do 293,15 34 K107 1002410" ~ 6.906 ho BIB IS Bu3nio>? —6.829xKp* — ~ 7.334 66-3335 Booznw? KR beGk* = 7. bo G0 38315 aésznio? SS4TKO* ~ 7.444 (00 3735 gesenw? Lele" ~ BIT# Tt ~for 3 shown below : 4.52" (Cont) Since the deta plot as an approximate straight line, 47.0) can be used +o represent These data. To obtein Bann D use EXPFIT. JESSE SSI IIIS OIC IRI ACEI ICI OIDI AOSIOII IORI OER IO A AOR AOR IO ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of the form y = a * e * b*x ** IE EOS IOI COI IIE ICI ICI ECE IO AOICE ICO! AAO IIE. Number of points: 6 Input K, Y 2? 3,661E-3,1.787E-3 «G11E-3,1.002E-3 +193E-3,6.529E-4 +002E-3,4.665E-& +832E-3,3.547E-4 +680E-3,2.818E-4 VKwowe +1.767E-06 +1.870E+03 oo wu x y Y (predicted) +3,6610E-03 +1.7870E-03 +1.6629E-03 #3.4110E-03 +1.0020E-03 +1.0418E-03 #3.1930E-03 +6.5290E-04 +6.9298E-04 +3.0020E-03 +4.6650E-04 +4.8482E-04 +2.8320E-03 +3,5470E-04 +3,5277E-04 ¥2.6B00E-03 +2.8180E-04 +2.6548E-04 Thus, ‘ D=as 1167 xI0° Nslan and 3 Bz $= 8X K so That 1870 <6 fe L767 Xl @ At 50°C (323,15k), 1870 3235 = fer ETT x Se From Table B.2, m= 5: HEX) "ysl 1.53 1.53 Crude oi] having a viscosity of 9.52 x 107‘ Ib: s/f? is contained between parallel plates. The bottom plate is fixed and upper plate moves when a force P is applied (see Fig. 1.3). If the distance between the two plates is 0.1 in., what value of P is required to translate the plate with a velocity of 3 ft/s? The effective area of the upper plate is 200 in. P= Tx plate area CAE 32 Pz Gsaxjo* we (25 1.54 1.54 A thin layer of glycerin flows down an inclined, wide Fig, that for equilibrium, the component of weight acting parallel to the plate surface must be balanced by the shearing force devel- oped along the plate surface. In your analysis assume a unit plate width. ® FIGURE P1.54 wt * \-s ZF,=0 TI ag hus, Fao? TAM) W sinto’= T, 0) and with W = ¥Lhl) ¥LhO) sin 20° = %, £0) er yh sinzo= MT, ary At the plate ~ du Cr - (4)... Since du_ zu _2VUy dy > bh h (% > 2U 4Y yen Thus, from #3. (1) Yhoin 207 = ih uy and Ue xh? slr 20° = - C8. 6 $s (22.4) sin 20” 0.269 ft Z (313x107 — 1.55 1.55 The viscosity of blood is to be determined from meas- urements of shear stress, 7, and rate of shearing strain, du/dy, ‘obtained from a small blood sample tested in a suitable viscom- eter. Based on the dita given below determine if the blood is a ‘Newtonian or a non-Newtonian fluid. Explain how you arrived at your answer. For a Newkoman Fluid The ratio of t ts aufdy 1s 4 Constant. For the data given: Z¢ CN s/m: du fty ) The ratio 1s not a Constant but decreases a5 the rate of shearing Strain imeregses. Thus, This Fluid bleed) ss & ton-Wedbonan Flurd. A plot of the data & shown below. Foy a Wewlonen Pluid the curve would be a straight line with « slope of | 40 /- 0. 0178 | 0.0133 |2. 0107 | 2.0080| 0.0067 | 4.0058 \2.0050 | 02047 TEU ala Kate of sheanng skran, tty, 5 1.56 1.56 A 10-kg block slides down a smooth inclined surface 0.1 mm gap. as shown in Fig. P1.56.. Determine the terminal velocity of the we block if the 0.l-mm gap between the block and the surface contains SAE 30 oil at 60 °F. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear, and the area of the block in contact with the oil is 0.2 m?, m FIGURE P1.56 y ZF, =0 — w Thus, oe W sin 20° = TA : Since Ts pM where b 1s Film thickness, W sin2o*= av A Thus, (with Wm) m fA (0.3@ %2 V0.2 om) bw sin 20°, (0.c001m)(104s aS 2 Nin 209) 1.57 4.57 A piston having a diameter of 5.48 in, and a length of 9.50 in. slides downward with a velocity V through a vertical pipe. The downward motion is resisted by an oil film between the piston and the pipe wall. The film thickness is 0.002 in., and the cylinder weighs 0.5 Ib. Estimate V if the oil viscosity is 0.016 ths/fi2. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. = Ferical = tA Thus, Ww AW: TA ts, | Where Az=DL£ a a Po and (velocity ) V ke ~ eae D c= C Film thickness) / § 7 so thet We (p 4 \(rod ) Follows The Bh lows * as . (osu) (220? 4) Ve TDrK EHS 4) $50 fe)( 0164S ) = 0.00459 a 1.58 1,58 A layer of water flows down an inclined fixed surface with the velocity profile shown in Fig. P1.5g,Determine the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the fixed surface for U = 3 m/s and h = 0.1 m. dé TP a m@ FIGURE P1.58 4 5 oe a et Tha, at the biied surface (4=0) & ) = 2 dy lyre A so That 72 H(4E) = (seis Na) = 67 «107 4. acting in direction of Flow 1.59 4.59 When a viscous fluid flows past a thin sharp-edged | © plate, a thin layer adjacent to the plate surface develops in which the velocity, 1, changes rapidly from zero to the approach ve- locity, er is called a boundary layer ases with the distance x along the plate as shown in Fig. P1.59. Assume that « = Uy/® and 8 = 3.5 Vox/U where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Determine an expression for the force (drag) that would Plete be developed on one side of the plate of length / and width b, width=> _ a Express your answer in terms of f, b. v, and p, where pis the &® FIGURE P1.59 fluid density, Drag, B= [Tie 0A Where dhe BK So That D> [te bd ne du - Since tt a(t) and ay bith fo 35 [DE , it follows From &B.1) rf 73h 4% 3 4 - fey sx hor (Cy a: [ ZV % bade = LO x “dx 0 & - and with ve @ = 0.571 bp Vio? Thus, i nS y x oo ™> w ss LL a) 1.60* 1.60* Standard air flows past a flat surface and velocity measurements near the surface indicate the following distribution: y (ft) | 0.005 | 0.01 | 0.02 | 0.04 | 0.06 | 0.08 u (ft/s) 10.74 [1.51 13.03 10.21 | 14.43 The coordinate y is measured normal to the sur- face and w is the velocity parallel to the surface. (a) Assume the velocity distribution is of the form u=Cy+ Gy! and use a standard curve-fitting technique to de- termine the constants C, and C;. (b) Make use of the results of part (a) to determine the mag- nitude of the shearing stress at the wall (y = 0) and at y = 0.05 ft. (a) Use nonlinear regression program, such as SAS- LIN, fo obtain Coefbrctents C, ane Cz. This program produces least Squares estimates of The parameters of a nonlinear medel. For the data given, - f Cr 1538 S' am G 4350 fb Ss" () Since, Tah dg it follows That Teh (Gt 36, 4°) Thus, ot the wall (4=0) T+A6, = (a74x 0 BE \fissd) = srax” Ze, At y= 0.05 ft . T-(3% xe" 2) [ss ir 3( 4350 eg Nooste) | -f Ib = 194 x10 Fre 1.61 1.61 — The-viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Fig. P1.61. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotated with an angular velocity, «. The torque ‘required to develop cis measured and the vis- cosity is calculated from these two measurements. Develop an equation relating 4, @, 5, f, R, and R,. Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear. Torgue, qf, due +o shearing stress on faner cylinder 13 egual t a7T= R. TIA where JA =(fe.d0)h, Ths, a7: RL T do and forgne regained to rotate inner cylinder is yy Fixed outer cylinder ‘inner cylinder _ ZZZZZIZIILILLILLL Ri Ro~ FIGURE PI. 64 (L~ cylinder length ) 7. RT [ de = arR Lt For a linear velocity distribution in the gap T Fee wo V Re-Re se that ° 1.62 1.62, The space between two 6-in. long concentric cylinders is filled with glycerin (viscosity = 8.5 X 107? Ib-s/ft?). The inner cylinder has a radius of 3 in, and the gap width betweer cylinders is 0.1 in, Determine the torque and the power requirec to rotate the inner cylinder at 180 rev/min. The outer cylinder is fixed, Assume the velocity distribution in the gap to be linear From Problem 1.66, 3 Ty = ark; SAO RR, and with wes (180 Fe rev (ar rea ) ee = 617 vad then 3.6 -3 Mes Ne weed ) ope RIOR NASI RINT ED spy to (2 | ft) Since power = Teor ct fellows That power = (0.994 fe-b)lom M4) = 178 4 1.63 1.63 One type of rotating cylinder viscometer, called a Stormer viscometer, uses a falling weight, ‘W,, to cause the cyl- inder to rotate with an angular velocity, «, as illustrated in Fig. 1.63, For this device the viscosity, 1, of the liquid is related to W and @ through the equation ‘W = Kyo, where K is a constant that depends only on the geometry (including the liquid depth) of the viscometer. The value of K is usually determined by using a calibration liquid (a liquid of known viscosity). (a) Some data for a particular Stormer viscometer, obtained using glycerin at 20 °C as a calibration liquid, are given below. Plot values of the weight as ordinates and values of the angular velocity as abscissae. Draw the best curve through the plotted points and determine X for the vis- cometer. ‘W (lb) 022 | 066 | 110 | 1.54 | 2.20 w(rev/s) | 0.53 159 | 279 | 3.83 | sa9 1—Fixed outer cylinder @ FIGURE P1.63 (b) A liquid of unknown viscosity is placed in the same viscometer used in part (a), and the data given below are obtained. Determine the viscosity of this liquid. Wb) oos | ou | 022 | 033 | 044 w(rev/sy | 072 | 189 | 3.73 | saa | 7.42 (2) Since W= Kyu the slope of The 2) ys, W earve Ms Wb) slope = Kk = So that 4 slope C ) n Far the glycerin data (see plot on next page) The slope Cbasea on a least squares fit of The dela) & Sloe glycerin) = 0.390 tes Since M Gplycenin) = 213 x10 "ILS then 9 Mes k= 0398S F513 X10" tos (4) For the unknown fluid deta Csee plot on neck page) The Slope Cbesed on 4 least sguares Hit of the data ) Ks Slope Cankwown fui) = 2.0601 gs (cont) 1630 ort) Thus, from &7 ll) /b-s -3 Pi letaoun Fluid) = 7 ape #73x10 3% 1.64* 1.64* The following torque-angular velocity data were obtained with a rotating cylinder vis- cometer of the type described in Problem 1.61. Torque (ft-lb) _ | 13.1 | 26.0 | 39.5 | 52.7 | 64.9 | 78.6 Angular velocity (rad/s) | 1.01 2.01 3.01 4.01 sol 60 For this viscometer R, = 2.50 in., R, = 2.45 in. and { = 5,00 in. Make use of these data and a standard curve-fitting program to determine the viscosity of the liquid contained in the viscometer. The torgue, ZT is related +» the angular velocity, 23, Through the gua bion , (4) (see solution to Problem 166). Thus, tor « tied geometry and a gwen viscosity, £3.) fs of The form y=bx (9D and xaW) Where b I's 4& Constant gual to 3 b= ae AA (2) RS To obtain b use the dete given with LINREG |, ISIE SII OEIC ISIE IS OI GEORGE SEI ORI SRK ORI OK IE ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of the form y = b * x ee FEBS SSIS IODIDE ERICH CE IBIS OIRO ASR ADI IOS ESE AEA AOE IK Number of points: 6 Input X, 7.1.0,13. 2.0,26. 3.0,39. 4.0,52. 5.0,64. 6.0,78. www Owe rnoned +1.308E+01 ft-lbs o " x Y ¥ (predicted) +1.,0000E+00 +1,3100E+01 +1.3082E+01 +2.,0000E+00 +2.6000E+01 +2,6165E+01 +3,0000E+00 +3.9500E+01 +3,9247E+01 +4.0000E+00 +5.2700E+01 +5.2330E+01 +5.0000E+00 +6.4900E+01 +6,5412E+01 +6.0000E+00 +7.8600E+01 +7.8495E+01 (con't ) 1.64" (Cut) Thus, trom Ey 2) pe (6) (Fe- Bz) 2r RR and with the cate given, (3.08 felbes M450 24s a an (248 2) (824) 1.65 1.65 A 12-in.-diamet Rotating plate lar plate is places ap between the two plates filled Torque P1.65. Determine the torque > requir e circular plate slowly at 2 rpm. Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear and that the shear stress on the edge of the rotating plate is negligible. Lin. gap FIGURE P1.65 Torgue,dT , due to shearing stresses on Plate 5 egual te t IN ede aT=+ tdA « * where dA-= 2rrdr, Thus, S— vr AG: + Tearrdr us . ana or. al bo dr stresses acting on bottom of plate 0 ; [—> V2 rw Since Ts fh gu y and hr a Fee /inear men Astri butin Cseehgure) = rw lu ov. rw ase dy 57 Ss Tas, bs + Velocity distribute ” mr: amp [ria = He(E) locity distribuhon ana with the data gien Pp xr. tse ya por Yow ts Lae #) . (2 (4) 1.67 1.67 A rigid-walled cubical container is completely filled with water at 40 °F and sealed. The water is then heated to 100 °F. Determine the pressure that develops in the container when the water reaches this higher temperature. Assume that the volume of the container remains constant and the value of the bulk modulus of the water remains constant and equal to 300,000 psi. Since The water mass remains tonstoat, AY *P Cr At) too? where Vou volume and 4¥ ks Change in volume s# water were Unconstraimed during hecting, Thus, Ay Ge! - Oa . From Table B.l 10 Appendex B, oe 1940 hess and 2: 07 Me So That slags AY. 190 #3 ve -] 2 0.00675 4 ps A427 Se a beh From 7,112 dp &y & it Allows wi des and Ap= SP Tet The change yn pressure reguired to Compress the water back t its original Valume 1's APs - (300,000 pat )E2.00075) = 2,03x)08 pse 1.68 Ina test to determine the bulk modulus of a liquid it was found that as the absolute pres- sure was changed from 15 to 3000 psi the volume decreased from 10.240 to 10.138 in.’ Determine the bulk modulus for this liquid. =. ot (Eq, hi2) UV d¥/¥ J Ss, nome dp 2 Ap = 3000-15 = 2985 pse ana dee 4¥ = 10.d40-10,/32= 0.102 in? 4 Bs — 2955 wee ( 2,102 in? ) 10.240 In? = 3.00 x10" pre 1. Calculate the speed of sound in m/s for (a) gasoline, (b) mercury, and (c) seawater. c= (&.119) (a) For gasoline’ iON th) For mercury) C= PASH nt = 14s om 136% 10" 42, s (¢) For seawater: © 1.70 1.70 Airis enclosed by a rigid cylinder con- taining a piston. A pressure gage attached to the cylinder indicates an initial reading of 25 psi. De- termine the reading on the gage when the piston has compressed the air to one-third its original volume. Assume the compression process to be isothermal and the local atmospheric pressure to be 14.7 psi. For isothermal compression, Ps constant 30 thet 2 where &~ (inital state Gnd £~ Final state . Thas, . Mass a é, Since pF aie ) 2 = fathal whine. 5 Chr consent mass) Final volume and therefore B= (3)[A5 + 1%) psiGbsy}= 117 psd Gabe) & (gage) =(//9- 1,7) pat 104 psi (gage)