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Chapter 2

Dream Projects

Table of Content
2.1. Mars Glider 3
2.1.1. What is a Glider: 3
2.1.2. How does it work: 3
2.1.3. Application: 3
2.1.4. Advantages: 3
2.2. Airship for Remote Regions 4
2.2.1. What’s a Airship: 4
2.2.2. Uses of Airship: 4
2.2.3. Advantages: 4
2.3. Passenger Spaceship 5
2.3.1. What’s a Spaceship: 5
2.3.2. How does it work: 5
2.3.3. Advantages: 5
2.4. Walking Helper 6
2.4.1. What’s a Walking Helper: 6
2.4.2. How does it work: 6
2.4.3. Uses: 6
2.4.4. Advantages: 6
2.5. Morphing Wing Drone 7
2.5.1. What’s a Morphing wing: 7
2.5.2. How does it work: 7
2.5.3. Advantages: 7
2.6. Ocean Waste Collector: 8
2.6.1. What’s a Waste collector: 8
2.6.2. How does it work: 8
2.6.3. Application: 8
2.6.4. Advantages: 8
2.7. Ground Effect Vehicle 9
2.7.1. What’s a GEV: 9
2.7.2. How does it work: 9
2.7.3. What’s Ground effect: 9
2.7.4. Applications: 10
2.7.5. Advantages: 10
2.8. References: 10


2.1.1. What is a Glider:

A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction
of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine. Most
gliders do not have an engine, although motor-gliders have small engines for extending their
flight when necessary with some being powerful enough to take off.

2.1.2. How does it work:

For flight in Mars' atmosphere, the Reynolds number would be very low compared to
flight in Earth's atmosphere. Taking the atmospheric conditions of Mars into account this glider
will be tuned to fly for a maximum distance before crashing for surveying and data of particular
regions on Mars. Glider will be launched at required altitude by small rocket which is fired from
the surface of Mars (from launch site of a human colony probably). This is only technology
demonstration of how a glider need to be designed to work in Mars’ atmosphere.

2.1.3. Application:
To collect scientific data and transmit it back to main base before it lands or crashes.

2.1.4. Advantages:
The current devices like curiosity rover is slow on the Martian lands.

2.2.1. What’s an Airship:

An airship is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the
air under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from large gas bags filled with a lifting gas that
is less dense than the surrounding air.

2.2.2. Uses of Airship:

Airships make it possible to affordably deliver heavy cargo and people to remote locations
around the world. Burning less fuel than helicopter, airships will redefine sustainability for the
future. With unlimited access to isolated locations around the globe, Airships safely and
sustainably support a wide range of activities in areas with little to no infrastructure. The airship
offers the simplicity of a pickup truck by carrying cargo loads and people in and out of remote
areas without any need for major road, rail or airport infrastructure development.

2.2.3. Advantages:
Theoretically they have very high endurance, owing to the fact that they do not need forward
speed to maintain lift. Low fuel consumption resulting in higher range.

2.3.1. What’s a Spaceship:

A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft are used
for a variety of purposes, including communications, meteorology, navigation, space
colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo.

2.3.2. How does it work:

In space, an engine has nothing to push against. Since, space is filled with vacuum normal
aircraft engines do not work in space. Aircraft engines require air to work, whereas Rocket
engine doesn’t need air. Spaceship work by Newton's third law of motion. Third law states that
for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The spaceship pushes on its exhaust.
The exhaust pushes the spaceship, too. The rocket pushes the exhaust backward. The exhaust
makes the rocket move forward.

2.3.3. Advantages:
No complete product in the market at the moment. With a proper idea or design, there
is a scope for sponsorship. Would be helpful to further the human understanding of universe.

2.4.1. What’s a Walking Helper:

The device is an exoskeleton for calves which will reduce the energy used and strain while
walking using a mechanical spring mechanism.

2.4.2. How does it work:

As it is a mechanical device it doesn’t require any battery pack or charging etc. It makes
walking less tiring by rerouting the energy that normally goes through your calf muscles and
tendons into carbon fibre, metal and a very basic spring. Lightweight of the device means that
the there’s no significant mass penalty that needs to be factored into the energy gains you get
from wearing the exoskeleton on both legs.

2.4.3. Uses:
A lightweight device which will cover the legs and actively aide the user to walk freely.

2.4.4. Advantages:
Current market has devices made of electronic components, so they have a limited
battery life. They are also bulky and not so portable. In case when the user is expecting a full
recovery, it can be used as a rehabilitation device.

2.5.1. What’s a Morphing wing:

Morphing wings that change the shape and configuration of an aircraft can expand the
flight capabilities of a flying vehicle to fulfil flight requirements.

2.5.2. How does it work:

Several flying animals use morphing wings to improve flight capabilities. Similar to birds,
the outermost part of the wing is equipped with artificial feathers that can be folded to actively
change the surface of the wing. This morphing mechanism can not only improve aerodynamic
performance for maneuverability and wind resistance, but also provide roll control with
asymmetric folding of the two wings.
For low speed flight we need high aspect ratio and low sweep angle and for high speed
flight we will need high sweep angle and low aspect ratio. With Wing deformation
characteristics like 200% change in AR, 50% change in wing area, 5° change in wing twist, 20°
change in wing sweep.

2.5.3. Advantages:
Tackle multi-objective missions like aerial surveillance, rescue missions, filmmaking,
pollution monitoring and anti-poaching and disaster relief. Cost effective without much need of
multiple expensive mission specified aircrafts, as it can adopt to new missions.

2.6.1. What’s a Waste collector:

The OWC is a floating device that is located in the water at marinas, docks, harbour etc.
It moves up and down with the range of tide collecting all floating waste.

2.6.2. How does it work:

Water is sucked in from the surface and passes through a catch bag inside the device, with
a submersible water pump. The water is then pumped back into the ocean leaving litter and
waste trapped in the catch bag to be disposed of properly. The OWC also has the potential to
collect a percentage of oils and pollutants floating on the water surface by properly choosing
the material of the catch bag.

2.6.3. Application:
To autonomously to collect waste from oceans and seas.

2.6.4. Advantages:
No active crew will be required to run it. Prevents aquatic life from being exposed to the
dangers of plastic and other harmful waste materials.

2.7.1. What’s a GEV:

The Ekranoplan or Wing-In-Ground Effect vehicle flies in close proximity to a surface,
usually water, to improve the lift to drag ratio of its airfoils.

2.7.2. How does it work:

These vehicles attain sustained flight over a level surface (usually over the sea) by making
use of ground effect, the aerodynamic interaction between the wings and the surface.

2.7.3. What’s Ground effect:

This is caused primarily by the ground interrupting the wingtip vortices and downwash
behind the wing. When a wing is flown very close to the ground, wingtip vortices are unable to
form effectively due to the obstruction of the ground. The result is lower induced drag, which
increases the speed and lift of the aircraft.

2.7.4. Applications:
A GEV plane/ship can travel further on the same fuel and with the same payload as an
aircraft and much faster than a ship. This enables our GEV plane to fill the gap between low cost,
slow sea freight and fast, yet high cost air freight. Conventional high-speed ships have excessive
fuel consumption. GEV, however, reduces the drag to a minimum by eliminating hydrodynamic

2.7.5. Advantages:
Very less infrastructural needed. No pressurization of fuselage is needed as we are not
flying at high altitudes. Can be effectively used in naval warfare as they are very much faster
when compared to ships and safe from torpedoes and mines.