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Earth, Planets, Sun has a common heritage or origin

 Earth is part of Solar System and the Solar

System is part of The Milky Way Galaxy, which
is one of the Galaxies in the Universe.
Origin Of Earth  Scientists have been studying the creation of
universe for last many centuries.
 It is now believed that the Universe was
created through a “Big Bang” some 15 billion
years ago.
What is Galaxy?
 A galaxy is a collection of stars and planets that are held together
by gravity.

 In a galaxy, the celestial bodies rotate around a central object.

Earth, Planets, Sun has a common heritage or origin The Big Bang
~15 billion years ago
 The “Big Bang” theory states
that the universe was formed
about 15 billion years ago from
 The universe holds everything from the tiniest a giant explosion when ENERGY and MASS
particle to the clusters of galaxies (consisting suddenly energy transformed TRANSFORMATION

of stars, planets etc. in a medium of gas and into matter.

dust all held together by gravity.  At present there is no answer
from where this energy came .
 This matter expanded and
 Our galaxy, the Milky Way, part of the universe started to cool down, going
has hundreds of billions of stars, gas and through different transitional
dust held together by gravity). phases. Ma= Million Anum = 10x6

 The universe has been Ga= Giga Anum = 10x9

expanding ever since.

Making of Solar System Making of Solar System

 According to the Big Bang theory, the solar  The particles of nebula dust started sticking
system was formed from a cloud containing together, eventually forming planets and their
dust and gas i.e. Hydrogen, helium etc. known satellites.
as “Nebula”.
 As the nebula contracted, it spun rapidly,  Different planetary particles left over from this
leading to frequent collisions between dust initial explosion can still be found flying
grains. around in space. These particles are called
 This nebula grew hotter and denser, forming a
disk of gas and dust at its centre.  By studying these meteorites, scientists have
 Eventually the hot centre of the nebula formed found that our solar system is about 4600 m.y.
a star - the sun. old.


Making of Solar System Earth From Outer Space

~15 billion years ago :

The Earth and the other 8 planets and the
Sun accreted at about the same time from a
vast cloud of dust and gas (nebula).

~5 billion years ago :

The nebula began to gravitationally contract,
began to rotate and flattened. Eventually, the
Sun ignited (fusion) and the newly formed
planets began to differentiate - heavier
elements and chemical components sank to
the center and rocky material formed the
crust. The newly formed planets and moons
released gas forming early atmospheres.

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Early Evolution of Earth The basic statistics of the earth

• Origin of Planet Earth The earth on which we are live is a Unique
– Most researchers planet of the solar system.
believe that Earth and
1. Polar diam. : ~ 12,714 km
the other planets formed
at essentially the same 2. Equatorial diam. : ~ 12,756 km
time from the same 3. Circumference : 40, 000km
primordial material as 4. Surface Area : ~ 510 m.sq.km.
the Sun. 5. Volume : 1042 billion cu.km
6. Mass : 5.97 ×10 21 tonnes
7. Dist. From the sun : 150 million km
8. Average surface temperature : 14C

Hypothesis for the Origin of Earth Hypothesis for the Origin of Earth
The scientists have developed 2 basic 2. Second body hypothesis - Assumes
hypothesis for the origin of the earth or that the solar system originated as a
strictly speaking the origin of the Solar result of forces created by the
system…… accidental interference of another
celestial object. It presumes that
1. Single body hypothesis - the planets another star passed close to the sun (2
were formed without intervention from – star hypothesis)
forces outside the solar system (No
object other than the Sun was ………………From these basic two
involved)- Single Star Hypothesis. Hypotheses a number of Hypotheses have
been generated.


(1) The Nebular Hypothesis (1) The Nebular Hypothesis

(Single Star Hypothesis) Single Star Hypothesis (contd.)
• During the rotation, the nebular mass started
 Perhaps the oldest scientific cooling and contracting simultaneously.
• As it contracted, its speed of rotation
 By Kant in 1775 & Laplace in 1796.
• Eventually the outermost part of the nebula
rotated so rapidly that rings of gas got
 This hypothesis assumes the existence separated from the shrinking nebular body.
of a large globular mass of gas called
“nebula”, slowly rotating through the • These rings slowly got condensed to form the
space. planets and the central mass became the sun.

Drawbacks of Nebula Hypothesis

Globular Nebula
1. If this hypothesis worked, the sun should
have been having the greatest angular
Separation of momentum, because it is the most massive
Gaseous Rings
part of the solar system and it (sun) lies at the
centre of the system. But actually, the sun is
Separation of having only 2% of the total angular momentum.
Gaseous Rings

2. Such detached rings of gas should have been

dissipated in space rather than getting
condensed into solid particles.

Origin of Solar System from Nebula

(Single Star Hypothesis)

(2) The Planetesimal Hypothesis (2) The Planetesimal Hypothesis

2- Star Hypothesis (contd.)
2- Star Hypothesis
5. This detached material was dragged along in
1. Proposed by Chamberlin & Moulton in the direction of movement of the passing star,
1904. and later got cooled & condensed into solid
particles called “planetesimals”. each moving
2. Assumes the existence of two stars in in its own orbit around the sun.
space in the very beginning. 6. These planetesimals acted as nuclei that
attracted other planetesimals, and by
3. Our sun was considered to be one of
accretion, the planets eventually grew to their
these two stars existing before the present sizes.
formation of the planets. 7. Other smaller clusters of planetesimals, formed
4. When the “intruder star” passed by the the satellites.
sun, it exerted a gravitational force on the 8. As per this hypothesis, the angular momentum
of the planets was derived from the pull of the
sun & pulled masses of solar material. passing star.


Drawbacks of The Planetesimal Hypothesis (3) The Tidal Hypothesis

2-Star Hypothesis
1. The motion of the planetesimals could
not possibly be produced by the  Hypothesis given by Jeans & Jeffrey, two
passing star . British Astronomer.
2. It is highly unlikely that another star
could have passed so close to the sun  Assumed that tides were created on the sun,
and the intruder star could have due to the force of attraction between the sun
generated sufficient thrust to set the and a “passing star”.
detached solar masses in motion in
orbits. Instead, it is more likely that
such masses would simply diffuse into
the space.

(3) The Tidal Hypothesis Drawbacks of The Tidal Hypothesis

2-Star Hypothesis 2-Star Hypothesis

 Due to this tidal action, a gaseous filament

got separated from the sun, as soon as the 1. The passing star cannot possibly
passing star went away. impart the proper angular momentum to
 This separated filament was in the form of a the gaseous filament
spindle & was unstable. 2. A hot filament pulled from the sun would
 It further broken down into a number of small not form solid planets but simply diffuse
fragments, each of which condensed to form into the space.
 Some of these planets further broken down
into pieces and formed satellites.

(4) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The (4) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The
Protoplanet Hypothesis Protoplanet Hypothesis (Cont…..)

1. Latest & widely accepted. 5. The hypothesis says that in the very
2. First proposed by a German physicist in beginning, there was a hot gaseous nebular
1944. mass, rapidly rotating in space.

3. In the same year, his views were supported 6. This nebula, due to gravitational attraction,
(with some modification) by Schmit, a Soviet formed a disc of cloud & dust.
mathematician. 7. Because of its rotating nature, this nebular
4. In 1951, Kuiper, an American scientist disc developed large whirlpool (eddies) at
modified this hypothesis and proposed the various places.


(4) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The (4) The Turbulent Hypothesis or The
Protoplanet Hypothesis (Cont…..) Protoplanet Hypothesis (Cont…..)

8. Ultimately these eddies got separated from 11. It is believed that such protoplanets
the nebular masses. represent the present day planets.
9. These independent eddies also contained a 12. These original protoplanets were much
whole system of smaller eddies. larger than the finished planets.
10. These eddies might then have collected the 13. Smaller eddies got developed inside some
surrounding dusty material by gravitational of the larger eddies, giving rise to spinning
attraction, thus forming swirls of dust and discs that became the satellites or moons of
gas, called “protoplanets”. the planets.

Present Understanding

 Many of the astronomers today support

this hypothesis of the Protoplanet The origin of the earth still remains a
subject of Study
 The observations (through telescopes)
have revealed numerous nebulas
between the stars. Still a BIG QUESTION -?
 It is significant that some of these
massive eddies of gas & dust are
actually condensing to form new stars.

Summary :

This chapter helps you in understanding :

1. What is the relation between Earth, Solar System
and Universe?
2. How Solar System was formed?
3. How earth was formed and what is the current
hypothesis about the origin of Earth?

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