net
3 003
OBJECTIVES:
To understand the basic difference between incompressible and compressible flow.
To understand the phenomenon of shock waves and its effect on flow.
To gain some basic knowledge about jet propulsion and Rocket Propulsion.
(Use of Standard Gas Tables permitted)
Energy and momentum equations of compressible fluid flows – Stagnation states, Mach waves and
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Mach cone – Effect of Mach number on compressibility – Isentropic flow through variable ducts –
Nozzle and Diffusers
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UNIT II FLOW THROUGH DUCTS 9
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Flows through constant area ducts with heat transfer (Rayleigh flow) and Friction (Fanno flow) –
variation of flow properties.
UNIT III
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NORMAL AND OBLIQUE SHOCKS 10
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Governing equations – Variation of flow parameters across the normal and oblique shocks – Prandtl –
Meyer relations – Applications.
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principle, cycle analysis and use of stagnation state performance of ram jet, turbojet, turbofan and
turbo prop engines.
TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
TEXT BOOK
1. Anderson, J.D., "Modern Compressible flow", 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2003.
2. Yahya, S.M. "Fundamentals of Compressible Flow", New Age International (P) Limited,
New Delhi 1996
REFERENCES:
2. Zucrow. N.J., "Aircraft and Missile Propulsion", Vol.1 & II, John W iley, 1975.
3. Zucrow. N.J., "Principles of Jet Propulsion and Gas Turbines", John W iley, New York, 1970.
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4. Sutton. G.P., "Rocket Propulsion Elements", John wiley, New York,1986,.
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5. Shapiro. A.H.," Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible fluid Flow", John wiley,
New Delhi.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Sl. No. TITLE NO
4 Unit  1  Part B 12
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5 Unit  2  FLOW THROUGH DUCTS  Part A 19
7
w.E Unit  2  Part B
31
8 asy
Unit  3  Part B 32
9 Unit  4 En
 JET PROPULSION  Part A 45
11 Unit  5 ee
– SPACE PROPULSION Part A
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66
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12 Unit  5  Part B 68
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ww various propellants.
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2. Need and importance for study of the subject
The students will become familiar with fundamentals of various science
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and technology Subjects and thus acquire the capability to applying them.
The students will be able to acquire the knowledge, capability of analyzing and
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solving any concept or problem associated with heat energy dynamics and
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utilization. Students will be able to understand the concepts of gas dynamics.
The students will have sound foundation for entering into higher
education programmes.
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3. Industry connectivity and latest development
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Gas dynamics and jet propulsion majorly employs in the field of aero & space
industry, defense and automobile sectors. And the various space missions are
planned with the knowledge of this subject.
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EMCOR Government Services (EGS) is an industry which covers a vast universe of
operations and special building maintenance for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
as well as other critical space organizations. This is an industry full of surprises,
with missions that demand uncommon levels of adaptability and flexibility to
ensure success.
ISRO developed various missiles for Indian defense, recently India’s Longest Range
Ballistic Missile  “AGNIV” Successfully TestFired.
4. Industrial Visit
Planned to visit ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri
Name of the subject & Code: ME 6604 / GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION
Name of the Faculty:
TEXT BOOK
1. Anderson, J.D., "Modern Compressible flow", 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2003. (
Copies
Available in Library: Yes)
2. Yahya, S.M. "Fundamentals of Compressible Flow", New Age International (P)
Limited, New DelhI 1996( Copies Available in Library: Yes)
REFERENCES:
ww 1. K.Pandian, Gas Dynamics and Jet Propulsion, Sooraj Publications, 2005( Copies
Available in Library: Yes)
2. V.Ganesan, Gas Turbines,Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi,1999( Copies
Unit
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SI.N
O En
Topic/Portions to be Covered Required Ative Books Referred
No.
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2
Introduction
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Energy equation & Momentum
1
1 rin
1
2
TB 2, RB3, RB5
TB 2, RB3, RB5
3
Equation
Stagnation states 1 g.n
3 TB 2, RB3, RB5
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17 Governing equations of normal
Shocks
1 27 TB 2, RB3, RB5
18
w.E Variation of flow parameters across
the normal shocks
2 29 TB 2, RB3, RB5
19
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Prandtl – Meyer relations 1 30 TB 2, RB3, RB5
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20 Problems 2 32 TB 2, RB3, RB5
III
21
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Governing equations ,Variation of
flow parameters across the Oblique
1 33 TB 2, RB3, RB5
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Shocks
22 Prandtl – Meyer relations 1 34 TB 2, RB3, RB5
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Faculty In Charge HOD
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Unit  I
PART – A
Compressible Incompressible
1. Fluid velocities are appreciable 1. Fluid velocities are small
ww sound Sound
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En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et
Mach angle is formed, when an object is moving with supersonic speed. The wave
propagation and changes are smooth. When an object is moving with hypersonic
speed the changes are abrupt is shown in Fig. Hence for a supersonic flow over two
– dimensional object “mach wedge” is used instead of “mach cone”
3. State the meaning of stagnation state, stagnation pressures and stagnation
temperatures.
The state of a fluid attained by isentropically decelerating it to zero velocity at zero
elevation is referred as stagnation state.
The pressure of the fluid when the fluid velocity is zero at zero elevation is known
as “stagnation pressure”.
The temperature of the fluid when the fluid velocity is zero at zero elevation is
known as “stagnation temperature”.
T0 = T +
9
T = static temperature,
T0 = stagnation temperature,
= velocity temperature
ww
w.E
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En
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The various regions of flow are:
(i) Incompressible region (M ≈ 0)
(ii) Subsonic region (M < 1)
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(iii) Transonic region (0.8 – 1.2)
(iv) Supersonic region (M > 1 and M < 1)
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(v) Hypersonic region (M ≥ 5)
Mach Number
It is used for the analysis of compressible fluid flow problems. Critical mach number is a
dimensionless number at which the fluid velocity is equal to its sound velocity.
10
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w.E
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En
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8. What is chocked flow through a nozzle?
The mass flow rate of nozzle is increased by decreasing in the back pressure. The
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maximum mass flow condition is reached when the throat pressure ratio achieves
critical value. After that there is no further increase in mass flow with decrease in back
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pressure. This condition is called chocking. At chocking condition M=1.
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fluids. Diffuser: It is a device which is used to increase the pressure and decrease the
velocity of fluids.
10. Give the expression for nozzle efficiency and diffuser efficiency.
11
Part  B
1. An air jet (γ = 1.4, R = 287 J/kgk) at 400k has sonic velocity. Determine
1. Velocity of sound at 400K
2. Velocity of sound at the stagnation conditions
3. Maximum velocity of the jet
4. Stagnation enthalpy
5. Crocco number
Given:
At sonic condition, Mach number M = 1
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To find:
(i) a (ii) ao (iii) Cmax (iv) ho (v) Cr
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Solution:
Velocity of sound,
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Stagnation temp – Mach number relation
En
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ee rin
g.n
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Velocity sound at stagnation condition
12
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2. An aircraft flies at a velocity of 700 kmph in an atmosphere where the
pressure is 75 kPa and temperature is 5ºC. Calculate the Mach number and
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stagnation properties.
Given:
(April/May 2012)
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Air velocity, C = 700 km/hr = 700 x 10 m/hr
C = 194.44 m/sec
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Static pressure, P=75 kPa=75x103Pa
Static temperature, T = 5ºC + 273 = 278 K
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To Find: 1. Mach number 2. Stagnation properties
Solution:
Velocity of sound,
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g.n
Refer Isentropic flow table for & M = 0.58
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Stagnation temperature, To
Stagnation pressure,
13
3.Prove that
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But for the compressible flow the value of pressure coefficient deviates from unity.
For isentropic compressible flow the relationship between stagnation pressure and
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stagnation temperature is given by
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En
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Expanding this equation as Taylor series i.e
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g.n
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But and
14
Therefore
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4. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a testsection mach number of 2.0. Air enters the
nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross sectional area of the
w.E 2
throat is 1000 cm . Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one
dimensional isentropic flow.
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(i) Pressures, temperatures and velocities at the throat and testsections.
(ii) Area of cross section of the test section
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(iii) Mass flow rate
(iv) Power required to drive the compressor
Given:
gin 2
(Nov/Dec 2012)
Solution:
ee
P0 = 0.69 bar, T0 = 310 K, A* = 1000 cm , Mt = 2
rin
g.n
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Case (ii)
Refer isentropic flow table
15
ww
w.E
From gas table at Mt=2.0
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En
gin
ee rin
k
g.n
Assuming reversible flow, compressor work
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5. The Pressure, temperature and velocity of air at the entry of a diffuser are 0.7 bar,
345 K and 190 m/s respectively. The entry diameter of a diffuser is 15 cm and exit
diameter is 35 cm. Determine the following. (1) Exit pressure (2) Exit velocity (3)
Force exerted on the diffuser walls. Assuming isentropic flow and take γ = 1.4, C p =
1005 J/kgk. (Nov/Dec2012)
Given:
P1 = 0.7 bar, T1 = 345 K, C1 = 190 m/s, d1 = 15 cm = 0.15 m,
d2 = 35 cm=0.35 m, γ = 1.4, Cp = 1005 J/kgK
To Find: P2, C2 and τ
Solution:
16
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Stagnation temperature, To
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Stagnation pressure,
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En
gin
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g.n
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In this problem, d2>d1 => A2>A1. So this is divergent type diffuser. For divergent type
diffuser Mach number value is less than unity
17
M<1
Inlet Outlet
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For
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value, we can refer gas table page no 28 and 38. But we have to take
Mach number less than 1 corresponding values, because it is divergent type diffuser.
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gin
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At throat section
g.n
Force exerted on the diffuser walls is equal to the thrust of the flow
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18
Unit – II
FLOW THROUGH DUCTS
PartA
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3. What are the three equation governing Fanno flow?
a. Energy equation
b. Continuity equation
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Under stagnation conditions, the assumption of Rayleigh flow is not valid in a
heat exchanger.
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6. Give the assumptions made in Rayleigh flow.(NOV/DEC 2010)
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One dimensional flow without friction and heat transfer Constant area duct Perfect
gas with constant specific heats and molecular weights Absence of body forces.
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7. Sketch the Rayleigh line on the Ts plane and explain the significance of it.
( NOV/DEC 2009)
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The portion of the Rayleigh curve above the point of maximum entropy usually
represents. Subsonic flow (M<1) and the portion below the maximum entropy point
represents supersonic flow(M>1)
8. Explain the difference between fanno flow and isothermal flow? (NOV/DEC 2009)
ISOTHERMAL FLOW FANNO FLOW
19
Flow occurs in long ducts where Long ducts are not required
sufficient time is required for heat
transfer
On account of constant temperature the Friction factor is not constant.
friction factor is assumed constant.
9. Give two practical examples where the fanno flow occurs.
Flow occurs in gas ducts of aircraft propulsion engines, flow in airconditioning
ducts and flow of oil in long pipes. etc.
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10. Write the ratio of velocity between and two section in terms of the mach number in
a fanno flow.
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asy PartB
stagnation pressure.
Given data
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bar flows through a constant area duct adiabatically to another section where the
Mach number is 1.5. Determine the amount of heat transfer and the change in
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M1 = 3 g.n
M2 = 1.5
To1 = 295+ 273 =568 k
P1 = 0.5 bar = 0.5 x 105 N/m2
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To find:
Solution :
M1 is given
Refer isentropic table for γ =1.4 ,M1 = 3 (From Gas Table P.No. 37)
T1 = To1 x 0.357
20
T1 = 202.71 k
Po1 =
Refer Rayleigh flow table for γ =1.4 ,M1 = 3 ( From gas table P.No. 115)
ww
w.E
asy
En
P1 * =
gin
P1* = 2.84 x 105 N/m2
T1 * =
ee rin
T1* = 721.60 k g.n
Po1 * =
21
=5.37 x 10 5 x 1.122
= 868.5 x 0.909
To2 = 789.46 K
Heat supplied
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Q = m cp (To2To1)
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Q = 1x 1005 (789.5  568)
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Change in stagnation pressure
Δ Po = Po 2Po2
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=18.38 X 105 – 6.025 X 10 5
To Find:
M 2, P2, T2, T02 and Po2 at exit.
Solution:
Refer isentropic table for γ =1.4 ,M1 = 3 (From gas table P.No. 37)
22
To1=
To1= 840.3 K
Po1 =
Refer Rayleigh flow table for γ =1.4, M1 = 3 (From gas table P.No. 115)
ww
w.E
asy
En
P1 * = gin
P1* = 5.68 x 105 N/m2=P2* ee rin
Po1 * =
g.n
Po1* = 5.37 x 105 N/m2
T1 * =
et
T1* = 1067.60 K=T2*
To1 * =
To1* = 868.5 k = To2*
ρ1* = ρ1 x 1.588
Heat transfer
23
Q = m cp (To2To1)
m= 1 Kg/s
To2=1138.85 K
M2= 1.6
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For (We can refer gas table P.No.112 and 113.But we have to take M2=1.6)
w.E
asy
En
gin
Initial Mach number is M1>1
P2 = 5.68 x 105 x 0.524
ee rin
P2 = 2.97x 105
g.n
T2 = 1067.6 x 0.702
T2 = 749.4 K
et
Result :
M2=1.6
P2 = 2.9x105 N/m2
T2 = 749.4 K
24
To2 =1138 K
Po2 = 12.61 x 105 N/m2
3. The Condition of a gas in combustion chamber at entry are T1 = 375 K, P1= 0.050
bar, C1=70 m/s. The air – fuel ratio is 29 and the calorific value of the fuel is 42
MJ/Kg. Calculate,
Initial and final mach number
Final pressure, temperature and velocity
Gas Percentage of stagnation pressure loss
Maximum stagnation temperature
Take γ = 1.4 and R = 0.287 kJ/kg k.
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Given :
T1 = 375 k
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P1 = 0.50 bar = 0.50 X 105 N/m2
C1= 70 m/s
Air – fuel ratio = 29
ϒ = 1.4 asy
Calorific value = 42 MJ/kg = 42 X 106 J/kg
En
R = 0.287 KJ/kg k = 287 J/kg k
To find:
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1.
2.
3.
M1 & M2
P2, T2, C2
Stagnation pressure loss
ee rin
4.
Solution
To(max)
g.n
M1 = = = 0.180 et
M1 = 0.180
Refer isentropic table for γ =1.4, M1 = 0.180 (From gas table P.No. 28)
To1=
To1= 377.36 K
25
Po1 =
Refer Rayleigh flow table for γ =1.4, M1 = 0.18 (From gas table P. No. 111)
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w.E
c1*
P1 * =
asy
P1* = 0.218 x 105 N/m2=P2*
En
Po1 * =
Po1* = 0.4119 x 105 N/m2 = Po2* gin
T1 * =
C1*=
et
C1*=945m/s = c2*
Δho = =
Δho = CpTo2CpT01
1.4X106 = x [T02377.26]
26
To2 =1770.99K
Refer Rayleigh flow table for γ =1.4, (From gas table P. No. 111)
M2= 0.48
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w.E
P2 = 0.218 x 105 x 1.815
P2 = 0.3956x 105N/m2
T2 =662.4 K
ee rin
C2=C2* x 0.418
g.n
C2= 945.95 x 0.418
C2= 395.41m/s
Percentage of stagnation pressure loss
et
= [(0.5112 x 1050.462 x 105) / 0.5112 x 105] X 100
Loss = 9.6%
To(max)= To1*= To2*= T*= 2638.18 K
Result
M1=0.18
M2=1.6
P2 = 0.3956x 105N/m2
T2 = 1662.4 K
27
C2= 395.41m/s
ww T1 = 2.9x105 N/m2
T2 = 749.4 K
w.E M1 = 0.14
M2 = 0.6
Po2=12.61x105N/m2
µ=0.004
m=3.2kg/s asy
To Find:
En
1.
2.
3.
P2, T2
D
L gin
4.
5.
Solution
Po1Po2
Verify exit Mach number ee rin
Refer isentropic table for γ =1.4, M1 = 0.14 (From gas table P.No. 28)
g.n
0.996
Po1 = = et
= 308.9 k Po1=3.44x 105 N/m2
Refer isentropic table for γ =1.4, M1 = 0.4 (From gas table P. No. 81)
28
257.7 K
Refer isentropic table for γ =1.4, M2 = 0.6 (From gas table P. No. 81)
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P02/ P02*=1.188 C2/C2*=0.635
w.E
P2 = asy
= 0.435×105×1.763
T2= 280.4K
et
C2 = C2* X 0.635
Diameter of duct
D12 = 0.055
29
D1 = 0.234= D2= D3
=32.50.491
= 32.02
L= (32.02X0.234) /(4X0.004)
L=468.2 m
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Stagnation pressure loss
w.E
ΔP = Po1Po2
ΔP = 2.464 x 105N/m2
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Result
En
L=468.2 m
ΔP = 2.464 x105N/m2
gin
D = 0.234m ee rin
M2 = 0.6
g.n
et
T2 = 280.4K
P2 = 0.766x105N/m2
30
Unit – III
NORMAL AND OBLIQUE SHOCKS
PARTA
1. Give the difference between normal and oblique shock.
May be treated as one dimensional analysis. Oblique s ho ck is two dimensio nal analysis.
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2. What is meant by shock wave?
A shock wave is a steep finite pressure wave. The shock wave may be described as a
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compression wave front in a subsonic flow field across which there is abrupt change in flow
properties.
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3. Define “strength of a shock wave”. (NOV/DEC 2009)
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Strength of a shock wave is defined as the ratio of increase in static pressure across the shock
to the inlet static pressure. Strength of shock = (P y – Px)/Px
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4. Define oblique shock where it occurs.
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The shock wave which is inclined at an angle to the two dimensional flow direction is
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called as oblique shock. When the flow is supersonic, the oblique shock occurs at the corner due
to the turning of supersonic flow.
31
Compression wave front being normal to the direction of compressible fluid flow. It occurs
when the flow is decelerating from supersonic flow. The fluid properties jump across the normal
shock.
a. Jet engine
b. Shock tube
c. Supersonic wind tunnel
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a. Flow is study, adiabatic and frictionless
b. Gas is perfect
c. Absents of work transfer work boundary
10. Show a normal shock in hs diagram with the help of Rayleigh line and Fanno line.
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En
gin
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g.n
PARTB
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1. Derive Prandtl Meyer Relation.
Prandtl Meyer Relation which is the basic of other equation for shock waves. It gives the
relationship between the gas velocities before and after the normal shock and the critical velocity of
sound.
We know that
32
Apply this equation to the flow before shock wave and after shock wave
= 
= ( 1) 

ww = 
w.E = 
= ( 1)


ee rin

g.n
=
=

 (2)
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We know that from momentum equation
( )A = m( )
( )= ( )
=( )
 =( ) (3)
33
= = (4)
(4.3)=>  =( )
Multiplying by
 = ( ) (5)
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For unit mass
w.E =RT
p√ =RT
=
asy
=
En
gin
=
=
=
ee rin
Substitute and values in equation no (5)
g.n
(5)=>  = ( ) (6)
Substitute the equation (4.1) and (4.2) in equation (6) et
(6)=>   = ( )
=>   = (
=> + = ( )
Multiply by
=> + =
34
Multiply by 2
( ) +( ) =2
( ) =2  +( )
( ) =
( ) =
= (7)
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I=
×
×
=
w.E × = I (8)
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This is another form of Prandtl Meyer Relations
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2. The following data refer to compressible fluid flow in a convergent nozzle.
1) Throat area = 2.4cm2
2) Exit area = 5cm2
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3) Stagnation pressure = 7 bar
4) Stagnation temperature = 100⁰c ee rin
Normal shock occurs at a section where the cross sectional area is 3.4 cm2. Taking the
flow as isentropic before and after the shock, find the following
g.n
i)
ii)
iii)
Properties of fluid just after the shock
Exit Mach number
Properties of fluid at exit
et
Given data:
A*= Ax* = 2.4 cm2= 2.4× 104 m2
A2 = 5 cm2= 5× 104 m2
T0 = 100+273 = 373K
Hence
35
Ax = Ay
Ax* = A*
To find:
1) My , Ty, Py , Cy
2) M2
3) P2, T2,C2
Solution:
= = 1.416
ww = 1.416
w.E
Refer isentropic flow rate
=1.4
= 1.416 = 1.418 (From gas table P No : 33)
=0.612 = 0.179
En 0.179×7×105
My = 0.621 Ty = 1.517 × TX
g.n
et
= 3.530, = 1.517 =1.517×228.27
Ty = 346.28K
= 0.822
Poy =0.822 × Pox
=3.53 × PX
= 0.822×7× 105
5
= 3.530 × 1.253× 10
Poy = 5.754× 105 N/m2
Py = 4.423 × 105 N/m2
Cy = My ×ay = My ×
0.621 ×
36
Cy = 231.6 m/s
Refer isentropic flow table My = 0.621 =0.62, =1.4 (From gas table P. No. 30)
= 1.166
= 1.718
ww
Refer isentropic flow table
M2 = 0.36
= 1.718 = 1.73, =1.4 (From gas table P. No. 29)
w.E
= 0.975, = 0.914
T2 = 0.975 × Ty
asy P2 = 0.914 ×
T2 =363.6K
En P2 = 5.259× 105 N/m2
C2 = M2 ×a2 = M2 ×
gin
= 0.36 ×
C2 = 137.6m/s
ee rin
Result:
g.n
Mx = 1.78
Ty = 346.28K
et
Py = 4.423 × 105 N/m2
Cy = 231.6 m/s
M2 = 0.36
T2 =363.6K
C2 = 137.6m/s
37
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A*= Ax* = 12.5 cm2= 12.5 × 104 m2
A2 = 25 cm2 = 25 × 104m2
w.E
To Find
Exit mach number
Exit pressure
asy
Solution En
Loss in stagnation pressure
= = 1.5 gin
Refer isentropic flow rate
Mx = 1.86
ee
= 1.416 = 1.418 from gas table P. No 34
rin
Refer normal shock table M X = 1.86, =1.4 from gas table P. No. 53
g.n
My = 0.604
= 0.786
et
Poy =0.786 × Pox
Refer isentropic flow table My = 0.604, =1.4 from gas table P. No. 29
38
= 1.188
Refer isentropic flow table = 1.584, =1.4 from gas table P. No. 29
M2 =40
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P2= 1.476 x 10^5 N/m2
w.E
Stagnation pressure loss, p = po  poy
= (0.21×106) – (1.65×105)
g.n
temperature of air before the shock are 150 KN/m2 and 25oc respectively. The
pressure just after the shock is 350 KN/m2.
Find,
(i) Mach number before shock
et
(ii) Mach number, static temperature and velocity of air after the shock wave.
Given:
Tx = 25+273= 298 k
To Find:
(i) Mx
(ii) M y, Ty, Cy
(iii) ρyρx
(iv) ΔPo
(v) Δs
Solution
w.E
Mx=1.46, My=0.716
asy
En
gin
T y = 1.294 × T x = 1.294 × 298
Ty =385.61 k
ee rin
Poy = 3.265 × Px g.n
= 3.265 × 150 × 10
Poy = 489.75 N/m2
et
40
My = Cy/a y
Cy = M y × a y = M y y
ww= 0.76 ×
w.E
Cy = 281.8 m/s
= 1.409 kg/m3
Change in entropy
Δs= R ln
Δs = 17.148 J/kgk
41
Result
5 .An oblique waves occur at the leading edge of a symmetrical wedge. Air has a
mach number of 2.1 and deflection angle of 150 .Determine strong and weak waves.
ww 1. Wave angle
2. Pressure ratio
3. Density ratio
w.E
4. Temperature ratio
5. Downstream mach number
Given: asy
En
Upstream mach number of oblique shock M1 = 2.1
Deflection angle δ = 15 0
To find: gin
1. Wave angle σ
2. Pressure ratio P2/P1
3. Density ratio ρ2/ρ1
ee rin
4. Temperature ratio T2/T1
5. Downstream mach number of oblique shock M2 g.n
Solution:
42
Upstream Mx = M1 sinσ
Mx = 2.1 sin 80.8o
= 2.07
Refer normal shock table for Mx = 2.07, γ = 1.4 From gas table P. No. 53
ww My = 0.565
M2 = My / sin(σ  δ)
asy
En
= 0.565 / sin(80.8 – 15)
M2 = 0.619
Density at exit
ρ2 = P2/RT2
gin
Density at entry
ρ1 = P1/RT1
ee rin
ρ2/ρ1 = (P2/RT2)/ (P1/RT1)
g.n
= (P2 / P1) * (T1/ T2)
= 4.832*(1/1.745)
ρ2/ρ1 = 2.769
et
For weak shock wave
Upstream Mx = M1 sin σ
= 2.1 x sin 43
Mx = 1.432
Refer normal shock table for Mx = 1.432, γ = 1.4 From gas table P. No. 52
M2= My/sin(σ  δ)
= 0.727/sin(43  15)
M2 = 1.548
43
Density at exit
ρ2 = P2/RT2
Density at entry
ρ1 = P1/RT1
ww = 1.741
w.E
Result
For strong wave
σ (strong)= 80.80
P2/P1 = 4.832 asy
ρ2/ρ1 = 2.769
T2/T1 = 1.745 En
M2 = 0.619
For weak wave gin
σ (weak)= 430
P2/P1 = 2.219
ρ2/ρ1 = 1.741
ee rin
T2/T1 = 1.274
M2 = 1.548 g.n
et
44
Unit – IV
JET PROPULSION
PART  A
1. What is meant by a jet propulsion system?
It is the propulsion of a jet aircraft (or) other missiles by the reaction of jet coming out with
high velocity. The jet propulsion in used when the oxygen is obtained from the
surrounding atmosphere.
2. How will you classify propulsive engines?
The jet propulsion engines are classified i n to:
i. Air breathing engines and
g.n
thrust output of aircraft for short intervals of time. This is achieved by during additional fuel
in the tail pipe between the turbine exhaust and entrance section of the exhaust nozzle. This
method of thrust increases the jet velocity is called “Thrust Augmentation”.
et
5. What is the benefit of thrust augmentation in a turbojet engine? [May/June 2012]
Better takeoff performance.
Higher rates of climb
6. Give the difference between pulse jet and ram jet engine.
PULSE JET RAM JET
Mechanical valve arrangements Works without the aid of any
are used during combustion. mechanical device and needs no
moving parts.
The stagnation temperature i s l e s s Since the mach number in Ram jet
engine is supersonic, the stagnation
temperature is very high.
45
7. Why a ram jet engine does not require a compressor and a turbine?
In general, the speed of a ram jet engine is supersonic (the range of Mach number) is
very high. At this flight speed the contribution of the compressor to the total static pressure
rise is insignificant. Hence, arm jet engine does not require compressor and turbine.
Exhaust gases from the turbine have large quantity of oxygen, which can support the
combustion of additional fuel. Thus if a suitable burner is installed between the turbine and
exhaust nozzle, a considerable amount of fuel can be burned in this section to produce
ww temperatures entering the nozzle as high as 1900°C. The increased temperature greatly
augments the exhaust gas velocity, and hence provides the thrust increase.
w.E
9. Define propulsive efficiency? [Nov/Dec 2012]
asy
The force which propels the aircraft forward at a given speed is called thrust (or) propulsive
En
force. Propulsive efficiency is defined as the ratio between propulsive power (or) thrust power
to the power output of the engine.
ηp = gin
ee rin
10. How is turbofan engine differ from turbo prop engine? [Nov/Dec 2008]
Turbo Prop Engine Turbo fan engine
46
11. What is the difference between shaft propulsion and jet propulsion?
ww
altitudes.
With increasing speeds and size of the Propuls ive effic ienc y
asy
Propulsive efficiency is less.
En
gin
ee Part B
It consists of:
47
rise is called the ram pressure.The function of nozzle is to convert pressure energy of gas into
kinetic energy.
ww
w.E
asy
Working:
En
gin
o Air from the atmosphere enters the engine at a very high speed and its velocity gets reduced
and its static pressure is increased by supersonic diffuser.
ee
o Then the air passes through the subsonic diffuser and its velocity further reduces to subsonic
rin
value. Due to this, the pressure of air increases to ignition pressure.
g.n
o Then the high pressure air flows into the combustion chamber. In the combustion chamber,
the fuel is injected by suitable injectors and the air fuel mixture is burnt.
et
o The highly heated products of combustion gases are then allowed to expand in the exhaust
nozzle section.
o In the nozzle pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy. So the gases
coming out form the unit with very high velocity.
o Due to high velocity of gases coming out from the unit, a reaction or thrust is produced in the
opposite direction. This thrust propels the air craft.
o Ramjet produces very high thrust with high efficiency at supersonic speeds. So, it is best
suitable for high speed aircrafts.
48
o The air enters the engine with a supersonic speed must be reduced to subsonic speed. This is
necessary to prevent the blow out of the flame in the combustion chamber. The velocity must
be small enough to make it possible to add the required quantity of fuel for stable
combustion.
o Both theory and experiment indicate that the speed of the air entering the combustion
chamber should not be higher than that corresponding to a local mach number of 0.2
approximately.
Advantages:
Ramjet engine is very simple and does not have any moving part.
ww
Cost is low
Less maintenance
w.E
The specific fuel consumption is better than other gas turbine power plants at high speed.
There is no upper limit to the flight speed.
asy
Light weight when compared with turbojet engine.
Disadvantages:
En
gin
Since the takeoff thrust is zero, it is not possible to start a ramjet engine without an
external launching device.
ee
The combustion chamber required flame holder to stabilize the combustion due to high
speed of air.
rin
g.n
It is very difficult to design a diffuser which will give good pressure recovery over a wide
range of speeds.
It has low thermal efficiency.
Applications:
et
It is widely used in high speed aircrafts and missiles due to its high thrust and high
operational speed.
Subsonic ramjets are used in target weapons.
The construction of pulse jet engine is shown in fig. which is similar to ramjet engine.
49
It consists of:
A valve grid which contains springs that close on their own spring pressure.
A diffuser.
Combustion chamber.
Spark plug.
A tail pipe (or discharge nozzle)
The function of diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into pressure energy.
The function of nozzle is to convert pressure energy of gas into kinetic energy.
ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
Working:
g.n
static pressure is increased by diffuser. et
o Air from the atmosphere enters into pulse jet engine. The air velocity gets reduced and its
o When a certain pressure difference exists across the valve grid, the valve will open and allow
the air to enter into the combustion chamber.
o In the combustion chamber, fuel is mixed with air and combustion starts by the use of spark
plug.
o Once the combustion starts it proceeds at constant volume. So there is a rapid increase in
pressure, which causes the valve to close rapidly.
o The highly heated products of combustion gases are then allowed to expand in the exhaust
nozzle (Tail pipe) section.
50
o In the nozzle pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy. So the gases
coming out from the unit with very high velocity.
o Due to high velocity of gases coming out form the unit, a reaction (or) thrust is produced in
the opposite direction. This thrust propels the air craft.
o Since the combustion process causes the pressure to increases, the engine can operate even at
static condition once it gets started.
o When the combustion products accelerate from the chamber, they have leave a slight
vacuum in the combustion chamber. This, in turn, produces sufficient pressure drop across
the valve grid, allowing the valves to open again and new charge of air enters the combustion
chamber.
ww
Advantages:
w.E Pulse jet engine is very simple device next to ramjet engine.
Less maintenance.
Cost is low
asy
En
Light weight when compared with turbojet engine.
Unlike the ramjet engine, the pulse jet engine develops thrust at zero speed.
Disadvantages: gin
ee
High rates of fuel consumption
rin
The maximum flight speed of the pulse jet engine is limited to 750km/h.
Low propulsive efficiency than turbojet engines.
g.n
Applications:
High degree of vibration leads to noise pollution.
et
It is used in subsonic flights, German VI missiles, Target aircraft missiles, etc..
TURBOJET ENGINE
The two airbreathing engines described so far are simple in construction and they have not
been used very extensively. The most common type of airbreathing engine is Turbojet engine.
51
Construction:
It consists of:
Diffuser
Rotary compressor
Combustion chamber
Turbine and
Exhaust nozzle
The function of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into pressure energy.
ww
The function of the nozzle is to convert the pressure energy of the combustion gases into kinetic
energy.
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
Working:
g.n
et
o Air from the atmosphere enters into turbojet engine. The air velocity gets reduced and its
static pressure is increased by diffuser.
o Then the air passes through the rotary compressor in which the air is further compressed.
o Then the high pressure air flows into the combustion chamber. In the combustion chamber,
the fuel is injected by suitable injectors and the airfuel mixture is burnt, heat is supplied at
constant pressure.
o The highly heated products of combustion gases are then enters the turbine and partially
expanded.
o The power produced by the turbine is just sufficient to drive the compressor, fuel pump and
other auxiliaries.
o The hot gases from the turbine are then allowed to expand in the exhaust nozzle section.
52
o In the nozzle, pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy. So the gases
coming out from the unit with very high velocity.
o Due to high velocity of gases coming out from the unit, a reaction or thrust is produced in the
opposite direction. This thrust propels the air craft.
o Like ramjet engine, the turbojet engine is a continuous flow engine.
o Because of turbine material limitations, only a limited amount of fuel can be burnt in the
combustion chamber.
Advantages:
Construction is simple
w.E It runs smoothly because continuous thrust is produced by continuous combustion of fuel.
The speed of a turbojet is not limited by the propeller and it can attain higher flight speed
asy
than turbo propeller air crafts.
En
Low grade fuels like kerosene, paraffin, etc., can be used. This reduces the fuel cost.
gin
Reheat is possible to increases the thrust.
Since turbojet engine has a compressor, it can be operated under static conditions.
Disadvantages:
ee rin
It has low takeoff thrust and hence poor starting characteristics.
g.n
Fuel consumption is high
Costly materials are used
The fuel economy at low operational speed is extremely poor.
et
Sudden decreases of speed is difficult
Propulsive efficiency and thrust are lower at lower speeds.
Applications:
53
It is very similar to turbojet engine. In this type, the turbine drives the compressor and propeller.
Construction:
ww
w.E
asy
En
Diffuser Compressor
Combustion chamber
Turbine gin
Exhaust nozzle
Reduction gear and
Propeller
ee rin
The function of diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into pressure energy.
g.n
The function of nozzle is to convert the pressure energy of the combustion gases into kinet ic energy.
et
The angular velocity of the shaft is very high. But the propeller cannot run at higher angular
velocity. So reduction gear box is provided before the power is transmitted to the propeller.
Working:
o Air from the atmosphere enters into turbo prop engine. The air velocity gets reduced and its
static pressure is increased by diffuser.
o Then the air passes through the rotary compressor in which the air is further compressed. So,
the static pressure of the air is further increased.
o Then the high pressure air flows into the combustion chamber. In the combustion chamber,
the fuel is injected by suitable injectors and the airfuel mixture is burnt. Heat is supplied at
constant pressure.
54
o The highly heated products of combustion gases are then enters the turbine and partially
(about 80 to 90%) expanded.
o The power produced by the turbine is used to drive the compressor and propeller.
o Propeller is used to increase the flow rate of air which results in better fuel economy.
o The hot gases from the turbine are then allowed to expand in the exhaust nozzle section.
o In the nozzle, pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy. So the gases
coming out form the unit with very high velocity.
o Due to high velocity of gases coming out from the unit, a reaction (or) thrust is produced in
the opposite direction.
o The total thrust produced in this engine is the sum of the thrust produced by the propeller and
ww the thrust produced by the nozzle. This total thrust propels the air craft.
w.E
Advantages:
asy
Good propeller efficiency at a speed below 800km/hr
En
Reduced vibration and noise
Better fuel economy
Easy maintenance gin
ee
It operates over a wide range of speeds due to multi shaft arrangement.
The power output is not limited.
rin
Sudden decrease of speed is possible by thrust reversal.
Disadvantages: g.n
et
The main disadvantage is, the propeller efficiency is rapidly decreases at high speeds due to
shocks and flow separation.
It requires a reduction gear which increases the cost of the engine.
More space needed than turbojet engine.
Engine construction is more complicated.
55
advantages of both.
Working:
o Air from the atmosphere enters into turbofan engine, employing a low pressure ducted fan.
o The air after passing through the fan is divided into two streams, namely primary air and
secondary air.
o The primary air flow through the turbofan engine consisting of compressor,
combustion chamber, turbine and exhaust nozzle. Combustion takes place in the combustion
w.E around the turbofan engine and expands in the fan nozzle. Hence thrust is produced.
o The thrust developed by the secondary air is at lower velocity and the thrust developed by
asy
the primary air is at much higher velocity.
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et
o The total thrust produced in this engine is the sum of thrust produced by the primary air
and the secondary air . This total thrust propels the air craft.
o The ratio of the mass flow rates of cold air and the hot air is known as By Pass
Ratio.
Advantages:
56
ww
The turbo prop engine is best suited for commercial and military aircraft operation due to its high
w.E
flexibility of operation and good fuel economy.
6. An aircraft flies at 960kmph. One of its turbojet engines takes in 40kg/s of air and expands
asy
the gases to the ambient pressure. The airfuel ratio is 50 and the lower calorific value of the
fuel is 43MJ/kg. For maximum thrust power determine a) Jet velocity b)Thrust c) Specific
En
thrust d)Thrust power e) Propulsive, thermal and overall efficiency f) TSFC [May2008]
Solution:
gin
U=
Thrust, F = 11.094kN
Specific Thrust
57
Thrust power
Propulsive Efficiency
wwThermal Efficiency
w.E
asy
En
gin
Overall efficiency ee rin
g.n
TSFC
et
7. A ramjet engine propels an aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and at an altitude of 6000 m.
The diameter of the inlet diffuser at entry is 40 cm and the calorific valve of the fuel is 43
MJ/kg. The stagnation temperature at the nozzle entry is 1500 K. The properties of the
combustion gases are same as those of air.
58
Combustion efficiency,
Given:
Altitude, z = 6000m
w.E
Diameter of the inlet diffuser, d1 = 40 cm = 0.40m
asy
Calorific value of fuel, C.V = 43MJ/kg
En = 43
gin
Stagnation temperature at nozzle entry T03 = 1500 K
Diffuser efficiency,
Combustion efficiency, ee
Nozzle jet efficiency, rin
Stagnation pressure loss in the combustion chamber = 0.02 p02 g.n
Solution:
Ti = 249.15 K
59
ai = 316.5 m/s
M1 =
u = M1 x a1
flight speed,
ww
Area of cross section of the diffuser
w.E A1 =
asy A1 0.125m2
We know that,
M2
At inlet,
60
M12
(1.4)2
ww 0.97
gin 0.02
ee 0.02)
rin
We know that,
g.n
Diffuser pressure ratio,
et
N
Substituting value,
N/m2
RON = Roj =
61
Nozzle efficiency,
ww
w.E
We know that,
asy
Stagnation temperature, T0 = T+
En
gin
ee
1500 = 1129.5 +
rin
g.n
= 744.70 m/s
we know that,
propulsive efficiency,
62
Thrust, F = c4 
Result:
ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee
8. The flight speed of a turbojet is 800 km/h at 10,000 m altitude. The density of air at that
rin
altitude is 0.17kg/m3. The drag for the plane is 6.8KN. The propulsive efficiency of the jet is
60%. Calculate the SFC, airfuel ratio, jet velocity. Assume the calorific value of fuel is 45000
KJ/kg and overall efficiency of the turbojet plane is 18%
g.n
Given:
z = 10,000 m Density,
kg/m3
Propulsive efficiency,
Overall efficiency,
63
To find:
i) SFC
ii) Airfuel ratio
iii) Jet velocity
Solution:
We know that,
Propulsive efficiency,
ww 0.60[Cj + 222.22] = 2
=[ ] Cj 
et
F = Cj 
6.8
64
TSFC N
ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
ee rin
g.n
et
65
UNITV
SPACE PROPULSION
PARTA
If the propulsion unit contains its own oxygen supply for combustion purposes, the system
is known as “Rocket propulsion”.
w.E
i. Chemi cal rocket s,
i i. Solar rocket s
asy
i i i. N u c l e a r r o c k e t s a n d
i v. E l e c t ri c al r o c k e t s
En
b) On the basis of propellants used
i.
gin
Li qui d propel l ant
ee
ii. Sol i d pr op el l ant
i i i . Hybri d propell ant rocket s
3. Compare solid and liquid propellant rockets. rin
SOLID PROPELLANT g.n
LIQUID PROPELLANT
If the fuel and oxidizer are different from each other in its chemical nature, then the
propellant is called bipropellant.
Example: Liquid oxygen – Gasoline
Hydrogen Peroxide – Hydrazine
Inhibitors are used to regulate (or prevent) the burning of propellant at some sections.
A liquid propellant which contains both the fuel and oxidizer in a single chemical is known
as “mono propellant”. e.g.,
ww i. Hydrogen peroxide
asy
iii Nitroglycerine and
iv Nitromethane, etc.
En
8. Name some oxidizers used in rockets.
gin
A liquid propellant which contains the fuel and oxidizer in separate units is known as
OXIDIZER
a) Liquid oxygen
ee
bipropellant. The commonly used bipropellant combinations are:
FUEL
a) Gasoline rin
g.n
b) Hydrogen peroxide
c) Nitrogen tetroxide
b) Liquid hydrogen
c) UDMH
et
9. Name few advantages of liquid propellant rockets over solid propellant rockets.
iii. Storing and transportation is easy as the fuel and oxidizer are kept separately.
67
Chemical propulsion is propulsion in which the thrust is provided by the product of a chemical
reaction, usually burning (or oxidizing) a fuel. The heats produced by the chemical reaction
heats up the product, making it expand . As it expands, it gets too big for the reaction
chamber and pushes out the back of the rocket. This provides thrust for the rocket.
PARTB
1. (i) Explain with a help of neat sketch the working of solid and liquid propellant rocket engine.
(NOV/DEC 2012)
ww
SOLID PROPELLANTS
w.E Gas generated in a solid propellant is produced by reaction of reducing and oxidizing agent
in the combustion chamber. The oxidizing agent is usually an inorganic slat or one or more
asy
organic nitro compounds. The reducing agent is usually a polymeric organic binder
compound of carbon hydrogen and sometimes sulphur. The reducing agent imparts
mechanical strength to the propellant.
Construction: En
gin
The construction of solid propellant rocket engine is shown in figure:
ee rin
g.n
et
68
Solid propellant is the combination of solid fuel ( plastic or resin material) and oxidizer
(Nitrates & perchlorates)
Solid fuel & oxidizer is homogeneously mixed & packed inside the shell.
A liner is provided between the shell and the propellant. The purpose of the liner is to protect
the shell as high temperature will be generated during combustion process.
Working:
The igniters are located at the top and ignite the spark. So combustion takes place.
When the combustion take place in the combustion chamber , very high pressure and
temperature gases are produced
The highly heated products of combustion gases are then allowed to expand in the nozzle
section.
ww In the nozzle pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy. So the gases come
out from the unit with very high velocities.
Due to high velocities of gases coming out from the unit, a force or thrust is produced in
Construction
asy
En
The construction of liquid propellant rocket engine is shown in figure
gin
ee rin
g.n
et
69
Liquid fuel(refined petrol, liquid hydrogen, hydrazine etc) and liquid oxygen are used in this
engine
Liquid fuel and liquid oxygen are stored separately in two different tanks
Nozzle is used to increase the velocity and decrease the pressure of the gases
Working
ww Liquid fuel and liquid oxygen are pumped separately into a combustion chamber through
control valves.
w.E Since the liquid fuel and liquid oxygen are stored at very low temperature , they are
preheated in the preheated to a suitable temperature
asy
The preheated fueloxidizer mixture is injected into the combustion chamber through suitable
injector and combustion takes place.
En
When the combustion takes place in the combustion chamber , very high pressure and
gin
temperature gases are produced
section. ee
The highly heated products of combustion gases are then allowed to expand in nozzle
rin
In the nozzle, pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy. So the gases
coming out from the unit with the very high velocity.
g.n
opposite direction. This thrust propels the rocket.
Products of combustion should have low molecular weight to produce high jet velocity
70
It should be non corrosive and non reactive with components of the engine
Energy released during combustion per unit mass of the propellant combination should be
high
w.E
pressure = 1.02bar Ambient
pressure = 1.013 bar
Thrust chamber pressure = 20 bar
Thrust = 7 KN
asy
Determine: Effective jet velocity, actual jet velocity, specific impulse and specific propellant
d= 10cm
ee rin
pc = 1.02 bar
g.n
Pa = 1.013 bar
F = 7KN et
To find :
(i) Specific impulse, Is
(ii) Effective jet velocity, Cj
(iii) Actual jet velocity, Ce
(iv) Specific propellant consumption (SPC)
(v) F1 and Is1
Formula to be used:
(i) Specific impulse, Is =
(ii) Effective jet velocity. Cj = (F X g) / (wp)
(iii) Ac = Aj = d2
71
Solution:
Specific impulse, Is = =
= 142.71 seconds
Ac = Aj = d2 = X 102
ww = 78.54 cm2
F = mp Ce + (Pc  Pa) A
asy
Ce= 1398.9 m/s
SPC = 1 / Is
En
= 1 / 142.71 = 0.007 S1
gin
b) The change in the ambient pressure to 10 mbar does no alter the nozzle exit pressure velocity and
ee
propellant flow rate thrust due to decrease in ambient pressure increases.
= 7787.754 N
Result:
72
3) (i) Explain the working of a turbopump feed system used in a liquid propellant rocket.
(APR/MAY2010)
Liquid propellant rocket use liquid propellant that is fed under pressure from tanks into a
ww thrust chamber. In the thrust chamber the propellant react to form hot gases, which in turn
are accelerated and ejected at a high velocity through a supersonic nozzle, thereby imparting
w.E
momentum to the system. A liquid rocket unit usually permits repetitive operation and can
be started and shutoff at will. If the thrust chamber is provided with adequate cooling
capacity, it is possible t run liquid rockets for periods extending one hour, dependent only on
asy
the propellant supply. A liquid propellant rocket system, is however, relatively complicated;
it requires several precision valves and a complex feed mechanism which often includes
propellant pumps, turbines or a propellant pressurising device, and a relatively intricate
En
combustion or thrust chamber.
gin
ee rin
g.n
et
One of the simplest and most common means of pressurising the propellant is to force them
out of their respective tanks by displacing them with high pressure gas. The gas is fed into
the propellant tanks at a controlled pressure, thereby giving a controlled propellant
discharge.
For low thrust and/or short duration, such as for space vehicles or antiaircraft rockets, a feed
73
system of this type is preferred. The rocket engines with pressurised feed system can be very
reliable because of their simplicity.
A simple pressurised feed system consists essentially of a high pressure gas tank, a gas shut 
off and starting valve, a pressure regulator, propellant tanks, propellant valves and feed lines.
Additional components such as filling and draining provisions, check valves and filters are
also often incorporated.
After all tanks are filled, the highpressure air valve is remotely actuated and admits air
through the pressure regulator at a constant pressure to the propellant tanks. The purpose of
the check valves is to prevent mixing of the oxidiser with the fuel when the unit is not in the
upright position. The propellant are fed to the thrust chamber by opening valves.
ww When the propellant are completely consumed, the pressuring air serves also as a scavenging
w.E agent and cleans lines and valves of liquid propellant residue.
asy
(ii) Describe the important properties of solid propellants desired for rocket propulsion. (8)
En
Properties of solid propellants:
gin
Should release large amount of heat during combustion
Physical & chemical properties should not change during processing.
It should have high density
ee
Should not be poisonous and hazardous
Should be cheap and easily available
rin
Should be noncorrosive and nonreactive with the components of the engine.
Storage and handling should be easy.
g.n
et
4. A rocket nozzle has a throat area of 18cm2 and combustor pressure of 25bar. If the specific
impulse is 127.42sec and the rate of flow of propellant is 44.145N/s, determine the thrust
coefficient, propellant weight flow coefficient, specific propellant consumption and
characteristic velocity.
Given data:
Throat area A = 18cm2= 18x104 m2
74
To Find:
Solution:
We know that,
ww F = Isp x Wp
Thrust F = 5624.95N
asy
(i) Thrust Coefficient CF = F/ P0A*
= 5624.95/ (25x105x18x104)
En CF = 1.25
(ii) Propellant weight flow coefficient Cw=Wp / PoA*
gin = 44.145/(25x105x18x104)
ee Cw = 9.81x10 3
(iii) Specific propellant consumption Spc
= Wp/F
rin
= 44.145/5624.95
Spc = 7.84x10 3s1
g.n
We know that, Thrust F = mp x Cj
= (Wp/g) x Cj
5624.95 = (44.145/9.81) x Cj
et
Effective jet velocity Cj = 1249.98 m/s
Result :
75
5. Explain the rocket turbo pump feed system, ignition system and combustion system.
ww
w.E
asy
En
gin
There are two methods to send the propellant from the tank to an engine combustion
chamber. One is performed using gas pressurization (gas pressurization type) and the other is
ee
performed using pumps (pump type).
rin
If we are going to obtain both high performance and a large thrust by the gas pressurization
system, the large scale tank which bears pressurization pressure will be heavily thick and the
rocket will be very powerless.
g.n
A pump solves this problem, because the pump can inhale the propellant of low pressure,
et
raises its pressure irrespective of the amount of flow and sends to the combustion chamber.
Generally, the pump is driven by a gas turbine. This combination is called a turbo pump
However, the save of weight of a rocket can be attained only by the use of a light weight
turbo pump.
Ignition System
With liquid and hybrid rockets, immediate ignition of the propellant(s) as they first enter the
combustion chamber is essential.
With liquid propellants (but not gaseous), failure to ignite within milliseconds usually causes
too much liquid propellant to be inside the chamber,
Ignition can be achieved by a number of different methods; a pyrotechnic charge can be
used, a plasma torch can be used, or electric spark plugs may be employed. Some
fuel/oxidizer combinations ignite on contact (hypergolic), and nonhypergolic fuels can be
"chemically ignited" by priming the fuel lines with hypergolic propellants (popular in
Russian engines).
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Gaseous propellants generally will not cause hard starts, with rockets the total injector area is
less than the throat thus the chamber pressure tends to ambient prior to ignition and high
pressures cannot form even if the entire chamber is full of flammable gas at ignition.
Solid propellants are usually ignited with oneshot pyrotechnic devices.
Once ignited, rocket chambers are selfsustaining and igniters are not needed. Indeed
chambers often spontaneously reignite if they are restarted after being shut down for a few
seconds. However, when cooled, many rockets cannot be restarted without at least minor
maintenance, such as replacement of the pyrotechnic igniter.
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Large solid motors typically use a threestage ignition system
–
reaction (primer)
Booster charge
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Initiator: Pyrotechnic element that converts electrical impulse into a chemical
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–
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Main charge: A charge (usually a small solid motor) that ignites the propellant grain.
Burns for tenths of a second with a mass flow about 1/10 of the initial propellant
grain mass flow.
Combustion System
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Burning a fuel is called combustion,
All liquid rocket engines have tanks and pipes to store and transfer propellant, an injector
system, a combustion chamber which is very typically cylindrical, and one (sometimes two
77
or more) rocket nozzles. Liquid systems enable higher specific impulse than solids and
hybrid rocket engines and can provide very high tankage efficiency.
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PART B  (5 x 16 = 80 marks)
11. (a) (i) Air flows down a variable area duct. Measurements' indicate that the
temperature is 278 I{ and the velocity is 150 m/a at a certain section
of the duct. Measurements at a second section indicate that the
temperature has decreased to 253 IL Assuming that the flow is
adiabatic an'd one dimensional, find the velocity at this second
section. (6)
(ii) Typical cruising speeds and altitudes for three commercial aircraft are:
Dash 8: Cruising speed 500 km/hr at an altitude of 4500111. Boeing
747: Cruising speed: 978 kin/hr at, an altitude of 9500 m
ww Find the Mach number of the aircraft when flying at these cruise
conditions. (10)
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(b) Air flows through a nozzle which has inlet areas of 0.001 1112. If the air
has a velocity of 80 m/s, a temperature of 301 I{ and a pressure of
700 kPa at the inlet section and a pressure of 250 kpa at the exit, find the
12. (a)
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mass flow rate through the nozzle and assuming onedimensional
isentropic flow, the velocity at the exit section of the nozzle. (16)
Air flews out of a pipe with a diameter of 0.3 m at a rate of 1000 m3/ min at a
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pressure and temperature of 150 kPa and 293 I{ respectively. If the pipe is
50m long, find assuming that f = 0.005, the Mach number at the exit, the
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inlet pressure and the inlet temperature. (16)
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(b) The condition of a gas in a combustor at entry is: p1 = 0.343 bar,
.r1 = 310 I{, c1 = 60 ,n/sec. Determine the Mach number, pressure,
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temperature and velocity "at the exit if the increase in stagnation
enthalpy of the gas between entry and exit is ll'i2.5 kJ/kg. Take
c, = l.005 kJ/kg K. r = 1.4. (16)
13. (a)
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A normal shock occurs in the diverging section of a convergent  divergent
air nozzle. The throat area is 1/3 times exit area and the static pressure
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at exit is 0.4 times the stagnation pressure at the entry. 'l'he flow is
throughout isentropic except through the shock. Determine:
2 51648
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2.
3. En
Define zone of action and zone of silence.
4.
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What is chocked flow through a nozzle?
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5. What are the assumptions made for Rayleigh flow?
6. Give the fanno flow in h  s diagram show various Mach number regions and
7.
write the fanno flow equation.
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Define compression and rarefaction shocks? Is the latter possible.
PART B  (5 x 16 = 80 marks)
11. (a) Air (r= 1.4, R = 287 J/kg K) enters a straight axis symmetric duct at
300K, 3.45 bar and 150 mis and leaves it at 277K, 2.058 bar and 260 mis.
The area of cross section at entry is 500 cm 2. Assuming adiabatic flow
determine (i) Stagnation temperature (ii) Maximum velocity (iii) Mass
flow rate (iv) Area of cross section at exit. (16)
Or
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15. (a) Explain with neat sketches the principle of operation of (i) Turbofan
engine (ii) Turbojet engine. (16)
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(b) An aircraft takes 45kg/s of air from the atmosphere and flies at a speed of
950 kmph. The air fuel ratio is 50 and the calorific value of the fuel is
42 MJ/kg. For maximum thrust power, find:(i) Jet velocity (ii) Thrust
(iii) Specific thrust (iv) Thrust power (v) Propulsive efficiency
(vi) Thermal efficiency (vii) Overall efficiency (viii) Thrust specific fuel
consumption. (16)
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3 41047
Sixth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
(Regulation 2008)
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Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks
(Use of approved gas tables permitted)
I.
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Write the energy equation in differential form.
2.
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Draw the mach cone and indicate various zones.
3.
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Draw the p/pO along the length of a convergent divergent device when it
functions as nozzle.
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4. Define impulse function and its significance.
6.
7.
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For constant area Fanno flow how limiting length for the pipe is determined?.
8. Give the expression for PY/ P" in terms of mach number across normal shock.
11. (a) (i) An air jet at 400K has Sonic velocity. Determine (12)
(1) velocity of sound at 400K
(2) velocity of sound at stagnation condition
(3) maximum velocity of jet
(4) stagnation enthalpy and
(5) crocco number
(ii) Explain what is meant by stagnation properties of fluid and
supersonic flow. (4)
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12. (a) (i) A gas is isentropically expanded from 10 bar, 525°C in a nozzle
to a pressure of 7.0 bar. If the rate of flow of gas is 1.5
kg/sec.Determine (12)
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(1) pressure velocity and temperature at the nozzle throat
and exit
(2) maximum possible velocity attainable by the gas and
(3)
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type of nozzle and its throat area.
Taker; 1.5 and R; 0.464 kJ/KgK.
(ii)
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Distinguish between the nozzle and diffusers.
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(4)
(b) (1)
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Starting from adiabatic energy equation derive the following for a
one· dimensional isentropic flow in an axisymmetric
duct.,
dAJA;[(dpl;x:2)(1M2)]
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(12
)
13. (a)
(ii) Explain the chocking condition with example.
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Air is flowing in an insulated duct with friction coefficient f=
( 4)
stagnation pressure.
(ii) Properties of air at a section 3.5 m Irom inlet, and
(iii) Maxi�um pipe length.
Or
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Fifth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
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Time : Three hours
En A (10 x 2 = 20 marks)
1.
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Define stagnation state.
2.
3.
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Write the energy equation in differential form.
6.
Define Fanno flow.
PART B (5 x 16 = 80 marks)
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(b) (i) An air jet at 400 K has sonic velocity. Determine (1) velocity
of sound at 400 K, (2) velocity of sound at stagnation
condition (3) maximum velocity of jet (4) stagnation enthalpy and
(5) crocco number. (12)
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12. (a)
(ii) Write short notes on effect of mach number on compressibility. (4)
Derive an expression for mass flow rate through varying cross sectional
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area for isentropic flow in terms of pressure ratio. (16)
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(b)
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A supersonic wind tunnel is designed for M = 2 with a throat section
890 cm2• The air at 1.2 bar and 25°C is supplied with negligible velocity.
Find the mass Ilow rate, the area of test section and the fluid property at
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the throat and test section. (16)
13. (a)
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Adiabatic Ilow of air takes place in a constant area duct. Because of
friction, the Mach number increases from 0.3 to 0. 7. The initial
temperature of air is 400 Kand the pressure is 20 bar. Determine (i) the
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final pressure (ii) the final temperature (iii) the ratio of density and
(iv) mass flow per unit cross section.
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(b) (i)
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What are the effects of heat addition and removal from a gas during
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Rayleigh flow? (6)
14. (a) Starting from energy equation derive PrandtlMayer equation. (16)
Or
(b) Estimate the Mach number, pressure, temperature and velocity of a gas
at the downstream of a shock if the gas at the upstream of the shock has
a pressure of 2 bar at 275 I{. The upstream Mach number is 1.8. The
specific heat ratio for gas is 1.3 while R is 469 J/kgK (16)
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15. (a) (i} With TS ctiagram, explain the working of a turbojet system. (10)
(ii) Give the differences with merits and demerits of turboprop and
turboJct engine. (6)
Or
(b) (i) Explain with the help of neat sketch the working of solid and liquid
propellant rocket engine. (10)
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Stxth Semester
Mechanical Engineering
(Regulation 2008)
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Time : Three hours
2.
Define Mach number.
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Express the stagnation enthalpy in terms of static enthalpy and velocity of
a.
flow.
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Draw the variation of Mach number along the length of a convergent divergent
duct when it act as a
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(a) Nozzle
(b) Diffuser.
5.
6.
What are the assumptions made for Rayleigh flow?
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