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Moment – Curvature

Bonded Tendons

Moment-Curvature Analysis

 Analysis that follows behavior of a bonded

prestressed concrete beam thru the total load
range

 Curvature is the slope of the strain

distribution line
Φ = εc / x

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Assumptions
1. Tendons are bonded to concrete: changes
in strain in the steel & concrete after
bonding are assumed to be the same
2. Initial strain due to effective prestress in the
tendons (No moment from applied loads):
 In concrete at level of steel εce
 In the tendon εse (strain in steel after prestess
losses)

b
εc εc

x Φ
dP Φ

AP εse εse
εce ε εce

εs

(a) Strain Distribution (a) Strain Distribution

at Zero Moment After Moment is Applied

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Assumptions (Cont’d)
3. Stress strain curves of concrete and steel
are known
4. Linear strains though the depth of the beam
5. Tension and compression forces in the
section are in equilibrium
6. Ultimate moment corresponds to strain in
concrete that causes crushing or steel strain
that causes fracture of the tendon
7. Failure in flexure (Adequate shear and bond
strength)

Stress-Strain Properties of Materials

 2 ⋅ε  ε 
2

σ c = f ck ⋅  −   
 ε c2
  εc2  

ε c 2 = 2% for f ck < 50MPa

ε c 2 = 2 + 0.085 ⋅ ( f ck − 50)0.53 for f ck ≤ 50MPa

Φ  Φ⋅x 
Cc = b ⋅ f ck ⋅ ⋅ x 2 ⋅ 1 − 
ε c2  3 ⋅ ε c 2 

 8 ⋅ ε c2 − 3 ⋅ Φ ⋅ x 
x = x ⋅  
 12 ⋅ ε c 2 − 4 ⋅ Φ ⋅ x 

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fse

T = AP ⋅ f se

εse

Analysis Procedure

 Two Stages
 1st Stage: Beam is elastic and uncracked
 2nd Stage: Beam is cracked → inelastic analysis
based on material response
 Point to point check for a series of assumed values for
top fiber strain

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2nd Stage Procedure

 Assume top fiber strain

 Assume depth of neutral axis: x
 Compute internal forces: C, T
 Check if C = T
 If not revise x and iterate until C = T
 Once final x is calculated compute Φ and M
 Assume another top fiber strain and repeat
the whole procedure

Example 1
Normal weight concrete fck = 48MPa, 915 x 458 mm
AP = 1777 mm2, fp0,1k = 1580 MPa, Initial prestressing stress = 1296 MPa,
Ep = 190 GPa, Prestressing losses 15%
Find M, Φ for the following steps:
(a) Initial stage – zero applied moment
(b) Zero strain in concrete at level of steel
(c) Cracking moment
(d) Cracked section with top fiber strain 0.001, 0.002 and 0.0035

458

800

AP

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(a) Initial stage – zero applied moment
Use gross section properties
0.458 ⋅ 0.9153
Ac = 0.458 ⋅ 0.915 = 0.42m 2 Ic = = 0.0292m 4
12
0.915
y p = 0.8 − = 0.343m
2

1957.5 1957.5 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.458

σ bot = − − = −15.2 MPa
0.42 0.0292

1957.5 1957.5 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.458

σ top = − + = 5.9 MPa
0.42 0.0292

Ec = 22(48) 
0.3
= 35.2GPa
 10

5 .9 − 15.2
ε top = = 0.000168 ε bot = = −0.000432
35200 35200

Φ0 =
(ε bot − ε top )
=
(− 0.000432 − 0.000168 ) = −6.557 ⋅10 − 4 1
h 0.915 m

0.000168 ⋅ 0.915
x= = 0 .256
0.000168 − ( −0 .000432 )

1957.5 1957.5 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.343

σ ce = + = 12.5MPa
0.42 0.0292

12.5
ε ce = = 0.000355
35200

0.85 ⋅1296
ε se = = 0.00564
195000

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(b) Zero strain in concrete at level of steel

P = 0.001777 ⋅1168800 = 2077kN

I c ⋅ σ ce 0.0292 ⋅12500
M1 = = = 1067.3kN ⋅ m
d p − yt 0.8 − 0.458

2077 2077 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.458 1067.3 ⋅ 0.458

σ bot1 = − − + = 0.62MPa
0.42 0.0292 0.0292

2077 2077 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.458 1067.3 ⋅ 0.458

σ top1 = − + − = −10.5MPa
0.42 0.0292 0.0292

− 10.5 0.62
ε top1 = = −0.000298 ε bot1 = = 0.0000176
35200 35200

Φ1 =
(ε bot 1 − ε top1 )
=
(0.0000176 − ( −0.000298 ) ) = 3.121 ⋅10 − 4 1
h 0.915 m

− 0.000298 ⋅ 0.915
x1 = = 0.864
− 0.000298 − (0.0000176 )

(c) Cracking moment

Approximate method

f ctm = 0.3 ⋅ f ck3 = 0.3 ⋅ (48) 3 = 4 MPa

2 2

 h    915  
f ctm, fl = max 1.6 −  ⋅ f ctm ; f ctm  = max 1.6 −  ⋅ 4;4 = 4MPa
 1000    1000  

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( f ctm , fl − σ cb1 ) ⋅ I c (4000 − 620) ⋅ 0.0292
∆M = = = 215.5kN ⋅ m
yb 0.458
E P 195
M 2 = M 1 + ∆M = 1067.3 + 215.5 = 1282.8kN ⋅ m n= = = 5.54
Ec 35.2

∆M ⋅ (d p − yt )⋅ n 215.5 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 5.54

∆f p = = = 14MPa
Ic 0.0292

f s 2 = f s1 + ∆f p = 1168.8 + 14 = 1182.8MPa

2101.8 2101.8 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.458 1282.8 ⋅ 0.458

σ bot 2 = − − + = 3.8MPa
0.42 0.0292 0.0292

2101.8 2101.8 ⋅ 0.343 ⋅ 0.458 1282.8 ⋅ 0.458

σ top 2 = − + − = −13.8MPa
0.42 0.0292 0.0292

− 13.8 3 .8
ε top 2 = = −0.000392 ε bot 2 = = 0.000108
35200 35200

Φ2 =
(ε bot 1 − ε top1 )
=
(0.000108 − ( −0.000392 ) ) = 5.464 ⋅10 − 4 1
h 0.915 m

− 0.000392 ⋅ 0.915
x2 = = 0.717
− 0.000392 − (0.000108 )

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(c) Cracked Section
Resultant internal compression force for a rectangular section:

εc  ε   8 ⋅ ε c2 − 3 ⋅ ε c 
Cc = b ⋅ f ck ⋅ ⋅ x ⋅ 1 − c  x = x ⋅  
ε c2  3 ⋅ ε c2   12 ⋅ ε c 2 − 4 ⋅ ε c 

(
M c = Cc ⋅ x + d P − x )
Resultant internal tensile force:
f P = ε P ⋅ EP For εP ≤ fP0,1k / EP (1580/190000 = 0.00832)

 f P 0.1k 
 ε P − 
+ ( f Pk − f P 0,1k )⋅ 
EP 
f P = f P 0,1k For εP > fP0,1k / EP:
 f P 0.1k 
 ε uk − 
 EP 
εc εc
T = AP ⋅ f P ε P = (ε se + ε ce ) + (d P − x ) ⋅ Φ=
x x

(c) Cracked Section

Assume strain in concrete at the top εc = 0.001

Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.287 m

0.001  0.001 
Cc = 0.458 ⋅ 48000 ⋅ ⋅ 0.287 ⋅ 1 −  = 2629kN
0.002  3 ⋅ 0.002 

0.001
= 0.00779
0.287

T = 0.001777 ⋅1470500 = 2629kN

 8 ⋅ 0.002 − 3 ⋅ 0.001 
x = 0.287 ⋅   = 0.187m
 12 ⋅ 0.002 − 4 ⋅ 0.001 

0.001 1
M c = 2629 ⋅ (0.187 + 0.8 − 0.287 ) = 1840.3kN ⋅ m Φ= = 0.00348 ⋅
0.287 m

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(c) Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top εc = 0.002

Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.2 m

0.002  0.002 
Cc = 0.458 ⋅ 48000 ⋅ ⋅ 0.2 ⋅ 1 −  = 2933kN
0.002  3 ⋅ 0.002 

0.002
= 0.012
0.2

f P = 1580 + (1830 − 1580) ⋅

(0.012 − 0.00832) = 1646.3MPa
(0.0222 − 0.00832)

T = 0.001777 ⋅1646300 = 2926kN Close enough

 8 ⋅ 0.002 − 3 ⋅ 0.002 
x = 0.2 ⋅   = 0.125m
 12 ⋅ 0.002 − 4 ⋅ 0.002 

M c = 2933 ⋅ (0.125 + 0.8 − 0.2 ) = 2126kN ⋅ m

0.002 1
Φ= = 0.01⋅
0.2 m
(c) Cracked Section
Assume strain in concrete at the top εc = 0.0035

Assume depth to neutral axis x = 0.192 m

0.0035  0.0035 
Cc = 0.458 ⋅ 48000 ⋅ ⋅ 0.192 ⋅ 1 −  = 3078kN
0.002  3 ⋅ 0.002 

ε P = (0.000355 + 0.00564) + (0.8 − 0.192) ⋅

0.0035
= 0.0171
0.192
f P = 1580 + (1830 − 1580) ⋅
(0.0171 − 0.00832) = 1738.1MPa
(0.0222 − 0.00832)
T = 0.001777 ⋅1738100 = 3088kN Close enough

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 8 ⋅ 0.002 − 3 ⋅ 0.0035 
x = 0.192 ⋅   = 0.173m
 12 ⋅ 0.002 − 4 ⋅ 0.0035 

M c = 3078 ⋅ (0.173 + 0.8 − 0.192 ) = 2404kN ⋅ m

0.0035 1
Φ= = 0.0182 ⋅
0.192 m
Plot all points calculated to construct the moment curvature diagram

Moment Curvature
0 -0.000656
1067.3 0.000312
1282.8 0.000546
1840.3 0.00348
2126 0.01
2404 0.0182

2800

2100
Moment (kN-m)

1400

700

0
-0.003 0 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.012 0.015 0.018 0.021
Curvature (1/m)

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