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Mohamed S. Ghidaoui

email: ghidaoui@ust.hk

Theory and Practice

Ming Zhao Hydraulic transients in closed conduits have been a subject of both theoretical study and

email: cezhm@ust.hk intense practical interest for more than one hundred years. While straightforward in terms

of the one-dimensional nature of pipe networks, the full description of transient fluid flows

Department of Civil Engineering, The Hong Kong pose interesting problems in fluid dynamics. For example, the response of the turbulence

University of Science and Technology, structure and strength to transient waves in pipes and the loss of flow axisymmetry in

Hong Kong, China pipes due to hydrodynamic instabilities are currently not understood. Yet, such under-

standing is important for modeling energy dissipation and water quality in transient pipe

flows. This paper presents an overview of both historic developments and present day

Duncan A. McInnis research and practice in the field of hydraulic transients. In particular, the paper dis-

Surface Water Group, Komex International Ltd., cusses mass and momentum equations for one-dimensional Flows, wavespeed, numerical

4500 16th Avenue, Suite 100, N. W. Calgary, solutions for one-dimensional problems, wall shear stress models; two-dimensional mass

Alberta T3B 0M6, Canada and momentum equations, turbulence models, numerical solutions for two-dimensional

problems, boundary conditions, transient analysis software, and future practical and re-

search needs in water hammer. The presentation emphasizes the assumptions and restric-

David H. Axworthy tions involved in various governing equations so as to illuminate the range of applicabil-

163 N. Marengo Avenue, #316, Pasadena, ity as well as the limitations of these equations. Understanding the limitations of current

CA 91101 models is essential for (i) interpreting their results, (ii) judging the reliability of the data

email: bm300@lafn.org obtained from them, (iii) minimizing misuse of water-hammer models in both research and

practice, and (iv) delineating the contribution of physical processes from the contribution

of numerical artifacts to the results of waterhammer models. There are 134 refrences cited

in this review article. [DOI: 10.1115/1.1828050]

deal with a revised or more complex view of the physical uni-

Thus the growth of knowledge of the physical aspect of reality

verse. It is in this condition that the field of closed conduit tran-

cannot be regarded as a cumulative process. The basic Gestalt

sient flow, and even more generally, the hydraulic analysis, de-

of this knowledge changes from time to time . . . During the

sign, and operation of pipeline systems, currently finds itself.

cumulative periods scientists behave as if reality is exactly as

The computer age is still dawning, bringing with it a massive

they know it except for missing details and improvements in

development and application of new knowledge and technology.

accuracy. They speak of the laws of nature, for example, which

Formerly accepted design methodologies, criteria, and standards

are simply models that explain their experience of reality at a

are being challenged and, in some instances, outdated and revised.

certain time. Later generations of scientists typically discover

Computer aided analysis and design is one of the principal mecha-

that these conceptions of reality embodied certain implicit as-

nisms bringing about these changes.

sumptions and hypotheses that later on turned out to be incor-

Computer analysis, computer modeling, and computer simula-

rect. Vanderburg, [1]

tion are somewhat interchangeable terms, all describing tech-

Unsteady fluid flows have been studied since man first bent niques intended to improve our understanding of physical phe-

water to his will. The ancient Chinese, the Mayan Indians of Cen- nomena and our ability to predict and control these phenomena.

tral America, the Mesopotamian civilizations bordering the Nile, By combining physical laws, mathematical abstraction, numerical

Tigris, and Euphrates river systems, and many other societies procedures, logical constructs, and electronic data processing,

throughout history have developed extensive systems for convey- these methods now permit the solution of problems of enormous

ing water, primarily for purposes of irrigation, but also for domes- complexity and scope.

tic water supplies. The ancients understood and applied fluid flow This paper attempts to provide the reader with a general his-

principles within the context of ‘‘traditional,’’ culture-based tech- tory and introduction to waterhammer phenomena, a general com-

nologies. With the arrival of the scientific age and the mathemati- pendium of key developments and literature references as well as

cal developments embodied in Newton’s Principia, our under- an updated view of the current state of the art, both with respect to

standing of fluid flow took a quantum leap in terms of its theoretical advances of the last decade and modeling practice.

theoretical abstraction. That leap has propelled the entire develop-

ment of hydraulic engineering right through to the mid-twentieth 2 Mass and Momentum Equations for

century. The advent of high-speed digital computers constituted

another discrete transformation in the study and application of One-Dimensional Water Hammer Flows

fluids engineering principles. Today, in hydraulics and other areas, Before delving into an account of mathematical developments

engineers find that their mandate has taken on greater breadth and related to waterhammer, it is instructive to briefly note the societal

depth as technology rapidly enters an unprecedented stage of context that inspired the initial interest in waterhammer phenom-

knowledge and information accumulation. ena. In the late nineteenth century, Europe was on the cusp of the

As cited in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas industrial revolution with growing urban populations and indus-

Kuhn [2] calls such periods of radical and rapid change in our tries requiring electrical power for the new machines of produc-

view of physical reality a ‘‘revolutionary, noncumulative transi- tion. As the fossil fuel era had not begun in earnest, hydroelectric

tion period’’ and, while he was referring to scientific views of generation was still the principal supply of this important energy

source. Although hydroelectric generation accounts for a much

Transmitted by Associate Editor HJS Fernando. smaller proportion of energy production today, the problems asso-

ciated with controlling the flow of water through penstocks and tion laws across a jump (shock) [11]. These conditions are ob-

turbines remains an important application of transient analysis. tained either by directly applying the conservation laws for a con-

Hydrogeneration companies contributed heavily to the develop- trol volume across the jump or by using the weak formulation of

ment of fluids and turbomachinery laboratories that studied, the conservation laws in differential form at the jump.

among other things, the phenomenon of waterhammer and its con- Allievi [9,10] developed a general theory of water hammer

trol. Some of Allievi’s early experiments were undertaken as a from first principles and showed that the convective term in the

direct result of incidents and failures caused by overpressure due momentum equation was negligible. He introduced two important

to rapid valve closure in northern Italian power plants. Frictionless dimensionless parameters that are widely used to characterize

approaches to transient phenomena were appropriate in these early pipelines and valve behavior. Allievi [9,10] also produced charts

developments because (i) transients were most influenced by the for pressure rise at a valve due to uniform valve closure. Further

rapid closure and opening of valves, which generated the majority refinements to the governing equations of water hammer appeared

of the energy loss in these systems, and (ii) the pipes involved in Jaeger [12,13], Wood [14], Rich [15,16], Parmakian [17],

tended to have large diameters and the flow velocities tended to be Streeter and Lai [18], and Streeter and Wylie [19]. Their combined

small. efforts have resulted in the following classical mass and momen-

By the early 1900s, fuel oils were overtaking hydrogeneration tum equations for one-dimensional (1D) water-hammer flows

as the principal energy source to meet society’s burgeoning de-

mand for power. However, the fascination with, and need to un- a 2 aV a H =0 (2)

derstand, transient phenomena has continued unabated to this day. g ax + at

Greater availability of energy led to rapid industrialization and aV aH 4

urban development. Hydraulic transients are critical design factors

+g +

in a large number of fluid systems from automotive fuel injection T =0 (3)

at ax pD w

to water supply, transmission, and distribution systems. Today,

long pipelines transporting fluids over great distances have be- in which T w=shear stress at the pipe wall, D=pipe diameter, x

come commonplace, and the almost universal development of =the spatial coordinate along the pipeline, and t=temporal coor-

sprawling systems of small pipe diameter, high-velocity water dis- dinate. Although Eqs. (2) and (3) were fully established by the

tribution systems has increased the importance of wall friction and 1960s, these equations have since been analyzed, discussed, red-

energy losses, leading to the inclusion of friction in the governing erived and elucidated in numerous classical texts (e.g., [20–23]).

equations. Mechanically sophisticated fluid control devices, in- Equations (2) and (3) constitute the fundamental equations for 1D

cluding many types of pumps and valves, coupled with increas- water hammer problems and contain all the physics necessary to

ingly sophisticated electronic sensors and controls, provide the model wave propagation in complex pipe systems.

potential for complex system behavior. In addition, the recent

knowledge that negative pressure phases of transients can result in 2.2 Discussion of the 1D Water Hammer Mass and Mo-

contamination of potable water systems, mean that the need to mentum Equations. In this section, the fundamental equations

understand and deal effectively with transient phenomena are for 1D water hammer are derived. Special attention is given to the

more acute than ever. assumptions and restrictions involved in various governing equa-

2.1 Historical Development: A Brief Summary. The prob- tions so as to illuminate the range of applicability as well as the

lem of water hammer was first studied by Menabrea [3] (although limitations of these equations.

Michaud is generally accorded that distinction). Michaud [4] ex- Rapid flow disturbances, planned or accidental, induce spatial

amined the use of air chambers and safety valves for controlling and temporal changes in the velocity (flow rate) and pressure (pi-

water hammer. Near the turn of the nineteenth century, researchers ezometric head) fields in pipe systems. Such transient flows are

like Weston [5], Carpenter [6] and Frizell [7] attempted to develop essentially unidirectional (i.e., axial) since the axial fluxes of

expressions relating pressure and velocity changes in a pipe. Fri- mass, momentum, and energy are far greater than their radial

zell [7] was successful in this endeavor and he also discussed the counterparts. The research of Mitra and Rouleau [23] for the lami-

effects of branch lines, and reflected and successive waves on nar water hammer case and of Vardy and Hwang [25] for turbulent

turbine speed regulation. Similar work by his contemporaries water-hammer supports the validity of the unidirectional approach

Joukowsky [8] and Allievi [9,10], however, attracted greater at- when studying water-hammer problems in pipe systems.

tention. Joukowsky [8] produced the best known equation in tran- With the unidirectional assumption, the 1D classical water ham-

sient flow theory, so well known that it is often called the ‘‘fun- mer equations governing the axial and temporal variations of the

damental equation of water hammer.’’ He also studied wave cross-sectional average of the field variables in transient pipe

reflections from an open branch, the use of air chambers and surge flows are derived by applying the principles of mass and momen-

tanks, and spring type safety valves. tum to a control volume. Note that only the key steps of the

Joukowsky’s fundamental equation of water hammer is as fol- derivation are given here. A more detailed derivation can be found

lows: in Chaudhry [20], Wylie et al. [23], and Ghidaoui [26].

Using the Reynolds transport theorem, the mass conservation

aLiV (‘‘continuity equation’’) for a control volume is as follows (e.g.,

Li P=±paLiV or LiH=± (1) [20–23])

g

a

where a=acoustic (waterhammer) wavespeed, P=pg(H-Z)

=piezometric pressure, Z=elevation of the pipe centerline from a

at fpdV+

f

p ( v"n ) dA=0 (4)

cv cs

given datum, H=piezometric head, p=fluid density, V= f A udA where cv=control volume, cs=control surface, n=unit outward

=cross-sectional average velocity, u=local longitudinal velocity, normal vector to control surface, v=velocity vector.

A=cross-sectional area of the pipe, and g=gravitational accelera- Referring to Fig. 1, Eq. (4) yields

tion. The positive sign in Eq. (1) is applicable for a water-hammer

wave moving downstream while the negative sign is applicable

for a water-hammer wave moving upstream. Readers familiar with

a

at f

x

x+ o x

pAdx+ f cs

p ( v"n ) dA=0 (5)

the gas dynamics literature will note that Li P=±paLiV is obtain-

able from the momentum jump condition under the special case The local form of Eq. (5), obtained by taking the limit as the

where the flow velocity is negligible in comparison to the length of the control volume shrinks to zero (i.e., o x tends to

wavespeed. The jump conditions are a statement of the conserva- zero), is

50 Õ Vol. 58, JANUARY 2005 Transactions of the ASME

where -y=pg=unit gravity force, a=angle between the pipe and

the horizontal direction, r3=f Au 2dA/V 2=momentum correction

coefficient. Using the product rule of differentiation, invoking Eq.

(7), and dividing through by pA gives the following nonconser-

vative form of the momentum equation:

2

aV

at +V ax + pA ax p ax pA

=0 (11)

Equations (8) and (11) govern unidirectional unsteady flow of a

Fig. 1 Control volume diagram used for continuity equation compressible fluid in a flexible tube. Alternative derivations of

derivation Eqs. (8) and (11) could have been performed by applying the

unidirectional and axisymmetric assumptions to the compressible

Navier-Stokes equations and integrating the resulting expression

with respect to pipe cross-sectional area while allowing for this

a ( pA ) a ( pAV ) area to change with pressure.

at + ax =0 (6) In practice, the order of magnitude of water hammer wave

Equation (6) provides the conservative form of the area-averaged speed ranges from 100 to 1400 m/s and the flow velocity is of

mass balance equation for 1D unsteady and compressible fluids in order 1 to 10 m/s. Therefore, the Mach number, M=U1 /a, in

a flexible pipe. The first and second terms on the left-hand side of water-hammer applications is often in the range 10-2 –10 -3,

Eq. (6) represent the local change of mass with time due to the where U1=longitudinal velocity scale. The fact that M�1 in wa-

combined effects of fluid compressibility and pipe elasticity and ter hammer was recognized and used by Allievi [9,10] to further

the instantaneous mass flux, respectively. Equation (6) can be re- simplify Eqs. (8) and (11). The small Mach number approxima-

written as follows: tion to Eqs. (8) and (11) can be illustrated by performing an order

of magnitude analysis of the various terms in these equations. To

1 D p 1 DA a V 1 DpA aV this end, let p 0aU 1=water hammer pressure scale, p0=density of

p Dt + A Dt + ax =0 or pA Dt + ax =0 (7) the fluid at the undisturbed state, and T=,L/a=time scale, where

L=pipe length, X=aT=,L=longitudinal length scale, ,=a

where D/Dt=a/at+Va/ax=substantial (material) derivative in positive real parameter, pfU 21/8=wall shear scale, and f

one spatial dimension. Realizing that the density and pipe area

=Darcy-Weisbach friction factor T d=radial diffusion time scale.

vary with pressure and using the chain rule reduces Eq. (7) to the

The parameter , allows one to investigate the relative magnitude

following:

of the various terms in Eqs. (8) and (11) under different time

1 d p DP 1 dA DP aV 1 DP aV scales. For example, if the order of magnitude of the various terms

+ + =0 or + =0 in the mass momentum over a full wave cycle (i.e., T=4L/a) is

p d P Dt A d P Dt ax pa Dt

2

ax

(8) desired, , is set to 4. Applying the above scaling to Eqs. (8) and

(11) gives

where a -2 =dp/dP+(p/A)dA/dP. The historical development

and formulation of the acoustic wave speed in terms of fluid and p0 DP* aV*

pipe properties and the assumptions involved in the formulation p Dt* + ax* =0 or

are discussed in Sec. 3.

The momentum equation for a control volume is (e.g., [20– p0 a P*

ax*

+

a P*

aV*

=0 ) (12)

2: F ext =

at

a

f pvV+ f p v( v"n)dA (9)

aV*

+MV *

at*

aV*

+M

ax*

+

1 a ( r3-1 ) pAV*2 p0 a P*

cv cs at* ax* pA ax* p ax*

Applying Eq. (9) to the control volume of Fig. 2; considering g L ,L f

gravitational, wall shear and pressure gradient forces as externally + sin a+ M Tw =0 (13)

Ua D 2 *

applied; and taking the limit as o x tends to zero gives the follow-

ing local form of the axial momentum equation: where the superscript * is used to denote dimensionless quantities.

2 Since M�1 in water hammer applications, Eqs. (12) and (13)

apAV ar3pAV =-A a P -'ITDT --yA sin a (10) become

at + ax w

ax p0 a P* aV*

+ =0 (14)

Ua

p at* ax*

sin a+, M +,

D 2 L/a ( )

Tw*=0.

at* p ax*

aV* p 0 a P* g,L L f Td (15)

+ +

Rewriting Eqs. (14) and (15) in dimensional form gives

1 aP aV

+ =0 (16)

pa 2 at ax

aV 1 a P Tw'ITD

+ +g sin a+ =0 (17)

at p ax pA

Fig. 2 Control volume diagram used for momentum equation Using the Piezometric head definition (i.e., P/gp 0 =H-Z), Eqs.

derivation (16) and (17) become

Applied Mechanics Reviews JANUARY 2005, Vol. 58 Õ 51

gp 0 a H a V 3 Water Hammer „Acoustic… Wave Speed

pa 2 at + ax =0 (18) The water hammer wave speed is (e.g., [8,20,23,33,34]),

aV p 0 aH Tw'ITD

+g + =0 (19) 1 dp p dA (25)

at p ax pA a 2 = dP + A d P

The change in density in unsteady compressible flows is of the The first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (25) represents the

order of the Mach number [11,27,28]. Therefore, in water hammer effect of fluid compressibility on the wave speed and the second

problems, where M�1, p""p 0 , Eqs. (18) and (19) become term represents the effect of pipe flexibility on the wave speed. In

g aH aV fact, the wave speed in a compressible fluid within a rigid pipe is

+ =0 (20) obtained by setting dA/dP=0 in Eq. (25), which leads to a

2

a 2 at ax

=dP/dp. On the other hand, the wave speed in an incompressible

fluid within a flexible2 =Ad

pipeP/pdA.

is obtained by setting dp/dP=0 in

aV a H T w'IT D (25), which leads to a

+g + =0 (21) Korteweg [33] related the right-hand side of Eq. (25) to the

at ax pA

material properties of the fluid and to the material and geometrical

which are identical to the classical 1D water hammer equations properties of the pipe. In particular, Korteweg [33] introduced the

given by Eqs. (2) and (3). Thus, the classical water hammer equa- fluid properties through the state equation dP/dp=K f /p, which

tions are valid for unidirectional and axisymmetric flow of a com- was already well established in the literature, where K f =bulk

pressible fluid in a flexible pipe (tube), where the Mach number is modulus of elasticity of the fluid. He used the elastic theory of

very small. continuum mechanics to evaluate dA/d P in terms of the pipe

According to Eq. (15), the importance of wall shear, Tw , de- radius, thickness e, and Young’s modulus of elasticity E. In his

pends on the magnitude of the dimensionless parameter r derivation, he (i) ignored the axial (longitudinal) stresses in the

=,LMf /2D+,T d /(L/a). Therefore, the wall shear is important pipe (i.e., neglected Poisson’s effect) and (ii) ignored the inertia of

when the parameter r is order 1 or larger. This often occurs in the pipe. These assumptions are valid for fluid transmission lines

applications where the simulation time far exceeds the first wave that are anchored but with expansion joints throughout. With as-

cycle (i.e., large ,), the pipe is very long, the friction factor is sumptions (i) and (ii), a quasi-equilibrium relation between the

significant, or the pipe diameter is very small. In addition, wall pressure force per unit length of pipe Dd P and the circumferential

shear is important when the time scale of radial diffusion is larger (hoop) stress force per unit pipe length 2edu 8 is achieved, where

than the wave travel time since the transient-induced large radial u8 =hoop stress. That is, Dd P=2edu 8 or dp=2edu 8 /D. Using

gradient of the velocity does not have sufficient time to relax. It is the elastic stress-strain relation, dA='ITd �D 2 /2, where d �

noted that T d becomes smaller as the Reynolds number increases. =du 8 /E=radial (lateral) strain. As a result, Ad P/pdA=eE/Dp

The practical applications in which the wall shear is important and and

the various T w models that are in existence in the literature are

Kf

discussed in Sec. 4.

If r is significantly smaller than 1, friction becomes negligible 1 p p p

and T w can be safely set to zero. For example, for the case L = + or a2= (26)

a2 Kf e

=10,000 m, D=0.2 m, f =0.01, and M=0.001, and T d /(L/a) E 1+ K fD

=0.01 the condition r�1 is valid when ,�4. That is, for the case D eE

considered, wall friction is irrelevant as long as the simulation The above Korteweg formula for wave speed can be extended

time is significantly smaller than 4L/a. In general, the condition to problems where the axial stress cannot be neglected. This is

r�1 is satisfied during the early stages of the transient (i.e., , is accomplished through the inclusion of Poisson’s effect in the

small) provided that the relaxation (diffusion) time scale is smaller stress-strain relations. In particular, the total strain becomes d �

than the wave travel time L/a. In fact, it is well known that =du 8 /E-v p du x /E, where vp=Poisson’s ratio and ux =axial

waterhammer models provide results that are in reasonable agree- stress. The resulting wave speed formula is (e.g., [17,23])

ment with experimental data during the first wave cycle irrespec-

tive of the wall shear stress formula being used (e.g., [29–32]). Kf

When r�1, the classical waterhammer model, given by Eqs. (20) p

and (21), becomes a2 = (27)

KfD

g aH aV 1+c

+ =0 (22) eE

a 2 at ax

where c=1-v p /2 for a pipe anchored at its upstream end only,

aV aH c=1-v p for

2 a pipe anchored throughout from axial movement,

+g =0 (23) and c=1 for a pipe anchored with expansion joints throughout,

at ax

which is the case considered by Korteweg (i.e., u x =0).

which is identical to the model that first appeared in Allievi [9,10]. Multiphase and multicomponent water hammer flows are com-

The Joukowsky relation can be recovered from Eqs. (22) and mon in practice. During a water hammer event, the pressure can

(23). Consider a water hammer moving upstream in a pipe of cycle between large positive values and negative values, the mag-

length L. Let x=L-at define the position of a water hammer nitudes of which are constrained at vapor pressure. Vapor cavities

front at time t and consider the interval [ L-at-E,L-at+E ], can form when the pressure drops to vapor pressure. In addition,

where E=distance from the water hammer front. Integrating Eqs. gas cavities form when the pressure drops below the saturation

(22) and (23) from x=L-at-E to x=L-at+E, invoking Leib- pressure of dissolved gases. Transient flows in pressurized or sur-

nitz’s rule, and taking the limit as E approaches zero gives charged pipes carrying sediment are examples of multicomponent

water hammer flows. Unsteady flows in pressurized or surcharged

aLiV sewers are typical examples of multiphase and multicomponent

LiH=- (24) transient flows in closed conduits. Clearly, the bulk modulus and

g

density of the mixture and, thus, the wave speed are influenced by

Similarly, the relation for a water hammer wave moving down- stream is LiH=+aLiV/g.

the presence of phases and components. The wave speed for mul-

tiphase and multicomponent water hammer flows can be obtained

Fig. 3 Velocity profiles for steady-state and af-

ter wave passages

effective density p e in place of K f and p in Eq. (27). The effective T w ( t ) =T ws =

(28)

quantities, K e and p e , are obtained by the weighted average of the 8

bulk modulus and density of each component, where the partial where T ws(t)=quasi-steady wall shear as a function of t.

volumes are the weights (see, [23]). While the resulting math- The use of steady-state wall shear relations in unsteady prob-

ematical expression is simple, the explicit evaluation of the wave lems is satisfactory for very slow transients—so slow, in fact, that

speed of the mixture is hampered by the fact that the partial vol- they do not properly belong to the water hammer regime. To help

umes are difficult to estimate in practice. clarify the problems with this approach for fast transients, con-

Equation (27) includes Poisson’s effect but neglects the motion sider the case of a transient induced by an instantaneous and full

and inertia of the pipe. This is acceptable for rigidly anchored pipe closure of a valve at the downstream end of a pipe. As the wave

systems such as buried pipes or pipes with high density and stiff- travels upstream, the flow rate and the cross-sectionally averaged

ness, to name only a few. Examples include major transmission velocity behind the wave front are zero. Typical transient velocity

pipelines like water distribution systems, natural gas lines, and profiles are given in Fig. 3. Therefore, using Eq. (28), the wall

pressurized and surcharged sewerage force mains. However, the shear is zero. This is incorrect. The wave passage creates a flow

motion and inertia of pipes can become important when pipes are reversal near the pipe wall. The combination of flow reversal with

inadequately restrained (e.g., unsupported, free-hanging pipes) or the no-slip condition at the pipe wall results in large wall shear

when the density and stiffness of the pipe is small. Some ex- stresses. Indeed, discrepancies between numerical results and ex-

amples in which a pipe’s motion and inertia may be significant perimental and field data are found whenever a steady-state based

include fuel injection systems in aircraft, cooling-water systems, shear stress equation is used to model wall shear in water hammer

unrestrained pipes with numerous elbows, and blood vessels. For problems (e.g., [25,30,32,37,38]).

these systems, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model Let T wu (t) be the discrepancy between the instantaneous wall

needs to be considered. Such models are not discussed in this shear stress T w (t) and the quasi-steady contribution of wall shear

paper. The reader is instead directed to the recent excellent review stress T ws (t). Mathematically

of the subject by Tijsseling [35].

Tw ( t ) =T ws( t ) +T wu ( t ) (29)

T wu (t) is zero for steady flow, small for slow transients, and sig-

nificant for fast transients. The unsteady friction component at-

4 Wall Shear Stress Models tempts to represent the transient-induced changes in the velocity

It was shown earlier in this paper that the wall shear stress term profile, which often involve flow reversal and large gradients near

is important when the parameter r is large. It follows that the the pipe wall. A summary of the various models for estimating

modeling of wall friction is essential for practical applications that T wu (t) in water hammer problems is given below.

warrant transient simulation well beyond the first wave cycle (i.e.,

large ,). Examples include (i) the design and analysis of pipeline 4.2 Empirical-Based Corrections to Quasi-Steady Wall

systems, (ii) the design and analysis of transient control devices, Shear Models. Daily et al. [39] conducted laboratory experi-

(iii) the modeling of transient-induced water quality problems, ments and found T wu (t) to be positive for accelerating flows and

(iv) the design of safe and reliable field data programs for diag- negative for decelerating flows. They argued that during accelera-

nostic and parameter identification purposes, (v) the application of tion the central portion of the stream moved somewhat so that the

transient models to invert field data for calibration and leakage velocity profile steepened, giving higher shear. For constant-

detection, (vi) the modeling of column separation and vaporous diameter conduit, the relation given by Daily et al. [39] can be

cavitation and (vii) systems in which L/a�T d . Careful modeling rewritten as

of wall shear is also important for long pipes and for pipes with

high friction. L aV

(30)

K u =K s +2c 2

4.1 Quasi-Steady Wall Shear Models. In conventional V 2 at

transient analysis, it is assumed that phenomenological expres- where Ku=unsteady flow coefficient of boundary resistance and

sions relating wall shear to cross-sectionally averaged velocity in momentum flux of absolute local velocity and K s = fL/D= steady

steady-state flows remain valid under unsteady conditions. That is, state resistance coefficient. Daily et al. [39] noted that the longi-

wall shear expressions, such as the Darcy-Weisbach and Hazen- tudinal velocity and turbulence nonuniformities are negligible and

Williams formulas, are assumed to hold at every instant during a K u ""K=F/pAV 2 /2=unsteady flow coefficient of boundary resis-

transient. For example, the form of the Darcy-Weisbach equation tance, where F=2'ITDLT w =wall resistance force. Therefore, Eq.

used in water hammer models is (Streeter and Wylie [36]) (30) becomes

Fig. 4 Pressure head traces obtained from

models and experiment

(31) applicability of Eq. (32) have appeared in the literature. For ex-

T w= + at

8 4 ample, Carstens and Roller [43] showed that Eq. (32) can be de-

Denoting c 2 by k and pfV /8 by T ws reduces Eq. (31) to the

2 rived by assuming that the unsteady velocity profiles obey the

following: power law as follows:

kpD aV

T w =T ws +

4 at

(32)

u( x,r,t ) ( 2n+1 )(2n+1 )

V( x,t ) = 2n

( )1- r

R

1/n (33)

The formulations of Daily et al. [39] shows that coefficient

c 2 =k is a measure of the deviations, due to unsteadiness, of the

wall shear and momentum flux. Therefore, k generally depends on where n=7 for Reynolds number Re=105 and increases with

x and t. This remark is supported by the extended thermodynam- Reynolds number, r=distance from the axis in a radial direction,

ics approach used by Axworthy et al. [30]. Figure 4 clearly illus- R=radius of the pipe. An unsteady flow given by Eq. (33) de-

trates the poor agreement between model and data when using Eq. scribes flows that exhibit slow acceleration and does not allow for

(32) with a constant value of k. flow reversal (i.e., does not contain inflection points). In fact, Eq.

The experimental data of Daily et al. [39] show that k=0.01 (33) cannot represent typical water hammer velocity profiles such

for accelerating flows and k=0.62 for decelerating flows. On the as those found in Vardy and Hwang [25], Silva-Araya and

other hand, the research of Shuy [40] led to k=-0.0825 for ac- Chaudhry [37], Pezzinga [38,44], Eichinger and Lein [45] and

celerating flows and k=-0.13 for decelerating flows. In fact, Ghidaoui et al. [46]. The theoretical work of Carstens and Roller

Shuy’s data led him to conclude that unsteady wall friction in- [43] shows only that Eq. (32) applies to very slow transients in

creases in decelerating flows and decreases in accelerating flows. which the unsteady velocity profile has the same shape as the

This result contradicts the previously accepted hypothesis, steady velocity profile. Unfortunately, the Carstens and Roller

namely, that unsteady wall friction decreases in decelerating flows [43] study neither supports nor refutes the possibility of using Eq.

and increases in accelerating flows. Shuy [40] attributed the de- (32) in water hammer problems.

crease in wall shear stress for acceleration to flow relaminariza- The theoretical work of Vardy and Brown [47] shows that Eq.

tion. Given its controversial conclusion, this paper generated a (32) can be derived for the case of an unsteady pipe flow with

flurry of discussion in the literature with the most notable remarks constant acceleration. In addition, they show that this model is

being those of Vardy and Brown [41]. approximately valid for problems with time dependent accelera-

Vardy and Brown [41] argued that Shuy’s results should not be tion as long as the time scale of the transient event greatly exceeds

interpreted as contradicting previous measurements. Instead, the the rising time, which is a measure of time required for the vor-

results indicated that the flow behavior observed in Shuy’s experi- ticity diffusion through the shear layer. Their work also warns

ments may have been different from the flow behavior in previous against using Eq. (32) for problems with time dependent accelera-

experiments. Vardy and Brown [41] put forward the time scale tion induced by transient events with time scales smaller than the

hypothesis as a possible explanation for the different flow behav- rising time (i.e., L/a�T d ).

ior between Shuy’s [40] experiments and previous ones. They also Axworthy et al. [30] found that Eq. (32) is consistent with the

observed that, while Shuy’s experiments dealt with long time theory of Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics (EIT) and sat-

scales, previous measurements dealt with much shorter time isfy the second law of thermodynamics. In addition, the EIT deri-

scales. Vardy and Brown [41] provided insightful and convincing vation shows that unsteady friction formulas based on instanta-

arguments about the importance of time scale to the flow behavior neous acceleration such as Eq. (32) are applicable to transient

in unsteady pipe flows. In fact, the stability analysis of Ghidaoui flow problems in which the time scale of interest (e.g., simulation

and Kolyshkin [42] concurs with the time scale hypothesis of time) is significantly shorter than the radial diffusion time scale of

Vardy and Brown [41]. Moreover, the stability analysis shows vorticity. Using the vorticity equation, Axworthy et al. [30]

that, while other experiments belong to the stable domain, the showed that for such short time scales, the turbulence strength and

experiments of Shuy belong to the unstable domain. structure is unchanged (i.e., ‘‘frozen’’), and the energy dissipation

behind a wave front is well represented by the degree of shift in the unsteady friction when the flow is accelerated (VaV/at>0)

the cross-sectional mean value of the velocity (i.e., dV/dt) and and small correction when the flow is decelerated (VaV/at<0)

the cross-sectional mean value of V, itself. [50].

The time scale arguments by Vardy and Brown [47] and Ax- Utilization of the models presented in this section requires a

worthy et al. [30] represent two limit cases: very slow transients reliable estimate of the parameter k. The data of Brunone et al.

and very fast transients, respectively. In the former case, there is [31], Daily et al. [39], and others show that k is not a universal

enough mixing such that the acceleration history pattern is de- constant. An empirical method for estimating this parameter was

stroyed, only the instantaneous acceleration is significant to the proposed by Brunone et al. [52] by fitting the decay of measured

wall shear stress. In the latter case, the pre-existing flow structure pressure head history. Moody diagram-like charts for k were de-

is frozen, there is no additional acceleration history developed veloped by Pezzinga [44] using a quasi-two-dimensional turbu-

except that of instantaneous acceleration. The Axworthy et al. lence model. Vardy and Brown [47] provided a theoretically-based

[30] argument represents a water hammer flow situation where the expression for determining the coefficient k. This expression was

acceleration behaves like a pulse, say, the flow drops from a finite successfully applied by Bergant et al. [52] and Vitkovsky et al.

value to zero in a short period. [55]. Although the charts of Pezzinga [44] and the formula of

An important modification of instantaneous acceleration-based Vardy and Brown [47] are theory-based, their reliability is limited

unsteady friction models was proposed by Brunone and Golia by the fact that they rely on steady-state-based turbulence models

[48], Greco [49], and Brunone et al. [50,51]. The well known to adequately represent unsteady turbulence. It should, however,

Brunone et al. [50] model has become the most widely used be stressed that modeling turbulent pipe transients is currently not

modification in water hammer application due to its simplicity and well understood (see Sec. 9).

its ability to produce reasonable agreement with experimental The mechanism that accounts for the dissipation of the pres-

pressure head traces. sure head is addressed in the discussion by Ghidaoui et al. [46].

Brunone et al. [50] incorporated the Coriolis correction coef- They found that the additional dissipation associated with the in-

ficient and the unsteady wall shear stress in the energy equation stantaneous acceleration based unsteady friction model occurs

for water hammer as follows: only at the boundary due to the wave reflection. It was shown that

after n c complete wave cycles, the pressure head is damped by a

aH 1 aV T +< aV factor equivalent to [ 1/(1+k) ] 2n c .

+ + +J = 0 (34)

ax g at g at s

4.3 Physically Based Wall Shear Models. This class of un-

where T =difference from unity of the Coriolis correction coeffi- steady wall shear stress models is based on the analytical solution

cient, J s =( f I VI V)/2gD =steady-state friction term, of the unidirectional flow equations and was pioneered by Zielke

(</g) (aV/at)=difference between unsteady friction and its cor- [56]. Applying the Laplace transform to the axial component of

responding steady friction. In Eq. (34), the convective term is the Navier-Stokes equations, he derived the following wall shear

dropped as the Mach number of the flow is small in water hammer expression for unsteady laminar flow in a pipe:

problems.

A constitutive equation is needed for T +<. Brunone et al.

[50] proposed

Tw ( t )= 4vp V ( t )+ 2vp

R R f0

t aV

at '

( t ' ) W ( t-t ' ) dt ' (39)

T +<=k ( 1-a

aV

ax

; ) aV

at

(35)

where t ' =a dummy variable, physically represents the instanta-

neous time in the time history; v=kinematic viscosity of the fluid;

W=weighting function

or in terms of wall shear stress

( )

2 2 2)

W ( t )=e-26.3744( vt/R )+e-70.8493( vt/R )+e-135.0198( vt/R

-a (36)

4 at ax

T w =T ws +

kpD aV aV 2

+e-218.9216( vt/R )+e-322.5544( vt/R )

2

vt

>0.02

Equation (36) provides additional dissipation for a reservoir-pipe-

valve system when the transient is caused by a downstream sud- W( t )=0.282095 ( ) 2

for

R 2

-1.25000+1.057855 ( ) R2

models and experiment are plotted in Fig. 4. It is shown that

den valve closure. The pressure head traces obtained from the vt -1/2 vt 1/2

although both the Darcy-Weisbach formula and Eq. (32) with con- R

<0.02+0.937500

+0.396696 ( )R

head traces, the model by Brunone et al. [50] is quite successful in for

R2

stant k cannot produce enough energy dissipation in the pressure vt vt vt 3/2

R2 2

fied by other researchers [29,52–55].

Slight modifications to the model of Brunone et al. [50], which

()

2

- vt

renders this model applicable to both upstream and downstream 0.351563 2

R

transients, were proposed in [44] and in [52]. In particular, Pezz- The first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (39) represents the

inga [44] proposed steady-state wall shear stress T ws and the second term represents

[

T +<=k 1+sign V ( ) ; ]

aV

ax

a

aV aV

ax at

(37)

the correction part due to the unsteadiness of the flow T wu . The

numerical integration of the convolution integral in Eq. (39) re-

quires a large amount of memory space to store all previously

calculated velocities and large central processing unit (CPU) time

and Bergant et al. [53] proposed to carry out the numerical integration, especially when the time

step is small and the simulation time large. Trikha [57] used three

[

T +<=k 1+sign ( V ) a 1 1; ]

aV

ax

aV

at

(38)

exponential terms to approximate the weighting function. The ad-

vantage of using exponential forms is that a recursive formula can

easily be obtained, so that the flow history can be lumped into the

The dependence of T +< on x and t as well as the flow accel- quantities at the previous time step. In this way, only the calcu-

eration is consistent with the theoretical formulations in [30] and lated quantities at the previous time step needs to be stored in the

[39]. In addition, the form of T +< gives significant correction for computer memory, and there is no need to calculate the convolu-

tion integral from the beginning at every time step. This reduces

the memory storage and the computational time greatly. In Suzuki

et al. [58], for T<0.02, the summation is calculated in a normal

way; for T>0.02, the recursive formula similar to that of Trikha

[57] is used, since each of the five terms included in the weighting

function is exponential. Although Zielke’s formula is derived for

laminar flow, Trikha [57] and others [29,52] found that this for-

mula leads to acceptable results for low Reynolds number turbu-

lent flows. However, Vardy and Brown [47] warned against the

application of Zielke’s formula outside the laminar flow regime,

but did note that the error in applying Zielke’s formula to turbu-

lent flows diminishes as the duration of the wave pulse reduces.

Vardy et al. [59] extended Zielke’s approach to low Reynolds

number turbulent water hammer flows in smooth pipes. In a later

paper, Vardy and Brown [60] developed an extension of the model

of Vardy et al. [59] that was applicable to high Reynolds number Fig. 5 Weighting function for different Reynolds numbers

transient flows in smooth pipes. In addition, Vardy and Brown

[60] showed that this model gives results equivalent to those of

Vardy et al. [59] for low Reynolds number flows and to those of often negligibly small and pipe length far exceeds flow develop-

Zielke [56] for laminar flows. That is, the Vardy and Brown [60] ment length. The validity of assumptions such as that the flow

model promises to provide accurate results for Reynolds numbers remains axisymmetric (stable), that the eddy viscosity is indepen-

ranging from the laminar regime to the highly turbulent regime. dent of time, and that its shape is similar to that in steady flow, is

This model has the following form:

8

+ f

D

W ( t-t ' )

at '

dt ' (41) discussed later in the paper (see Secs. 6 and 7).

Tw ( t ) =pf cally based unsteady wall friction models proposed by Zielke [56]

V( t )I V ( t )I 4vp t aV Understanding the connection between Eq. (32) and the physi-

where and Vardy and Brown [60] further illuminates the limitations of

0 instantaneous acceleration, unsteady wall friction models as de-

scribed in the previous section. In particular, it is evident from

W ( t ) =a exp (-r3t ) / b'ITt; a=D/4 b v; Eqs. (39) and (41) that Eq. (32) is recovered when the acceleration

is constant. In addition, plots of W in Fig. 5 show that for flows

r3=0.54v Re K/D 2; K=log( 14.3/Re0.05) with large Reynolds number, this function is very small every-

and Re=Reynolds number. Similar to Zielke’s model, the convo- where except when vt/R 2 approaches 0, that is, when t ' ap-

lution nature of Eq. (41) is computationally undesirable. An accu- proaches t in Eq. (41). The region where W(t-t ' ) in Eq. (41)

rate, simple, and efficient approximation to the Vardy-Brown un- becomes significant and provides a measure of the time scale of

steady friction equation is derived and shown to be easily the radial diffusion of vorticity T d . If the acceleration varies

implemented within a 1D characteristics solution for unsteady slowly in the region where W(t-t ' ) is significant, it is clear that

pipe flow [32]. For comparison, the exact Vardy-Brown unsteady Eqs. (39) and (41) can be accurately approximated by Eq. (32).

friction equation is used to model shear stresses in transient tur- This is simply an alternative way to state that Eq. (32) is accept-

bulent pipe flows and the resulting water hammer equations are able when the acceleration is not constant as long as the time scale

solved by the method of characteristics. The approximate Vardy- of the flow disturbance far exceeds the time scale of radial diffu-

1 sion of vorticity across the shear layer. Moreover, it is obvious

Brown model is more computationally efficient (i.e., requires 6 -th

the execution time and much less memory storage) than the exact that Eq. (32) is a good approximation to Eqs. (39) and (41) when

Vardy-Brown model. Both models are compared with measured t is small, as the integral interval is so small that the integrand can

data from different research groups and with numerical data pro- be considered as a constant. Furthermore, the time interval where

duced by a two-dimensional (2D) turbulence water hammer W(t-t ' ) is significant reduces with Reynolds number, which

model. The results show that the exact Vardy-Brown model and shows that Eq. (32) becomes more accurate for highly turbulent

the approximate Vardy-Brown model are in good agreement with flows.

both laboratory and numerical experiments over a wide range of

Reynolds numbers and wave frequencies. The proposed approxi- 5 Numerical Solutions for 1D Water Hammer Equa-

mate model only requires the storage of flow variables from a tions

single time step while the exact Vardy-Brown model requires the The equations governing 1D water hammer (i.e., Eqs. (20) and

storage of flow variables at all previous time steps and the 2D (21)) can seldom be solved analytically. Therefore, numerical

model requires the storage of flow variables at all radial nodes. techniques are used to approximate the solution. The method of

A summary of the assumptions involved in deriving Eqs. (39) characteristics (MOC), which has the desirable attributes of accu-

and (41) is in order. The analytical approach of Zielke [56] in- racy, simplicity, numerical efficiency, and programming simplicity

volves the following assumptions: (i) the flow is fully developed, (e.g., [20,23,61]), is most popular. Other techniques that have also

(ii) the convective terms are negligible, (iii) the incompressible been applied to Eqs. (20) and (21) include the wave plan, finite

version of the continuity equation is used (i.e., the influence of difference (FD), and finite volume (FV) methods. Of the 11 com-

mass storage on velocity profile is negligible), and (iv) the veloc- mercially available water hammer software packages reviewed in

ity profile remains axisymmetric (i.e., stable) during the transient. Sec. 12, eight use MOC, two are based on implicit FD methods,

In order to extend Zielke’s approach to turbulent flows, Vardy and and only one employs the wave-plan method.

Brown [60] made two fundamental assumptions in relation to the

turbulent eddy viscosity in addition to assumptions (i) through 5.1 MOC-Based Schemes. A significant development in

(iv). First, the turbulent kinematic viscosity is assumed to vary the numerical solution of hyperbolic equations was published by

linearly within the wall shear layer and becomes infinite (i.e., a Lister [62]. She compared the fixed-grid MOC scheme—also

uniform velocity distribution) in the core region. Second, the tur- called the method of fixed time interval—with the MOC grid

bulent eddy viscosity is assumed to be time invariant (i.e., frozen scheme and found that the fixed-grid MOC was much easier to

to its steady-state value). Assumptions (i), (ii), and (iii) are accu- compute, giving the analyst full control over the grid selection and

rate for practical water hammer flows, where the Mach number is enabling the computation of both the pressure and velocity fields

58 Õ Vol. 58, JANUARY 2005 Transactions of the ASME

in space at constant time. Fixed-grid MOC has since been used interpolate either in space or in time. It is claimed that the reach-

with great success to calculate transient conditions in pipe systems back Holly-Preissmann scheme is superior to the classical Holly-

and networks. Preissmann method. An interesting discussion of this work, pub-

The fixed-grid MOC requires that a common time step (Lit) be lished in Bentley [68], showed that the solution obtained by the

used for the solution of the governing equations in all pipes. How- classical Holly-Preissmann method when the time step equals

ever, pipes in the system tend to have different lengths and some- mLit is identical to that obtained by the reachback in space Holly-

times wave speeds, making it impossible to satisfy the Courant Preissmann (i.e., the foot of the characteristic line is extended

condition (Courant number C r =aLit/Lixo:1) exactly if a com- back more than one time step until it intersects the space-line)

mon time step Lit is to be used. This discretization problem can be with m reachbacks and a time step value of Lit. The only differ-

addressed by interpolation techniques, or artificial adjustment of ence is that the reachback approach produces m-1 extra interme-

the wave speed or a hybrid of both. diate solutions at the cost of more computational time.

To deal with this discretization problem, Lister [62] used linear Sibetheros et al. [69] showed that the spline technique is well

space-line interpolation to approximate heads and flows at the foot suited to predicting transient conditions in simple pipelines sub-

of each characteristic line. Trikha [57] suggested using different ject to simple disturbances when the nature of the transient behav-

time steps for each pipe. This strategy makes it possible to use ior of the system is known in advance. The most serious problem

large time steps, resulting in shorter execution time and the avoid- with the spline interpolation is the specification of the spline

ance of spatial interpolation error. This increased flexibility comes boundary conditions.

at the cost of having to interpolate at the boundaries, which can be The authors point out that the selection procedure was a ‘‘trial

a major source of error when complex, rapidly changing control and error’’ one involving many possibilities. This ‘‘flexibility’’

actions are considered. suffers from the curse of ‘‘permutability,’’ i.e., in a complex sys-

Wiggert and Sundquist [63] derived a single scheme that com- tem the number of permutations and combinations of spline

bines the classical space-line interpolation with reachout in space boundary conditions can become enormous. Moreover, in many

interpolation. Using Fourier analysis, they studied the effects of multipipe applications it is not accuracy that directly governs the

interpolation, spacing, and grid size on numerical dispersion, at- selection of the time step, but the hydraulically shortest pipe in the

tenuation, and stability. These researchers found that the degree of system. Since the most successful spline boundary conditions nec-

interpolation �decreases as the ratio of the wavelength of the kth essarily involve several reaches, application of the method be-

harmonic L k to the reach length Lix increases. As a result, both comes problematic in short pipes. It would appear to require much

numerical dissipation and dispersion are improved. These conclu- smaller time steps simply to apply the method at all. Other nec-

sions are not surprising for several reasons. First, every interpola- essary conditions for the success of spline schemes are: (i) the

tion technique can be expected to produce better results for wave dependent variable(s) must be sufficiently smooth, (ii) the compu-

components with larger wavelengths. Second, for a fixed time step tation of the derivatives at internal nodes must be accurate, and

Lit, larger values of n imply smaller values of Lix and vice versa, (iii) the formulation of the numerical and/or physical derivative

since nLix represents the total length of the reachout on one side. boundary conditions must be simple and accurate. Conditions (i)

Consequently, this scheme generates more grid points and, there- and (iii) are a problem in water hammer analysis because the

fore, requires longer computational times and computer storage. boundary conditions are frequently nonlinear and complex, and

Furthermore, an alternative scheme must be used to carry out the the dependent variables may be discontinuous.

boundary computations. Karney and Ghidaoui [70] developed ‘‘hybrid’’ interpolation

The reachback time-line interpolation scheme, developed by approaches that include interpolation along a secondary character-

Goldberg and Wylie [64], uses the solution from m previously istic line, ‘‘minimum-point’’ interpolation (which reduces the dis-

calculated time levels. The authors observed that reachback time- tance from the interpolated point to the primary characteristic),

line interpolation is more accurate than space-line interpolation and a method of ‘‘wave path adjustment’’ that distorts the path of

for the same discretization. This is a subjective comparison be- propagation but does not directly change the wave speed. The

cause, as the degree of temporal interpolation �varies from 0 to 1, resulting composite algorithm can be implemented as a preproces-

the degree of spatial interpolation a is only allowed to vary from sor step and thus uses memory efficiently, executes quickly, and

1/(m+1) to 1/m. A fairer comparison would have been to also provides a flexible tool for investigating the importance of dis-

divide the distance step by m so that both �and a vary equally. In cretization errors in pipeline systems. The properties of the algo-

addition, Goldberg and Wylie [64] assert that numerical errors are rithm are analyzed theoretically and illustrated by example in the

reduced by increasing m. This is somewhat misleading because, paper.

for a fixed Lix, increasing m means increasing the number of

computational steps (i.e., reducing the effective time step Lit) 5.2 Other Schemes. The wave plan method [71] is similar

which in turn generates finer interpolation intervals. Moreover, in to the MOC in the sense that both techniques explicitly incorpo-

cases where the friction term is large and/or when the wave speed rate wave paths in the solution procedure. However, the wave plan

is not constant, reaching back in time increases the approximation method requires that flow disturbance functions such as valve

error of these terms. curves be approximated by piecewise constant functions. That is,

Lai [65] combined the implicit, temporal reachback, spatial flow disturbances are approximated by a series of instantaneous

reachback, spatial reachout, and the classical time and space-line changes in flow conditions. The time interval between any two

interpolations into one technique called the multimode scheme. consecutive instantaneous changes in flow conditions is fixed. The

Depending on the choice of grid size (Lit,Lix) and the limit on the piecewise constant approximation to disturbance functions implies

maximum allowable reachbacks in time m, this scheme may func- that the accuracy of the scheme is first order in both space and

tion as either of the methods or a combination of any two meth- time. Therefore, fine discretization is required for achieving accu-

ods. Numerical errors were studied using a mass balance ap- rate solutions to water hammer problems.

proach. Stability conditions were derived from Von Neumann The wave plan method ‘‘lumps’’ friction at the center of each

analysis. The multimode scheme gives the user the flexibility to pipe. In particular, friction is modeled using a disturbance func-

select the interpolation scheme that provides the best performance tion, where the form of this function is determined using the ‘‘ori-

for a particular problem. fice analogy.’’ This disturbance function is friction approximated

Yang and Hsu [66,67] published two papers dealing with the by piecewise constant functions. The modeling of friction as a

numerical solution of the dispersion equation in 1D and 2D, re- series of discrete disturbances in space and time generates small

spectively. The authors propose reaching back in time more than spurious waves. In general, with small values of friction, these

one time step and then using the Holly-Preissmann method to would be observed only as low-amplitude noise on the main tran-

sient signal. It is also unclear as to how additional physics, such as This section discusses a number of methods employed by tran-

convolution-integral unsteady friction models, can be incorpo- sient modelers to quantify numerical dissipation and dispersion.

rated with the wave plan methodology.

Wylie and Streeter [72] propose solving the water hammer 5.3.1 Von Neumann Method. Traditionally, fluid transient re-

equations in a network system using the implicit central difference searchers have studied the dispersion and dissipation characteris-

method in order to permit large time steps. The resulting nonlinear tics of the fixed-grid method of characteristics using the Von Neu-

difference equations are organized in a sparse matrix form and are mann (or Fourier) method of analysis [63,64]. The Von Neumann

solved using the Newton-Raphson procedure. Only pipe junction analysis was used by O’Brian et al. [79] to study the stability of

boundary conditions were considered in the case study. It is rec- the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The analy-

ognized that the limitation on the maximum time step is set by the sis tracks a single Fourier mode with time and dissipation by

frequency of the dependent variables at the boundaries. Two com- determining how the mode decays with time. Dispersion is evalu-

mercially available water hammer software packages use the four ated by investigating whether or not different Fourier modes travel

point implicit scheme (see Sec. 12 Water Hammer Software). The with different speeds.

major advantage of implicit methods is that they are stable for There are a number of serious drawbacks to the Von Neumann

large time steps (i.e., C r >1 [65,72]). Computationally, however, method of analysis. For example, it lacks essential boundary in-

implicit schemes increase both the execution time and the storage formation, it ignores the influence of the wave profile on the nu-

requirement and need a dedicated matrix inversion solver since a merical errors, it assumes constant coefficients and that the initial

large system of equations has to be solved. Moreover, for most conditions are periodic, and it can only be applied to linear nu-

problems, iterative schemes must also be invoked. From a math- merical models [69,79– 81]. To illustrate, the work by Wiggert

ematical perspective, implicit methods are not suitable for wave and Sundquist [63], Goldberg and Wylie [64], and others clearly

propagation problems because they entirely distort the path of shows that the attenuation and dispersion coefficients obtained

propagation of information, thereby misrepresenting the math- from the Fourier analysis depend on the Courant number, the ratio

ematical model. In addition, a small time step is required for ac- of the wavelength of the kth harmonic L k to the reach length Lix,

curacy in water hammer problems in any case [23]. For these and the number of reachbacks and/or reachouts, but does not de-

reasons, most of the work done on numerical modeling of hyper- pend on the boundary conditions. Yet, the simulation of boundary

bolic equations in the last three decades concentrated on develop- conditions and knowledge of how these boundary conditions in-

ing, testing, and comparing explicit schemes (e.g., [63,64,73]). troduce and reflect errors to the internal pipe sections is crucial to

Chaudhry and Hussaini [74] apply the MacCormack, Lambda, the study of numerical solutions of hydraulic problems. In short,

and Gabutti schemes to the water hammer equations. These three the Von Neumann method cannot be used as the only benchmark

methods are explicit, second-order (in time and space) finite dif- for selecting the most appropriate numerical scheme for nonlinear

ference schemes. Two types of boundary conditions are used: (i) boundary-value hyperbolic problems.

one characteristic equation and one boundary equation, or (ii) ex- 5.3.2 L 1 and L 2 Norms Method. Chaudhry and Hussaini

trapolation procedure boundary condition. The second boundary [74] developed L 1 and L 2 norms to evaluate the numerical errors

condition solution method adds one fictitious node upstream of associated with the numerical solution of the water hammer equa-

the upstream boundary and another downstream of the down- tions by the MacCormack, Lambda, and Gabutti schemes. How-

stream boundary. Using the L 1 and L 2 norms as indicators of the ever, the L 1 and L 2 method as they apply it can only be used for

numerical errors, it was shown that these second-order finite- problems that have a known, exact solution. In addition, these two

difference schemes produce better results than first-order method norms do not measure a physical property such as mass or energy,

of characteristics solutions for C r=0.8 and 0.5. Spurious numeri- thereby making the interpretation of the numerical values of these

cal oscillations are observed, however, in the wave profile. norms difficult. Hence, the L 1 and L 2 norms can be used to com-

Although FV methods are widely used in the solution of hyper- pare different schemes, but do not give a clear indication of how

bolic systems, for example, in gas dynamics and shallow water well a particular scheme performs.

waves (see recent books by Toro [75,76]), this approach is seldom

applied to water hammer flows. To the authors’ knowledge, the 5.3.3 Three Parameters Approach. Sibetheros et al. [69]

first attempt to apply FV-based schemes was by Guinot [77]. He used three dimensionless parameters to study various numerical

ignored the advective terms, developed a Riemann-type solution errors. A discussion followed by Karney and Ghidaoui [82] and a

for the water hammer problem, and used this solution to develop closure was provided by the authors. Salient points from the dis-

a first-order-based FV Godunov scheme. This first-order scheme cussion and closure are summarized below.

is very similar to the MOC with linear space-line interpolation. At The attenuation parameter is intended to measure the numerical

the time of writing, a second paper by Hwang and Chung [78] that dissipation by different interpolation schemes by looking at the

also uses the FV method for water hammer, has appeared. Unlike maximum head value at the valve. This parameter, however, un-

in Guinot [77], the advective terms are not neglected in the work derestimates the numerical attenuation because the computation of

of Hwang and Chung [78]. Instead, they use the conservative form head and flow at the downstream end of the pipe uses one char-

of the compressible flow equations, in which density, and not acteristic equation and one boundary equation. The dispersion pa-

head, is treated as an unknown. The application of such a scheme rameter is intended to measure the numerical dispersion by differ-

in practice would require a state equation relating density to head ent interpolation schemes. This parameter is determined by

so that (i) all existing boundary conditions would have to be re- asserting that the change in the wave shape is governed by the

formulated in terms of density and flow rather than head and flow, constant diffusion equation with initial conditions described by

and (ii) the initial steady-state hydraulic grade line would need to the Heaviside function. Although this method allows a rudimen-

be converted to a density curve as a function of longitudinal dis- tary comparison of simple system responses, general conclusions

tance. At present, no such equation of state exists for water. Ap- cannot be drawn for a hyperbolic equation based on a diffusion

plication of this method would be further complicated at bound- equation. The longitudinal displacement parameter is intended to

aries where incompressible conditions are generally assumed to measure the extent by which different numerical schemes artifi-

apply. cially displace the wave front. However, this parameter only sug-

gests to what degree the interpolation method used is symmetri-

5.3 Methods for Evaluating Numerical Schemes. Several cally dispersive and says little about the magnitude of artificial

approaches have been developed to deal with the quantification of displacement of the wave by the numerical scheme.

numerical dissipation and dispersion. The wide range of methods

in the literature is indicative of the dissatisfaction and distrust 5.3.4 Mass Balance Approach. The mass balance method

among researchers of more conventional, existing techniques. [83,84] is a more general technique than the other existing meth-

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