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GEL EXTRACTION

By:
Name : Rahmi Mutia Mawardi
Student ID : B1B015041
Group :2
Entourage :I
Assistant : Lukman Adi Nugroho

PRACTICAL REPORT OF PHYCOLOGY

MINISTRY OF RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY, AND HIGHER EDUCATION


JENDERAL SOEDIRMAN UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF BIOLOGY
PURWOKERTO
2017
I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background

The marine world, due to its phenomenal biodiversity, is a rich natural


resource of many biologically active compounds. Many marine organisms live in
complex habitats exposed to extreme conditions and, in adapting to new
environmental surroundings, they produce a wide variety of primary and secondary
metabolites which cannot be found in other organisms. Marine-based bioactive
compounds can be derived from a vast array of sources, including marine plants,
macro- and microalgae, microorganisms, and sponges, all of which contain their own
unique set of biomolecules (Francavilla et al., 2013).
Macroalgae, known also as seaweeds, produce many biologically active
phytochemicals, which include among others, carotenoids, terpenoids, xanthophylls,
chlorophylls, phycobilins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins,
sterols, tocopherol and phycocyanins. They are used as food, fodder, feed and
fertilizer and many of the bioactive compounds produced by the macroalgae are
known to have potential beneficial use in healthcare (Francavilla et al., 2013).
The main component of red algae (Rhodophyta) is agarose, which comprises
β-linked repeats of neoagarobiose subunits. Neoagarobiose is composed of D-
galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose (AHG), in which each monomer is bonded to
the other by an a-linkage. In nature, agarases are responsible for the hydrolysis or
depolymerization of agarose and are mainly produced by marine bacteria. The
agarase system is classified into two groups such as α- and β-agarases according to
their modes of action (Kim et al., 2013).

B. Purpose

The purpose of this experiment was to knowing the results of yield and the
extraction of gel from seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa.

C. Literature

Gelatin, gel or agarose is a gel substance that is usually prepared from


seaweed or algae. Gel can be formed as a powder and sold (Anggadiredjo, 2006).
Hysteresis is a phenomenon which is owned by the gel gel and a number of other,
related to the temperature of the solid-liquid phase transition. Gel begins to melt at a
temperature of 85°C and begin to condense at a temperature of 32-40°C. So unlike
solidified water and melt at the same temperature point (Aslan, 1998).
The main function of gelatin is as a stabilizer, a stabilizer, emulsifiers, fillers,
purification, gel maker, and others. Some industry utilize gelatin: food industry,
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, leather, photography, as a medium microbial growth,
and so on (Distantina et al., 2007). When dissolved in hot water and cooled, gel is
like gelatin: soft solids with many pores in it so textured 'springy'. These properties
attractive in some sense so many food preparations involve gelatin: thickening soups,
pudding (jelly), a mixture of ice cream, Anmitsu (in Japan). Gelatin is widely known
in the Asian region Tropika as a healthy food because it contains fiber high soft and
calories. Soft high fiber content help to expedite the disposal of the remains of food
in the intestine (laxatives). Besides being used as food, gelatin is also widely used in
the laboratory as a compactor chemicalia in the experiment, growing medium for
plant tissue culture and microbes culture, as well as stationary phase in gel
electrophoresis. In the laboratory, jelly (usually packaged in powder form) is known
as gel (Fu & Kim,2010).
Gel is actually a high molecular weight carbohydrate that fills the cell walls
of seaweed. Carbohydrates alone it is a class of organic compounds composed only
of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The simplest form of carbohydrate molecule
composed of one simple sugar molecules. To be composed of a mixture of
agarosaose and agaropectin. Polimer agarose is linear, consisting of monomer units
agarobiose repetition. Agarobiose is a disaccharide composed of D-galactose and
3,6-anhydro-L-galactopyranose. The main difference of carrageenans is the presence
of L-3,6-galactopyranose, not a unit of D-3,6-anhydro-α-galactopyranose and lack of
sulfate groups. Agaropectin is a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules that
occur in smaller quantities. their structures are similar but slightly branched and
sulphate, and they may have a methyl substituent and pyruvic acid. They gel is bad
and may only be issued from an gelose gel-forming molecules very well using their
expense. Gelatin quality improved with treatment feet that convert from any
galactose L-6-sulfate to 3.6 - L-galactose anhydro (Afrianto & Liviawati, 1989).
Seaweed has a morphology that does not show their the difference between
the roots, stems and leaves. As a whole, these plants have a similar body structure,
even though different, called thallus. Morphological features Gracilaria verrucosa is
thallus that resembles a cylindrical, smooth, brown or yellow green, branching not
irregular centered at the base and extends laterally branching resembling hair with a
length ranging from 15-30 cm. Red algae that have a fast reproduction rate which is
about 7-13% and can be increased up to 20% growth rate of the day (Adini et al.,
2015). Seaweeds of the genus Gracilaria is known as one of the groups Agarophyta
important seaweed. Agarophyta term used to refer to species of seaweed to produce
compounds gelose, or so we are familiar with gel. Generally, the content of gelatin
gracilaria ranged between 16-45%.
Arfini (2011) classifies Gracilaria verrucosa in taxonomy as follows:
Division : Rhodophyta
Class : Rhodophyceae
Order : Gigartinales
Familia : Gracilariaceae
Genus : Gracilaria
Species : Gracilaria verrucosa
Gracilaria verrucosa, the third largest genus of class Rhodophyta, for the
production of gel and bioethanol as abiorefineryapproach. To the best of our knowl-
edge this is the first report on the production of bioethanol using pulp or algal
byproduct after gel extraction. An efficient strategy for gel extraction from seaweed
was developed and the resultant pulp was subsequently used for bioethanol
production (Kumar et al., 2013). Processing gel from seaweed class Rhodophyceae
(red algae) produce a byproduct in the form of waste in order. Wastes that contain
cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and materials other organic (Adini et al.,
2015).
II. MATERIAL AND METHODS

A. Material

The materials that used in this practice are Gracilaria verrucosa, aquadest,
KOH 10%, KCl 5%, H2O2 6%, and pH paper.
The tools that used in this practice are beaker glass, pan, stove, basin, filter
cloth, and spatula.

B. Methods

1. Seaweed weight 500 grams then placed in a 2-liter stainless still beaker.
2. Poured into a blender and blend until pasty.
3. Poured the pasta into the pan, added 2500 ml aquadest.
4. After that added 500 ml KOH 10%, cooked until 15 minutes and mixed well.
5. Then added 500 ml KCl 5% and cooked again until 15 minutes.
6. After 15 minutes filtrated with filter cloth.
7. Filtrate then cooked again, and added 2500 ml aquadest.
8. Added 500 ml H2O2 6% until 20 minutes and mixed well.
9. After 20 minutes, the extraction poured into basin.
10. Dried until dry.
11. Calculated the gel yield.
Yield (%) = End Product (g) x 100%
Raw material (g)
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Result

Table 3.1 Calculation Results of Yield Jelly Entourage I


No Group Yield Carrageenan (%)
1 1 1,03
2 2 0
3 3 3,48
4 4 2,92
5 5 3,87
6 6 2,50

Calculation Yield Jelly

Yield (%) = End Product (g) x 100%


Raw material (g)
= (1,03 + 0 + 3,48 + 2,92 + 3,87 + 2,50) g x 100%
500 g
= 13,8 x 100%
500
= 2,76 %

Figure 3.2 Figure Details

Figure 3.2.1. Gel extraction Figure 3.2.2 Gel extraction result


before dried
Figure 3.2.3 Gel extraction result Figure 3.2.4 Dried gel extraction
after dried ready to measure.
B. Discussion

Based on the results obtained the gel carageenan content is 2,76%. The
calculation of the yield to be obtained from the weight of the seaweed after extracted
and dried (final weight) as reached as 13.8 gram. This initialy split before being
treated (initial weight) of 500 grams, and multiplied by 100%. The content to be
obtained in the lab of this time activity is low. This is probably caused by a lack of
appropriate planting sites, methods of cultivation which does not match, causing poor
growth, a result that contains a bit. Another factor is caused by Gracilaria used was
too young to make the extraction, types of seaweed used, long soaking, long
extraction and concentration of substances used in the soaking and softening (Fateha,
2009). Munaf (2002) adds that the scale of production also affect the yield, large-
scale production which will result in greater yield. The size of the yield to be affected
by temperature, the maximum temperature that the structure is unstable and easily
damaged.
The making of gel extraction in this laboratory activity is started by
measuring Gracilaria verrucosa as the result of post-harvest drying which reached to
500 gram. Thus blend measured G. Verrucosa until smoothly and moved into pan
and added with aquades as much as 2500 ml. After that added KOH 10% as much as
500 ml along with cooked it and stirred for about 15 minutes. The 500 ml of KCl 5%
is added, continued with cooked it for 15 minutes by stirred it. The gel extreaction
result is filtered and moved back into pan. The next is aquades with 2500 ml and 6%
H2O2 500 ml are added along with recooked for 20 minutes. Gel extraction result is
poured into tray with filter cloth as the bases, dried under the sun until it resulted
dried agar and measured the rendeman result.
The function of tools and materials used in the manufacture of gel extraction
is as follows 10% KOH solution serves to increase the gel. KCl solution serves to
break up the thalus. 6% H2O2 solution serves to lighten the color of seaweed. Water
is also needed in this process is as a solvent. While the tools used in the lab of this
time is a blender which helps to destroy thalus of Gracilaria verrucosa, pan serve as
a platform of making the extraction of gel, a stove to cook the extraction , the tray
serves as a place to accommodate the gel extraction and filter cloth serves to filter
the gel extracted of thalus. In addition to the solution, some treatment also have each
function.. Here is the function of each treatment:
1. The blend done to facilitate the formation of the fiber.
2. Heating is done to soften the cell walls of Gracilaria verrucosa.
3. Soaking has the following objectives:
• Make seaweed becomes soft and components that are soluble in water soluble
shredded material causing a good result the average amount of dry weight,
texture, and color.
• Attract protein and other ingredients such as sodium chloride, potassium, iodine,
and did not rule out the same as the dye substance.
• Seaweed becomes elastic and not easily broken.
• Causing the chemical changes in physical properties that lead to denaturation of
the cell walls of seaweed. Changes in internal component in the exhaust process
causes the yield to be extracted increases (Darmawan et al., 2004).
Most properties protruding from the gelatin is dissolved in water heat, which
when cooled to temperatures particular will form a gel. Nature is what makes gelatin
widely used (Distantina, et al., 2007). One of the important properties of gelatin
powder is able to transform liquids into solids or changing the shape of the sol to gel
which is reversible. It is this ability which causes the agar-agar powder very broad
use. This is due to the ability of alkali releasing sulphate at C6 and at the same time
the formation of 3,6-anhidrogalaktosa and is a compound responsible against
gelation. The presence of 3,6-anhidrogalaktosa causing properties anhidrofilik and
improve double helix formation so that formed a high gel (Firdaus et al., 2015).
IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

A. Conclussion

Based on the result can be concluded that:


1. Gel yield that entourage I obtained is 2,76%.

B. Recommendation

Suggestions for this lab is when the boiling process or cook needed optimum
heat so as to soften the cell walls of seaweed is optimal.
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