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#SAMBARILOVE

12
CIRCUITOS TRIFÁSICOS

Aquele que não consegue perdoar os outros interrompe o seu próprio caminho.
G. Herbert

Progresso profissional
Critérios ABET EC 2000 (3.e), “habilidade em identificar, formular e solucionar
problemas de engenharia”.

Desenvolver e aperfeiçoar sua “habilidade em 1('$ &'(*"00'*7'2 / !'!"4*8"&,-"#!'-,0*9."*3,&:*


!"#$ %&'()* +,(-./'(* "* 0,/.& ,#'(* 1(,2/"-'0* !"* .0"* "00"* 1(,&"00,* 0"-1("* 9."* 1,00;3"/4* <* 2"-*
engenharia” é o objetivo fundamental deste li- 1(,3=3"/*9."*3,&:*0"*'/"6("*',*!"0&,2( (*9."* 00,*
3(,4*5*0"6. (*#,00,*1(,&"00,*!"*0" 0*"$'1'0*1'('* $'-2>-* +.#& ,#'* 1'('* &.(0,0* 9."* #?,* 0?,* !"*
resolução de problemas é a melhor maneira de engenharia.

Critérios ABET EC 2000 (f), “entendimento sobre responsabilidade ética e


profissional”.

<*#"&"00=( ,*9."*$,!,*"#6"#7" (,*$"#7'*.-*@"#$"#- 2/"-'*#,*-'#&'/*!'*(,!'*+(,#$'/*! (" $'4*L,&:*("0-


! -"#$,* 0,2("* ("01,#0'2 / !'!"* >$ &'* "* 1(,%00 ,- 1,#!")*"#$?,)*@#?,A4*5#$("$'#$,)*>*0".*!"3"(*&,-,*
#'/A4*B$>* &"($,* 1,#$,)* "00"* "#$"#! -"#$,* >* -. $,* "#6"#7" (,* #+,(-'(*',*&,-1('!,(*9."*"H 0$"*.-*
1"00,'/)* 3'( '#!,)* '00 -)* 1'('* &'!'* .-* !"* #C04* 1(,2/"-'* &,-* '* $('#0- 00?,* 0"-* 9."* /7"* $"#7'*
D,(* 00,)* !"#$ %&'-,0* '/6.#0* #! &'!,("0* 1'('* sido perguntado.
'E.!=F/,*'*&( '(*"00"*"#$"#! -"#$,4*G-*!,0*-".0* J.'*("01,#0'2 / !'!")*$'#$,*1(,%00 ,#'/*9.'#$,*
"H"-1/,0* +'3,( $,0* >* ,* !,* "#6"#7" (,* 9."* $"-* '* >$ &')*>*0"*&,-1,($'(*!"*+,(-'*9."*#?,*1("E.! 9."*
("01,#0'2 / !'!"* !"* ("01,#!"(* I9. /,* 9."* &7'-,* '9."/"0*I*0.'*3,/$'*"*1"/,0*9.' 0*3,&:*>*("01,#0=3"/4*
@1"(6.#$'*#?,*+" $'A4*J.1,#7'-,0*9."*3,&:*$"#7'* M &'* &/'(,* 9."* !"0"#3,/3"(* "00'* &'1'& !'!"* /"3'(=*
.-*&'((,*9."*"0$"E'*'1("0"#$'#!,*.-*1(,2/"-'*!"* $"-1,* "* "H 6 (=* -'$.( !'!"* !"* 0.'* 1'($"4*B&,#0"-
$('#0- 00?,4* K,* 1(,&"00,* !"* 3"#!'* !"00"* &'((,)* /7'-,0*"00'*1(=$ &'*1"/'*1(,&.('*!'0*&,-1,#"#$"0*
,*1,00;3"/*&,-1('!,(*/7"*1"(6.#$'*0"*7=*.-*1(,- >$ &'0*"*1(,%00 ,#' 0*"-*0.'0*'$ 3 !'!"0*!,*! '*'*! '4

445
#SAMBARILOVE
446 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

12.1 Introdução
B$>*,*-,-"#$,)*#"0$"*$"H$,)*$('$'-,0*!"*& (&. $,0*-,#,+=0 &,04*G-*0 0$"-'*!"*
"#"(6 '*NB*-,#,+=0 &,*>*+,(-'!,*1,(*.-*6"('!,(*&,#"&$'!,*1,(*-" ,*!"*.-*1'(*
!"* %,0* O/ #7'* !"* $('#0- 00?,P* '* .-'* &'(6'4*B* M 6.('* QR4Qa representa um
0 0$"-'*2 %/'(*-,#,+=0 &,)*"-*9."*Vp é a magnitude da tensão da fonte e f é a
+'0"4*S*9."*$"-,0*!"*-,!,*6"('/)*#'*1(=$ &')*>*.-*0 0$"-'*$( %/'(*&,-,*,*-,0-
$('!,*#'*M 6.('*QR4Qb)*9."*&,#$>-*!.'0*+,#$"0* !:#$ &'0*O-"0-'*-'6# $.!"*"*
Nota histórica: Thomas Edison +'0"P*9."*0?,*&,#"&$'!'0*'*!.'0*&'(6'0*1,(*!, 0*%,0*-' 0*"H$"(#,0*"*,*#".$(,4*
inventou um sistema trifilar, usando D,(*"H"-1/,)*,*0 0$"-'*!,->0$ &,*&,-.-*.0'*"00"*0 0$"-')*1, 0*'0*$"#0T"0*#,0*
três fios em vez de quatro. $"(- #' 0*$:-*'*-"0-'*-'6# $.!"*"*'*-"0-'*+'0"4*G-*0 0$"-'*!"0$"0*1"(- $"*
'*&,#"H?,*$'#$,*!"*'1'("/7,0*1'('*QRU*L*&,-,*1'('*RVU*L4

a A

Vp f + ZL1
n N

Vp f + ZL Vp f + ZL2
b B

(a) (b)
Figura 12.1 J 0$"-'0*-,#,+=0 &,0W*OaP*$ 1,*2 %/'(X*ObP*$ 1,*$( %/'(4

N (&. $,0*,.*0 0$"-'0*#,0*9.' 0*'0*+,#$"0*NB*,1"('-*#'*-"0-'*+("9.:#-


a A & ')* 1,(>-)* "-* +'0"0* ! +"("#$"0)* 0?,* &,#7"& !,0* &,-,* polifásicos. A Figura
QR4R* /.0$('*.-*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*2 %/'(*"*'*M 6.('*QR4Y)*.-*0 0$"-'*9.'!( %/'(*
+ ZL1
Vp 0!
n N $( +=0 &,4* Z +"("#$"-"#$"* !"* .-* 0 0$"-'* -,#,+=0 &,)* .-* 0 0$"-'* 2 +=0 &,* >*
1(,!.[ !,*1,(*.-*6"('!,(*+,(-'!,*1,(*!.'0*2,2 #'0*&,/,&'!'0*1"(1"#! &.-
Vp 90! + ZL2 /'(-"#$"*.-'*"-*("/'\?,*I*,.$('*!"*-,!,*9."*'*$"#0?,*6"('!'*1,(*.-'*"0$=*
b B '$('0'!'*"-*]U^*"-*("/'\?,*I*,.$('4*Z"*+,(-'*0"-"/7'#$")*.-*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*
>*1(,!.[ !,*1,(*.-*6"('!,(*+,(-'!,*1,(*$(:0*+,#$"0*!"*-"0-'*'-1/ $.!"*"*
Figura 12.2 J 0$"-'*$( %/'(*2 +=0 &,4 +("9.:#& ')*1,(>-*!"+'0'!'0*"#$("*0 *1,(*QRU^4*G-'*3"[*9."*,*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*
>*,*0 0$"-'*1,/ +=0 &,*-. $,*-' 0*+("9."#$"*"*-' 0*"&,#_- &,)*! 0&.$ ("-,0*
#"0$"*&'1;$./,*2'0 &'-"#$"*0,2("*0 0$"-'0*$( +=0 &,04
S0*0 0$"-'0*$( +=0 &,0*0?,* -1,($'#$"0*"-*!"&,((:#& ')*1"/,*-"#,0)*!"*$(:0*
Vp 0 ('[T"04*5-*1( -" (,*/.6'()*9.'0"*$,!'*"#"(6 '*"/>$( &'*>*6"('!'*"*! 0$( 2.;!'*
ZL1
a A "-*$(:0*+'0"0)*"-*.-'*+("9.:#& '*!"*,1"('\?,* 6.'/*'*`U*a[*O,.*v*b*Ycc*('!d0P)*
!+
#,0*50$'!,0*G# !,0)*,.*eU*a[*O,.*v*b*YQV*('!d0P)*"-*'/6.-'0*,.$('0*1'($"0*
Vp !120 !,*-.#!,4*f.'#!,*0"*1("& 0'*!"*"#$('!'0*-,#,+=0 &'0*,.*$( +=0 &'0)*"/'0*0?,*
ZL2
b B "H$(';!'0*!,*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*"-*3"[*!"*0"("-*6"('!'0*!"*+,(-'* #!"1"#!"#-
!+
$"4*g"0-,*9.'#!,*0?,*#"&"00=( '0*-' 0*!"*$(:0*+'0"0*h*&,-,*#'* #!i0$( '*!,*
Vp "120 '/.-;# ,)*1,(*"H"-1/,)*,#!"*0?,* #! 01"#0=3" 0*Vj*+'0"0*1'('*%#0*!"*+.0?,*h)*
ZL3
c C 1,!"-* 0"(* +,(#"& !'0* -'# 1./'#!,F0"* '0* $(:0* +'0"0* +,(#"& !'04* 5-* 0"6.#!,*
!+
/.6'()*'*1,$:#& '* #0$'#$k#"'*"-*.-*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*1,!"*0"(*&,#0$'#$"*O#?,*
n N 1./0'#$"P)*&,-,*3"("-,0*#'*J"\?,*QR4c4*l00,*("0./$'*"-*.-'*$('#0- 00?,*!"*
"#"(6 '*.# +,(-"*"*-"#,(*3 2('\?,*!'0*-=9. #'0*$( +=0 &'04*5-*$"(&" (,*/.6'()*
Figura 12.3 J 0$"-'*$( %/'(*$( +=0 &,4 1'('*'*-"0-'*9.'#$ !'!"*!"*"#"(6 ')*,*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*>*-' 0*"&,#_- &,*9."*
,*-,#,+=0 &,)*1, 0*0.'*9.'#$ !'!"*!"*%,0*#"&"00=( '*>*-"#,(4*
l# & '-,0*#,00'*! 0&.00?,*&,-*'0*$"#0T"0*$( +=0 &'0*"9. / 2('!'04*5-*0"-
6. !')*'#'/ 0'-,0*&'!'*.-'*!'0*9.'$(,*&,#%6.('\T"0*1,00;3" 0*!,0*0 0$"-'0*
$( +=0 &,0*"9. / 2('!,04*m'-2>-*$('$'-,0*!,0*0 0$"-'0*$( +=0 &,0*!"0"9. / 2('-
!,04*B1("#!"("-,0*&,-,*.0'(*,*PSpice for Windows para analisar um sistema
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 447

Nikola Tesla*OQje`FQ]VYP*+, *"#6"#7" (,*&(,'$'F'-"( &'#,*&.E'0* #3"#\T"0*h*


"#$("*'0*9.' 0*,*-,$,(*!"* #!.\?,*"*,*1( -" (,*0 0$"-'*!"*"#"(6 '*1,/ +=0 &,*h*
#o."#& '('-*-. $,*#'*!"%# \?,*!,*!"2'$"*NB*versus CC a favor da CA. Ele foi
("01,#0=3"/*1"/'*'!,\?,*!"*`U*a[*&,-,*'*+("9.:#& 'F1'!(?,*1'('*0 0$"-'0*!"*
"#"(6 '*"/>$( &'*NB*#,0*50$'!,0*G# !,04
* K'0& !,*#,*'#$ 6,* -1>( ,*'.0$(,F7i#6'(,*O7,E")*N(,=& 'P)*%/7,*!"*.-*&/>( -
6,)*m"0/'*$ #7'*.-'*-"-C( '* #&(;3"/*"*6('#!"*'%# !'!"*1"/'*-'$"-=$ &'4*g.-
!,.F0"*1'('*,0*50$'!,0*G# !,0*"-*QjjV*")* # & '/-"#$")*$('2'/7,.*1'('*m7,-'0* Cortesia da Smithsonian
5! 0,#4* K'9."/'* >1,&')* ,* 1';0* 0"* "#&,#$('3'* #'* @2'$'/7'* !'0* &,(("#$"0A* &,-* Institution.
p",(6"*q"0$ #67,.0"* OQjV`FQ]QVP* 1(,-,3"#!,* '* NB* "*m7,-'0* 5! 0,#* / !"-
('#!,*!"*+,(-'*"0$( $'*'0*+,(\'0*!'*NN4*m"0/'*'2'#!,#,.*5! 0,#*"*E.#$,.F0"*'*
q"0$ #67,.0"*1,(*&'.0'*!"*0".* #$"("00"*1"/'*NB4*D,(*&'.0'*!"*q"0$ #67,.0")*
m"0/'*6'#7,.*+'-'*"*'&" $'\?,*1'('*0".*0 0$"-'*1,/ +=0 &,*!"*6"('\?,)*$('#0- 0-
0?,*"*! 0$( 2. \?,*"-*NB4*Z.('#$"*0.'*3 !'*&7"6,.*'*!"$"(*cUU*1'$"#$"04*5#$("*
,.$('0*!"*0.'0* #3"#\T"0)*$"-,0*,*'1'("/7,*!"*'/$'*$"#0?,*O'*2,2 #'*!"*m"0/'P*"*
,*0 0$"-'*!"*$('#0- 00?,*0"-*%,4*B*.# !'!"*!"*!"#0 !'!"*!"*o.H,*-'6#>$ &,)*,*
$"0/')*("&"2".*"00"*#,-"*"-*0.'*7,-"#'6"-4

$( +=0 &,*"9. / 2('!,*,.*!"0"9. / 2('!,4*M #'/-"#$")*'1/ &'-,0*,0*&,#&" -


$,0*$('2'/7'!,0*#"0$"*&'1;$./,*#'*-"! \?,*!"*"#"(6 '*$( +=0 &'*"*#'* #0$'/'\?,*
"/>$( &'*("0 !"#& '/4

12.2 Tensões trifásicas equilibradas


B0*$"#0T"0*$( +=0 &'0*0?,*1(,!.[ !'0*#,(-'/-"#$"*1,(*.-*6"('!,(*NB*$( +=0 &,*
O,.*'/$"(#'!,(P*&.E'*3 0$'*"-*&,($"*>*-,0$('!'*#'*M 6.('*QR4V4*500"*6"('!,(*
>*&,#0$ $.;!,)*2'0 &'-"#$")*1,(*.-*;-?*(,$'$ 3,*O!"#,- #'!,*rotorP*"#3,/$,*
1,(*.-*"#(,/'-"#$,*%H,*O!"#,- #'!,*estatorP4*m(:0*2,2 #'0*,.*"#(,/'-"#$,0*
! 0$ #$,0*&,-*$"(- #' 0*a-a9) b-b9 e c-c9*0?,*! 01,0$,0*"*0"1'('!,0*%0 &'-"#$"*
'*QRU^*"-*$,(#,*!,*"0$'$,(4*S0*$"(- #' 0*a e a9)*1,(*"H"-1/,)*("1("0"#$'-*.-*
!,0* $"(- #' 0* !'* 2,2 #'* "#$('#!,* "* ,.$(,* 0' #!,* !'* 1=6 #'4* n* -"! !'* 9."*
,*(,$,(*6 (')*0".*&'-1,*-'6#>$ &,*@&,($'A*,*o.H,*!'0*$(:0*2,2 #'0*"* #!.[*
$"#0T"0* #'0* 2,2 #'04* N,-,* "/'0* 0"* "#&,#$('-* 0"1'('!'0* '* QRU^)* '0* $"#0T"0*
a

Saída b
c
trifásica
b N a! Estator
c
Rotor

a S b

c!

Figura 12.4 p"('!,(*$( +=0 &,4


#SAMBARILOVE
448 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Van(t) Vbn(t) Vcn(t) #!.[ !'0* #'0* 2,2 #'0* 0?,* 6.' 0* "-* -'6# $.!")* 1,(>-* !"+'0'!'0* 1,(* QRU^*
OM 6.('*QR4eP4*G-'*3"[*9."*&'!'*2,2 #'*1,!"*0"(*&,#0 !"('!'*"/'*1(C1( '*.-*
6"('!,(*-,#,+=0 &,)*,*6"('!,(*$( +=0 &,*>*&'1'[*!"*+,(#"&"(*"#"(6 '*$'#$,*1'('*
0
&'(6'0*-,#,+=0 &'0*9.'#$,*$( +=0 &'04
120 240 vt
G-*0 0$"-'*$( +=0 &,*$;1 &,*>*+,(-'!,*1,(*$(:0*+,#$"0*!"*$"#0?,*&,#"&$'-
!'0*'*&'(6'0*1,(*$(:0*,.*9.'$(,*%,0*O,.*/ #7'0*!"*$('#0- 00?,P4*OB0*+,#$"0*!"*
&,(("#$"* $( +=0 &'0* 0?,* 1,.&,* &,-.#04P* G-* 0 0$"-'* $( +=0 &,* "9. 3'/"* '* $(:0*
Figura 12.5 !"#$%!&$!"'$()*)!"!$" & (&. $,0*-,#,+=0 &,04*B0* +,#$"0*!"*$"#0?,*1,!"-*0"(* #$"(/ 6'!'0*"-*$( k#-
$%+,%#()-").)!#)*)!")"/012"$%#($"!34 6./,)*&,-,* #! &'!,*#'*M 6.('*QR4`a)*,.*"#$?,*"-*"0$("/')*&,-,* #! &'!,*#'*
M 6.('*QR4`b.

a a
+ Van
n Vca + + Vab
Vcn + + Vbn
b + b
Vbc
c c
(a) (b)

Figura 12.6 M,#$"0*!"*$"#0?,*$( +=0 &'0W*OaP*+,#$"*&,#"&$'!'*"-*"0$("/'X*


ObP*+,#$"*&,#"&$'!'*"-*$( k#6./,4

D,(* "#9.'#$,)* &,#0 !"("-,0* '0* $"#0T"0* / 6'!'0* "-* $( k#6./,* !'* M 6.('*
QR4`a4*B0*$"#0T"0*Van)*Vbn e Vcn)*&7'-'!'0*tensões de fase)*0?,)*("01"&$ 3'-
-"#$")*'9."/'0*"#$("*'0*/ #7'0*a)*b e c e o neutro n. Se as fontes de tensão tive-
("-*'*-"0-'*'-1/ $.!"*"*+("9.:#& '*v*"*"0$ 3"("-*!"+'0'!'0*1,(*QRU^)*! [F0"*
Vcn
9."*'0*$"#0T"0*"0$?,*equilibradas4*l00,* -1/ &'
v
Van Vbn Vcn 0 (12.1)
120
0 Van 0 0Vbn 0 0Vcn 0 (12.2)
120
Van D,($'#$,)
!120

As tensões de fase equilibradas são iguais em magnitude e estão defasa-


Vbn das entre si por 120º.
(a)
D,(*&,#$'*!"00'*!"+'0'6"-*7=*!.'0*0 $.'\T"0*1,00;3" 04*G-'*!"/'0*>*-,0-
Vbn $('!'*#'*M 6.('*QR4ca*"*"H1("00'*-'$"-'$ &'-"#$"*&,-,
v

120 Van Vp 0
120 Vbn Vp 120 (12.3)
Van
!120 Vcn Vp 240 Vp 120

Vcn onde Vp*>*,*3'/,(*"%&'[*,.*3'/,(*8gJ*!'0*$"#0T"0*!"*+'0"4*l00,*>*&,#7"& !,*


(b) &,-,*sequência abc ou sequência positiva4*K"00'*0"9.:#& '*!"*+'0"0)*Van está
adiantada em relação a Vbn*9.")*1,(*0.'*3"[)*"0$=*'! '#$'!'*"-*("/'\?,*'*Vcn.
Figura 12.7 5$678%+3)!"*$".)!$!9" 500'*0"9.:#& '*>*1(,!.[ !'*9.'#!,*,*(,$,(*!'*M 6.('*QR4V*6 ('*#,*0"#$ !,*'#$ -
:a;"abc",7"!$678%+3)"<,!3#3=)>"
F7,(=( ,4*B*,.$('*1,00 2 / !'!"*>*-,0$('!'*#'*M 6.('*QR4cb e dada por
:b;"acb",7"!$678%+3)"%$')#3=)4
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 449

Van Vp 0 Em virtude do uso tradicional em


Vcn Vp 120 sistemas de energia, a tensão e a
(12.4) corrente neste capítulo estão em
Vbn Vp 240 Vp 120 valores RMS a menos que seja
dito o contrário.
?!!,"@"*$%,-3%)*,"sequência acb ou sequência negativa4"A)()"$!!)"!$678%+3)"
*$".)!$!B"Van está adiantada em relação a Vcn"67$B"<,("!7)"=$CB"$!#D")*3)%#)*)"
em relação a Vbn4" "!$678%+3)"acb"@"<(,*7C3*)"67)%*,","(,#,("%)"E3'7()"/04F"
'3()"%,"!$%#3*,")%#3GH,(D(3,4"I".D+3J"*$-,%!#()("67$")!"#$%!&$!"%)!"K67)L&$!"
:/04M;" ,7" :/04F;" !)#3!.)C$-" )!" K67)L&$!" :/04/1;" $" :/040;4" A,(" $N$-<J,B" *)"
K67)LO,":/04M;B

Van Vbn Vcn Vp 0 Vp 120 Vp 120


Vp(1,0 0,5 j0,866 0,5 j0,866) (12.5)
0 A sequência de fases também
pode ser considerada como a
ordem na qual as tensões de fase
Sequência de fases é a ordem cronológica na qual as tensões passam atra- atingem seus valores de pico (ou
vés de seus valores máximos. máximos) em relação ao tempo.

"!$678%+3)"*$".)!$!"@"*$#$(-3%)*)"<$J)",(*$-"%)"67)J",!".)!,($!"<)!!)-"<,("
determinado ponto no diagrama de fases. Lembrete: À medida que o
P)"E3'7()"/04QaB"+,%.,(-$",!".)!,($!"'3()-"%,"!$%#3*,")%#3GH,(D(3,"+,-" tempo aumenta, cada fasor gira
em uma velocidade angular v.
.($678%+3)"vB"<)!!)-"<$J,"$3N,"H,(3C,%#)J"$-"7-)"!$678%+3)"abcabca... Por-
#)%#,B")"!$678%+3)"@"abc ou bca ou cab4"R$"-,*,"!3-3J)(B"<)()",!".)!,($!"*)"
E3'7()"/04QbB"S"-$*3*)"67$"$J$!".,($-"'3()%*,"%,"!$%#3*,")%#3GH,(D(3,B"<)!!)-"
,"$3N,"H,(3C,%#)J"$-"7-)"!$678%+3)"acbacba444"?!!,"*$!+($=$")"!$678%+3)"acb.
K!!)"!$678%+3)"*$".)!$!"@"3-<,(#)%#$"$-"!3!#$-)!"*$"*3!#(3T73LO,"*$"$%$('3)"
#(3.D!3+,!B"<,(67$"*$#$(-3%)B"<,("$N$-<J,B","!$%#3*,"*)"(,#)LO,"*$"7-"-,#,("
J3')*,")"7-)".,%#$"*$"$%$('3)"$J@#(3+)4
!!3-"+,-,"%)!"J3')L&$!"*,"'$()*,(B"7-)"+)(')"#(3.D!3+)"<,*$"!$("+,%$+-
#)*)"$-"$!#($J)",7"#(3U%'7J,B"*$<$%*$%*,"*)")<J3+)LO,"V%)J4" "E3'7()"/04Wa a
-,!#()"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)B"$")"E3'7()"/04WbB"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"
b
$-"#(3U%'7J,4" "J3%H)"%$7#()"%)"E3'7()"/04Wa"<,*$",7"%O,"$!#)("JDB"*$<$%*$%*," Z2
!$","!3!#$-)".,("67)*(3VJ)(",7"#(3VJ)(4":KB",T=3)-$%#$B"7-)"+,%$NO,"%$7#()"@"
n Z1
#,<,J,'3+)-$%#$"3-<,!!X=$J"<)()"7-)"+,%$NO,"$-"#(3U%'7J,4;"R3CG!$"67$"7-)"
+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)",7"$-"#(3U%'7J,"$!#D"desequilibrada"!$")!"3-<$*U%-
Z3
+3)!"<,(".)!$"%O,".,($-"3'7)3!"$-"-)'%3#7*$",7".)!$4
c
Uma carga equilibrada é aquela no qual as impedâncias por fase são iguais (a)
em magnitude e fase.
a

A)()"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)"equilibradaB Zc Zb

(12.6) b
Za
onde ZY"@")"3-<$*U%+3)"*$"+)(')"<,(".)!$4"A)()"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)"
$673J3T()*)B c
(b)
(12.7)
Figura 12.8 R7)!"+,%V'7()L&$!"
onde Z¢"@B"%$!!$"+)!,B")"3-<$*U%+3)"*$"+)(')"<,(".)!$4"Y,J#)%*,"S"K67)LO," <,!!X=$3!"<)()"+)(')!"#(3.D!3+)!9"
:Z4[Z;B"#$-,! :a;"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)>"
:b;"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"#(3U%'7J,4
#SAMBARILOVE
450 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Lembrete: Uma carga conectada


(12.8)
em estrela consiste em três
impedâncias conectadas a <,(#)%#,B"!)T$-,!"67$"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)"<,*$"!$("#()%!.,(-)*)"
um nó neutro, enquanto uma $-"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"#(3U%'7J,B",7"=3+$G=$(!)B"7!)%*,")"K67)LO,":/04W;4"
carga conectada em triângulo é
composta por três impedâncias \,-,"#)%#,")".,%#$"#(3.D!3+)"67)%#,")"+)(')"#(3.D!3+)"<,*$-"$!#)("+,%$+#)-
conectadas em volta de um anel. *)!"$-"$!#($J)",7"$%#O,"$-"#(3U%'7J,B"#$-,!"67)#(,"+,%$N&$!"<,!!X=$3!9
A carga equilibrada se encontra
equilibrada quando as três ]" \
" ,%$NO,"$!#($J)G$!#($J)":3!#,"@B".,%#$"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)"+,-"7-)"+)(')"
impedâncias forem iguais em +,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J);4
qualquer um dos casos.
]" \,%$NO,"$!#($J)G#(3U%'7J,4
]" \,%$NO,"#(3U%'7J,G#(3U%'7J,4
]" \,%$NO,"#(3U%'7J,G$!#($J)4
P)!"!$L&$!"!$'73%#$!B"=)-,!"+,%!3*$()("+)*)"7-)"*$!!)!"<,!!X=$3!"+,%V'7()L&$!4
I" 3-<,(#)%#$" +3#)(" 67$" 7-)" +)(')" +,%$+#)*)" $-" #(3U%'7J," $673J3T()*)" @"
-)3!"+,-7-"67$"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)"$673J3T()*)4"?!!,"!$"*$=$"S"
.)+3J3*)*$"+,-"67$")!"+)(')!"<,*$-"!$(")+($!+$%#)*)!",7"$J3-3%)*)!"*$"+)*)"
.)!$"*$"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"#(3U%'7J,4"?!!,"@"-73#,"-)3!"*3.X+3J"$-"7-)"
+)(')" +,%$+#)*)" $-" $!#($J)B" <,3!B" #)J=$CB" ," %$7#(," %O," $!#$^)" )+$!!X=$J4" K-"
+,%#()<)(#3*)B")!".,%#$!"J3')*)!"$-"#(3U%'7J,"%O,"!O,"+,-7%!"%)"<(D#3+)"$-"=3(-
#7*$"*)"+,(($%#$"+3(+7J)%#$"67$"($!7J#)(D"%)"-)JH)"_B"+)!,")!"#$%!&$!"#(3.D!3+)!"
$!#$^)-"J3'$3()-$%#$"*$!$673J3T()*)!4

EXEMPLO 12.1
R$#$(-3%$")"!$678%+3)"*$".)!$!"*,"+,%^7%#,"*$"#$%!&$!
van 200 cos( t 10 )
vbn 200 cos( t 230 ), vcn 200 cos( t 110 )

Solução: !"#$%!&$!"<,*$-"!$("$N<($!!)!"%)".,(-)".)!,(3)J"+,-,
Van 200 10 V, Vbn 200 230 V, Vcn 200 110 V

A$(+$T$-,!"67$"Van está adiantada em relação a Vcn"<,("/012"$"67$B"<,("!7)"=$CB"Vcn


está adiantada em relação a Vbn"<,("/0124"`,',B"#$-,!"7-)"!$678%+3)"acb.
PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.1 R)*,"67$"Vbn"a"//1 30 "YB"*$#$(-3%$"Van e Vcn"!7<,%*,"7-)"!$678%+3)"<,!3#3=)":abc;4
Resposta: 110 150 V, 110 90 V.

12.3 Conexão estrela-estrela equilibrada


\,-$L)($-,!"<$J,"!3!#$-)"$!#($J)G$!#($J)B"<,(67$"67)J67$("!3!#$-)"#(3.D!3+,"
$673J3T()*,"<,*$"!$("($*7C3*,")"7-"!3!#$-)"$!#($J)G$!#($J)"$673=)J$%#$4"`,',B"
)")%DJ3!$"*$!!$"!3!#$-)"*$=$"!$("+,%!3*$()*)"+,-,")"+H)=$"<)()"($!,J7LO,"*$"
#,*,!",!"!3!#$-)!"#(3.D!3+,!"$673J3T()*,!4"

Sistema estrela-estrela equilibrado é um sistema trifásico com uma fon-


te conectada em estrela equilibrada e uma carga conectada em estrela
equilibrada.

\,%!3*$($-,!","!3!#$-)"$!#($J)G$!#($J)"67)*(3VJ)("$673J3T()*,"*)"E3'7()"
/04ZB"$-"67$"7-)"+)(')"+,%$+#)*)"$-"$!#($J)"@"+,%$+#)*)")"7-)".,%#$"+,%$+-
#)*)"$-"$!#($J)4"57<,-,!"7-)"+)(')"$673J3T()*)"*$"-,*,"67$")!"3-<$*U%+3)!"
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 451

*$"+)(')"!$^)-"3'7)3!4"K-T,()")"3-<$*U%+3)"ZY"!$^)")"3-<$*U%+3)"*$"+)(')"
#,#)J"<,(".)!$B"$J)"#)-T@-"<,*$"!$("+,%!3*$()*)")"!,-)"*)"3-<$*U%+3)"*)".,%#$"
ZsB")"3-<$*U%+3)"*)"J3%H)"Z/"$")"3-<$*U%+3)"*$"+)(')"ZL"<,(".)!$B"^D"67$"$!!)!"
3-<$*U%+3)!"$!#O,"$-"!@(3$4"\,-,"3J7!#()*,"%)"E3'7()"/04ZB"Zs representa
)"3-<$*U%+3)"3%#$(%)"*,"$%(,J)-$%#,"*$".)!$"*,"'$()*,(>"Z/ @")"3-<$*U%+3)"*)"
J3%H)"67$"+,%$+#)")".)!$"*)".,%#$"+,-")".)!$"*)"+)(')>"ZL"@")"3-<$*U%+3)"*$"+)*)"
.)!$"*)"+)(')>"$"Zn"@")"3-<$*U%+3)"*)"J3%H)"%$7#()4"A,(#)%#,B"'$()J-$%#$

(12.9)
Zl
a A

Zs
ZL
Van + Zn
n N

Vcn + + Vbn
ZL ZL

Zs Zs Ia
C B a A
c b
Van + In ZY
Zl
n N
Zl
Vcn Vbn ZY ZY
Figura 12.9 !"#$#%&!'"&#%(&)'*&#%(&)'"&+,$)$-('./" + +
!/#%('0./"'#"$!1&.203$'#".'"4/0%&5".'")$06'"&".'#"3'(7'#8 c Ib
C B
Zs e Z/"0/(!')!&0%&"#9/"!,$%/"1&+,&0'#"+,'0./"3/!1'('.'#"'"ZL5".&"!/./" Ic b
+,&"#&"1/##'"#,1/("ZY = ZL"3'#/"09/"#&:'!"4/(0&3$.'#"'#"$!1&.203$'#".'")$-
06'"/,".'"4/0%&8";&"+,')+,&("4/(!'5"'7(,1'0./*#&"'#"$!1&.203$'#5"/"#$#%&!'" Figura 12.10 Conexão estrela-estrela
&#%(&)'*&#%(&)'".'"<$7,('"=>8?"1/.&"#&("#$!1)$@3'./"1'('"'+,&)&"!/#%('./"0'" &+,$)$-('.'8
<$7,('"=>8=A8
B,1/0./*#&" '" #&+,C03$'" 1/#$%$D'5" '#" %&0#E&#" .&" fase" F/," %&0#E&#" )$06'-
*0&,%(/G"#9/

Van Vp 0
(12.10)
Vbn Vp 120 , Vcn Vp 120

H#"%&0#E&#"linha-linha"/,5"#$!1)&#!&0%&5"'#"%&0#E&#".&"linha Vab5"Vbc e Vca


&#%9/"(&)'3$/0'.'#"3/!"'#"%&0#E&#".&"4'#&8"I/("&J&!1)/5

Vab Van Vnb Van Vbn Vp 0 Vp 120

Vp a1
13
b
1 (12.11a)
j 13Vp 30
2 2
;&"4/(!'"#&!&)6'0%&5"1/.&!/#"/-%&(

Vbc Vbn Vcn 13Vp 90 (12.11b)

Vca Vcn Van 13Vpl 210 (12.11c)

I/(%'0%/5" '" !'70$%,.&" .'#" %&0#E&#" .&" )$06'" VL é 13 vezes a magnitude das
%&0#E&#".&"4'#&"Vp ou
#SAMBARILOVE
452 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

VL 13Vp (12.12)

onde

(12.13)
e

(12.14)

Vcn Vnb Vab = Van + Vnb H#"%&0#E&#".&")$06'"&#%9/"'.$'0%'.'#"&!"(&)'K9/"L#"%&0#E&#".&"4'#&"3/((&#1/0-


.&0%&#"'"MAN8"H"<$7,('"=>8==a"%'!-O!"!/#%('"3/!/".&%&(!$0'("Vab".'#"%&0#E&#"
30 .&" 4'#&5" &0+,'0%/" '" <$7,('" =>8==b" !/#%('" /" !&#!/" 1'('" '#" %(C#" %&0#E&#" .&"
Van )$06'8"P/%&"+,&"Vab está adiantada em relação a Vbc"1/("=>AN"&"Vbc está adian-
tada em relação a Vca"1/("=>AN5".&"!/./"+,&"'"#/!'".'#"%&0#E&#".&")$06'"#&:'"
Q&(/"3/!/"'#"%&0#E&#".&"4'#&8"
Vbn H1)$3'0./"'"RST"'"3'.'"4'#&"0'"<$7,('"=>8=A5"/-%&!/#"'#"3/((&0%&#".&"
(a) )$06'5"3/!/"#&7,&

Vca Vcn Vab Van Vbn Van 120


Ia , Ib Ia 120
ZY ZY ZY
(12.15)
Vcn Van 240
Van Ic Ia 240
ZY ZY
Vbn
I/.&!/#"$04&($("$!&.$'%'!&0%&"+,&"'"#/!'".'#"3/((&0%&#".&")$06'"O"Q&(/

(12.16)
Vbc
.&"!/./"+,&
(b)

Figura 12.11 Diagrama fasorial


(12.17a)
$),#%('0./"'#"(&)'KE&#"&0%(&"%&0#E&#".&" ou
)$06'"&"%&0#E&#".&"4'#&8
VnN ZnIn 0 (12.17b)
$#%/"O5"'"%&0#9/"0/"@/"0&,%(/"O"Q&(/8"I/(%'0%/5"'")$06'"0&,%('"1/.&"#&("&)$!$0'-
.'"#&!"'4&%'("/"#$#%&!'8";&"4'%/5"0'"%('0#!$##9/".&"&0&(7$'"&)O%($3'"&!")/07'#"
.$#%203$'#5"/#"3/0.,%/(&#"&!"!U)%$1)/#".&"%(C#"#9/",#'./#"3/!"'"1(V1($'"%&(('"
'%,'0./"3/!/"3/0.,%/("0&,%(/8"W#"#$#%&!'#".&"&0&(7$'"&)O%($3'"1(/:&%'./#".&##'"
4/(!'"#9/"-&!"'%&(('./#"&!"%/./#"/#"1/0%/#"3(,3$'$#"1'('"7'('0%$("#&7,('0K'8
Ia
a A
X0+,'0%/" '" 3/((&0%&" .&" linha" O" '" 3/((&0%&" &!" 3'.'" )$06'5" '" 3/((&0%&" .&"
fase"O"'"3/((&0%&"&!"3'.'"4'#&".'"4/0%&"/,"3'(7'8"P/"#$#%&!'"&#%(&)'*&#%(&)'5"'"
Van + ZY 3/((&0%&".&")$06'"O"'"!&#!'"+,&"'"3/((&0%&".&"4'#&8" #'(&!/#"#,-#3($%/#"3/!"
,!'"U0$3'")&%('"1'('"'#"3/((&0%&#".&")$06'5"1/$#"O"0'%,(')"&"3/0D&03$/0')"#,1/("
n N +,&"&)'#"Y,&!".'"4/0%&"1'('"'"3'(7'8
Figura 12.12 " ]$(3,$%/"!/0/4\#$3/" !'"!'0&$('"')%&(0'%$D'".&"'0')$#'(",!"#$#%&!'"&#%(&)'*&#%(&)'"&+,$)$-('-
&+,$D')&0%&8 ./"O"4'Q&("3/!/"Z1/("4'#&[8"W-#&(D'!/#",!'"4'#&5"'"4'#&"a5"&"'0')$#'!/#"/"
3$(3,$%/"!/0/4\#$3/"&+,$D')&0%&"0'"<$7,('"=>8=>8"H"'0\)$#&"!/0/4\#$3'")&D'"L"
3/((&0%&".&")$06'"Ia5"3/!/"#&7,&

Van (12.18)
Ia
ZY
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 453

A partir de Ia !"#$%&#!$!#'(")*+,$!-'!.$#'#!/$0$!&12'0!&"20$#!+&00'*2'#!-'!3,*4$5!
6&02$*2& !-'#-'!("'!&!#,#2'%$!'#2'7$!'(",3,10$-& !/0'+,#$%&#!$/'*$#!$*$3,#$0!
"%$! .$#'5! 6&-'08$%&#! .$9'0! ,##&! %'#%&! #'! $! 3,*4$! *'"20$! '#2,:'##'! $"#'*2' !
+&%&!*&!#,#2'%$!20,;3$05
EXEMPLO 12.2
<$3+"3'!$#!+&00'*2'#!-'!3,*4$!*'##'!#,#2'%$!'#20'3$='#20'3$!20,;3$0!-$!>,?"0$!@A5@B5
5 – j2 ! A
a

+ 110 0"#V

10 + j8 !

110 240"#V + + 110 120"#V


5 – j2 ! B 10 + j8 !
b
c

10 + j8 !
5 – j2 ! C

Figura 12.13 ! C,#2'%$!'#20'3$='#20'3$!20,;3$0!/$0$!&!DE'%/3&!@A5A5

Solução: F!+,0+",2&!20,.G#,+&!-$!>,?"0$!@A5@B!H!'(",3,10$-&I!/&-'08$%&#!#"1#2,2"8=3&!
/&0!#'"!+,0+",2&!%&*&.G#,+&!'(",:$3'*2'!+&%&!$("'3'!-$!>,?"0$!@A5@A5!F12'%&#!Ia da
$*G3,#'!%&*&.G#,+$ !+&%&!#'?"'
Van
Ia
ZY

onde ZY!J!KL!M!jAN!O!K@P!O!jQN!J!@L!O!jR!J!@R @LLl21,8 !/&0!,##&

110 0
por isso, Ia 6,81 21,8 A
16,155 21,8

SG!("'!$#!2'*#T'#!-$!.&*2'!*$!>,?"0$!@A5@B!'#2U&!*$!#'(")*+,$!/&#,2,:$ !$#!+&00'*2'#!-'!
3,*4$!2$%1H%!'#2U&!*$!#'(")*+,$!/&#,2,:$V
Ib Ia 120 6,81 141,8 A
Ic Ia 240 6,81 261,8 A 6,81 98,2 A

W%! ?'0$-&0! 20,.G#,+&! +&*'+2$-&!'%! '#20'3$! '(",3,10$-&!+&%! ,%/'-X*+,$! /&0! .$#'! P Y! PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.2
O!jP B!V!H!+&*'+2$-&!$!"%$!+$0?$!'%!'#20'3$!'(",3,10$-$!+&%!,%/'-X*+,$!AY!O!j@Z!V
/&0!.$#'5![!3,*4$!("'!+&*'+2$!&!?'0$-&0!'!$!+$0?$!2'%!,%/'-X*+,$!P R!O!jP \!V por fase.
C"/&*-&!"%$!#'(")*+,$!/&#,2,:$!/$0$!$#!2'*#T'#!-'!.&*2'!'!("'!Van!J!@AP 30 !] !-'2'0-
%,*'V!K$N!$#!2'*#T'#!-'!3,*4$I!K1N!$#!+&00'*2'#!-'!3,*4$5
Resposta: (a) 207,8 60 V, 207,8 60 V, 207,8 180 V;
(b) 3,75 8,66 A, 3,75 128,66 A, 3,75 111,34 A.

12.4 Conexão estrela-triângulo equilibrada

Um sistema estrela-triângulo consiste em uma fonte conectada em estrela


equilibrada alimentando uma carga conectada em triângulo equilibrada.
#SAMBARILOVE
454 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

F! #,#2'%$! '#20'3$=20,X*?"3&! '(",3,10$-&! H! %&#20$-&! *$! >,?"0$! @A5@Y ! '%!


Talvez esse seja o sistema ("'!$!.&*2'!'#2G!+&*'+2$-$!'%!'#20'3$!'!$!+$0?$ !+&*'+2$-$!'%!20,X*?"3&5!^'##'!
trifásico mais prático, pois as +$#& !*U&!4G !&1:,$%'*2' !*'*4"%$!+&*'EU&!*'"20$!-$!.&*2'!/$0$!$!+$0?$5!C"-
fontes trifásicas são geralmente /&*-&!$!#'(")*+,$!/&#,2,:$ !$#!2'*#T'#!-'!.$#'!#U&!*&:$%'*2'
conectadas em estrela, enquanto
as cargas são normalmente Van Vp 0
conectadas em triângulo. (12.19)
Vbn Vp 120 , Vcn Vp 120

<&%&!:,%&#!*$!C'_U&!@A5B !$#!2'*#T'#!-'!3,*4$!#U&

Vab 13Vp 30 VAB, Vbc 13Vp 90 VBC


Vca 13Vp 150 VCA (12.20)

%&#20$*-&!("'!$#!2'*#T'#!-'!3,*4$!#U&!,?"$,#!`#!2'*#T'#!*$#!,%/'-X*+,$#!-'!+$0?$!
/$0$! '##$! +&*;?"0$_U&! -&! #,#2'%$5![! /$02,0! -'##$#! 2'*#T'# ! /&-'%&#! &12'0! $#!
+&00'*2'#!-'!.$#' !+&%&!#'?"'

(12.21)

D##$#!+&00'*2'#!/&##"'%!$!%'#%$!%$?*,2"-' !/&0H% !'#2U&!-'.$#$-$#!'*20'!#,!


/&0!@APa5
Ia
a

Van +

n A
I AB
Z!
Vcn + + Vbn
Z! ICA
Ib Z!
b B
c C
Ic I BC

Figura 12.14 ! <&*'EU&!'#20'3$=20,X*?"3&!'(",3,10$-$5

F"20$!%$*',0$!-'!#'!&12'0!'##$#!+&00'*2'#!-'!.$#'!H!$/3,+$0!$!bcd5![/3,+$*-
-& !/&0!'E'%/3& !$!bcd!*$!%$34$!aABbna !2'%&#

ou

(12.22)

("'!H!&!%'#%&!("'!$!D("$_U&!K@A5A@N5!D#2$!H!$!.&0%$!%$,#!?'*H0,+$!-'!'*+&*-
20$0!+&00'*2'#!-'!.$#'5
[#!+&00'*2'#!-'!3,*4$!#U&!&12,-$#!-$#!+&00'*2'#!-$!.$#'!$/3,+$*-&!$!bc<!
$&#!*e#!A !B e C5!6&02$*2&

(12.23)
SG!("'!ICA = IABl 240
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 455

Ia IAB ICA IAB(1 1 240 )


IAB(1 0,5 j0,866) IAB 13 30 (12.24)

!"#$%&'($ #)*+!)()"(,$-&+ ! IL) ().#''!$&!) !)/-$0()1)13 vezes a magnitude


Ip) ().#''!$&!) !)2(%!)#+

Ic
IL 13Ip (12.25)

onde I CA 30

(12.26)
I AB
e
30

(12.27) 30 Ia
Ib I BC
3()"!%"()2#'"(4)(%).#''!$&!%) !)/-$0()!%&5#)(&'(%( (%)!")'!/(65#)7%).#''!$&!%)
!)2(%!) !)89:4)%+;#$ #)+"()%!*+<$.-();#%-&-=(>)?)@-,+'()AB>AC)1)+") -(,'("() Figura 12.15 Diagrama fasorial
2(%#'-(/)-/+%&'($ #)()'!/(65#)!$&'!)(%).#''!$&!%) !)/-$0()!) !)2(%!> -/+%&'($ #)()'!/(65#)!$&'!).#''!$&!%) !)
D"()"($!-'()(/&!'$(&-=() !)($(/-%(')#).-'.+-&#)!%&'!/(E&'-F$,+/#)1)&'($%2#'- fase e de linha.
"(')().(',().#$!.&( ()!")&'-F$,+/#)!")+"().(',().#$!.&( ()!")!%&'!/()!*+-=(-
/!$&!>)D%($ #)()2G'"+/() !)&'($%2#'"(65#)&'-F$,+/#E!%&'!/()$()H*+(65#)IAB>JK4


ZY (12.28)
3
Ia

?;G%)!%%()&'($%2#'"(65#4)&!"#%)+")%-%&!"()!%&'!/(E!%&'!/().#"#)#)"#%&'( #) Z!
$()@-,+'()AB>A9>)L)%-%&!"()&'-2M%-.#)!%&'!/(E&'-F$,+/#)$()@-,+'()AB>AN);# !)%!') Van +
3
%+O%&-&+P #);!/#).-'.+-&#)"#$#2M%-.#)!*+-=(/!$&!) ()@-,+'()AB>AQ>)R%%#);!'"-&!)
*+!).(/.+/!"#%)(;!$(%)(%).#''!$&!%) !)/-$0(>)?%).#''!$&!%) !)2(%!)%5#)#O&- (%) Figura 12.16 ) W-'.+-&#)"#$#2M%-.#)
+%($ #)()H*+(65#)IAB>BCK)!)+&-/-S($ #)#)2(&#) !)*+!).( ()+"() (%).#''!$&!%) !) !*+-=(/!$&!)()+").-'.+-&#)!%&'!/(E
2(%!)!%&M)( -($&( ()!")'!/(65#)7)/-$0().#''!%;#$ !$&!)()89:> &'-F$,+/#)!*+-/-O'( #>

EXEMPLO 12.3
D"()2#$&!).#$!.&( ()!")!%&'!/()!*+-/-O'( ().#")%!*+<$.-()abc).#")Van)T)A99 10 )U)1)
.#$!.&( ()()+"().(',()!")&'-F$,+/#)!*+-/-O'( ()IJ)V)jNK)V);#')2(%!>)W(/.+/!)(%).#''!$-
tes de fase e de linha.
Solução: H%%!);'#O/!"();# !)%!')'!%#/=- #) !) +(%)"($!-'(%X
MÉTODO 1) ?)-";! F$.-() !).(',()1
Z¢ 8 j4 8,944 26,57

Se a tensão de fase for Van)T)A99 10 )U4)!$&5#)()&!$%5#) ()/-$0()%!'M


Vab Van 13l30 100 13l10 30 VAB
ou
VAB 173,2 40 V
?%).#''!$&!%) !)2(%!)%5#
VAB 173,2 40
IAB 19,36 13,43 A
Z¢ 8,944 26,57
IBC IAB 120 19,36 106,57 A
ICA IAB 120 19,36 133,43 A
#SAMBARILOVE
456 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

?%).#''!$&!%) !)/-$0()%5#
Ia IAB 13 30 13(19,36) 13,43 30
33,53 16,57 A
Ib Ia 120 33,53 136,57 A
Ic Ia 120 33,53 103,43 A

MÉTODO 2) 3!)"# #)(/&!'$(&-=#4)+%($ #)($M/-%!)"#$#2M%-.(4

Van 100 10
Ia 33,54 16,57 A
Z¢ 3 2,981 26,57

.#"#) !Y;#%&#) ($&!'-#'"!$&!>)?%) !"(-%) .#''!$&!%) !) /-$0() %5#) #O&- (%) +%($ #) () %!-
*+<$.-() !)2(%!)abc.

PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.3 D"()&!$%5#) !)/-$0() !)+"()2#$&!).#$!.&( ()!")!%&'!/()!*+-/-O'( ()1)VAB)T)AB9l 20 )U>


Z!)()2#$&!)!%&-=!').#$!.&( ()()+"().(',()!")&'-F$,+/#) !)B9l40 V4) !&!'"-$!)(%).#'-
'!$&!%) !)2(%!)!) !)/-$0(>)Z+;#$0()()%!*+<$.-()abc.
Resposta: 6 60 A, 6 180 A, 6 60 A, 10,392 90 A,
10,392 150 A, 10,392 30 A.

12.5 Conexão triângulo-triângulo


equilibrada

Um sistema triângulo-triângulo é aquele no qual tanto a fonte equilibrada


quanto a carga equilibrada estão conectadas em triângulo.

?)2#$&!4)O!").#"#)().(',(4);# !)!%&(').#$!.&( ()!")&'-F$,+/#4).#"#)=-%&#)


$()@-,+'()AB>A[>)\#%%#)#O]!&-=#)1)#O&!')(%).#''!$&!%) !)2(%!)!) !)/-$0().#"#)
de praxe.
Ia
a A
IAB
Z
Vca ! + Vab
+ !
Z
ICA
Ib
c !+ C
b B
Vbc Ic IBC Z

Figura 12.17 !"# $%&'()% *+,-&./0%1*+,-&./0% '2/,0,3+#4#5

6/7%&4% /"# 8'2/9&$,# 7%8,*,:#; #8 *'&8<'8 4' =#8' 7#+# /"# =%&*' $%&'$*#4#
'" *+,-&./0% 8)%

(12.29)

>8 *'&8<'8 4' 0,&?# 8)% #8 "'8"#8 2/' #8 *'&8<'8 4' =#8'5 @# A,./+# BC5BD; 8/-
7%&4% 2/' &)% ?#E# ,"7'4-&$,#8 4' 0,&?#; #8 *'&8<'8 4' =#8' 4# =%&*' $%&'$*#4#
'" *+,-&./0% 8)% ,./#,8 F2/'0#8 4#8 *'&8<'8 &#8 ,"7'4-&$,#8G ,8*% H;
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 457

(12.30)
I%.%; #8 $%++'&*'8 4' =#8' 8)%

(12.31)

J%"% # $#+.# '8*K $%&'$*#4# '" *+,-&./0% 4# "'8"# =%+"# 2/' &# 8'L)% #&-
*'+,%+; #0./"#8 4#8 =M+"/0#8 #0, 4'+,:#4#8 *#"3H" 8' #70,$#" # '88' $#8%5 >8
$%++'&*'8 4' 0,&?# 8)% %3*,4#8 4#8 $%++'&*'8 4' =#8' #70,$#&4%18' # INJ #%8
&M8 A; B e C; $%"% EK OP'"%8Q

(12.32)
@# "'8"# =%+"#; $%"% "%8*+#4% #&*'+,%+"'&*'; $#4# $%++'&*' 4' 0,&?# '8*K
#*+#8#4# '" +'0#L)% F $%++'&*' 4' =#8' $%++'87%&4'&*' # RSTG # "#.&,*/4' IL da
$%++'&*' 4' 0,&?# H 13 vezes a magnitude Ip 4# $%++'&*' 4' =#8';

(12.33)
!"# "#&',+# #0*'+&#*,:# 4' #&#0,8#+ % $,+$/,*% *+,-&./0%1*+,-&./0% H $%&-
:'+*'+ *#&*% # =%&*' 2/#&*% # $#+.# '" 8'/8 '2/,:#0'&*'8 '8*+'0#5 UK 8#3'"%8
2/' ZY = Z¢VR5 W#+# $%&:'+*'+ /"# =%&*' $%&'$*#4# '" *+,-&./0% # /"# =%&*'
$%&'$*#4# '" '8*+'0#; :'E# # 7+M(,"# 8'L)%5

EXEMPLO 12.4
!"# $#+.# $%&'$*#4# '" *+,-&./0% '2/,0,3+#4# $%" ,"7'4-&$,# CS X jBY V '8*K $%-
&'$*#4# # /" .'+#4%+ 4' 8'2/9&$,# 7%8,*,:# 0,.#4% '" *+,-&./0% $%" Vab Z RRS 0 [5
J#0$/0' #8 $%++'&*'8 4' =#8' 4# $#+.# ' #8 $%++'&*'8 4' 0,&?#5
Solução: > ,"7'4-&$,# 4' $#+.# 7%+ =#8' H
Z¢ 20 j15 25l 36,87

!"# :'P 2/' VAB = Vab; #8 $%++'&*'8 4' =#8' 8)%

VAB 330l0
IAB 13,2l36,87 A
Z¢ 25l 36,87
IBC IABl 120 13,2l 83,13 A
ICA IABl 120 13,2l156,87 A

W#+# /"# $#+.# '" *+,-&./0%; # $%++'&*' 4' 0,&?# '8*K #*+#8#4# '" +'0#L)% F $%++'&*' 4'
=#8' $%++'87%&4'&*' # RST ' *'" /"# "#.&,*/4' 13 :'P'8 # $%++'&*' 4' =#8'5 I%.%; #8
$%++'&*'8 4' 0,&?# 8)%
Ia IAB 13l 30 (13,2l36,87 )(13l 30 )
22,86l6,87 A
Ib Ial 120 22,86l 113,13 A
Ic Ial 120 22,86l126,87 A

!"# =%&*' 4' 8'2/9&$,# 7%8,*,:# ' $%&'$*#4# '" *+,-&./0% '2/,0,3+#4# #0,"'&*# /"# PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.4
$#+.# $%&'$*#4# '" *+,-&./0% '2/,0,3+#4#5 6' # ,"7'4-&$,# 4' $#+.# 7%+ =#8' =%+ B\ ]
jBC V e Ia Z ^;_S^l35 >; 4'*'+",&' IAB e VAB.
Resposta: 5,548l65 A, 120l98,69 V.
#SAMBARILOVE
458 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

12.6 Conexão triângulo-estrela equilibrada

Um sistema triângulo-estrela equilibrado é formado por uma fonte


conectada em triângulo equilibrada alimentando uma carga conectada em
estrela equilibrada.

J%&8,4'+'"%8 % $,+$/,*% *+,-&./0%1'8*+'0# 4# A,./+# BC5B\5 `%:#"'&*';


8/7%&4%18' # 8'2/9&$,# abc; #8 *'&8<'8 4' =#8' 4' /"# =%&*' $%&'$*#4# '"
*+,-&./0% 8)%

(12.34)

aK *#"3H" #8 *'&8<'8 4' 0,&?#; 3'" $%"% #8 *'&8<'8 4' =#8'5


W%4'"%8 %3*'+ #8 $%++'&*'8 4' 0,&?# 4' :K+,#8 "#&',+#85 !"# 4'0#8 H #70,-
$#+ # INb F "#0?# aANBba 4# A,./+# BC5B\; '8$+':'&4%

ou

W%+*#&*%;

(12.35)

Ia
a A

ZY

Vca + Vab N
+
ZY ZY
Ib
c + C
b B
Vbc
Ic

Figura 12.18 !"# $%&'()% *+,-&./0%1'8*+'0# '2/,0,3+#4#5

Mas Ib está atrasada em relação a Ia 7%+ BCST; EK 2/' 8/7/8'"%8 # 8'2/9&$,#


abcG ,8*% H; Ib = Ial 120 5 I%.%;

Ia Ib Ia(1 1l 120 )

Ia a1
13
b
1 (12.36)
j Ia 13l30
2 2

!"#$%$!%&'()*)+,!*-.()/012345)&*)+,!*-.()/012365)78#!9$*

(12.37)
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 459

:);*7$%7)'8##*)<9$%=*>)("$8=(#)*#)'8=*%#)?(778&$8#)'8)9%&@*>)Ib e Ic>)!#*&'()*) a
#8,!A&?%*)'8)B*#8#);(#%$%C*>)%#$()D>)Ib = Ial 120 >)Ic = Ial 120 2):#)?(778&$8#)
'8)B*#8)#.()%E!*%#)F#)?(778&$8#)'8)9%&@*2 + V
an
G!$7*)B(7=*)'8)("$87=(#)*#)?(778&$8#)'8)9%&@*)#87%*)#!"#$%$!%7)*)B(&$8)?(- Vca + n
+ Vab
&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9();89*)#!*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8,!%C*98&$8>)?(=()
=(#$7*'()&*)I%E!7*)0120J2)K*) 8-.()0123>)C%=(#),!8)*#)$8&#L8#)9%&@*M9%&@*)'8) + Vbn +
Vcn
!=*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8#$.()*'%*&$*'*#)8=)789*-.()F#)#!*#)$8&#L8#)'8) c + b
B*#8)?(778#;(&'8&$8#)*)3NO2)P(&#8,!8&$8=8&$8>)("$8=(#)?*'*)$8&#.()'8)B*#8) Vbc
'*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8,!%C*98&$8)'%C%'%&'()*)$8&#.()'8)9%&@*)?(778#-
;(&'8&$8)'*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9();(7)13)8)'8#9(?*&'()#!*)B*#8)8=) Figura 12.19 ) \7*&#B(7=*-.()'8)!=*)
Q3NO2)R(7$*&$(>)*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8,!%C*98&$8)*;78#8&$*)*#)#8E!%&$8#) B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9()8=)!=*)
$8&#L8#)'8)B*#8 B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8,!%C*98&$82

(12.38)

8)*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9()$%C87)!=*)%=;8'H&?%*)Zs);(7)B*#8>)*)B(&$8)
Ia
?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8,!%C*98&$8)$87S)!=*)%=;8'H&?%*)'8)B(&$8)%E!*9)*)Zs T3)
;(7)B*#8>)'8)*?(7'()?(=)*)+,!*-.()/J24J52 Vp −30°
+ ZY
:##%=),!8)*)B(&$8)B(7)$7*&#B(7=*'*)8=)8#$789*>)()?%7?!%$()#8)$(7&*)!=)#%#- √3 −
$8=*)8#$789*M8#$789*2)P(&#8,!8&$8=8&$8>);('8=(#)!#*7)()?%7?!%$()=(&(BS#%?()
8,!%C*98&$8)=(#$7*'()&*)I%E!7*)0121N>)*);*7$%7)'(),!*9)*)?(778&$8)'8)9%&@*);(7) Figura 12.20 ) P%7?!%$()=(&(BS#%?()
fase a é 8,!%C*98&$82

(12.39)

,!8)8,!%C*98)F)+,!*-.()/0123U52
V8)B(7=*)*9$87&*$%C*>);('87W*=(#)$7*&#B(7=*7)*)?*7E*)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$78-
9*)8=)!=*)?*7E*)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9()8,!%C*98&$82)X##()78#!9$*)8=)!=)#%#$8-
=*)$7%H&E!9(M$7%H&E!9(>),!8);('8)#87)*&*9%#*'()?(=()&*) 8-.()01262)K($8),!8

(12.40)

P(=()*Y7=*'()*&$87%(7=8&$8>)*)?*7E*)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9()D)=*%#)78-
,!87%'*) ,!8) *) ?*7E*) ?(&8?$*'*) 8=) 8#$789*2) Z) =*%#) BS?%9) *9$87*7) *#) ?*7E*#) 8=)
,!*9,!87)!=*)'*#)B*#8#)'*#)?*7E*#)9%E*'*#)8=)$7%H&E!9()[S),!8)'%Y?%9=8&$8)*)
B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9()D)!#*'*)&*);7S$%?*>);(%#),!*9,!87)9%E8%7()'8#8,!%-
9W"7%()&*#)$8&#L8#)'8)B*#8)78#!9$*7S)8=)?(778&$8#)?%7?!9*&$8#)%&'8#8[*'*#2)
:)\*"89*)0120)$7*])!=)78#!=()'*#)B^7=!9*#);*7*)?(778&$8#)8)$8&#L8#)'8)
B*#8)8)?(778&$8#)8)$8&#L8#)'8)9%&@*);*7*)*#),!*$7()?(&8_L8#2)`8?(=8&'*M#8),!8)
(#)*9!&(#)&.()=8=(7%]8=)*#)B^7=!9*#>)=*#>)#%=>)8&$8&'*=M&*#2):#)B^7=!9*#)
#8=;78);('8=)#87)("$%'*#)'%78$*=8&$8)*;9%?*&'()*)abP)8)ab\)*(#)?%7?!%$(#)
$7%BS#%?(#)*;7(;7%*'(#2
#SAMBARILOVE
460 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Tabela 12.1 U) `8#!=()'*#)B^7=!9*#);*7*)?(778&$8#T$8&#L8#)'8)9%&@*)8)'8)B*#8);*7*)


#%#$8=*#)$7%BS#%?(#)8,!%9%"7*'(#20

Idêntico às correntes
Conexão Correntes/tensões de fases
de linha

estrela-estrela Van Vp 0 Vab 13Vp 30


Vbn Vp 120 Vbc Vab 120
Vcn Vp 120 Vca Vab 120
Idêntico às correntes de linha Ia Van ZY
Ib Ia 120
Ic Ia 120

estrela-triângulo Van Vp 0 Vab VAB 13Vp 30


Vbn Vp 120 Vbc VBC Vab 120
Vcn Vp 120 Vca VCA Vab 120
IAB VAB Z¢ Ia IAB 13 30
IBC VBC Z¢ Ib Ia 120
ICA VCA Z¢ Ic Ia 120

triângulo-triângulo Vab Vp 0 Idêntico às tensões de fase


Vbc Vp 120
Vca Vp 120
IAB Vab Z¢ Ia IAB 13 30
IBC Vbc Z¢ Ib Ia 120
ICA Vca Z¢ Ic Ia 120

triângulo-estrela Vab Vp 0 Idêntico às tensões de fase


Vbc Vp 120
Vca Vp 120
Vp 30
Idêntico às correntes de linha Ia
13ZY
Ib Ia 120
Ic Ia 120
0
) !;(&'()*)#8,!A&?%*)abc ou positiva.

EXEMPLO 12.5
c=*)?*7E*)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*)8,!%9%"7*'*)?(=)%=;8'H&?%*);(7)B*#8)dN)e)j16)V
D)*9%=8&$*'*);(7)!=*)B(&$8)?(&8?$*'*)8=)$7%H&E!9()8,!%9%"7*'*)8)'8)#8,!A&?%*);(#%-
$%C*)?(=)$8&#.()'8)9%&@*)%E!*9)*)10N)f2)P*9?!98)*#)?(778&$8#)'8)B*#82)c#8 Vab)?(=()
78B87A&?%*2
Solução: :)%=;8'H&?%*)'8)?*7E*)D

ZY 40 j25 47,17l32

e a tensão da fonte é

Vab 210l0 V

g!*&'() *) B(&$8) ?(&8?$*'*) 8=) $7%H&E!9() D) $7*&#B(7=*'*) 8=) !=*) B(&$8) ?(&8?$*'*) 8=)
8#$789*>

Vab
Van l 30 121,2l 30 V
13
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 461

:#)?(778&$8#)'8)9%&@*)#.(

Van 121,2l 30
Ia 2,57l 62 A
ZY 47,12l32
Ib Ial 120 2,57l 178 A
Ic Ial120 2,57l58 A

,!8)#.()%'A&$%?*#)F#)?(778&$8#)'8)B*#82

+=)!=)?%7?!%$()$7%H&E!9(M8#$789*>)Vab)h)1dNl15 e ZY)h)/01)e)j065)V2)P*9?!98)*#)?(7- PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.5


rentes de linha.
Resposta: 7,21l 66,34 A, 7,21 l 173,66 A, 7,21 l53,66 A.

12.7 Potência em um sistema equilibrado


P(&#%'878=(#)*);($A&?%*)8=)!=)#%#$8=*)$7%BS#%?()8,!%9%"7*'(2)X&%?%8=(#);89()
8_*=8)'*);($A&?%*)%&#$*&$H&8*)*"#(7C%'*);89*)?*7E*>),!8)78,!87),!8)*)*&S9%#8)
#8[*)B8%$*)&()'(=W&%()'()$8=;(2)R*7*)!=*)?*7E*)?(&8?$*'*)8=)8#$789*>)*#)$8&-
#L8#)'8)B*#8)#.(

(12.41)

onde o fator 12)D)&8?8##S7%(>);(%#)Vp !"# $%&'#$( )"*" " +(,"- ./0 $( 1%'23"
de fase. Se ZY = Zlu4 (2 )"--%'1%2 $% !(2% %213" (1-(2($(2 %* -%,(53" 62 27(2
1%'28%2 $% !(2% )"--%29"'$%'1%2 %* u: ;"-1('1"4

(12.42)

onde Ip < " +(,"- ./0 $( )"--%'1% $% !(2%: = 9"1>')#( #'21('1?'%( '( )(-@( < (
2"*( $(2 9"1>')#(2 #'21('1?'%(2 '(2 1->2 !(2%2A #21" <4

(12.43)

=9,#)('$" ( #$%'1#$($% 1-#@"'"*<1-#)(

(12.44)

obtemos

p Vp Ip[3 cos u cos(2 t u) cos(2 t u 240 )


cos(2 t u 240 )]
Vp Ip[3 cos u cos a cos a cos 240 sen a sen 240
cos a cos 240 sen a sen 240 ] (12.45)
onde a 2 t u

Vp Ip c 3 cos u b cos a d
1
cos a 2a 3Vp Ip cos u
2
#SAMBARILOVE
462 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

;"-1('1"4 ( 9"1>')#( #'21('1?'%( 1"1(, %* 7* 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" %C7#,#D-($" <


)"'21('1% E %,( '3" *7$( )"* " 1%*9" 6 *%$#$( C7% ( 9"1>')#( #'21('1?'%(
$% )($( !(2% *7$(: F22% -%27,1($" < +%-$($%#-" 1('1" 9(-( ( )(-@( )"'%)1($(
%* 1-#?'@7," )"*" 9(-( ( )(-@( )"'%)1($( %* %21-%,(: G22" < #*9"-1('1%4 #'$%-
9%'$%'1%*%'1% $" 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" @%-(- % $#21-#D7#- %'%-@#(: H%-%*"2 "71-"
*"1#+" 7* 9"7)" *(#2 ($#('1%:
IB C7% ( 9"1>')#( #'21('1?'%( 1"1(, < #'$%9%'$%'1% $" 1%*9"4 ( 9"1>')#(
*<$#( 9"- !(2%4 Pp4 1('1" 9(-( ( )(-@( )"'%)1($( %* 1-#?'@7," )"*" 9(-( (
)(-@( )"'%)1($( %* %21-%,(4 < pJK "7

(12.46)
% ( 9"1>')#( -%(1#+( 9"- !(2% <

(12.47)
= 9"1>')#( (9(-%'1% 9"- !(2% <

(12.48)
= 9"1>')#( )"*9,%L( 9"- !(2% <

(12.49)
%* C7% Vp e Ip 23"4 -%29%)1#+(*%'1%4 ( 1%'23" $% !(2% % ( )"--%'1% $% !(2% $%
magnitudes Vp e Ip: = 9"1>')#( *<$#( 1"1(, < ( 2"*( $(2 9"1>')#(2 *<$#(2 '(2
!(2%2M

(12.50)

;(-( 7*( )(-@( )"'%)1($( %* %21-%,(4 IL = Ip4 9"-<*4 VL = 13Vp4 %'C7('1" 9(-(
7*( )(-@( )"'%)1($( %* 1-#?'@7,"4 IL = 13Ip4 9"-<*4 VL = Vp: N"@"4 ( FC7(-
53" OPQ:RST 9"$% 2%- (9,#)($( 1('1" 9(-( )(-@(2 ,#@($(2 %* %21-%,( )"*" 9(-(
(C7%,(2 ,#@($(2 %* 1-#?'@7,": U% !"-*( 2%*%,V('1%4 ( 9"1>')#( -%(1#+( 1"1(, <

(12.51)

% ( 9"1>')#( )"*9,%L( 1"1(, <

3Vp2
S 3Sp 3Vp I*p 3I 2p Zp (12.52)
Z *p

onde Zp = Zplu < ( #*9%$?')#( $% )(-@( 9"- !(2%: OZp poderia ser ZY ou Z¢T: U%
*"$" (,1%-'(1#+"4 9"$%-W(*"2 %2)-%+%- ( FC7(53" OPQ:RQT )"*"

S P jQ 13VL ILlu (12.53)

N%*D-%X2% $% C7% Vp4 Ip4 VL e IL 23" 1"$"2 +(,"-%2 ./0 % C7% Y < " ?'@7,"
$( #*9%$?')#( $% )(-@( "7 " ?'@7," %'1-% ( 1%'23" $% !(2% % ( )"--%'1% $% !(2%:
= 2%@7'$( @-('$% +('1(@%* $"2 2#21%*(2 1-#!B2#)"2 9(-( $#21-#D7#53" $%
%'%-@#( < C7% " 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" 72( 7*( C7('1#$($% *%'"- $% &" C7% " 2#21%-
*( *"'"!B2#)" 9(-( ( *%2*( 1%'23" $% ,#'V( VL % ( *%2*( 9"1>')#( (D2"-+#$(
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 463

PL: H(*"2 )"*9(-(- %22%2 )(2"2 % 279"- C7% (*D"2 "2 &"2 23" $" *%2*"
*(1%-#(, O9"- %L%*9,"4 )"D-% )"* -%2#21#+#$($% rT4 $" *%2*" )"*9-#*%'1" /4
% C7% (2 )(-@(2 23" -%2#21#+(2 O#21" <4 !(1"- $% 9"1>')#( 7'#1B-#"T: ;(-( " 2#21%*(
*"'"!B2#)" D#&,(- $( Z#@7-( PQ:QPa, IL= PL/ VL %4 9"-1('1"4 ( 9%-$( $% 9"1>')#(
'"2 $"#2 &"2 <

(12.54)

R! Ia
IL +
R
+ Fonte Ib VL 0" Carga
trifásica R! trifásica
Fonte PL
equilibrada + equilibrada
monofásica VL Carga
Ic VL 120"
R R!

Linhas de transmissão Linhas de transmissão


(a) (b)
Figura 12.21 ["*9(-(53" $( 9%-$( $% 9"1>')#( %'1-%M OaT 2#21%*(2 *"'"!B2#)"2A ObT 2#21%*(2 1-#!B2#)"2:

;(-( " 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" 1-#&,(- $( Z#@7-( PQ:QPb4 IL¿ = |Ia| = |Ib| = |Ic| = PL J13VL
( 9(-1#- $( FC7(53" OPQ:RST: = 9%-$( $% 9"1>')#( '"2 1->2 &"2 <

(12.55)

=2 FC7(58%2 OPQ:R\T % OPQ:RRT *"21-(* C7% 9(-( ( *%2*( 9"1>')#( 1"1(, ,#D%-
rada PL e para a mesma tensão de linha VL4

(12.56)

/(24 ( 9(-1#- $" [(9W17," Q4 R = r/JprQ e R¿ = r/Jpr¿Q4 "'$% r e r¿ são os raios


$"2 &"2: N"@"4

(12.57)

0% ( *%2*( 9%-$( $% 9"1>')#( !"- 1",%-($( %* (*D"2 "2 2#21%*(24 %'13" rQ =


Qr¿Q: ] -(#" $" *(1%-#(, '%)%22B-#" < $%1%-*#'($" 9%," '^*%-" $% &"2 % 2%72
+",7*%24 (22#*

(12.58)

7*( +%_ C7% rQ ` Qr¿Q: = FC7(53" OPQ:RaT *"21-( C7% " 2#21%*( *"'"!B2#)"
72( KKb *(#2 $% *(1%-#(, C7% " 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" "7 C7% " 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" 72(
(9%'(2 cRb $" *(1%-#(, 72($" '" 2#21%*( *"'"!B2#)" %C7#+(,%'1%: F* "71-(2
9(,(+-(24 < '%)%22B-#( 7*( C7('1#$($% )"'2#$%-(+%,*%'1% *%'"- $% *(1%-#(,
#SAMBARILOVE
464 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

9(-( 1-('2*#1#- ( *%2*( 9"1>')#( %* 7* 2#21%*( 1-#!B2#)" %* )"*9(-(53" )"*


7* 2#21%*( *"'"!B2#)":

EXEMPLO 12.6
]D2%-+% " )#-)7#1" $( Z#@7-( PQ:PK O'" FL%*9," PQ:QT: U%1%-*#'% ( 9"1>')#( *<$#(
1"1(,4 ( 9"1>')#( -%(1#+( % ( 9"1>')#( )"*9,%L( '( !"'1% % '( )(-@(:
Solução: d 27&)#%'1% ,%+(- %* )"'1( 7*( !(2%4 eB C7% " 2#21%*( < %C7#,#D-($": ;(-( (
fase a4
Vp 110l0 V e Ip 6,81l 21,8 A

;"-1('1"4 '( !"'1%4 ( 9"1>')#( )"*9,%L( (D2"-+#$( <


Ss 3Vp I*p 3(110l0 )(6,81l21,8 )
2.247l21,8 (2.087 j834,6) VA

= 9"1>')#( -%(, "7 *<$#( (D2"-+#$( < EQ:Sac f % ( 9"1>')#( -%(1#+( < EaK\4g H=.:
h( )(-@(4 ( 9"1>')#( )"*9,%L( (D2"-+#$( <
SL 3 0 Ip 0 2Zp

onde Zp ! "# $ j% ! "&'%"l38,66 e Ip = Ia ! ('%"l–21,8 ) *+,+'

SL 3(6,81)212,81l38,66 1.782l38,66
(1.392 j1.113) VA

- .+/01234 5647 489+5:3;4 < ")=>"'? @ 6 4 .+/01234 564/3:4 489+5:3;4 < ")""='= A-B)
- ;3C6561D4 61/56 49 ;E49 .+/012349 2+F.76G49 < 489+5:3;4 .674 3F.6;H1234 ;6 731I4
JK L j& M V) N454 F+9/545 OE6 69/6 < + 249+' 612+1/54F+9 4 .+/01234 2+F.76G4 489+5:3;4
.674 731I4' 2+F+ 96,E6
S/ 3 0 Ip 0 2 Z/ 3(6,81)2(5 j2) 695,6 j278,3 VA

OE6 < 4 ;3C6561D4 61/56 Ss e SLP 39/+ <' Ss $ S/ $ SL ! #' 2+F+ 69.654;+)
PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.6 Q472E76 4 .+/01234 2+F.76G4 14 C+1/6 6 14 245,4 .454 + 2352E3/+ 69/5674R69/5674 ;+ N5+-
876F4 .5S/32+ "&)&)
Resposta: (1.054,2 j843,3) VA, (1.012 j801,6) VA.

EXEMPLO 12.7
TF F+/+5 /53CS932+ .+;6 965 2+193;654;+ EF4 245,4 2+162/4;4 6F 69/5674 6OE373854;4)
U 489+5:6 K'( V@ OE41;+ 4 /619W+ ;6 731I4 C+5 &&# A 6 4 2+5561/6 ;6 731I4 C+5 "%'& -)
X6/65F316 + C4/+5 ;6 .+/01234 ;+ F+/+5)
Solução: - .+/01234 4.4561/6 <
S 13VL IL 13(220)(18,2) 6.935,13 VA

Q+F+ 4 .+/01234 5647 <


P S cos u 5.600 W

+ C4/+5 ;6 .+/01234 965S


P 5.600
FP cos u 0,8075
S 6.935,13

PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.7 Q472E76 4 2+5561/6 ;6 731I4 162699S534 .454 EF F+/+5 /53CS932+ ;6 =# V@ ;6 C4/+5 ;6
.+/01234 #'%K J4/5494;+M' 96 676 69/3:65 2+162/4;+ 4 EF4 C+1/6 6OE373854;4 2+F /619W+
;6 731I4 YY# A)
Resposta: Y('=" -)
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 465

EXEMPLO 12.8
XE49 245,49 6OE373854;49 9W+ 73,4;49 4 EF4 731I4 ;6 (# Z[' &Y# VA B\]' 2+F+ F+9/54-
;+ 14 ^3,E54 "&)&&a) - 245,4 " 489+5:6 =# V@ 2+F EF C4/+5 ;6 .+/01234 #'( J4/5494;+M'
61OE41/+ 4 245,4 & 489+5:6 YK VA-B 2+F C4/+5 ;6 .+/01234 #'% J4/5494;+M) ]E.+1;+ 4
96OE01234 abc' ;6/65F316_ J4M 49 .+/012349 2+F.76G4' 5647 6 564/3:4 489+5:3;49 .674 245-
,4 2+162/4;4P J8M 49 2+5561/69 ;6 731I4P J2M VA-B 1+F3147 ;+9 /509 24.423/+569 73,4;+9
6F /53H1,E7+ 6F .454767+ 2+F 4 245,4 OE6 676:45S + C4/+5 ;6 .+/01234 .454 #'> J4/5494;+M
6 4 24.423/H1234 ;6 24;4 24.423/+5)
Solução: J4M N454 4 245,4 "' ;4;+ OE6 P" ! =# V@ 6 2+9 u" ! #'(' 61/W+ 961 u" ! #'%) Carga Carga
*+,+' equilibrada 1 equilibrada 2

P1 30 kW
S1 50 kVA (a)
cos u1 0,6

e Q" = S" sen u" ! K#J#'%M ! Y# VA-B) *+,+' 4 .+/01234 2+F.76G4 .454 4 245,4 " < C
S1 P1 jQ1 30 j40 kVA (12.8.1) C C

N454 4 245,4 &' 96 Q& ! YK VA-B 6 2+9 u& ! #'%' 61/W+ 961 u& ! #'() X692+853F+9 OE6
Q2 45 kVA
S2 75 kVA
sen u2 0,6
Carga
associada
e P& = S& 2+9 u& ! ?KJ#'%M ! (# V@) N+5/41/+' 4 .+/01234 2+F.76G4 ;4 245,4 & <

S2 P2 jQ2 60 j45 kVA (12.8.2) (b)


- .45/35 ;49 UOE4D`69 J"&)%)"M 6 J"&)%)&M' 4 .+/01234 2+F.76G4 /+/47 489+5:3;4 .674 Figura 12.22 ) ) N(2-*&%)!%.%)
245,4 < ')NO*&!"')<5:JP)QaR)%()$%./%()
S S1 S2 90 j85 kVA 123,8l43,36 kVA (12.8.3) *2-#"#3.%,%()'.#/#1%#(S)QbR)%)$%./%)
%(('$#%,%)$'&)>%+'.),*)!'+?1$#%)
OE6 /6F EF C4/+5 ;6 .+/01234 3,E47 4 2+9 Y='=(a ! #'?&? J4/5494;+M) - .+/01234 5647 < melhorado.
61/W+ ># V@' 61OE41/+ 4 .+/01234 564/3:4 < %K VA-B)
J8M TF4 :6b OE6 ] ! 13VL IL' 4 2+5561/6 ;6 731I4 <

S
IL (12.8.4)
13VL

!"#$%&'() *(+%) %) $%,%) -&%) ,%() $%./%(0) +*1,') *&) &*1+*) 2-*0) !%.%) %&3%() %() $%./%(0)
VL)4)567)89:);%.%)%)$%./%)<0
50.000
IL1 120,28 mA
13 240.000
='&')')>%+'.),*)!'+?1$#%)*(+@)%+.%(%,'0)%)$'..*1+*),*)"#1A%)*(+@)%+.%(%,%)*&).*"%BC')D)
tensão de linha em u<)4)$'(E<)70F)4)GH0<HI:);'.+%1+'0
Ia1 120,28l 53,13
;%.%)%)$%./%)50
75.000
IL2 180,42 mA
13 240.000
*)%)$'..*1+*),*)"#1A%)*(+@)%+.%(%,%)*&).*"%BC')D)+*1(C'),*)"#1A%)*&)u5)4)$'(E<)70J)4)
HF0JKI:)L'/'0
Ia2 180,42l 36,87
)$'..*1+*),*)"#1A%)+'+%")M
Ia Ia1 Ia2 120,28l 53,13 180,42l 36,87
(72,168 j96,224) (144,336 j108,252)
216,5 j204,472 297,8l 43,36 mA
#SAMBARILOVE
466 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

T*)>'.&%)%"+*.1%+#U%0)!',*.V%&'()'3+*.)%)$'..*1+*),%)!'+?1$#%)$'&!"*O%)+'+%")-(%1,')%)
N2-%BC')Q<5:J:6R0)$'&')(*/-*
123.800
IL 297,82 mA
13 240.000

e
Ia 297,82l 43,36 mA

2-*)M)')&*(&').*(-"+%,')'3+#,')%1+*.#'.&*1+*:) (),*&%#()$'..*1+*(),*)"#1A%0)Ib2 e Ica0)


!',*&)(*.)'3+#,%(),*)%$'.,')$'&)%)(*2-?1$#%)abc)Q#(+')M0)Ib 4)5WK0J5l 163,36 mA e
Ic 4)5WK0J5l76,64 )& R:
Q$R);',*&'()*1$'1+.%.)%)!'+?1$#%).*%+#U%)1*$*((@.#%)!%.%)*"*U%.)')>%+'.),*)!'+?1$#%)!%.%)
70W)Q%+.%(%,'R)-(%1,')%)N2-%BC')Q<<:GWR0
QC = PQ+/)uanterior)E)+/)uatualR
onde P)4)W7)8X0)uanterior)4)6H0HFI)*)uatual)4)$'(E<)70W)4)5G0J6I:);'.+%1+'0
QC 90.000(tg 43,36 tg 25,84 ) 41,4 kVAR

N((%)!'+?1$#%).*%+#U%)M)!%.%)'()+.?()$%!%$#+'.*(:);%.%)$%,%)-&),*"*(0)')U%"'.)1'&#1%")
Q9C)4)<H0J)89 Y:)T%)N2-%BC')Q<<:F7R0)%)$%!%$#+Z1$#%)1*$*((@.#%)M
Q¿C
C
V 2RMS
='&')'()$%!%$#+'.*()*(+C')"#/%,'()*&)+.#Z1/-"')$'1>'.&*)&'(+.%,')1%)[#/-.%)<5:55b0)
VY\])1%)>^.&-"%)%1+*.#'.)M)%)+*1(C')"#1A%_"#1A%)'-0)(#&!"*(&*1+*0)+*1(C'),*)"#1A%0)2-*)
M)#/-%")%)567)89:);'.+%1+'0
13.800
C 635,5 FP
(2 p 60)(240.000)2

PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.8 ]-!'1A%)2-*)%(),-%()$%./%()*2-#"#3.%,%()1%)[#/-.%)<5:55a sejam alimentadas por uma


"#1A%),*)F7)`a0)J67)9)Y\]:) )$%./%)<)M)$'1*$+%,%)*&)*(+.*"%)$'&)H7)b)j67)V por
>%(*0) *12-%1+') %) $%./%) 5) M) -&) &'+'.) +.#>@(#$') *2-#"#3.%,') %3('.U*1,') 6J) 8X) $'&)
>%+'.),*)!'+?1$#%)70J)Q%+.%(%,'R:)]-!'1,'_(*)%)(*2-?1$#%)abc0)$%"$-"*P)Q%R)%)!'+?1$#%)
$'&!"*O%)%3('.U#,%)!*"%)$%./%)%(('$#%,%S)Q3R)')U%"'.)1'&#1%"),*)89 Y),*)$%,%)-&)
,'()+.?()$%!%$#+'.*()"#/%,'()*&)+.#Z1/-"')*&)!%.%"*"')$'&)%)$%./%)!%.%)*"*U%.)')>%+'.)
,*)!'+?1$#%)!%.%)')U%"'.)-1#+@.#'S)Q$R)%)$'..*1+*),.*1%,%),%)>'1+*)1%)$'1,#BC'),*)>%+'.),*)
!'+?1$#%)-1#+@.#':)
Resposta: (a) 56,47 j47,29 kVA; (b) 15,76 kVAR; (c) 38,81 A.


12.8 Sistemas trifásicos desequilibrados
N(+*)$%!V+-"')(*.#%)#1$'&!"*+')(*)1C')&*1$#'1@((*&'()'()(#(+*&%()+.#>@(#$'()
,*(*2-#"#3.%,'(0)2-*)(C')!.'U'$%,'()!'.),-%()(#+-%Bc*()!'((VU*#(P)Q<R)%()+*1-
(c*(),*)>'1+*)1C')(C')#/-%#()*&)&%/1#+-,*)*d'-),#>*.*&)*&)>%(*)!'.)Z1/-"'()
,*(#/-%#()'-)*1+C')Q5R)%()#&!*,Z1$#%(),*)$%./%)(C'),*(#/-%#(:)L'/'0

Um sistema desequilibrado se deve a fontes de tensão desequilibradas ou


a uma carga desequilibrada.

;%.%)(#&!"#e$%.)%)%1@"#(*0)U%&'()(-!'.)>'1+*(),*)+*1(C')*2-#"#3.%,%(0)!'.M&0)
-&%)$%./%),*(*2-#"#3.%,%:
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 467

]#(+*&%()+.#>@(#$'(),*(*2-#"#3.%,'()(C').*('"U#,'()!*"%)%!"#$%BC'),#.*+%),*) Ia
A
%1@"#(*),*)&%"A%()*)%1@"#(*)1',%":) )[#/-.%)<5:5H)&'(+.%)-&)*O*&!"'),*)-&)
(#(+*&%)+.#>@(#$'),*(*2-#"#3.%,')>'.&%,')!'.)+*1(c*(),*)>'1+*)*2-#"#3.%,%()Q1C')
&'(+.%,%()1%)e/-.%R)*)!'.)-&%)$%./%)$'1*$+%,%)*&)*(+.*"%),*(*2-#"#3.%,%)Q&'(-
VAN ZA
+.%,%)1%)e/-.%R:)f&%)U*a)2-*)%)$%./%)*(+@),*(*2-#"#3.%,%0)ZA0)ZB e ZC não são
#/-%#(:) ()$'..*1+*(),*)"#1A%)(C'),*+*.&#1%,%()!*"%)"*#),*)gA&0)$'&')(*/-* In
N
ZB ZC
Ib VBN
VAN VBN VCN C
Ia , Ib , Ic (12.59)
ZA ZB ZC B
Ic VCN

N((*)$'1h-1+'),*)$'..*1+*(),*)"#1A%),*(*2-#"#3.%,%()!.',-a)$'..*1+*)1%)"#1A%)
Figura 12.23 ='#1' (#+!60+&'
1*-+.%0)2-*)1C')M)a*.')$'&')1')(#(+*&%)*2-#"#3.%,':) !"#$%.)%)"*#),'()1^()%')1^)
&"$%&(')' %/ %0(#%*' )%0%4-+*+J#')'8
N !"#$%&% ' &"##%$(% )' *+$,' $%-(#'. &"/" 0%1-%

Uma técnica especial para


In (Ia Ib Ic) (12.60) lidar com sistemas trifásicos
desequilibrados é o método das
componentes simétricas, que
2/ -/ 0+0(%/' (#+3*'# $" 4-'* ' *+$,' $%-(#' $5" %0(6 7#%0%$(%. '+$)' '0- está fora do escopo deste livro.
0+/. 7")%/"0 %$&"$(#'# '0 &"##%$(%0 )% *+$,' Ia. Ib e Ic através da análise de
/'*,'08 9" $: N. ' ;<= )%>% 0%# 0'(+0!%+(' )% /")" 4-% Ia ? Ib ? Ic @ A. $%0-
0% &'0"8 B /%0/" 7")%#+' 0%# !%+(" 7'#' -/ 0+0(%/' (#+3*'# (#+C$1-*"D%0(#%*'.
%0(#%*'D(#+C$1-*" "- (#+C$1-*"D(#+C$1-*"8 ="$!"#/% /%$&+"$')" '$(%#+"#/%$(%.
%/ (#'$0/+005" )% %$%#1+' %*E(#+&' ' *"$1'0 )+0(C$&+'0. 05" -0')"0 &"$)-("#%0
%/ /F*(+7*"0 )% (#G0 H0+0(%/'0 (#+3*'#%0 /F*(+7*"0I. &"/ " 7#:7#+" (%##' '(-'$)"
&"/" &"$)-("# $%-(#"8
='*&-*'# ' 7"(G$&+' %/ -/ 0+0(%/' (#+!60+&" )%0%4-+*+J#')" #%4-%# ' )%(%#-
/+$'K5" )' 7"(G$&+' %/ &')' !'0% 7"# /%+" )'0 24-'KL%0 HMN8OPI ' HMN8OQI8 R
7"(G$&+' ("('* $5" E 0+/7*%0/%$(% (#G0 >%S%0 ' 7"(G$&+' %/ &')' !'0%. /'0. 0+/.
' 0"/' )'0 7"(G$&+'0 $'0 (#G0 !'0%08
EXEMPLO 12.9
R &'#1' &"$%&(')' %/ %0(#%*' )%0%4-+*+J#')' )' T+1-#' MN8NU (%/ (%$0L%0 %4-+*+J#')'0
)% MAA V % ' 0%4-G$&+' acb8 ='*&-*% '0 &"##%$(%0 )% *+$,' % ' &"##%$(% $%-(#'8 R)"(%
ZA @ MW V. ZB @ MA ? jW V e ZC @ P X jY V.
Solução: Z0'$)" ' 24-'K5" HMN8WQI. '0 &"##%$(%0 )% *+$,' 05"
Ia
100l0 A
Ia 6,67l0 A
15
10 8
100l120 100l120
Ib 8,94l93,44 A – j5
10 j5 11,18l26,56 j6
Ib
100l 120 100l 120
Ic 10l 66,87 A C
6 j8 10l 53,13 Ic B 16

Z(+*+S'$)" ' 24-'K5" HMN8PAI. ' &"##%$(% $' *+$,' $%-(#' E


Figura 12.24 ='#1' &"$%&(')' %/
In (Ia Ib Ic) (6,67 0,54 j8,92 3,93 j9,2)
(#+C$1-*" )%0%4-+*+J#')'\ %04-%/'
10,06 j0,28 10,06l178,4 A 7'#' " ]#"J*%/' 7#6(+&" MN8Q8

R &'#1' &"$%&(')' %/ (#+C$1-*" )%0%4-+*+J#')' )' T+1-#' MN8NO E '*+/%$(')' 7"# (%$- PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.9
0L%0 *+$,'D*+$,' %4-+*+J#')'0 )% OOA V $' 0%4-G$&+' 7"0+(+>'8 [%(%#/+$% '0 &"##%$(%0 )%
linha. Adote Vab &"/" #%!%#G$&+'8
Resposta: 39,71l 41,06 A, 64,12l 139,8 A, 70,13l74,27 A.
#SAMBARILOVE
468 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

EXEMPLO 12.10
]'#' " &+#&-+(" )%0%4-+*+J#')" )' T+1-#' MN8NW. )%(%#/+$%^ H'I '0 &"##%$(%0 )% *+$,'\ HJI
' 7"(G$&+' &"/7*%_' ("('* 'J0"#>+)' 7%*' &'#1'\ H&I ' 7"(G$&+' &"/7*%_' ("('* 'J0"#>+)'
pela fonte.
Ia
a A

120 0"#RMS + j5 !
I1
n N

– j10 !
120 120"#RMS + + 120 120"#RMS
10 !
Ib
c C
b B
I2

Ic

Figura 12.25 204-%/' 7'#' " 2_%/7*" MN8MA8


Solução: H'I Z0'/"0 '$6*+0% )% /'*,'0 7'#' %$&"$(#'# '0 &"##%$(%0 $%&%006#+'08 ]'#'
' /'*,' M.
120l 120 120l0 (10 j5)I1 10I2 0
ou
(10 j5)I1 10I2 12013l30 (12.10.1)
]'#' ' /'*,' N.

120l120 120l 120 (10 j10)I2 10I1 0


ou
10I1 (10 j10)I2 120 13l 90 (12.10.2)
R0 24-'KL%0 HMN8MA8MI % HMN8MA8NI !"#/'/ -/' %4-'K5" /'(#+&+'*^
120 13 30
c d c d c d
10 j5 10 I1
10 10 j10 I2 120 13 90
Os determinantes são

10 j5 10
¢ 50 j50 70,71l 45
10 10 j10
12013l30 10
¢1 207,85(13,66 j13,66)
120 13l 90 10 j10
4015l 45
10 j5 120 13l30
¢2 207,85(13,66 j5)
10 120 13l 90

3.023,4l 20,1
!"#$%%&'(&!")&"*+,-+"!.$

¢1 4.015,23l 45
I1 56,78 A
¢ 70,71l 45
¢2 3.023,4l 20,1
I2 42,75l24,9 A
¢ 70,71l 45
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 469

!"#$%%&'(&!")&",/'-+"!.$
Ia I1 56,78 A, Ic I2 42,75l 155,1 A
Ib I2 I1 38,78 j18 56,78 25,46l135 A

012" 3$%+4"5$)&*$!"#+,#6,+%"+"5$(7'#/+"#$*5,&8+"+1!$%9/)+"5&,+"#+%3+:";+%+"+"<+!&" 4

SA 0Ia 0 2ZA (56,78)2( j5) j16.120 VA

;+%+"+"<+!&"=4

SB 0Ib 0 2ZB (25,46)2(10) 6480 VA

;+%+"+"<+!&">4

SC 0 Ic 0 2 ZC (42,75)2( j10) j18.276 VA

"5$(7'#/+"#$*5,&8+"($(+,"+1!$%9/)+"5&,+"#+%3+"?

SL SA SB SC 6480 j2156 VA

0#2"@&%/A#+*$!"$"%&!6,(+)$"+'(&%/$%")&(&%*/'+')$"+"5$(7'#/+"+1!$%9/)+"5&,+"<$'(&:";+%+"
a fonte de tensão na fase a4

Sa Van I*a (120l0 )(56,78) 6813,6 VA

Para a fonte na fase b4

Sb Vbn I*b (120l 120 )(25,46l 135 )


3.055,2l105 790 j2.951,1 VA

Para a fonte na fase c4

Sc VbnI*c (120l120 )(42,75l155,1 )


5.130l275,1 456,03 j5.109,7 VA

"5$(7'#/+"#$*5,&8+"($(+,"+1!$%9/)+"5&,+"<$'(&"(%/<B!/#+"?

Ss Sa Sb Sc 6.480 j2.156 VA

)&*$'!(%+')$"C6&"Ss"D"SL"E"F"&"#$'A%*+')$"$"5%/'#G5/$")+"#$'!&%9+H.$")&"5$(7'#/+"
CA.

!"!#$%&!'()'*+##!&"!)',!'-%&.('&+'*%#*/%"+'"#%01)%*+',!)!2/%-%3#(,+',('4%5/#('67879'!'(' PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.10


:+";&*%('#!(-'(3)+#<%,(':!-('*(#5(8

a A

! j5
220 !120"#RMS V +! + 220 0"#RMS V
!
10

c !+ C
b B j10
220 120"#RMS V

Figura 12.26 ' =)2/!$(':(#('+'>#+3-!$(':#1"%*+'6786?8

Resposta: 64l80,1 A, 38,1l 60 A, 42,5l225 A, 4,84 kW.


#SAMBARILOVE
470 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

12.9 PSpice para circuitos trifásicos


O PSpice' :+,!' )!#' /)(,+' :(#(' (&(-%)(#' *%#*/%"+)' "#%01)%*+)' !2/%-%3#(,+)' +/'
&@+',('$!)$('$(&!%#('2/!'A'/)(,+':(#('(&(-%)(#'*%#*/%"+)'BC'$+&+01)%*+)8'
=&"#!"(&"+D'/$('0+&"!'*+&!*"(,('!$'"#%E&5/-+'#!:#!)!&"(',+%)'5#(&,!)':#+-
blemas para o PSpice8' >#%$!%#+D' /$(' 0+&"!' *+&!*"(,(' !$' "#%E&5/-+' A' /$('
$(-.(' ,!' 0+&"!)' ,!' "!&)@+' F' ,+' 2/(-' +' PSpice não gosta. E para evitar tal
:#+3-!$(D'%&)!#%$+)'/$'#!)%)"+#',!'#!)%)";&*%(',!):#!GH<!-'I*+$+'6'mV por
0()!J' !$' *(,(' 0()!' ,(' 0+&"!' *+&!*"(,(' !$' "#%E&5/-+8' K!5/&,+D' (' 0+&"!' *+-
&!*"(,('!$'"#%E&5/-+'&@+'0+#&!*!'/$'&L'*+&<!&%!&"!':(#('+'&L'"!##(D'2/!'A'
&!*!))1#%+':(#('#+,(#'+'PSpice. Esse problema pode ser eliminado por meio
,('%&)!#M@+',!'#!)%)"+#!)',!'<(-+#'5#(&,!'-%5(,+)'!$'!)"#!-('I*+$+'6'NV por
0()!J'&('0+&"!'*+&!*"(,('!$'"#%E&5/-+',!'$+,+'2/!'+'&L'&!/"#+',+)'#!)%)"+#!)'
-%5(,+)'!$'!)"#!-(')%#<('*+$+'&LO"!##('?8'P'=Q!$:-+'67867'%-/)"#('%))+8

EXEMPLO 12.11
>(#('+'*%#*/%"+'!)"#!-(O"#%E&5/-+'!2/%-%3#(,+',('4%5/#('6787RD'/)!'+'PSpice para determi-
&(#'('*+##!&"!',!'-%&.('IaAD'('"!&)@+',!'0()!'VAB'!'('*+##!&"!',!'0()!'IAC. Suponha uma
0#!2/;&*%(',!'0+&"!'%5/(-'('9?'SG8
100 !"V
a 1# A
$+

100 #
100 #
100 $%& !"V 0,2 H
b 1#
n $+ B

100 #
0,2 H
100 %& !"V 0,2 H
c 1#
$+
C
Figura 12.27 ' =)2/!$(':(#('+'=Q!$:-+'678668

Solução: P'!)2/!$('A'$+)"#(,+'&('4%5/#('6787T8'P)':)!/,+*+$:+&!&"!)'U>VUWX'
são inseridos nas linhas apropriadas para se obter IaA e IACD' !&2/(&"+'Y>VUWX7' A'
%&)!#%,+'!&"#!'+)'&L)'C'!'Z':(#('$+)"#(#'('"!&)@+',%0!#!&*%(-'VAB8'B+&[5/#($+)'+)'
("#%3/"+)',!'U>VUWXD'3!$'*+$+',!'Y>VUWX7'!$'AC = yesD'MAG = yesD'PHASE =
yesD':(#('!Q%3%#'(:!&()'('$(5&%"/,!'!'('0()!',()'*+##!&"!)'!'"!&)\!)8'B+$+')!'"#("('
,!' /$(' (&1-%)!' ,!' 0#!2/;&*%(' )%$:-!)D' )!-!*%+&($+)' Analysis/Setup/AC Sweep e
introduzimos Total Pts']'6D'Start Freq']'9?'!'Final Freq']'9?8'C))%$'2/!'+'(#2/%<+'
#!0!#!&"!'(+'*%#*/%"+'0+#')(-<+D'!-!'A')%$/-(,+')!-!*%+&(&,+O)!'+'*+$(&,+'Analysis/
Simulate8'P'(#2/%<+',!')(H,('(:#!)!&"('+')!5/%&"!'#!)/-"(,+^
FREQ V(A,B) VP(A,B)
6.000E+01 1.699E+02 3.081E+01
FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)
6.000E+01 2.350E+00 -3.620E+01
FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 1.357E+00 -6.620E+01

C':(#"%#',!))!'#!)/-"(,+D'+3"!$+)
IaA 2,35l 36,2 A
VAB 169,9l30,81 V, IAC 1,357l 66,2 A
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 471

",-,./0 ",-,./0
1 2,-,./0 1 2,-,./0
73#789
"1 2,-,&'',6 3* 45,-,./0 3* 45,-,./0
"3* 45,-,' #&

+
6& &
#$ &''
#% &''
"1 2,-,&''
"3* 45,-, &)' '()* +&
#) ! 73#789
+

6) & ",-,./0
#; &'' 1 2,-,./0
"1 2,-,&'',6 3* 45,-,./0
'()* +)
"3* 45,-,&)' '()* +:
#: "
+

6: &
'

Figura 12.28 ' =)2/!$(':(#('+'*%#*/%"+',('4%5/#('6787R8

P3)!#<!'+'*%#*/%"+'!)"#!-(O!)"#!-('!2/%-%3#(,+',('4%5/#('6787_8'`)!'+'PSpice para deter- PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.11


$%&(#'('*+##!&"!',!'-%&.('IbB e a tensão de fase VAN. Adote f']'6??'SG8

120 !"#V
a 2$ 1,6 mH A
%+
10 $

120 % !"#V 10 mH
b 2$ 1,6 mH B 10 $ 10 mH
n %+ N
10 $

120 &'!"#V 10 mH
c 2$ 1,6 mH
%+
C
Figura 12.29 ' =)2/!$(':(#('+'>#+3-!$(':#1"%*+'678668

Resposta: 100,9l60,87 V, 8,547l 91,27 A.

EXEMPLO 12.12
B+&)%,!#!'+'*%#*/%"+'"#%E&5/-+O"#%E&5/-+',!)!2/%-%3#(,+'&('4%5/#('678a?8'`)!'+'PSpice
:(#('!&*+&"#(#'('*+##!&"!',+'5!#(,+#'IabD'('*+##!&"!',!'-%&.('IbB'!'('*+##!&"!',!'0()!'IBC.
a A
2 j5

+ 208 10 !V 50 #
!

!
208 130 !V + b B ! j40
2 j5

+ 208 "110 !V j30


!
2 j5
c C
Figura 12.30 !"#$%&' (')' * !+%&(,* -./-./
#SAMBARILOVE
472 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Solução:
1. !"#$%&'. 0 ()*1,%&' % * ()*2%""* 3% "*,$45* %"65* 3%7893*" 3% :*)&' 2,')'/
2. ()*!+!#,-%&'. ;)%29"'&*" 3%6%)&98') ' 2*))%86% 3* <%)'3*) =$983* 3% a para b>
' 2*))%86% 3% ,98?' 3% b para B % ' 2*))%86% 3% :'"% 3% B para C.
3. (.,!*#-,$/-. !&1*)' %+9"6'& 39:%)%86%" &@6*3*" (')' )%"*,A%) %""% ()*1,%&'> *
uso do PSpice @ *1)9<'6B)9*/ C*8"%#$%86%&%86%> 85* $"')%&*" *$6)* &@6*3*/
4. 0!#,-,$/-. C*&* &%829*8'3*> %A96'&*" ' &',?' 3'" :*86%" 3% 6%8"5*> 98"%)983*
$& )%"9"6*) 3% - mV %& "@)9% 8' :*86% 2*8%26'3' %& 6)9D8<$,*/ ;')' :*)8%2%) $&
8BE6%))' F> 98"%)9&*" )%"9"6*)%" %#$9,91)'3*" ,9<'3*" %& 6)9D8<$,* G- HV (*) :'"%I
8' :*86% 2*8%26'3' %& 6)9D8<$,*> 2*8:*)&% &*"6)'3* 8* %"#$%&' 3' J9<$)' -./K-/
L)M" ("%$3*2*&(*8%86%" N;ONPL 2*& "%$" '6)91$6*" "5* 98"%)93*" (')' (*3%)&*"
*16%) '" 2*))%86%" 8%2%""Q)9'" Iab> IbB e IBC/ RQ #$% ' :)%#$M829' 3% *(%)'45* 85* @
3'3' % '" 983$6D829'" % 2'('296D829'" 3%A%& "%) %"(%2972'3'" %& A%S 3'" 9&(%3D8-
29'"> "$(*)%&*" v T - )'3U" 3% &*3* #$% f T -U.p T F>-VW-VV XS/ ;*)6'86*>

XL 1
L e C
XC
Y%,%29*8'&*" Analysis/Setup/AC Sweep e introduzimos Total Pts T -> Start
Freq T F>-VW-VV % Final Freq T F>-VW-VV/ Z""9& #$% * ')#$9A* )%:%)%86% '*
29)2$96* :*) "',A*> "%,%29*8'&*" * 2*&'83* Analysis/Simulate para simular o
29)2$96*/ 0 ')#$9A* 3% "'[3' '()%"%86' * "%<$986% )%"$,6'3*\
FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
1.592E-01 9.106E+00 1.685E+02
FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)
1.592E-01 5.959E+00 -1.772E+02
FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)
1.592E-01 5.500E+00 1.725E+02

#$% 2*83$S '

Iab 5,595l 177,2 A, IbB 9,106l168,5 A, e


IBC 5,5l172,5 A

"- 5-

% 8
"= -;
&'+,+?9@
0&1+,+?9@ !" #$
!(&)*+,+?9@
!" #$% "-/ 8/
"8 -09:
&'0&1+,+%/2+3 3-
+
"6 -; !" #$- !" #$
&'!(&)*+,+-/
"2 &'+,+?9@
"% 5% 0&1+,+?9@
-09: '-
&'0&1+,+%/2+3 !(&)*+,+?9@+
% 8 /7/%8
3. +
"> -; 56 ./
"< -09:
&'!(&)*+,+-./ &'0&1+,+%/2+3 3% &'+,+?9@ !" #$
+ !" #$.
0&1+,+?9@
!(&)*+,+?9@
&'!(&)*+,+4--/ ". 5.

% 8

Figura 12.31 !"#$%&' (')' * 29)2$96* 3' J9<$)' -./KF/


#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 473

5. 1!*$"2-%&'. ;*3%&*" A%)972') 8*""*" )%"$,6'3*" (*) &%9* 3' '8Q,9"% 3% &',?'"/
J'4'&*" #$% ' &',?' aABb "%]' ' &',?' -> ' &',?' bBCc "%]' ' &',?' . % '
malha ACB "%]' ' &',?' K> 2*& '" 6)M" 2*))%86%" 3% &',?' =$983* 8* "%8693*
?*)Q)9*/ Z2'1'&*" 2?%<'83* ^" "%<$986%" %#$'4_%"\
Malha 1
(54 j10)I1 (2 j5)I2 (50)I3 208l10 204,8 j36,12

Malha 2
(2 j5)I1 (4 j40)I2 ( j30)I3 208l 110
71,14 j195,46

Malha 3

(50)I1 ( j30)I2 (50 j10)I3 0

`"'83* * MATLAB (')' )%"*,A%) %""'" %#$'4_%"> *16%&*">


>>Z=[(54+10i),(-2-5i),-50;(-2-5i),(4+40i),
-30i;-50,-30i,(50-10i)]

Z=
54.0000+10.0000i-2.0000-5.0000i-50.0000
-2.0000-5.0000i 4.0000+40.0000i 0-30.0000i
-50.0000 0-30.0000i 50.0000-10.0000i
>>V=[(204.8+36.12i);(-71.14-195.46i);0]

V=
1.0e+002*
2.0480+0.3612i
-0.7114-1.9546i
0
>>I=inv(Z)*V

I=
8.9317+2.6983i
0.0096+4.5175i
5.4619+3.7964i

IbB I1 I2 (8,932 j2,698) (0,0096 j4,518)


8,922 j1,82 9,106l168,47 A Verificação das respostas
IBC I2 I3 (0,0096 j4,518) (5,462 j3,796)
5,452 j0,722 5,5l172,46 A Verificação das respostas
Z<*)'> 3%6%)&98'&*" Iab/ Y% "$($"%)&*" $&' (%#$%8' 9&(%3D829' 986%)8' (')'
2'3' :*86%> (*3%&*" *16%) $&' %"69&'69A' )'S*'A%,&%86% 1*' (')' Iab/ Z2)%"2%8-
6'83*E"% )%"9"6*)%" 986%)8*" 3% F>F- V % $&' #$')6' &',?' %& 6*)8* 3* 29)2$96*
3' :*86%> *16%&*" '<*)'
Malha 1
(54,01 j10)I1 (2 j5)I2 (50)I3 0,01I4 208l10
204,8 j36,12

Malha 2

(2 j5)I1 (4,01 j40)I2 ( j30)I3 0,01I4


208l 110 71,14 j195,46

Malha 3

(50)I1 ( j30)I2 (50 j10)I3 0


#SAMBARILOVE
474 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Malha 4

(0,01)I1 (0,01)I2 (0,03)I4 0


>>Z=[(54.01+10i),(-2-5i),-50,-0.01;(-2-5i),
(4.01+40i),-30i,-0.01;-50,-30i,(50-10i),
0;-0.01,-0.01,0,0.03]

Z=
54.0100+10.0000i -2.0000-5.0000i, -50.0000 -0.0100
-2.0000-5.0000i 4.0100-40.0000i 0-30.0000i 0.0100
-50.0000 0-30.0000i 50.0000-10.0000i 0
-0.0100 -0.0100 0 0.0300

>>V=[(204.8+36.12i);(-71.14-195.46i);0;0]
V=
1.0e+002*
2.0480+0.3612i
-0.7114-1.9546i
0
0
>>I=inv(Z)*V
I=
8.9309+2.6973i
0.0093+4.5159i
5.4623+3.7954i
2.9801+2.4044i
Iab I1 I4 (8,931 j2,697) (2,98 j2,404)
5,951 j0,293 5,958l 177,18 A. Verificação das respostas
6. !"#$%!"&'#!( !"#$% &#' %$(&)*$ %'+,%-'+./,' " &#' 0"/,12')*$ '3"4&'3' 5'/' '
%$(&)*$6 78$/'9 5$3"#$% '5/"%":+'/ $% /"%&(+'3$% 2$#$ %$(&)*$ 5'/' $ 5/$;("#'6
PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.12 <'/' $ 2,/2&,+$ 3"%"4&,(,;/'3$ :' =,8&/' >?6@?9 &%" $ PSpice 5'/' 3"+"/#,:'/ ' 2$//":+"
do gerador Ica9 ' 2$//":+" 3" (,:A' IcC " ' 2$//":+" 3" -'%" IAB.
a A

10 #
+ 220 "30 !V
"
j10 #
220 90 !V " b B 10 #
+

10 #
+ 220 "150 !V
"
" j10 #

c C
Figura 12.32 B%4&"#' 5'/' $ </$;("#' 5/C+,2$ >?6>?
Resposta: 24,68l 90 A, 37,25l83,79 A, 15,55l 75,01 A.

12.10 †Aplicações
!':+$ '% (,8')D"% 3" -$:+" "# +/,E:8&($ 4&':+$ '% (,8')D"% "# "%+/"(' +F# ,#-
5$/+':+"% '5(,2')D"% 5/C+,2'%6 7 2$:"G*$ 3" -$:+" "# "%+/"(' H &%'3' 5'/'
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 475

+/':%#,%%*$ 3" ":"/8,' "(H+/,2' ' ($:8'% 3,%+E:2,'%9 "# 4&" '% 5"/3'% /"%,%+,0'%
II2 RJ 3"0"# %"/ #K:,#'%6 L%%$ %" 3"0" '$ -'+$ 3" 4&" ' 2$:"G*$ "# "%+/"('
-$/:"2" &#' +":%*$ 3" (,:A' 4&" H 13 0"M"% #',$/ 4&" ' 2$:"G*$ "# +/,E:8&($N
5$/+':+$9 5'/' ' #"%#' 5$+F:2,'9 ' 2$//":+" 3" (,:A' H 13 0"M"% #":$/6 7 2$-
:"G*$ 3" -$:+" "# +/,E:8&($ H &%'3' 4&':3$ %" 4&"/ +/F% 2,/2&,+$% #$:$-C%,2$%
' 5'/+,/ 3" &#' -$:+" +/,-C%,2'9 %":3$ 4&" "%%' 2$:0"/%*$ H :"2"%%C/,' :$ 2';"'-
#":+$ "(H+/,2$ /"%,3":2,'(9 5$,% ' ,(&#,:')*$ " $% '5'/"(A$% 3$#H%+,2$% &%'#
5$+F:2,' #$:$-C%,2'6 7 5$+F:2,' +/,-C%,2' H &+,(,M'3' :$ 2';"'#":+$ ,:3&%+/,'(
$:3" %*$ :"2"%%C/,'% 8/':3"% 5$+F:2,'%6 B# '(8&#'% '5(,2')D"%9 H ,//"("0':+"
%" ' 2'/8' "%+C 2$:"2+'3' "# "%+/"(' $& "# +/,E:8&($6 <$/ "G"#5($9 "%%"% 3$,%
+,5$% 3" (,8')D"% %*$ %'+,%-'+./,$% 2$# #$+$/"% 3" ,:3&)*$6 O' /"'(,3'3"9 '(-
8&:% -';/,2':+"% (,8'# &# #$+$/ "# +/,E:8&($ 5'/' ??P Q " "# "%+/"(' 5'/'
RRP Q9 3" #$3$ 4&" &#' (,:A' 3" #$+$/"% 5$%%' %"/ -'2,(#":+" '3'5+'3' 5'/'
3&'% +":%D"% 3,-"/":+"%6
78$/'9 2$:%,3"/'/"#$% 3&'% '5(,2')D"% 5/C+,2'% 3$% 2$:2",+$% 0,%+$%
:"%+" 2'5K+&($S #"3,)*$ 3" 5$+F:2,' "# 2,/2&,+$% +/,-C%,2$% " ,:%+'(')*$ "(H-
+/,2' /"%,3":2,'(6

12.10.1 Medição de potência trifásica


7 T")*$ >>6U '5/"%":+$& $ V'++K#"+/$ 2$#$ $ ,:%+/&#":+$ 5'/' #"3,)*$ 3" W1
5$+F:2,' #H3,' I$& /"'(J "# 2,/2&,+$% #$:$-C%,2$%6 W# V'++K#"+/$ %,#5("% a
+'#;H# H 2'5'M 3" #"3,/ ' 5$+F:2,' #H3,' "# &# %,%+"#' +/,-C%,2$ "4&,(,- Carga trifásica
;/'3$9 3" #$3$ 4&" P> = P? = P@N ' 5$+F:2,' +$+'( H +/F% 0"M"% ' (",+&/' 3"%%" W2 (estrela ou
V'++K#"+/$6 B:+/"+':+$9 %*$ :"2"%%C/,$% V'++K#"+/$% ;,-C%,2$% $& +/,-C%,2$% 5'/' b triângulo,
o balanceada ou
#"3,/ 5$+F:2,'9 2'%$ $ %,%+"#' %"X' 3"%"4&,(,;/'3$6 Y método do wattímetro
desbalanceada)
trifásico 3" #"3,)*$ 3" 5$+F:2,'9 ,:3,2'3$ :' =,8&/' >?6@@9 -&:2,$:'/C ,:3"- W3
5":3":+"#":+" 3" ' 2'/8' "%+'/ "4&,(,;/'3' $& 3"%"4&,(,;/'3'9 2$:"2+'3' "# c
+/,E:8&($ $& "%+/"('6 Y #H+$3$ 3$% +/F% V'++K#"+/$% H '3"4&'3$ 5'/' #"3,')*$
3" 5$+F:2,' "# &# %,%+"#' +/,-C%,2$ :$ 4&'( $ -'+$/ 3" 5$+F:2,' I=<J 0'/,'
Figura 12.33 \H+$3$ 3$% +/F%
2$:%+':+"#":+"6 7 5$+F:2,' #H3,' +$+'( H ' %$#' '(8H;/,2' 3'% +/F% (",+&/'% 3$ V'++K#"+/$% 5'/' #"3,)*$ 3" 5$+F:2,'
V'++K#"+/$9 +/,-C%,2'6

(12.61)
onde P>9 P? e P@ 2$//"%5$:3"#9 /"%5"2+,0'#":+"9 Z% (",+&/'% 3$% V'++K#"+/$%
W>9 W? e W@6 O$+" 4&" $ 5$:+$ 3" /"-"/F:2,' $& 2$#&# o :' =,8&/' >?6@@ H
%"("2,$:'3$ '/;,+/'/,'#":+"6 T" ' 2'/8' "%+,0"/ 2$:"2+'3' "# "%+/"('9 $ 5$:+$
o pode ser ligado ao ponto neutro n6 <'/' &#' 2'/8' 2$:"2+'3' "# +/,E:8&($9
o ponto o 5$3" %"/ (,8'3$ ' 4&'(4&"/ 5$:+$6 T"9 5$/ "G"#5($9 $ 5$:+$ o estiver
ligado ao ponto b9 ' ;$;,:' 3" +":%*$ :$ V'++K#"+/$ W? apresenta uma leitura
zero e P? [ P9 ,:3,2':3$ 4&" $ V'++K#"+/$ W? H 3"%:"2"%%C/,$6 <$/+':+$9 3$,%
V'++K#"+/$% %*$ %&12,":+"% 5'/' #"3,/ ' 5$+F:2,' +$+'(6
W1
O método dos dois wattímetros é de modo geral o mais usado para medi- a
)D"% 3" 5$+F:2,' +/,-C%,2'6 Y% 3$,% V'++K#"+/$% 3"0"# "%+'/ (,8'3$% '5/$5/,'- Carga trifásica
3'#":+" ' 3&'% -'%"% 4&',%4&"/9 2$:-$/#" #$%+/'3$ :' =,8&/' >?6@R6 Y;%"/0" (estrela ou
4&" ' ;$;,:' 3" 2$//":+" 3" 2'3' V'++K#"+/$ #"3" ' +":%*$ 3" (,:A'6 <"/2";' b triângulo,
+'#;H# 4&" $ +"/#,:'( 6 3' ;$;,:' 3" +":%*$ "%+C (,8'3$ Z (,:A' :' 4&'( ' balanceada ou
;$;,:' 3" 2$//":+" 2$//"%5$:3":+" "%+C 2$:"2+'3'6 B#;$/' $% V'++K#"+/$% ,:- W2 desbalanceada)
3,0,3&',% :*$ (",'# #',% ' 5$+F:2,' ';%$/0,3' 5$/ 4&'(4&"/ -'%" "# 5'/+,2&('/9 c
' %$#' '(8H;/,2' 3'% (",+&/'% 3$% 3$,% V'++K#"+/$% H ,8&'( Z 5$+F:2,' #H3,'
+$+'( ';%$/0,3' 5"(' 2'/8'9 ,:3"5":3":+"#":+" %" "(' "%+,0"/ 2$:"2+'3' "# "%-
Figura 12.34 \H+$3$ 8/C12$ 3$%
+/"(' $& +/,E:8&($9 " %" "%+,0"/ "4&,(,;/'3' $& :*$6 7 5$+F:2,' /"'( +$+'( H ,8&'( 3$,% V'++K#"+/$% 5'/' #"3,)*$ 3"
Z %$#' '(8H;/,2' 3'% (",+&/'% 3$% 3$,% V'++K#"+/$%9 5$+F:2,' +/,-C%,2'6
#SAMBARILOVE
476 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

(12.62)
]"#$:%+/'/"#$% '4&, 4&" $ #H+$3$ -&:2,$:' 5'/' &# %,%+"#' +/,-C%,2$
"4&,(,;/'3$6
^$:%,3"/"#$% ' 2'/8' 2$:"2+'3' "# "%+/"(' "4&,(,;/'3' 3' =,8&/' >?6@_6
O$%%$ $;X"+,0$ H '5(,2'/ $ #H+$3$ 3$% 3$,% V'++K#"+/$% 5'/' ":2$:+/'/ '
5$+F:2,' #H3,' ';%$/0,3' 5"(' 2'/8'6 T&5$:A' 4&" ' -$:+" "%+"X' :' %"4&F:-
2,' abc " ' ,#5"3E:2,' 3" 2'/8' %"X' ZY = ZYlu6 <$/ 2'&%' 3' ,#5"3E:2,'
3" 2'/8'9 2'3' ;$;,:' 3" +":%*$ "%+C '3,':+'3' "# /"(')*$ Z %&' ;$;,:' 3"
2$//":+" "# u9 3" #$3$ 4&" $ -'+$/ 3" 5$+F:2,' H 2$% u6 `"#;/'#$% 4&" 2'3'
+":%*$ 3" (,:A' "%+C '3,':+'3' "# /"(')*$ Z +":%*$ 3" -'%" 2$//"%5$:3":+" '
@Pa6 <$/+':+$9 ' 3,-"/":)' 3" -'%" +$+'( ":+/" ' 2$//":+" 3" -'%" La e a tensão de
linha Vab H P b @Pa " ' 5$+F:2,' #H3,' (,3' 5"($ V'++K#"+/$ W> é

(12.63)

W1
a
+ Ia
Vab
! Ib ZY ZY
b
! ZY
Vcb
W2
+ Ic
c

Figura 12.35 \H+$3$ 3$% 3$,% V'++K#"+/$% '5(,2'3$ '


&#' 2'/8' 2$:"2+'3' "# "%+/"(' "4&,(,;/'3'6

]" #$3$ %,#,('/9 5$3"#$% 3"#$:%+/'/ 4&" ' 5$+F:2,' #H3,' (,3' 5"($ V'++K-
#"+/$ ? H

(12.64)
78$/'9 &%'/"#$% '% ,3":+,3'3"% +/,8$:$#H+/,2'%

(12.65)

5'/' 3"+"/#,:'/ ' %$#' " ' 3,-"/":)' 3'% (",+&/'% 3$% 3$,% V'++K#"+/$% :'%
B4&')D"% I>?6c@J " I>?6cRJS

(12.66)

&#' 0"M 4&" ? 2$% @Pa [ 136 ^$#5'/':3$d%" '% B4&')D"% I>?6ccJ " I>?6_PJ9
2$:%+'+'#$% 4&" ' %$#' 3'% (",+&/'% 3$% V'++K#"+/$% -$/:"2" ' 5$+F:2,'
#H3,' +$+'(9

PT P1 P2 (12.67)

]" #$3$ %,#,('/9


#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 477

(12.68)

XC 4&" ? %": @Pa [ >6 ^$#5'/':3$d%" '% B4&')D"% I>?6ceJ " I>?6_>J9 2$:%+'+'-
#$% 4&" ' 3,-"/":)' ":+/" '% (",+&/'% 3$ V'++K#"+/$ H 5/$5$/2,$:'( Z 5$+F:2,'
/"'+,0' +$+'(9 $& %"X'9

QT 13(P2 P1) (12.69)

! "#$%&$! '#(! )*+#,-.(! /012345! .! /0123657! #! "8%9:;&#! #"#$.:%.! %8%#<! "8'.! (.$!
8=%&'#!;8>8!(.?+.

(12.70)
@&A&'&:'8B(.!#!)*+#,C8!/012365!".<#!)*+#,C8!/012345!'D!#!%#:?.:%.!'8!E:?+<8!
'8!F#%8$!'.!"8%9:;&#!;8>8!(.?+.

(12.71)

#!"#$%&$!'8!*+#<!"8'.>8(!8=%.$!8!F#%8$!'.!"8%9:;&#!;8>8!GH!I!;8(!u2!J8?87!8!
>K%8'8! '8(! '8&(! L#%%M>.%$8(! :C8! #".:#(! F8$:.;.! #(! "8%9:;&#(! $.#%&A#! .! $.#<!
%8%#&(7! ;8>8! %#>=K>! "8'.! (.$! +(#'8! "#$#! ;#<;+<#$! 8! F#%8$! '.! "8%9:;&#2! @#(!
)*+#,-.(!/0123457!/012365!.!/0124057!;8:;<+M>8(!*+.N

1. Se P1 = P7!#!;#$?#!K!$.(&(%&A#2
2. Se P1 7 P7!#!;#$?#!K!&:'+%&A#2
3. Se P1 6 P7!#!;#$?#!K!;#"#;&%&A#2

)>=8$#!.((.(!$.(+<%#'8(!(.O#>!'.$&A#'8(!'.!+>#!;#$?#!;8:.;%#'#!.>!.(%$.<#!
.*+&<&=$#'#7!.<.(!(C8!&?+#<>.:%.!AD<&'8(!"#$#!+>#!;#$?#!;8:.;%#'#!.>!%$&E:?+-
<8!.*+&<&=$#'#2!):%$.%#:%87!8!>K%8'8!'8(!'8&(!L#%%M>.%$8(!:C8!"8'.!(.$!+(#'8!
"#$#!>.'&,C8!'.!"8%9:;&#!.>!+>!(&(%.>#!%$&FD(&;8!*+#'$&P<#$!#!>.:8(!*+.!#!
;8$$.:%.!#%$#AK(!'#!<&:Q#!:.+%$#!(.O#!R.$82!S(#>8(!8!>K%8'8!'8(!%$9(!L#%%M>.-
%$8(!"#$#!>.'&$!#!"8%9:;&#!$.#<!.>!+>!(&(%.>#!%$&FD(&;8!*+#'$&P<#$2

EXEMPLO 12.13
T$9(!L#%%M>.%$8(!W07!W1 e WU!(C8!&:%.$<&?#'8(7!$.(".;%&A#>.:%.7!V(!F#(.(!a7!b e c para
>.'&$!#!"8%9:;&#!%8%#<!#=(8$A&'#!".<#!;#$?#!;8:.;%#'#!.>!.(%$.<#!:8!)W.>"<8!0126!/A.$!
G&?+$#! 0121U52! /#5! H$.A.O#! #(! <.&%+$#(! '8! L#%%M>.%$82! /=5! @.%.$>&:.! #! "8%9:;&#! %8%#<!
absorvida.
Solução: H#$%.!'8!"$8=<.>#!OD!.(%D!$.(8<A&'#!:8!)W.>"<8!01262!X+"8:Q#!*+.!8(!L#%%M-
>.%$8(!.(%.O#>!#"$8"$&#'#>.:%.!<&?#'8(7!;8>8!:#!G&?+$#!012U32
/#5!@8!)W.>"<8!01267
VAN 100l0 , VBN 100l120 , VCN 100l 120 V

.:*+#:%8
Ia 6,67l0 , Ib 8,94l93,44 , Ic 10l 66,87 A
#SAMBARILOVE
478 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Ia
A
W1 +

In VAN 15 !

N
10 ! 6!
VBN
j8 !
VCN Ib
+ j5 !
W2 C
B
Ic
+
W3

Figura 12.36 ! )(*+.>#!"#$#!8!)W.>"<8!0120U2

Y#<;+<#>8(!#(!<.&%+$#(!'8(!L#%%M>.%$8(!;8>8!(.?+.N

P1 Re(VAN I*a) VAN Ia cos(uVAN uIa)


100 6,67 cos(0 0) 667 W
P2 Re(VBN I*b) VBN Ib cos(uVBN uIb)
100 8,94 cos(120 93,44 ) 800 W
P3 Re(VCN I*c ) VCN Ic cos(uVCN uIc)
100 10 cos( 120 66,87 ) 600 W

/=5! !"8%9:;&#!%8%#<!#=(8$A&'#!K

PT P1 P2 P3 667 800 600 2067 W

H8'.>8(!'.%.$>&:#$!#!"8%9:;&#!#=(8$A&'#!".<8(!$.(&(%8$.(!:#!G&?+$#!012U3!.!+(#$!.(%#!
"#$#!A.$&P;#$!8+!;8:P$>#$!.((.!$.(+<%#'82

PT 0 Ia 0 2(15) 0Ib 0 2(10) 0Ic 0 2(6)


6,672(15) 8,942(10) 102(6)
667 800 600 2067 W
*+.!K!.W#%#>.:%.!8!>.(>8!$.(+<%#'82

PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.13 Z."&%#!8!)W.>"<8!0120U!"#$#!8!;&$;+&%8!'#!G&?+$#!0121[!/A.$!H$8=<.>#!"$D%&;8!012652!


SugestãoN!J&?+.!8!"8:%8!'.!$.F.$9:;&#!o!:#!G&?+$#!012UU!#8!"8:%8!B.
Resposta: (a) 13,175 kW, 0 W, 29,91 kW; (b) 43,08 kW.

EXEMPLO 12.14
\!>K%8'8!'8(!'8&(!L#%%M>.%$8(!"$8'+R!#(!(.?+&:%.(!<.&%+$#(N!P0!I!02]3^!_!.!P1!I!120^^!`_7!
*+#:'8!;8:.;%#'8!#!+>#!;#$?#!.>!%$&E:?+<82!X.!#!%.:(C8!'.!<&:Q#!F8$!11^!a7!;#<;+<.N!/#5!
#!"8%9:;&#!>K'&#!"8$!F#(.b!/=5!#!"8%9:;&#!$.#%&A#!"8$!F#(.b!/;5!8!F#%8$!'.!"8%9:;&#b!/'5!#!
&>".'E:;&#!'.!F#(.2
Solução: H8'.>8(!#"<&;#$!8(!$.(+<%#'8(!'#'8(!V!;#$?#!;8:.;%#'#!.>!%$&E:?+<82!/#5! !
"8%9:;&#!>K'&#!8+!$.#<!%8%#<!K

PT P1 P2 1.560 2.100 3.660 W

!"8%9:;&#!>K'&#!"8$!F#(.!K!.:%C8

1
Pp PT 1.220 W
3

/=5! !"8%9:;&#!$.#%&A#!%8%#<!K

QT 13(P2 P1) 13(2.100 1.560) 935,3 VAR


#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 479

'.!>8'8!*+.!#!"8%9:;&#!$.#%&A#!"8$!F#(.!K

1
Qp QT 311,77 VAR
3
/;5!\!E:?+<8!'.!"8%9:;&#!K

1 QT 1 935,3
u tg tg 14,33
PT 3.660

!"!#$!$%&'!($)*$+!',-./&$0

cos u 0,9689 (atrasado)

1(&'&23*$)*$45$67$&'(&3&)!#$+!/3$QT é positiva ou P8 7 P9.


:);$<$/5+*)=-./&$)*$%&3*$0$Zp = Zplu>$?&@*5!3$A4*$u$0$/"4&B$&!$=-"4B!$)!$67C$/3'!$0#$
u$D$9E#FFG>
Vp
Zp
Ip

*5@(&5!3$A4*#$+&(&$45&$.&("&$.!-*.'&)&$*5$'(/=-"4B!#Vp = VL$D$88H$I>$<$+&('/($)&$
JA4&KL!$:98>EM;#
1.220
Pp Vp Ip cos u 1 Ip 5,723 A
220 0,9689

!"!#
Vp 220
Zp 38,44
Ip 5,723

e
Zp 38,44l14,33

N!-3/)*(*5!3$A4*$&$'*-3L!$)*$B/-O&$VL$D$8HP$I$*$&3$B*/'4(&3$)!3$Q&''R5*'(!3$)!$3/3'*5&$ PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.14


*A4/B/@(&)!$)&$6/"4(&$98>FS$3*T&5$P9$D$USMH$V$*$P8$D$PHH$V>$W*'*(5/-*X
:&;$ &$+!',-./&$50)/&$'!'&B>
:@;$ &$+!',-./&$(*&'/Y&$'!'&B>
:.;$ !$%&'!($)*$+!',-./&>
:);$ &$/5+*)=-./&$+!($%&3*>
<$/5+*)=-./&$0$/-)4'/Y&$!4$.&+&./'/Y&Z
Resposta: (a) 240 W; (b) 2,356 kVAR; (c) 0,1014; (d) 18,25l84,18 , indutiva.

EXEMPLO 12.15
<$.&("&$'(/%[3/.&$*A4/B/@(&)&$-&$6/"4(&$98>FS$'*5$/5+*)=-./&$+!($%&3*$)*$ZY$D$P$\$jM$V.
?*$&$.&("&$*3'/Y*($.!-*.'&)&$&$B/-O&3$)*$8HP$I#$+(*Y*T&$&3$B*/'4(&3$)!3$Q&''R5*'(!3$W9
e W8. Determine PT e QT.
Solução: <$/5+*)=-./&$+!($%&3*$0
ZY 8 j6 10l36,87

)*$5!)!$A4*$!$=-"4B!$)!$67$0$FM#P]G>$^[$A4*$&$'*-3L!$)*$B/-O&$0$VL$D$8HP$I#$&$.!((*-'*$
de linha é

Vp 208 13
IL 12 A
0 ZY 0 10
#SAMBARILOVE
480 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

Então
P1 VL IL cos(u 30 ) 208 12 cos(36,87 30 )
980,48 W
P2 VL IL cos(u 30 ) 208 12 cos(36,87 30 )
2.478,1 W

!"!#$!$Q&''R5*'(!$9$&+(*3*-'&$45&$B*/'4(&$_PH#EP$V#$*-A4&-'!$!$Q&''R5*'(!$8$/-)/.&$
8>E]P#9$V>$N!5!$P8 7 P9#$&$.&("&$0$/-)4'/Y&>$`33!$a.&$*Y/)*-'*$)&$+(b+(/&$.&("&$ZY.
J5$3*"4/)&#
PT P1 P2 3,459 kW

e
QT 13(P2 P1) 13(1.497,6) VAR 2,594 kVAR

PROBLEMA PRÁTICO 12.15 ?*$&$.&("&$)&$6/"4(&$98>FS$%!($.!-*.'&)&$*5$'(/=-"4B!$.!5$/5+*)=-./&$+!($%&3*$


Zp D$FH$U$jEH$V e VL$D$EEH$I#$)*'*(5/-*$&3$B*/'4(&3$)!3$Q&''R5*'(!3$W9 e W8. Determine
P T e Q T.
Resposta: 6,167 kW; 802,1 W; 6,969 kW; 9,292 kVAR.

12.10.2 Instalação elétrica residencial


c!3$J3'&)!3$d-/)!3#$&$5&/!($+&('*$)&$/B45/-&KL!$*$)!3$&+&(*BO!3$)!503'/.!3$
!+*(&$.!5$98H$I#$MH$ef#$.!((*-'*$&B'*(-&)&$5!-!%[3/.&>$:<$*B*'(/./)&)*$'&5-
@05$+!)*$3*($%!(-*./)&$*5$99H$I#$99S$I$!4$99]$I#$)*+*-)*-)!$)!$B!.&B*>;$<$
.!-.*33/!-[(/&$)*$*-*("/&$*B0'(/.&$B!.&B$&B/5*-'&$&$.&3&$.!5$45$3/3'*5&$N<$
'(/aB&(>$c!(5&B5*-'*#$.!5!$/-)/.&)!$-&$6/"4(&$98>F]#$&$'*-3L!$)*$B/-O&$)*#$+!($
*g*5+B!#$98>HHH$I$0$(*)4f/)&$+&(&$98Hh8EH$I$.!5$45$'(&-3%!(5&)!($:5&/3$
)*'&BO*3$3!@(*$'(&-3%!(5&)!(*3$3*(L!$&+(*3*-'&)!3$-!$+(bg/5!$.&+R'4B!;>$i3$
'(,3$a!3$+(!Y*-/*-'*3$)!$'(&-3%!(5&)!($3L!#$-!(5&B5*-'*#$.!B!(/)!3X$Y*(5*BO!$

Transformador
abaixador
Circuito Circuito Circuito
Parede No 1 No 2 No 3
da casa 120 V 120 V 240 V

Fusível Fusível

Chave

Fusível

Poste
Medidor de Wh
Haste de metal
Terra
para aterramento
Figura 12.37 $ ?/3'*5&$)*$%!(-*./5*-'!$)*$*-*("/&$*B0'(/.&$(*3/)*-./&B$)*$
98Hh8EH$I>$
FonteX$<>$l&(.43$&-)$N>$l>$1O!53!-#$Electricity for Technicians#$8-)$*)/'/!-#$m$9_]S#$+>$F8E>$
n*+(!)4f/)!$.!5$&$+*(5/33L!$)&$7*&(3!-$J)4.&'/!-#$`-.>#$d++*($?&))B*$n/Y*(#$c^>

*
$ c>$)*$1>X$c!$j(&3/B$&3$'*-3k*3$43&)&3$3L!$98]$I$*$88H$I>
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 481

!"#$%&'!(")*$+,&%"$ !"#$%&'!(")$&$#,-'."$ '&/%,")0$1"'2",3&$3"!%,-4"$'-$56-


7/,-$890:;*$-!$4/-!$%&'!<&!$4&$89=$>$!("$"+"!%-!$&3$2-!&$&*$+",%-'%"*$!/-$!"3-$
?$@&,"0$A!%"$?*$VW 0 0 , VB 120 0 , VR 120 180 VB.

VBR VB VR VB ( VB) 2VB 240l0 (12.72)

Para outra residências

Preto
(fase) B
+ 120 V 120 V
Branco iluminação eletrodomésticos
120 V
(neutro) W 240 V
Terra iluminação
120 V
R 120 V 120 V
+
iluminação eletrodomésticos
Vermelho (fase)
Transformador
Residência

Figura 12.38 $ A'!%-B-C("$&B?%,6.-$,&!64&'.6-B$%,6DB-,$3"'"2E!6.-0

F3-$G&@$H/&$-$3-6",6-$4"!$&B&%,"4"3?!%6."!$?$+,"I&%-4-$+-,-$"+&,-,$."3$89=$>*$-$
6B/36'-C("$&$"!$-+-,&BJ"!$!("$B67-4"!$-$B6'J-!$4&$89=$>*$."'2",3&$6B/!%,-4"$'-$
567/,-$890:K$+-,-$/3$-3#6&'%&0$L"%&$'-$567/,-$890:M$H/&$%"4"!$"!$-+-,&BJ"!$
!("$ B67-4"!$ &3$ +-,-B&B"0$ NB&%,"4"3?!%6."!$ +"%&'%&!$ H/&$ ."'!"3&3$ 7,-'4&!$
.",,&'%&!*$."3"$-,O."'46.6"'-4"*$3EH/6'-!$4&$B-G-,$B"/C-$&$,"/+-*$&$2",'"!*$
!("$B67-4"!$P$B6'J-$4&$9Q=$>0
R",$.-/!-$4"!$+&,67"!$4-$&B&%,6.64-4&*$-$6'!%-B-C("$&B?%,6.-$&3$,&!64S'- Soquetes de lâmpadas
.6-!$?$,&7/B-3&'%-4-$."3$./64-4"$+",$/3$.T467"$&B-#",-4"$+&B-!$B&6!$B".-6!$
&$+&B"$LN1$ National Electrical Code)0$R-,-$&G6%-,$+,"#B&3-!*$!("$/!-4"!$
6!"B-3&'%"*$-%&,,-3&'%"*$2/!UG&6!$&$46!I/'%",&!0$V!$'",3-!$4&$D-C("$3"4&,- Chave
'-!$&W67&3$/3$%&,.&6,"$D"$+-,-$/3$%&,,-$!&+-,-4"0$X$D"$%&,,-$'("$.-,,&7-$ Tomadas
&'&,76-$ ."3"$ "$ D"$ '&/%,"*$ +",?3*$ +&,36%&$ H/&$ "!$ -+-,&BJ"!$ %&'J-3$ /3-$ Neutro
."'&W("$%&,,-$!&+-,-4-0$V$567/,-$890Q=$3"!%,-$-$."'&W("$4&$/3$,&.&+%E./B"$ 120 volts
-$/3-$B6'J-$4&$89=$>$YZ[$&$-"$%&,,-0$1"3"$&W+"!%"$'-$D7/,-*$-$B6'J-$'&/%,-$
?$."'&.%-4-$-"$%&,,-$&3$GE,6"!$B".-6!$.,/.6-6!0$N3#",-$-$B6'J-$4&$%&,,-$+-,&C-$ Condutor não aterrado
,&4/'4-'%&*$"$-%&,,-3&'%"$?$63+",%-'%&$+",$46G&,!-!$,-@<&!0$R,63&6,"*$&B-$?$
&W6764-$+&B-$LN10$[&7/'4"*$"$-%&,,-3&'%"$2",'&.&$/3$.-36'J"$."'G&'6&'- Figura 12.39 $ \6-7,-3-$4&$D-C("$
%&$ 4"$ %&,,-$ +-,-$ -$ 4&!.-,7-$ &B?%,6.-$ H/&$ -%6'7&$ -$ B6'J-$ 4&$ 2",'&.63&'%"$ 4&$ ."3/3$4&$/3-$!-B-0$
&'&,76-0$N$%&,.&6,"*$"!$%&,,-!$36'636@-3$"$,6!."$4&$.J"H/&$&B?%,6."0$X$H/&$ Fonte]$V0$Z-,./!$-'4$10$Z0$^J"3!"'*$
+,"G".-$.J"H/&$?$-$+-!!-7&3$4&$.",,&'%&$4&$/3-$+-,%&$4"$.",+"$+-,-$"/%,-0$ Electricity for Technicians*$9'4$&46%6"'*$_$
8KM`*$+0$:9`0$Y&+,"4/@64"$."3$-$+&,36!!("$
X$.",+"$J/3-'"$2/'.6"'-$."3"$/3$7,-'4&$,&!6!%",$R. Se V for a diferença 4-$R&-,!"'$N4/.-%6"'*$A'.0*$F++&,$[-44B&$
Y6G&,*$La0

Fusível ou disjuntor
Fase

Tomada

120 V RMS + Para outros


eletrodomésticos
Neutro

Aterramento Aterramento Terra


do sistema de do quadro de
potência distribuição

Figura 12.40 Conexão de uma tomada à linha sob tensão e ao terra.


#SAMBARILOVE
482 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

4&$+"%&'.6-B$&'%,&$"$.",+"$&$"$%&,,-*$-$.",,&'%&$-%,-G?!$4"$.",+"$J/3-'"$?$
4&%&,36'-4-$+&B-$B&6$4&$XJ3$."3"$!&7/&

V
I (12.73)
R

O valor de R$G-,6-$4&$+&!!"-$+-,-$+&!!"-$&$4&+&'4&$4&$"$.",+"$&!%-,$3"BJ-4"$
"/$!&."0$V$6'%&'!64-4&$&$-$7,-G64-4&$4&$/3$.J"H/&$%-3#?3$4&+&'4&$4-$H/-'-
%64-4&$4&$.",,&'%&*$4"$%,-I&%"$-%,-G?!$4"$.",+"$&$4"$%&3+"$H/&$"$.",+"$D.-$&W-
+"!%"$P$.",,&'%&0$1",,&'%&!$3&'",&!$H/&$8$3V$%-BG&@$'("$!&I-3$+,&I/46.6-6!$-"$
.",+"$J/3-'"*$+",?3*$.",,&'%&!$3-6",&!$H/&$8=$3V$+"4&3$+,"G".-,$/3$.J"-
H/&$7,-G&0$F3$3"4&,'"$46!+"!6%6G"$4&$!&7/,-'C-$?$"$interruptor de circuito
por falha de aterramento$ b51A)$/!-4"$&3$.6,./6%"!$6'%&,'"!$&$&3$#-'J&6,"!*$
"'4&$"$,6!."$4&$.J"H/&$&B?%,6."$?$3-6",0$NB&$?*$#-!6.-3&'%&*$/3$46!I/'%",$H/&$
-#,&$H/-'4"$-$!"3-$4-!$.",,&'%&!$iR*$iW e iB -%,-G?!$4-!$B6'J-!$G&,3&BJ-*$#,-'.-$
&$+,&%-$'("$?$67/-B$-$@&,"*$"/$!&I-*$iR$c$iW $c$iB Þ$=0
V$3&BJ",$3-'&6,-$4&$!&$&G6%-,$/3$.J"H/&$&B?%,6."$?$!&7/6,$-!$'",3-!$4&$
!&7/,-'C-$,&2&,&'%&!$-$!6!%&3-!$&$-+-,&BJ"!$&B?%,6."!0$N6!$-B7/3-!$4&B-!]$
d$ a$ -3-6!$ ."'.B/-$ +",$ -'%&.6+-C("$ H/&$ /3$ .6,./6%"$ &B?%,6."$ &!%E$ 4&!B67-4"0$
[&3+,&$G&,6DH/&$+-,-$.&,%6D.-,O!&0
d$ $e/-'4"$'&.&!!E,6"*$/!&$46!+"!6%6G"!$4&$!&7/,-'C-$&$!&$+,"%&I-$-4&H/-4--
3&'%&$ !-+-%"!$."3$6!"B-3&'%"*$B/G-!$&%.0)
d$ $a-3-6!$/!&$-3#-!$-!$3("!$-"$%&!%-,$.6,./6%"!$4&$-B%-$%&'!("*$IE$H/&$-$.",-
,&'%&$H/&$+-!!-$4&$/3-$3("$+-,-$-$"/%,-$%&3$."'&W("$46,&%-$."3$"$+&6%"$
&$"$.",-C("0
d$ $L("$%"H/&$&3$/3$-+-,&BJ"$&B?%,6."$H/-'4"$&!%6G&,$3"BJ-4"0$f&3#,&O!&$4&$
H/&$-$E7/-$."'4/@$&B&%,6.64-4&0$
d$ $[&I-$&W%,&3-3&'%&$.-/%&B"!"$-"$%,-#-BJ-,$."3$-+-,&BJ"!$&B&%,g'6."!$."3"$
,E46"$&$^>*$+"6!$&!!&!$-+-,&BJ"!$%S3$.-+-.6%",&!$4&$7,-'4&$+",%&$&3$!&/$
6'%&,6",0$X!$.-+-.6%",&!$B&G-3$%&3+"$+-,-$4&!.-,,&7-,$-+T!$-$&'&,76-$%&,$
sido desligada.
d$ Sempre tenha outra pessoa presente ao trabalhar em um sistema de insta-
B-C("$&B?%,6.-*$+-,-$-I/4-$&3$.-!"$4&$-.64&'%&!0$
_____________________________________________________________________

12.11 Resumo
1. [&H/S'.6-$4&$2-!&!$?$-$",4&3$'-$H/-B$".",,&3$-!$%&'!<&!$4&$2-!&$4&$/3$
7&,-4",$%,62E!6."$&3$,&B-C("$-"$%&3+"0$N3$/3-$!&H/S'.6-$abc$4&$%&'!<&!$
4&$2"'%&$&H/6B6#,-4-!*$Van está adiantada em relação a Vbn$4&$89=h$H/&*$+",$
!/-$G&@*$&!%E$-46-'%-4-$&3$,&B-C("$-$Vcn$+",$89=h0$N3$/3-$!&H/S'.6-$acb
4&$%&'!<&!$&H/6B6#,-4-!*$Van está adiantada em relação a Vcn$+",$89=h$H/&*$
+",$!/-$G&@*$&!%E$-46-'%-4-$&3$,&B-C("$-$Vbn$+",$89=h0
2. F3-$.-,7-$."'&.%-4-$&3$%,6i'7/B"$"/$&3$&!%,&B-$?$-H/&B-$'-$H/-B$-!$63+&-
4i'.6-!$%,62E!6.-!$!("$67/-6!0$
3. V$2",3-$3-6!$2E.6B$4&$-'-B6!-,$/3$.6,./6%"$%,62E!6."$&H/6B6#,-4"$?$%,-'!-
2",3-,$%-'%"$-$2"'%&$H/-'%"$-$.-,7-$&3$/3$!6!%&3-$&!%,&B-O&!%,&B-$&$&'%("$
-'-B6!-,$ "$ .6,./6%"$ 3"'"2E!6."$ &H/6G-B&'%&0$V$^-#&B-$ 8908$ -+,&!&'%-$ /3$
,&!/3"$4-!$2T,3/B-!$+-,-$-!$.",,&'%&!$&$%&'!<&!$4&$2-!&*$&$-!$.",,&'%&!$&$
%&'!<&!$4&$B6'J-$+-,-$-!$H/-%,"$."'D7/,-C<&!$+"!!UG&6!0
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 483

4. V$.",,&'%&$4&$B6'J-$IL$?$-$.",,&'%&$j/6'4"$4"$7&,-4",$+-,-$-$.-,7-$&3$.-4-$
B6'J-$ 4&$ %,-'!36!!("$ &3$ /3$ !6!%&3-$ %,62E!6."0$V$ %&'!("$ 4&$ B6'J-$ VL é a
%&'!("$&'%,&$.-4-$+-,$4&$B6'J-!*$&W.B/6'4"$-$B6'J-$'&/%,-*$.-!"$&B-$&W6!%-0$
V$.",,&'%&$4&$2-!&$Ip$?$-$.",,&'%&$H/&$j/6$+",$2-!&$&3$/3-$.-,7-$%,62E!6.-0$
A tensão de fase Vp$?$-$%&'!("$4&$.-4-$2-!&0$R-,-$/3-$.-,7-$."'&.%-4-$&3$
&!%,&B-*

VL 13Vp e IL Ip

R-,-$/3-$.-,7-$."'&.%-4-$&3$%,6i'7/B"*

VL Vp e IL 13Ip

5. V$+"%S'.6-$6'!%-'%i'&-$%"%-B$&3$/3$!6!%&3-$%,62E!6."$&H/6B6#,-4"$?$."'!-
%-'%&$&$67/-B$P$+"%S'.6-$3?46-0
6. V$+"%S'.6-$."3+B&W-$%"%-B$-#!",G64-$+",$/3-$.-,7-$%,62E!6.-$&H/6B6#,-4-$
."'&.%-4-$&3$&!%,&B-$"/$&3$%,6i'7/B"$?

S P jQ 13VL ILlu

onde u$?$"$i'7/B"$4-!$63+&4i'.6-!$4&$.-,7-0
7. F3$!6!%&3-$%,62E!6."$4&!&H/6B6#,-4"$+"4&$!&,$-G-B6-4"$+",$3&6"$4&$-'EB6!&$
nodal ou de malhas.
8. O PSpice$?$/!-4"$+-,-$-'-B6!-,$.6,./6%"!$%,62E!6."!$4-$3&!3-$2",3-$H/&$?$
&3+,&7-4"$+-,-$-G-B6-,$.6,./6%"!$3"'"2E!6."!0
9. V$+"%S'.6-$,&-B$%"%-B$?$3&464-$&3$!6!%&3-!$%,62E!6."!$/!-'4"$"$3?%"4"$4"!$
%,S!$k-%%U3&%,"!$"/$"$3?%"4"$4"!$4"6!$k-%%U3&%,"!0
10.$ V$D-C("$&3$,&!64S'.6-!$/!-$/3$!6!%&3-$%,6DB-,$3"'"2E!6."$4&$89=l9Q=$>0

Questões para revisão


12.1$ e/-B$?$-$!&H/S'.6-$4&$2-!&!$4&$/3$3"%",$%,62E!6."$+-,-$"$ 12.5# <3# 23-# 7-89-# 7+('7&-!-# '3# &846(92=+># -%# 7+88'(&'%# !'#
H/-B$VAN 220 100 V e VBN 220 140 V? linha e de fase são iguais.
-)$abc$$ #)$acb -"# @'8!-!'48+## A"# *-=%+
12.2$ [&$&3$/3-$!&H/S'.6-$4&$2-!&$acb*$Van 100 20 , en- 12.6# <3# 23# %4%&'3-# '%&8'=-B'%&8'=-># 23-# &'(%,+# !'# =4(?-# !'#
tão Vcn$?] //0#C#58+!2D#23-#&'(%,+#!'#*-%'#492-=#-E
(a) 100l 140 (b) 100l100 (a) 381 V (b) 311 V (c) 220 V
(c) 100l 50 (d) 100l10 (d) 156 V (e) 127 V
12.3$ e/-B$4-!$."'46C<&!$-$!&7/6,$'("$?$'&.&!!E,6-$+-,-$/3$!6!- 12.7# <3# 23# %4%&'3-# &846(92=+B&846(92=+># 23-# &'(%,+# !'# *-%'#
%&3-$&H/6B6#,-4"] !'#.00#C#58+!2D#23-#&'(%,+#!'#=4(?-#492-=#-E
(a) 0Van 0 0 Vbn 0 0 Vcn 0 (a) 58 V (b) 71 V (c) 100 V
(b) Ia Ib Ic 0 (d) 173 V (e) 141 V
(c) Van Vbn Vcn 0 12.8# F2-(!+#23-#7-89-#7+('7&-!-#'3#'%&8'=-#*+8#-=43'(&-!-#
5+8#&'(%)'%#(-#%'G2:(74-#!'#*-%'%#abc>#-%#&'(%)'%#!'#=4(?-#
!"# $%#&'(%)'%#!'#*+(&'#'%&,+#!'*-%-!-%#-#./01#23-%#'3# '%&,+#-&8-%-!-%#'3#8'=-H,+#I%#&'(%)'%#!'#*-%'#7+88'%5+(-
relação às outras. !'(&'%#-#J01;
'"# $%#435'!6(74-%#!'#7-89-#5-8-#-%#&8:%#*-%'%#%,+#492-4%;
-"# @'8!-!'48+## A"# *-=%+
12.4# <3#23-#7-89-#7+('7&-!-#'3#'%&8'=->#-%#7+88'(&'%#!'#=4(?-#
12.9# <3#23#748724&+#&84*K%47+#'G24=4A8-!+>#-#5+&:(74-#4(%&-(&6-
e de fase são iguais.
('-#&+&-=#L#492-=#I#5+&:(74-#3L!4-;
-"# @'8!-!'48+# A"# *-=%+ -"# @'8!-!'48+## A"# *-=%+
#SAMBARILOVE
484 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

12.10#$#5+&:(74-#&+&-=#*+8('74!-#-#23-#7-89-#'3#&846(92=+#'G24-
=4A8-!-#L#'(7+(&8-!-#!-#3'%3-#*+83-#G2'#5-8-#23-#7-89-#
em estrela.
Respostas: 12.1a; 12.2a; 12.3c; 12.4a; 12.5b; 12.6e; 12.7c;
-"# @'8!-!'48+## A"# *-=%+ 12.8b; 12.9a; 12.10a.

Problemas1

Seção 12.2 Tensões trifásicas equilibradas 12.7# XA&'(?-#-%#7+88'(&'%#!'#=4(?-#(+#748724&+#&84*K%47+#!-#V4-


928-#./;N/;
12.1 Se Vab#M#N00#C#'3#23#9'8-!+8#&84*K%47+#7+('7&-!+#'3#'%- Ia
a A
&8'=-#'G24=4A8-!+>#!'&'834('#-%#&'(%)'%#!'#*-%'>#%25+(!+#
G2'#-#%'G2:(74-#!'#*-%'%#%'O-E
440 0!"V + 6 "j8 #
-"# abc## # A"#acb
n N
12.2# F2-=#-#%'G2:(74-#!'#*-%'%#!'#23#748724&+#&84*K%47+#'G24=4-
A8-!+#5-8-#+#G2-=#Van 120 30 e Vcn 120 90 V? 6 "j8 # 6 "j8 #
Determine Vbn.
440 120!"V + + 440 120!"V
12.3# P'&'834('# -# %'G2:(74-# !'# *-%'%# !'# 23# 748724&+# &84*K- Ib
%47+# 'G24=4A8-!+# (+# G2-=# Vbn 440 130 V e Vcn =
440 10 V. Obtenha Van.
Ic
12.4# Q3# %4%&'3-# &84*K%47+# 7+3# %'G2:(74-# abc e VL# M# NN0#C
-=43'(&-# 23-# 7-89-# 7+('7&-!-# '3# '%&8'=-# 7+3# Figura 12.42 <%G2'3-#5-8-#+#R8+A='3-#./;Y;
ZL 40 30 .#P'&'834('#-%#7+88'(&'%#!'#=4(?-;
12.8# <3#23#%4%&'3-#&84*K%47+#'%&8'=-B'%&8'=-#'G24=4A8-!+>#-#*+(-
12.5# R-8-# 23-# 7-89-# 7+('7&-!-# '3# '%&8'=-># -%# 'S58'%%)'%# (+#
&'# L# 23-# %'G2:(74-# abc# !'# &'(%)'%# '# Van 100 20 V
!+3T(4+#!+#&'35+#5-8-#&8:%#&'(%)'%#=4(?-B('2&8+#(+%#&'8-
Z[\;# $# 435'!6(74-# !'# =4(?-# 5+8# *-%'# L# 0>W# ]# j.>/# V>#
34(-4%#%,+E
'(G2-(&+#-#435'!6(74-#5+8#*-%'#!-#7-89-#L#.0#]#j.N#V.
vAN 120 cos(vt 32 ) V U-=72='#-%#7+88'(&'%#!'#=4(?-#'#-%#&'(%)'%#!'#7-89-;
vBN 120 cos(vt 88 ) V 12.9# Q3# %4%&'3-# G2-!84^=-8# '%&8'=-B'%&8'=-# 'G24=4A8-!+# -58'-
vCN 120 cos(vt 152 ) V %'(&-#-%#%'924(&'%#&'(%)'%#!'#*-%'
<%78'@-#-%#'S58'%%)'%#(+#!+3T(4+#!+#&'35+#5-8-#-%#&'(- Van 120 0 , Vbn 120 120
%)'%#=4(?-B=4(?-#vAB>#vBC e vCA. Vcn 120 120 V

$#435'!6(74-#!'#7-89-#5+8#*-%'#L#._#]#j.J#V#'#-#435'!6(-
Seção 12.3 Conexão estrela-estrela 74-#!'#=4(?-#5+8#*-%'#L#.#]#j/#V;#P'&'834('#-%#7+88'(&'%#!'#
equilibrada =4(?-#'#-#7+88'(&'#!+#('2&8+;
12.6 U+(%4!'8'# -# V4928-# ./;N.# '# '=-A+8'# 23# 58+A='3-# 5-8-# 12.10#R-8-#+#748724&+#!-#V4928-#./;NJ>#!'&'834('#-#7+88'(&'#(-#
-O2!-8# +2&8+%# '%&2!-(&'%# -# '(&'(!'8# 3'=?+8# -# 7+('S,+# linha neutra.
'%&8'=-B'%&8'=-#'G24=4A8-!-;
2!
VP 0° V
a A R jXL
−+ +
440 0"#V 25 j10 !
2!
VP −120° V +
b B R jXL
n −+ N 20 !
440 120"#V
10 + j5 !
VP 120° V 440 120"#V +
c C R jXL
2!
−+

Figura 12.41 <%G2'3-#5-8-#+#R8+A='3-#./;W; Figura 12.43 <%G2'3-#5-8-#+#R8+A='3-#./;.0;

.
!"#$%"&'" (" )*"+ ',-./ "'0"1231,45/ 1/67%8%2,+ 7/(/' /' .,-/%"' (" 7"6'9"' " 1/%%"67"' '5/ :;<=
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 485

Seção 12.4 Conexão estrela-triângulo 1 + j2 Ω


A
equilibrada a

12.11 >/ '2'7"#, "'7%"-,&7%2?6@*-/ #/'7%,(/ 6, A2@*%, BC=DD+ + 100 0° V ZL ZL



, E/67" F *#, '")*G612, 0/'272., 1/# Van H CDI 0 J "
2#0"(?612, 0/% E,'" Zp H C K jL V= M,-1*-" , 7"6'5/ (" n
C B
linha VL " , 1/%%"67" (" -26N, IL.
ZL = 12 + j12 Ω
Van 100 120° V +− + 100 –120° V

a b 1 + j2 Ω
+ c
1 + j2 Ω
Zp
Vbn
b Figura 12.47 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=BD=
n + Zp

12.15 U 12%1*27/ (, A2@*%, BC=DW F "S127,(/ 0/% *#, E/67" 7%2-


Zp
E8'21, ")*2-2$%,(, 1/# *#, 7"6'5/ (" -26N, (" CBI J= <"
Vcn
c Zl H B X jB V+ Z¢ = CD K jLI V e ZY H BC X jQ V+ ("7"%#26"
+ , #,@627*(" (, 1/%%"67" (" -26N, (,' 1,%@,' ,''/12,(,'=
Figura 12.44 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=BB= Zl ZY
a
12.12 M/6'2("%" , A2@*%, BC=DQ " "-,$/%" *# 0%/$-"#, 0,%, Z
Z
,R*(,% /*7%/' "'7*(,67"' , "67"6("% #"-N/% /' 12%1*27/' Zl ZY
1/# 1/6"S5/ "'7%"-,&7%2?6@*-/= b

Ia Z
A Zl ZY
a c
+ VP 0° V
− Figura 12.48 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=BQ=
n Z∆ Z∆
12.16 Y#, 1,%@, 1/6"17,(, "# 7%2?6@*-/ ")*2-2$%,(, 0/''*2
VP 120° V +− − VP −120° V *#, 1/%%"67" (" E,'" IAC H Q –30 A.
+
Ib Z,[ \"7"%#26" ,' 7%G' 1/%%"67"' (" -26N, '*0/6(/ )*" /
Z∆
c 12%1*27/ /0"%, 6, '")*G612, (" E,'"' 0/'272.,=
C
b B Z$[ M,-1*-" , 2#0"(?612, (" 1,%@, '" , 7"6'5/ (" -26N, E/%
Ic
VAB H BBI 0 J=
12.17 Y#, 1,%@, 1/6"17,(, "# 7%2?6@*-/ ")*2-2$%,(, 7"# 1/%-
Figura 12.45 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=BC= rente de linha Ia H Q –25 ]= \"7"%#26" ,' 1/%%"67"' ("
fase IAB+ IBC e ICA.
12.13 >/ '2'7"#, 7%2E8'21/ "'7%"-,&7%2?6@*-/ ")*2-2$%,(/ (, A2-
12.18 Se Van H CCI 60 J 6/ 12%1*27/ (, A2@*%, BC=D^+ ("7"%#2-
@*%, BC=DT+ ("7"%#26" , 1/%%"67" (" -26N, IL " , 0/7G6-
6"+ 0,%, , 1,%@,+ ,' 1/%%"67" (" E,'" IAB+ IBC e ICA.
12, #F(2, -2$"%,(, 0,%, , 1,%@,=
a A
110 0° V RMS Gerador
2V
trifásico 12 j9
−+
conectado
em estrela j9 12
92j6 V
110 2120° V RMS 2 V
(+) Sequência b C
−+ B
92j6 V de fase 12 j9
positiva c
92j6 V
110 120° V RMS Figura 12.49 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=BW=
2V
−+
Seção 12.5 Conexão triângulo-triângulo
Figura 12.46 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=BL=
equilibrada
12.14 U$7"6N, ,' 1/%%"67"' (" -26N, 6/ 12%1*27/ 7%2E8'21/ (, A2- 12.19 P,%, / 12%1*27/ 7%2?6@*-/&7%2?6@*-/ (, A2@*%, BC=QI+ 1,-1*-
@*%, BC=DV= -" ,' 1/%%"67"' (" -26N, " (" E,'"=
#SAMBARILOVE
486 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

a A 12.23'P%' !<!:$%&' :)<8K!<;*' $"#<-<,)&5*' ;*%' :$9!Q*' 5$' -<9R&'


30 !
<4#&-' &' /1/' 7' STU' &-<%$9:&' #%&' ;&)4&' ;*9$;:&5&' $%'
:)<=94#-*';*%'Vp'?'/D' 60 V.
+ 173 $"#V
E&F' G$:$)%<9$'&';*))$9:$'5$'-<9R&0
j10 ! 30 !
b E,F' G$:$)%<9$' &' (*:39;<&' :*:&-' 8*)9$;<5&' (&)&' &' ;&)4&'
173 120"#V + B #!&95*'5*<!'W&::X%$:)*!'-<4&5*!'Y!'-<9R&!'A e C.
30 ! j10 !
12.24'P%&' 8*9:$' ;*9$;:&5&' $%' :)<=94#-*' $"#<-<,)&5&' :$%' :$9-
+ 173 120"#V são de fase Vab'?'N.O 30 '7'$'#%&'!$"#39;<&'5$'8&!$!'
j10 ! (*!<:<H&0'U$'$!:&'8*)';*9$;:&5&'&'#%&';&)4&'$%':)<=94#-
-*'$"#<-<,)&5&B'5$:$)%<9$'&!';*))$9:$!'5$'-<9R&'$'5$'8&!$0'
c C
L5*:$' ;*%*' <%($5=9;<&' 5$' ;&)4&' (*)' 8&!$' O1 30 V e
Figura 12.50 O')*"#, 0,%, / P%/$-"#, BC=B^= <%($5=9;<&'5$'-<9R&'(*)'8&!$'.'@'j.'V.

12.20 M/6'2("%" , A2@*%, BC=QB " "-,$/%" *# 0%/$-"#, 0,%,


,R*(,% /*7%/' "'7*(,67"' , "67"6("% #"-N/% /' 12%1*27/'
Seção 12.6 Conexão triângulo-estrela
1/6"17,(/' "# 7%2?6@*-/&7%2?6@*-/ ")*2-2$%,(/= equilibrada
Ia 12.25'Z*';<);#<:*'5&'C<4#)&'./0DNB'!$'Vab'?'NN1' 10 B'Vbc'?'NN1
A 110 Vca'?'NN1 130 '7B'5$:$)%<9$'&!';*))$9:$!'5$'-<9R&0
I AB
3 + j2 Ia
ZL a
ZL
VL 120° V +− +
− VL 0° V
+ "V 10 ! j8
Ib I CA ! ab
3 + j2 Ib 10 ! j8
−+ C
B !
Vca + b
VL −120° V Ic I BC ZL

+ "V
Figura 12.51 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0/10 ! bc
10 ! j8
3 + j2 Ic
12.21'2)3!'4$)&5*)$!'5$'/61'7'8*)%&%'#%&'8*9:$';*9$;:&5&'$%'
c
:)<=94#-*'"#$'>';*9$;:&5&'&'#%&';&)4&'$%':)<=94#-*'$"#<-
-<,)&5&';*%'ZL ?'.1'@'jA'V'(*)'8&!$B';*98*)%$'%*!:)&5*' Figura 12.54 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0/D0
9&'C<4#)&'./0D/0
12.26 [*9!<5$)$'&'C<4#)&'./0DD'$'$-&,*)$'#%'()*,-$%&'(&)&'&\#-
E&F' G$:$)%<9$'*'H&-*)'5$'IAC. dar outros estudantes a entender melhor fontes em delta
E,F' I#&-'>'*'H&-*)'5$'IbBJ $"#<-<,)&5&!'"#$'&-<%$9:&%';&)4&!'$%'$!:)$-&'$"#<-<,)&5&!0
a A I aA
a A
ZL ZL
230 120° +− + 230 0°
− Gerador R
b B trifásico − jXC
c −+ C conectado em
N − jX
ZL triângulo C
230 –120°
I bB R
(+) Sequência b − jXC
Figura 12.52 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0/.0 de fase R C
positiva B
I cC
12.22'G$:$)%<9$'&!';*))$9:$!'IaB'Ib e Ic'9*';<);#<:*':)<8K!<;*'5&' c
C<4#)&'./0D6'&'!$4#<)0'L5*:$'Z¢'?'./'M'jD'VB'ZY ?'N'@'jO'V
e Zl'?'/'V. Figura 12.55 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0/O0
Zl Ia
A

ZY
Z$ Z$
440 12!"#V# + + 440 !"#V#

Zl Ib
ZY ZY
+ C
B
440 12!"#V# Zl Ic Z$

Figura 12.53 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0//0


#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 487

12.27'P%&'8*9:$';*9$;:&5&'$%':)<=94#-*'8*)9$;$'$9$)4<&'(&)&' E&F' L';*))$9:$'5$'-<9R&0


#%&';&)4&';*9$;:&5&'$%'$!:)$-&'$%'#%'!<!:$%&':)<8K!<;*' E,F' L'(*:39;<&';*%(-$a&':*:&-'8*)9$;<5&'(&)&'&!'5#&!';&)4&!0
$"#<-<,)&5*0'G&5*'"#$'&'<%($5=9;<&'5$'-<9R&'>'/'@'j.'V
E;F' e'8&:*)'5$'(*:39;<&'5&!'5#&!';&)4&!'&!!*;<&5&!0
(*)'8&!$B'$9"#&9:*'&'<%($5=9;<&'5$';&)4&'>'O'@'jN'V por
8&!$B'5$:$)%<9$'&'%&49<:#5$'5&':$9!Q*'5$'-<9R&'9&';&)4&0' 12.36'P%&'-<9R&'5$':)&9!%<!!Q*':)<8K!<;&'5$'N0/11'7':$%'<%($-
U#(*9R&'"#$'&':$9!Q*'5$'8&!$'5&'8*9:$'!$\&'Vab'?'/1A' 0 '7 5=9;<&'5$'N'@'j V'(*)'8&!$0'U$'$-&'&-<%$9:&)'#%&';&)4&'5$'
STU0 .'T7L';*%'8&:*)'5$'(*:39;<&'1BgD'E&:)&!&5*FB'5$:$)%<9$d
12.28'L!' :$9!]$!' -<9R&^-<9R&' $%' #%&' ;&)4&' ;*9$;:&5&' $%' $!- E&F' L'(*:39;<&';*%(-$a&0
:)$-&':3%'%&49<:#5$'<4#&-'&'NN1'7'$'$!:Q*'9&'!$"#39;<&' E,F' L'($)5&'5$'(*:39;<&'9&'-<9R&0
(*!<:<H&' $%' O1' _`0' U$' &!' ;&)4&!' $!:<H$)$%' $"#<-<,)&5&!' E;F' L':$9!Q*'9&'$9:)&5&'5&'-<9R&0
;*%'Z. = Z/ = Z6'?/D 30 B'5$:$)%<9$':*5&!'&!';*))$9:$!'
5$'-<9R&'$':$9!]$!'5$'8&!$0 12.37'L'(*:39;<&':*:&-'%$5<5&'$%'#%'!<!:$%&':)<8K!<;*'"#$'&-<-
%$9:&'#%&';&)4&';*9$;:&5&'$%'$!:)$-&'$"#<-<,)&5&'>'5$'./'
bc';*%'8&:*)'5$'(*:39;<&'1BO'E&5<&9:&5*F0'U$'&':$9!Q*'5$'
Seção 12.7 Potência em um sistema -<9R&'8*)'/1A'7B';&-;#-$'&';*))$9:$'5$'-<9R&'IL'$'&'<%($5=9-
equilibrado ;<&'5$';&)4&'ZY.

12.29'P%'!<!:$%&':)<8K!<;*'$!:)$-&^:)<=94#-*'$"#<-<,)&5*'(*!!#<' 12.38'G&5*'*';<);#<:*'5&'C<4#)&'./0Dg'&'!$4#<)B'5$:$)%<9$'&'(*-
Van'?'/N1' 0 ''7'STU'$'Z¢'?'D.'M'jND'V0'U$'&'<%($5=9- :39;<&';*%(-$a&':*:&-'&,!*)H<5&'($-&';&)4&0
;<&'5$'-<9R&'(*)'8&!$'8*)'1BN'@'j.B/'VB'5$:$)%<9$'&'(*:39;<&' 1Ω j2 Ω
;*%(-$a&':*:&-'(&)&'&';&)4&0
9Ω
12.30'Z&'C<4#)&'./0DOB'*'H&-*)'STU'5&':$9!Q*'5$'-<9R&'>'/1A'70' 110 0° V +−
110 240° V
G$:$)%<9$'&'(*:39;<&'%>5<&'-<,$)&5&'(&)&'&';&)4&0 1Ω j2 Ω 9Ω j12 Ω j12 Ω
−+
a A j12 Ω
+ −
Va Vb ZL + 110 120° V 9Ω
n b B N ZL 1Ω j2 Ω
+
Z L = 30 45!
+ 1Ω j2 Ω
Vc
c C
Figura 12.57 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./06A0
Figura 12.56 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0610
12.39'G$:$)%<9$'&'(*:39;<&')$&-'&,!*)H<5&'($-&';&)4&'9&'C<4#)&'
12.31'P%&';&)4&';*9$;:&5&'$%':)<=94#-*'$"#<-<,)&5&'>'&-<%$9- ./0DA0
:&5&'(*)'#%&'8*9:$':)<8K!<;&'5$'O1'_`';*%':$9!Q*'5$'-<9R&'
5 A
<4#&-'&'/N1'70'[&5&'8&!$'5&';&)4&'&,!*)H$'O'bc';*%'8&:*)' a
5$'(*:39;<&'<4#&-'&'1BA'E&:)&!&5*F0'G$:$)%<9$d j6 4
E&F' L'<%($5=9;<&'5$';&)4&'(*)'8&!$0 100 120"#V +! + 100 0"#V
!
E,F' L';*))$9:$'5$'-<9R&0 8 j3
5 10
E;F' e'H&-*)'5&';&(&;<:=9;<&'9$;$!!K)<&'(&)&'!$)';*9$;:&- c !+ C
b B
5&0'$%'(&)&-$-*';*%';&5&'8&!$'5&';&)4&'(&)&'%<9<%<- 100 !120"#V
`&)'&';*))$9:$'5&'8*9:$0 5

12.32 Elabore um problema para ajudar outros estudantes Figura 12.58 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0120
&' $9:$95$)' %$-R*)' &' (*:39;<&' $%' #%' !<!:$%&' :)<8K!<;*'
$"#<-<,)&5*0 12.40'+&)&'*'34)3#45*'5)467!43*'8&'94:#)&'./0;2<'=$5$)%48$'&'(*-
12.33'P%&'8*9:$':)<8K!<;&'-<,$)&'NBA'b7L'(&)&'#%&';&)4&';*9$;- 5>834&'%?=4&'&,!*)@4=&'($-&'3&):&'3*8$35&=&'$%'5)4A8:#-*'
:&5&'$%'$!:)$-&';*%':$9!Q*'5$'8&!$'<4#&-'&'/1A'7'$'8&:*)' 3*%'Z¢'B'/.'C'j/D'V.
5$'(*:39;<&'1Bf'E&:)&!&5*F0'[&-;#-$'&';*))$9:$'$'&':$9!Q*' 100 "#$V RMS
1 j0,5
de linha da fonte. !+
12.34'P%&';&)4&';*9$;:&5&'$%'$!:)$-&'$"#<-<,)&5&';*%'<%($-
5=9;<&'(*)'8&!$'5$'.1'M'j.O'V'>';*9$;:&5&'&'#%'4$)&5*)' Z%
100 !12"#$V RMS
:)<8K!<;*'$"#<-<,)&5*';*%':$9!Q*'5$'-<9R&'//1'70'G$:$)%<- 1 j0,5
9$' &' ;*))$9:$' 5$' -<9R&' $' &' (*:39;<&' ;*%(-$a&' &,!*)H<5&' !+ Z%
($-&';&)4&0
Z%
12.35 2)3!' <%($5=9;<&!' <4#&<!B' 5$' O1' @' j61' V' ;&5&B' !Q*' -<4&5&!' 100 12"#$$V RMS
1 j0,5
$%':)<=94#-*'&'#%';<);#<:*':)<8K!<;*'5$'/61'7'STU0'e#:)&!' !+
:)3!'<%($5=9;<&!'<4#&<!B'5$'N1'@'j.1'V';&5&B'!Q*'-<4&5&!'$%'
$!:)$-&'9*'%$!%*';<);#<:*'$'9*!'%$!%*!'(*9:*!0'G$:$)%<9$d Figura 12.59 ' !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0DE0
#SAMBARILOVE
488 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

12.41'F%&' 3&):&' 3*8$35&=&' $%' 5)4A8:#-*' $"#4-4,)&=&' &,!*)@$' Seção 12.8 Sistemas trifásicos
;'GH'3*%'6&5*)'=$'(*5>834&'E<I'J&5)&!&=*K0'L$'*'!4!5$%&' desequilibrados
5)467!43*'54@$)'#%&'5$8!M*'=$'-48N&'$O3&P'4:#&-'&'DEE'Q<'
=$5$)%48$'&'3*))$85$'=$'-48N&0 12.51'V*8!4=$)$'*'!4!5$%&'5)4A8:#-*S5)4A8:#-*'%*!5)&=*'8&'94-
:#)&'./0_E0'Y=*5$'Z.'B'I'T'j_'V<'Z/'B'D</'C'j/</'V e Z1 =
12.42'F%' :$)&=*)' 5)467!43*' $"#4-4,)&=*' -4,$)&' R</' GH' (&S .E'T'jE'V.
)&'#%&'3&):&'3*8$35&=&'$%'$!5)$-&'=$'4%($=A834&'1E'T'
jDE'V'(*)'6&!$0'U$5$)%48$'&'3*))$85$'=$'-48N&'IL e a ten- a A
são de linha VL.
12.43'V*8!#-5$' &' 94:#)&' ./0DI0' W,5$8N&' &' (*5>834&' 3*%(-$X&' + Z1
240 0! V + 240 120! V Z3
&,!*)@4=&'($-&!'3&):&!'&!!*34&=&!0
12.44'F%&'-48N&'5)467!43&'5$%'4%($=A834&'=$'.'T'j1'V por fase. Z2
c C
Y'-48N&'&-4%$85&'#%&'3&):&'3*8$35&=&'$%'5)4A8:#-*'$"#4- b + B
-4,)&=&'"#$'&,!*)@$'#%&'(*5>834&'3*%(-$X&'5*5&-'=$'./'T' 240 120! V
j;'GQY0'L$'&'5$8!M*'=$'-48N&'8*'-&=*'=&'3&):&'54@$)'%&:84-
5#=$'=$'/DE'Q<'3&-3#-$'&'%&:845#=$'=&'5$8!M*'=$'-48N&'8*' Figura 12.60 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0;.0
-&=*'=&'6*85$'$'*'6&5*)'=$'(*5>834&'=&'6*85$0'
J&K' U$5$)%48$'&!'3*))$85$!'=$'6&!$'IAB<'IBC e ICA.
12.45'F%&'3&):&'$%'$!5)$-&'$"#4-4,)&=&'?'3*8$35&=&'&'#%':$-
)&=*)'(*)'%$4*'=$'#%&'-48N&'=$'5)&8!%4!!M*'$"#4-4,)&=&' J,K' V&-3#-$'&!'3*))$85$!'=$'-48N&'IaA<'IbB e IcC.
3*%'4%($=A834&'E<;'T'j/'V'(*)'6&!$0'L$'&'3&):&'8*%48&-' 12.52'F%'34)3#45*'$!5)$-&S$!5)$-&'"#&=)4O-&)'(*!!#4'
6*)'D;E'GH<'6&5*)'=$'(*5>834&'E<REI'J&5)&!&=*K'$'5$8!M*'=$'
-48N&'DDE'Q<'=$5$)%48$'&'5$8!M*'=$'-48N&'8*':$)&=*)0 Van 120l120 , Vbn 120l0
12.46'F%&'3&):&'5)467!43&'?'6*)%&=&'(*)'5)>!')$!4!5*)$!'=$'.EE'V Vcn 120l 120 V
"#$'(*=$%'!$)'-4:&=*!'$%'5)4A8:#-*'*#'$%'$!5)$-&0'U$5$)-
%48$'"#$'3*8$XM*'&,!*)@$)7'&'%&4*)'(*5>834&'%?=4&'=$' !$'&!'4%($=A834&!'6*)$%
#%&'6*85$'5)467!43&'3*%'5$8!M*'=$'-48N&'..E'Q0'L#(*8N&'
4%($=A834&'=$'-48N&'4:#&-'&'P$)*0 ZAN 20l60 , ZBN 30l0
Zcn 40l30
12.47'Z)>!'3&):&!'5)467!43&!'&!!*34&=&!'$%'(&)&-$-*'!M*'&-4%$8-
5&=&!'(*)'#%&'6*85$'5)467!43&'$"#4-4,)&=&[
=$5$)%48$'&'3*))$85$'8&'-48N&'=*'8$#5)*0
V&):&'.['/;E'GQY<'9+'B'E<I'J&5)&!&=*K
12.53 V*8!4=$)$'&'94:#)&'./0_.'$'$-&,*)$'#%'()*,-$%&'"#$'&\#-
V&):&'/['1EE'GQY<'9+'B'E<2;'J&=4&85&=*K =$'*#5)*!'$!5#=&85$!'&'$85$8=$)'%$-N*)'!4!5$%&!'5)467!43*!'
V&):&'1['D;E'GQY<'9+'#8457)4* 8M*'$"#4-4,)&=*!0
L$' &' 5$8!M*' =$' -48N&' 6*)' .1<I' GQ<' 3&-3#-$' &' 3*))$85$' =$' Ia
-48N&'$'*'6&5*)'=$'(*5>834&'=&'6*85$0'L#(*8N&'"#$'&'4%($-
=A834&'=$'-48N&'!$\&'P$)*0 Vp 0°
+ jXL
12.48'F%&'6*85$'3*8$35&=&'$%'$!5)$-&'$"#4-4,)&=&'$'=$'!$"#>8- −
34&' (*!454@&' 5$%' Van' B' /DE 0 ' Q' ]^L' $' &-4%$85&' #%&'
3&):&' 3*8$35&=&' $%' 5)4A8:#-*' =$!$"#4-4,)&=&' (*)' %$4*' Vp 120° Vp −120°
=$' #%&' -48N&' =$' 5)&8!%4!!M*' =$' 4%($=A834&' /' T' j1' V +
− −
+
R2
por fase. R1
Ib
J&K' V&-3#-$'&!'3*))$85$!'=$'-48N&'(&)&'ZAB'B'DE'T'j.;'V<'
ZBC'B'_E'V e ZCA'B'.I'C'j./'V. Ic
J,K' U$5$)%48$'&'(*5>834&'3*%(-$X&'6*)8$34=&'($-&'6*85$0
12.49'V&=&'3&):&'=$'6&!$'?'3*8!545#`=&'(*)'#%')$!4!5*)'=$'/E'V e Figura 12.61 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0;10
#%&')$&5A834&'48=#54@&'=$'.E'V. Com uma tensão de linha
4:#&-'&'//E'Q']^L<'3&-3#-$'&'(*5>834&'%?=4&'&,!*)@4=&' 12.54'F%&'6*85$'5)467!43&'3*8$35&=&'$%'$!5)$-&'$"#4-4,)&=&'3*%'
($-&'3&):&'!$[ Vp'B'/.E'Q']^L'&-4%$85&'#%&'3&):&'5)467!43&'3*8$35&=&'
$%'$!5)$-&'3*%'4%($=A834&'(*)'6&!$'ZA'B'IE'V<'ZB =
J&K' Y!'3&):&!'5)467!43&!'$!54@$)$%'3*8$35&=&!'$%'5)4A8:#-*0 _E'T'j2E'V e ZC = jIE'V0'V&-3#-$'&!'3*))$85$!'=$'-48N&'$'
J,K' Y!'3&):&!'$!54@$)$%'3*8$35&=&!'$%'$!5)$-&0 &'(*5>834&'3*%(-$X&'5*5&-'-4,$)&=&'(&)&'&'3&):&0'L#(*8N&'
12.50'F%&' 6*85$' 5)467!43&' $"#4-4,)&=&' 3*%' VL' B' /DE' Q' ]^L' "#$'*!'8$#5)*!'$!5$\&%'485$)-4:&=*!0
6*)8$3$'I'GQY'3*%'6&5*)'=$'(*5>834&'E<_'J&5)&!&=*K'(&)&' 12.55'F%&' 6*85$' 5)467!43&' 3*%' 5$8!M*' =$' -48N&' /DE'Q' ]^L' $'
=#&!'3&):&!'$%'(&)&-$-*'-4:&=&!'$%'$!5)$-&0'L$'#%&'3&):&' 6&!$'(*!454@&'5$%'#%&'3&):&'3*8$35&=&'$%'5)4A8:#-*'=$!$-
&,!*)@$' 1' GH' 3*%' 6&5*)' =$' (*5>834&' #8457)4*<' 3&-3#-$' &' "#4-4,)&=&<'3*86*)%$'48=43&=*'8&'94:#)&'./0_/0'U$5$)%4-
4%($=A834&'(*)'6&!$'8&'!$:#8=&'3&):&0 8$'&!'3*))$85$!'=$'6&!$'$'&'(*5>834&'3*%(-$X&'5*5&-0
#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 489

12.60'H!$'*'PSpice ou MultiSim para determinar Io'6*'A<)A#<:*'


%*6*9?!<A*':)<I-&)'7&';<=#)&'./0>>0'B$J&'Z.'C'.1'K'j.5'VF'
A Z/'C'L5'M'j/5'V e ZL'C'./'M'j1'V.
4
j25 40
Io
220 "#$V + Z1
!
C 4
B Z3
30 30!"

220 "#$V + Z2
Figura 12.62 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0;;0 !
4
12.56 V*8!4=$)$'&'94:#)&'./0_1'$'$-&,*)$'#%'()*,-$%&'(&)&'&\#-
dar outros estudantes a entender melhor os sistemas trifá- Figura 12.66 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0>50
!43*!'8M*'$"#4-4,)&=*!0
a A 12.61'N&7*'*'A<)A#<:*'7&';<=#)&'./0>2F'#!$'*'PSpice ou Multi-
jXL Sim'(&)&'7$:$)%<6&)'&!'A*))$6:$!'IaA e a tensão VBN.
VP 0° V +−
b B 240 "#$V
−+ − jXC a 4 j3 A 10 j15
!+
VP 120° V + − VP –120° V
R
c C ! j36 ! j36
Figura 12.63 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0;_0 240 !12"#$V
b 4 j3 B 10 j15
n !+ N
12.57'U$5$)%48$'&!'3*))$85$!'=$'-48N&'(&)&'*'34)3#45*'5)467!43*'=&'
94:#)&'./0_D0'L$\&'Va'B'..E 0 '<'Vb'B'..El 120 e Vc =
..E 120 'Q0 ! j36
Ia 240 12"#$$V
c 4 j3 10 j15
!+
C
Va + 80 + j50
! Figura 12.67 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0>.0

12.62 O*6!<7$)$' &' ;<=#)&' ./0>P' $' $-&,*)$' #%' ()*,-$%&' (&)&'
20 + j30 60 – j40
&J#7&)'*#:)*!'$!:#7&6:$!'&'$6:$67$)'%$-Q*)'A*%*'#!&)'*'
Vc +! ! PSpice ou MultiSim'(&)&'&6&-<!&)'A<)A#<:*!':)<9?!<A*!0
+
Ib
Rlinha Llinha A R
a
Ic

Figura 12.64 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0120 +


− VL 0° V

Rlinha Llinha B C
Seção 12.9 PSpice para circuitos VL 120° V − b N
+
trifásicos
12.58'3$!*-4&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0.5'#!&67*'*'PSpice ou MultiSim. + VL −120° V

12.59'8'9*6:$'7&';<=#)&'./0>1'$!:?'$"#<-<,)&7&'$'&()$!$6:&'#%&' Rlinha Llinha C L
!$"#@6A<&'7$'9&!$!'(*!<:<4&0'B$'f'C'>5'DEF'#!$'*'PSpice ou
MultiSim para determinar VANF'VBN e VCN. c

a A Figura 12.68 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0>/0

100 !"V +# 12.63'H!$' *' PSpice ou MultiSim' (&)&' 7$:$)%<6&)' &!' A*))$6:$!'
b B 40 $ 0,2 mF
IaA e IaC'6*'!<!:$%&':)<9?!<A*'7$!$"#<-<,)&7*'%*!:)&7*'6&'
n #+ N
10 mF ;<=#)&'./0>G0'B$J&
+#
c C Zl 2 j, Z1 40 j20 ,

Figura 12.65 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./01G0 Z2 50 j30 , Z3 25


#SAMBARILOVE
490 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

220!!!0"!V Z1
283' 4!'-$;5#)&!'<*!'=&55>%$5)*!0
+ A 2<3' 4'(*5?68;&'5*5&-'&,!*)@;<&'($-&'8&)A&0
a
* 12.67 B*6C*)%$';6<;8&<*'6&'D;A#)&'./0E/9'#%&'-;6F&'5);CG!;8&'"#&-
Z1 <);H-&)'8*%'5$6!7*'<$'C&!$';A#&-'&'./I'J'KLM'$'!$"#?68;&'
220!!–#$0"!V Z1 <$'C&!$'(*!;5;@&'&-;%$65&'#%&'8&)A&'<$'%*5*)'$"#;-;,)&<&'&'
+ Z3 /1I'NJ4'8*%'D+'O'I9PQ'2&5)&!&<*30'4'8&)A&'<*'%*5*)'$!5G'
b B
8*6$85&<&' &' 5)?!' -;6F&!' ();68;(&;!' ;6<;8&<&!' (*)' a9' b e c.
Z2 4-R%'<;!!*9'-S%(&<&!';68&6<$!8$65$!'2D+'#6;5G);*3'!7*'-;A&-
220!!!#$0"!V Z1
<&!'8*%*'!$A#$T'/U'NV'<&'-;6F&'c'(&)&'*'6$#5)*9'.Q'NV'<&'
+
C linha b'(&)&'*'6$#5)*'$'W'NV'<&'-;6F&'c para o neutro.*
c
2&3' !$'C*)$%'<;!(*!5*!'5)?!'=&55>%$5)*!'(&)&'%$<;)'&'(*5?6-
Figura 12.69 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0>L0 8;&'$%'8&<&'-;6F&9'8&-8#-$'&'-$;5#)&'<$'8&<&'%$<;<*)0
2,3' <$5$)%;6$'&'%&A6;5#<$'<&'8*))$65$'6&'-;6F&'<*'6$#5)*0
12.64'+&)&'*'A<)A#<:*'7&';<=#)&'./01PF'#!$'*'PSpice ou MultiSim
(&)&'7$:$)%<6&)'&!'A*))$6:$!'7$'-<6Q&'$'&!'A*))$6:$!'7$'9&!$0 a

12.65'H%' A<)A#<:*' :)<9?!<A*' $"#<-<,)&7*' R' %*!:)&7*' 6&' ;<=#)&' b


./0250'H!$'*'PSpice ou MultiSim'(&)&'7$:$)%<6&)'&!'A*)-
c
rentes de linha IaAF'IbB e IcC.
d Carga de motor
a 0,6 j0,5 A 260 kVA,
FP = 0,85 (atrasado)
0,2
30 24 kW 15 kW 9 kW
0,2 j1 Cargas de iluminação

!j20 Figura 12.72 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./01E0


+ 30
240 1"#$V ! 0,6 j0,5
j1 b B 12.68'4!'-$;5#)&!'<*'%$<;<*)'(&)&'#%'&-5$)6&<*)'5);CG!;8*'-;A&<*'
+ $%' $!5)$-&' "#$' C*)6$8$' $6$)A;&' (&)&' #%' %*5*)' ;6<;8&%'
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4!'5)?!'8&)A&!'!7*T
Seção 12.10 Aplicações
B&)A&'.T'.1'NJ4'8*%'D+'OI9PQ'2&5)&!&<*3
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7$' -<6Q&' <=#&-' &' /5P'T' R' %*!:)&7*' 6&' ;<=#)&' ./02.0'8!'
:$6!U$!'7&'9*6:$'$!:S*'$"#<-<,)&7&!0'8'(*:@6A<&'&,!*)4<7&' B&)A&':T'P'NV'8*%'D+'#6;5G);*
($-&'A&)=&')$!<!:<4&'A*6$A:&7&'$%'$!:)$-&'R'%$7<7&'($-*' 4'5$6!7*'<$'-;6F&'6&'8&)A&'R'/IP'J'KLM'$%'1I'\]'$'&'
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40
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de fases positiva.
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#SAMBARILOVE
Capítulo 12 Circuitos trifásicos 491

A 12.74'Y$5$)%;6$' &!' -$;5#)&!' <*' =&55>%$5)*' (&)&' *' 8;)8#;5*' <&'


a W1
D;A#)&'./0EQ0
20
12 W1
0 B Z
b &
&
10 j5
! j10 208 "#$V +
c W2
C
Figura 12.73 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0E.0 Z

W2
12.72'M$'*!'=&55>%$5)*!'W. e W/'$!5;@$)$%'8*6$85&<*!'<$'C*)%&'
&()*();&<&9')$!($85;@&%$65$'$65)$'&!'-;6F&!'a e b e as linhas
208 %"#$V +
b e c'(&)&'%$<;)'&'(*5?68;&'&,!*)@;<&'($-&'8&)A&'8*6$85&<&'
$%'5);S6A#-*'6&'D;A#)&'./0UU9'<$5$)%;6$'!#&!'-$;5#)&!0 Z = 60 j30 !
& &
12.73'+&)&' *' 8;)8#;5*' %*!5)&<*' 6&' D;A#)&' ./0EU9' <$5$)%;6$' &!'
-$;5#)&!'<*'=&55>%$5)*0
Figura 12.75 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0EU0
W1
'
' 12.75'b%&'($!!*&'(*!!#;'#%&')$!;!5?68;&'<$'1II'V0'c#&-'R'*'6>-
@$-'<$'8*))$65$'"#$'d#;'&5)&@R!'<$'!$#'8*)(*'67*'&5$))&<*T
240 "! 6#$"V +
! Z
2&3' c#&6<*'$-&'5*8&'*!'5$)%;6&;!'<$'#%&',&5$);&'<$'&#5*-
Z = 10 + j30 %e@$-'<$'./'Jf
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! 2,3' c#&6<*'$-&'8*-*8&'!$#'<$<*'$%'#%'!*"#$5$'<$'-S%-
240 !%&#$"V + Z (&<&'<$'./I'Jf
' ' 12.76 Y$%*6!5)$'"#$'&!'($)<&!'I2R serão maiores para um apa-
)$-F*'<$'./I'J'"#$'(&)&'#%'<$'/UI'J9'!$'&%,*!'5;@$)$%'&'
Figura 12.74 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0E:0 %$!%&'(*5?68;&'6*%;6&-0

Problemas abrangentes
12.77'b%'A$)&<*)'5);CG!;8*'C*)6$8$':91'NJ4'8*%'#%'C&5*)'<$' 12.81'b%'8$65)*'&#5*%*5;@*'R'&-;%$65&<*'(*)'#%&'C*65$'5);CG-
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B&)A&'.T'.QI'NJ4'8*%'D+'O'I9P'2&<;&65&<*3
12.78'b%&'8&)A&'5);CG!;8&';6<#5;@&'<$'UUI'J9'Q.'NV'$'1I'NJ4' B&)A&'/T'.II'NV'8*%'D+'#6;5G);*
*($)&'&'1I'\]'$'$!5G'8*6$85&<&'$%'$!5)$-&0'Y$!$[&g!$'8*)-
B&)A&':T'/II'NJ4'8*%'D+'O'I91'2&5)&!&<*3
);A;)'*'C&5*)'<$'(*5?68;&'(&)&'I9WQ'2&5)&!&<*30'c#$'@&-*)'
<$'8&(&8;5*)'<$@$);&'!$)'8*-*8&<*'$%'(&)&-$-*'8*%'8&<&' B&)A&'UT'PI'NV'$'WQ'NJ4K'2;6<#5;@&3
;%($<S68;&'<$'8&)A&f M$'&';%($<S68;&'<$'-;6F&'C*)'I9I/'^'jI9IQ'V por fase e
12.79'b%'A$)&<*)'5);CG!;8*'$"#;-;,)&<*'5$%'#%&'!$"#?68;&'<$' &' 5$6!7*' <$' -;6F&' 6&!' 8&)A&!' C*)' <$' UPI' J9' <$5$)%;6$' &'
fase abc'8*%'5$6!7*'<$'C&!$'Van'O'/QQ 0 'J0'Z'A$)&<*)' magnitude da tensão de linha na fonte.
&-;%$65&'#%'%*5*)'<$';6<#h7*'"#$'(*<$'!$)')$()$!$65&<*' 12.82'b%' !;!5$%&' 5);CG!;8*' $"#;-;,)&<*' 5$%' #%' H*' <$' <;!5);-
(*)'#%&'8&)A&'8*6$85&<&'$%'$!5)$-&'$"#;-;,)&<&'8*%';%- ,#;h7*' 8*%' ;%($<S68;&' /' ^' j1' V por fase. O sistema
($<S68;&'./'^'jQ'V'(*)'C&!$0'Y$5$)%;6$'&!'8*))$65$!'<$' &-;%$65&'<#&!'8&)A&!'5);CG!;8&!'"#$'!7*'-;A&<&!'$%'(&)&-
-;6F&'$'5$6!X$!'<$'8&)A&'(*)'C&!$0'M#(*6F&'#%&';%($<S6- -$-*0'4'();%$;)&'<$-&!'R'#%&'8&)A&'8*6$85&<&'$%'$!5)$-&'
8;&'<$'-;6F&'<$'/'V por fase. $"#;-;,)&<&'"#$'&,!*)@$'UII'NJ4'8*%'C&5*)'<$'(*5?68;&'
12.80'b%&' C*65$' 5);CG!;8&' $"#;-;,)&<&' C*)6$8$' $6$)A;&' (&)&' &!' I9P'2&5)&!&<*30'4'!$A#6<&'8&)A&'$!5G'8*6$85&<&'$%'5);S6-
5)?!'8&)A&!'&'!$A#;)T A#-*'$"#;-;,)&<&'8*%';%($<S68;&'.I'^'jP'V por fase. Se
&' %&A6;5#<$' <&' 5$6!7*' <$' -;6F&' 6&!' 8&)A&!' C*)' /0UII' J'
B&)A&'.T'1'NJ4'8*%'D+'O'I9P:'2&5)&!&<*3 KLM9'8&-8#-$'&'%&A6;5#<$'<&'5$6!7*'<$'-;6F&'6&'C*65$'$'&'
B&)A&'/T'<$!8*6F$8;<& (*5?68;&'8*%(-$_&'5*5&-'C*)6$8;<&'(&)&'&!'<#&!'8&)A&!0
B&)A&':T'P'NV'8*%'D+'O'I9EIE.'2&<;&65&<*3 12.83'b%' %*5*)' 5);CG!;8*' <;!(*6>@$-' 8*%$)8;&-%$65$' *($)&' &'
M$'&'8*))$65$'<$'-;6F&'C*)'PU91'4'KLM9'&'5$6!7*'<$'-;6F&' #%&'8&)A&'(-$6&'<$'./I'\+'2.'\+'O'EU1'V3'8*%'WQi'<$'
6&' 8&)A&' /IP'J' KLM' $' &' 8&)A&' &!!*8;&<&' 8*%' C&5*)' <$' $H8;?68;&'8*%'C&5*)'<$'(*5?68;&';A#&-'&'I9EIE'2&5)&!&<*30'
(*5?68;&'I9P'2&5)&!&<*39'<$5$)%;6$'&'8&)A&'<$!8*6F$8;<&0 Z' %*5*)' R' -;A&<*' $%' (&)&-$-*' &' #%' &"#$8$<*)' 5);CG!;8*'
#SAMBARILOVE
492 Fundamentos de circuitos elétricos

$"#;-;,)&<*'<$'PI'NV'8*%'C&5*)'<$'(*5?68;&'#6;5G);*0'M$' 12.86'+&)&'*'!;!5$%&'%*6*CG!;8*'5);H-&)'6&'D;A#)&'./0EE9'<$5$)-
&'%&A6;5#<$'<&'5$6!7*'<$'-;6F&'C*)'UPI'J'KLM9'8&-8#-$'&' %;6$'&!'8*))$65$!'IaA9'IbB e InN.
8*))$65$'<$'-;6F&0
1Ω
a A
* 12.84'4'D;A#)&'./0E1'%*!5)&'#%&'8&)A&9'"#$'R'#%'%*5*)'5);CG-
!;8*9'$%'5);S6A#-*'"#$'R'8*6$85&<&'&'#%&'5$6!7*'<$'-;6F&'
<$'UUI'J'$'"#$'&,!*)@$'U'NJ4'8*%'C&5*)'<$'(*5?68;&';A#&-' 120 0° V RMS +
− 24 − j2 Ω
1Ω
&'E/i'2&5)&!&<*30'4-R%'<;!!*9'#%'j6;8*'8&(&8;5*)'<$'.9P' n N
NJ4K'R'-;A&<*'$65)$'&!'-;6F&!'a e b9'$6"#&65*'#%&'8&)A&'
<$';-#%;6&h7*'<$'PII'V'R'8*6$85&<&'$65)$'&'-;6F&'c e o 120 0° V RMS +
− 15 + j4 Ω
6$#5)*0'M#(*6<*'#%&'!$"#?68;&'<$'C&!$!'abc e adotando 1Ω
Van = Vp 0 9'<$5$)%;6$'&'%&A6;5#<$'$'*'S6A#-*'<$'C&!$' b B
<&!'8*))$65$!'Ia9'Ib9'Ic e In.
Figura 12.77 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0P10
Ia
a 12.87'B*6!;<$)$'*'!;!5$%&'%*6*CG!;8*'5);H-&)'%*!5)&<*'6&'D;-
Ib 1,8 kVAR A#)&'./0EP0'Y$5$)%;6$'&'8*))$65$'6*'H*'6$#5)*'$'&'(*5?6-
b 8;&' 8*%(-$_&' C*)6$8;<&' (*)' C*65$0'4<*5$' Vs' 8*%*' #%&'
Ic
C*65$'<$'..Q 0 'J9'1I'\]0
c Carga de motor
In 4 kVA, 1
d FP = 72% (atrasado)

"Vs + 20
! 15
Cargas de iluminação de 800 W 2

Figura 12.76 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0PU0


"Vs + 30 50 mH
12.85 +)*[$5$'#%'&"#$8$<*)'5);CG!;8*'8*%'8&)A&!'!;%R5);8&!'&<$- !
"#&<&!'#!&6<*'&')$!;!5?68;&'(#)&'8*6$85&<&'$%'$!5)$-&0'M#- 1
(*6F&'"#$'*'&"#$8$<*)'!$[&'&-;%$65&<*'(*)'#%&'5$6!7*'<$'
-;6F&'<$'/UI'J'$'"#$'<$@&'C*)6$8$)'/E'NV'<$'8&-*)0 Figura 12.78 !"#$%&'(&)&'*'+)*,-$%&'./0PE0

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