Você está na página 1de 23

Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" !

Home
Blog
Online Tutoring
Reaction Guide
Study Guides
Contact »
Members Login »

Master Organic Chemistry

Enter an organic chemis

New? Start Here


Study And Exam Tips
Organic 1 Index
Organic 2 Index
Free “Cheat Sheets”
Feedback

Table of Functional Group Priorities for


Nomenclature
by James

in Alcohols, Aldehydes, Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkyl Halides, Alkynes, Carboxylic acids, Esters, Functional
Groups, Ketones, Nomenclature

Here’s a little nomenclature dilemma.

Let’s say you’re trying to name a molecule. You’re familiar with the familiar naming suffixes like -ol, -ene, -
ane, -oic acid and so on. But then you come across a molecule which has multiple functional groups.

What do you do? What suffix do you give the molecule?

We need some kind of priority system for nomenclature. And so, IUPAC has developed one. If you have a
molecule with, say, a carboxylic acid and a ketone you consult the table. The functional group with the highest
priority will be the one which gives its suffix to the name of the molecule. So in example #1 above, the suffix
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
of the molecule will be “-oic acid” , not “-one”, because carboxylic acids are given higher priority. However, if
a ketone is present with an alcohol (example 3) then we will use the suffix, “-one” because ketones have a
higher priority for nomenclature than alcohols.

[You might ask: what is this based on? It’s an arbitrary agreement by IUPAC [source], although note that there
is some correlation between the oxidation state of the carbon and the priority (more oxidized groups tend to be
higher priority). However this really is an example of something you have to either look up , memorize, or have
a computer do for you. It’s not conceptual. ]

Here it is: Table of Functional Group Priorities For Nomenclature


Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Here are some examples of applying the order of functional group priorities to solve nomenclature problems.
The highest ranked functional group becomes the suffix – it’s highlighted in red.

This covers most of the functional groups you’ll meet in Org1/Org2, if you run into a thioketone or some other
bizarre entity, you’ll probably want to see Reusch or Wikipedia.

 
Related Posts:
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Summary Sheet: Functional Groups


Organic Chemistry IUPAC Nomenclature Demystified With A Simple Puzzle Piece Approach
Alcohols (1) – Nomenclature and Properties
Why the SN2 Reaction Is Powerful

Tagged as: alcohols, esters, functional groups, nomenclature, priorities

{ 65 comments… read them below or add one }

abhi

Animation makes it all the more interesting !

Reply

deepak

thanks.

Reply

IP

I think ether should be right after amines and alkane after nitro? some other website seem to say that,
which one is correct?

Reply

james

With amines, the suffix “ine” is used, but when nitro groups or ethers are present, the alkane suffix
is used: http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_322.htm

Reply

Brajesh

According to my view friend your thought is wrong because you should know that we write fg as
prefix only when it has less priority and you can not use alkane as prefix. nitro group always
remains in the form of prefix and ether vice versa. So fg having high priority is used in the form of
suffix. Ether is not used as suffix so it has less priority than alkane. It will be after alkane and not
after amine.

Reply

christopher unyime ebong

i think alkyne should come before alkene: it should be alkyne-alkene-alkane, decreasing unsaturation and
increasing saturation…
Reply Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

James Ashenhurst

Alkene does go first over alkyne, but I believe it is due to the alphanumeric priority of -ene over -
yne and not based on the extent of saturation:
http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/350/Carey5th/useful/nomen.html

Reply

Ptachia Bar-On

If Halogens have higher perioity than Nitro why the Nitro group is written after the Bromine

Reply

James Ashenhurst

It’s just due to alphabetization. For example we would number 2-bromo 3-nitro butane based on
the fact that bromine is higher up in (our) alphabet than nitro.

Reply

Anagha

So does that apply to all the functional groups, in all cases?

Reply

Carpe Diem

It (alphabetization) only applies to substituents.

Reply

Birupakshya Singh

can anyone plz say what is d criteria for this table.????..

Reply

James Ashenhurst

IUPAC.

Reply

Birupakshya Singh
well…but can u plz suggest me what r the criterias which IUPAC have applied???
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Reply

James

I believe it is at least partially based on oxidation state, with higher oxidation state
having higher priority. But that doesn’t explain why alkenes are higher priority than
alkynes. Nomenclature is a human convention.

Reply

Rani

please give some example where carboxylic acid act as prefix .Will sulphonic acid be given more priority
than carboxylic acid?

Reply

Ritu

Can you please give example where carboxylic acid prefix ‘carboxy’ is used in nomenclature?

Reply

Ankit

Can u please name this compound HOOC-CH²-CH²-CH²-CH(CH²-CH²-COOH)-CH²-CH²-


CH²-COOH and HOOC-CH²-CH²-SO³H

Reply

Laurentiu

Carboxy may be used when one of the chains attached to the root carboxylic acid also has
the carboxylic acid functional group. E.g. 4-(Carboxymethylene)-2,5-heptadienedioic acid.

Reply

Bj

No because COOH is top on priority table

Reply

Govind Pradeep

Why does alkyne have more priority ovr alkene? Because i have seen compounds where the least no: is
given to alkynes ie., they hav been given most priority ovr alkene..for example, 6-chloro-4-ethyl-5-
methylhept-5-en-1-yne
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Reply

Rich

The yne might have been given priority in this case because the parent chain could be numbered in
such a way to make one of the unsaturations C1, and it happened to be the yne and not the ene.

Reply

Rich

Tie goes to the ene, but this might not have been a tie.

Reply

Rich

Since ethers are “substituent-only” (named only by prefix), are peroxides prefix-only as well? What
about epoxides? (I think that’s a little less clear, eg. oxirane.)

How would a peroxyacid RC(=O)OOH (“peracid”) or a perester RC(=O)OOR’ be handled?

I’m guessing a carbonate ROC(=O)OR’ takes priority over an ester RC(=O)OR’ ?

Reply

s.brar

where would the halogens be in this table?

Reply

Dave

under the alkyl halide section, 2nd to last priority just above nitro.

Reply

Mandeep Verma

Halogens come down at the rock botoom. They are not used as suffixes. Only Prefixes

Reply

Blank

Other websites show ethers as having higher priority than alkenes


http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/orgnom/functional/func.html
http://academics.keene.edu/rblatchly/OrgoCommon/hand/functgrps/Nomenclature.html
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Reply

Patrick

I agree, I think that ethers should be higher priority than alkanes. In the case of CH3OCH2CH3Ito
should be named as ethyl methyl ether.

Reply

Survivor

Thanks a lot! That really helped! :)

Reply

addy

i have a doubt.suppose there’s a compound containing both alkene and alkyne functional groups. what
gets higher preference?

Reply

James

Alkene, according to IUPAC.

Reply

Mayette

If the carbon chain contains both the double and triple bond and they are both on the terminal
carbons, then prioritization is given to the double bond. But if both double and triple bond are not
on the terminal carbons, prioritization is given to the triple bond. These are called enynes.

Reply

kashish

Hey, in the 2nd example why do they use both the siffix and the prefix of nitromethane?

Reply

James

The alkane (” -ane “) has a higher priority than the nitro group, so the nitro group will not be used
to a suffix.
Reply
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

n.rohitvarma

Respected sir,
I have a doubt which may be small for you , but it brings more confusion if sulphonic acid and
carboxylic acid are given which should be given priority first sir . sir please answer me and please give
me a explanation.
Thanking you sir!

Reply

James

Carboxylic acid, according to this: http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/79/r79_905.htm


and this http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/79/r79_469.htm

Reply

n.rohitvarma

thanks a lot for reply but can you please explain In words

Reply

Zoose

Can someone PLEASE suggest a mnemonic to learn this table?

Reply

ADITYA SINGH CHAUHAN

I should give prioirity to br or alcohol

Reply

James

Alcohol, like it says in the table.

Reply

ajinkya

add carbonitrile with nitrile

Reply
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
Rhythm

Why NO2 is not taken as principal functional group , since the compound which is more withdrawing is
considered to be as more powerful functional group!! So why is it so????

Reply

ajay

in that case even halides are in the bottom

Reply

John

Very informative and well organised….


However it would be awesome if sulphonic acid and anhydrides could be added too :D
They’re pretty superior
Thanx though, this saved me a ton of time

Reply

shiva ram

where does benzene stand in priority table?


is it above bromine?

Reply

Ramya

If multi functional groups are there in a compound, for which 1 we should give priority?

Reply

James

That is the whole point of this priority table.

Reply

Loong

The so-called “Table of Functional Group Priorities For Nomenclature” can be misleading. It is not in
accordance with past (1979, 1993) or present (2013) IUPAC recommendations.

Reply
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
James

In what way? Can you be more specific?


For example, in what way is the table not in accordance with the listing here:
http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_326.htm
and of the groups which are only prefixes
http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_322.htm

Reply

Deep

Is the above given priority table authentic??

Reply

James

See http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_326.htm and


http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_317.htm

This table agrees with information on those pages, from IUPAC’s “Blue Book”.

Reply

ashna

Out of Sulphonic acid and carboxylic acid which would be given more priority?? Please tell the
answer…i m little confused

Reply

James

Carboxylic acids. http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_326.htm

Reply

Prachi Modanwal

Carboxylic acid would be given more priority

Reply

Raj

Where so3h must be placed

Reply
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
James

Just below carboxylic acids. See http://www.acdlabs.com/iupac/nomenclature/93/r93_326.htm

Reply

Roge0140

This is for a true or false question:

“Butanal” is another name for isobutanol.


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
I am almost 100% certain this is false, but I just want to be sure that there is no way, or possible
arrangement of the alcohol group (-OH) that can occur that would result in it being possible to name it
like a aldehyde right?

Reply

James

It is false.

Reply

Prachi Modanwal

I think that the priority order of functional group is this :


1. -COOH
2. -SO3H
3. -COOR
4. -COX
5. -CONH2
6. -CN
7. -CHO
8. =C=O
9. -OH
10. -NH2
11. =C=C=
12. -C-=C-

Reply

Tusharsinh

where is – X in order

Reply

James

X stands for a halide group.


Reply
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Deepak rai

I think it is good to provide this type of chart to the student because this help them in their study
So Thanks!!!

Reply

Melissa

Where do epoxides fit into this list? Are they considered a substituant or a functional group?

Reply

Parag Goswami

In the ease of open chain compounds the secondary prefix is added just before the root word in the
alphabetical order. why is it so?

Reply

Leave a Comment

Name *

E-mail *

Website

Submit
Recent Posts
Popular Posts
Recent Comments

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (2) - Nitration and SulfonylationPosted on: Apr 30,
2018

Reactions of Sugars: Glycosylation and ProtectionPosted on: Apr 24, 2018

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitutions (1) - HalogenationPosted on: Apr 18, 2018


Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 

Molecular Orbitals in the Diels Alder ReactionPosted on: Mar 23, 2018

Disubstituted Benzenes: The Strongest Electron-Donor "Wins"Posted on: Mar 19, 2018

About Master Organic Chemistry

After doing a PhD in organic synthesis at McGill and a postdoc at MIT, I applied for
faculty positions at universities and it didn’t work out, yada yada yada. So I decided to teach organic
chemistry anyway! Master Organic Chemistry is the resource I wish I had when I was learning the
subject.

Copyright © 2018 MasterOrganicChemistry.com. All rights reserved


Organic Chemistry Is Awesome

About James
Account
Advanced Substitution Topics – Sun Nov 10
Alkene Mini Course – Thanks!
Alkene Mini-Course
Alkenes: Common Exam Problems (With Solutions)
Alkyne Webinar Sun Dec 15 at 9pm EST
Alkynes Are A Blank Canvas
Blog
Cancel Subscription
Carbon Carbon Bonds
Common Mistakes In Organic Chemistry: Pentavalent Carbon
Confirming your email address…
Crash Course On Alkenes
Crash Course On Alkenes – Checkout
Dashboard
Don’t Be Futyl, Learn The Butyls
Feedback
Form Styling Sandbox Page
From Gen Chem To Organic Chem
Getting Started
Home
Home-2
How To Draw A Cyclohexane Chair
How To Succeed In Organic Chemistry
How To Succeed In Organic Chemistry
Initiation, Propagation, Termination
Introduction To Substitution Webinar Tuesday Nov 5
Leah Nomenclature Guest Post
Manage Subscription
Members Login
Mission
MOC Elite
MOC Private Facebook Group
My Organic Chemistry Story – What’s Yours?
New Acid-Base Webinar
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
NEW! Reagents App
October 22 Acid-Base Webinar
Online Organic Chemistry Tutoring
Org 2 Post Index
Organic 1
Organic 2
Organic Chemistry for the MCAT
Organic Chemistry Study Advice
Post Index
Post Index 2
Post Index Draft
post index draft 2
Products
Organic Chemistry Reagent Guide
Reaction Guide
1,4-addition of enolates to enones (“The Michael Reaction”)
1,4-addition of nucleophiles to enones
1,4-addition of organocuprates (Gilman reagents) to enones
Acidic cleavage of ethers (SN2)
Addition Of Alcohols To Alkenes With Acid
Addition of aqueous acid to alkenes to give alcohols
Addition of Dichlorocarbene to alkenes to give dichlorocyclopropanes
Addition of dichloromethylene carbene to alkenes
Addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes to give secondary alcohols
Addition of Grignard reagents to esters to give tertiary alcohols
Addition of Grignard reagents to formaldehyde to give primary alcohols
Addition of Grignard reagents to ketones to give tertiary alcohols
Addition of Grignard reagents to nitriles to give ketones (after hydrolysis)
Addition of HBr once to alkynes to give alkenyl bromides
Addition of HBr to Alkenes
Addition of HBr twice to alkynes to give geminal dibromides
Addition of HCl once to alkynes to give alkenyl chlorides
Addition of HCl to Alkenes to Give Alkyl Chlorides
Addition of HCl to alkynes twice to give geminal dichlorides
Addition of HI once to alkynes to give alkenyl iodides
Addition of HI twice to alkynes to give geminal diiodides
Addition of Hydroiodic Acid to Alkenes to Give Alkyl Iodides
Addition of LiAlH4 to aldehydes to give primary alcohols
Addition of LiAlH4 to ketones to give secondary alcohols
Addition of NaBH4 to aldehydes to give primary alcohols
Addition of NaBH4 to ketones to give secondary alcohols
Addition of organocuprates (Gilman reagents) to acid chlorides to give ketones
Addition to alkenes accompanied by 1,2-alkyl shift
Additions to alkenes accompanied by 1,2-hydride shifts
Aldol addition reaction of aldehydes and ketones
Aldol Condensation
Alkylation of enamines with alkyl halides
Alkylation of enolates
Allylic bromination of alkanes using NBS
Baeyer-Villiger Reaction
Base-promoted formation of enolates from ketones
Basic hydrolysis of esters (saponification)
Beckmann Rearrangement
Bromination of alkenes with Br2 to give dibromides
Bromination of aromatic alkanes to give alkyl bromides
Bromination of Aromatics to give Bromoarenes
Cannizarro Reaction
Chlorination of alkenes with Cl2 to give vicinal dichlorides
Chlorination of Arenes to give Chloroarenes Check out our  "cheat sheets" !
Organic chemistry exam coming up? 
Claisen Condensation of esters
Cleavage of ethers using acid (SN1 reaction)
Clemmensen Reduction of Ketones/Aldehydes to Alkanes
Conversion of acid chlorides to aldehydes using LiAlH(O-tBu)3
Conversion of acid chlorides to esters through addition of an alcohol
Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides using PBr3
Conversion of alcohols to alkyl chlorides using SOCl2
Conversion of alcohols to alkyl halides using HCl
Conversion of Alkyl halides to ethers (SN1)
Conversion of carboxylic acids into acid chlorides with SOCl2
Conversion of carboxylic acids to carboxylates using base
Conversion of carboxylic acids to esters using acid and alcohols (Fischer Esterification)
Conversion of tertiary alcohols to alkyl bromides using HBr
Conversion of tertiary alcohols to alkyl iodides with HI
Conversion of thioacetals to alkanes using Raney Nickel
Curtius Rearrangement of Acyl Azides to Isocyanates
Decarboxylation of beta-keto carboxylic acids
Dehydration of amides to give nitriles
Deprotonation of alcohols to give alkoxides
Deprotonation of alkynes with base to give acetylide ions
Diels Alder Reaction of dienes and dienophiles
Dihydroxylation of Alkenes to give 1,2-diols (vicinal diols)
Dihydroxylation of alkenes with cold, dilute KMnO4 to give vicinal diols
Elimination (E1) of alkyl halides to form alkenes
Elimination (E1) with 1,2-alkyl shift
Elimination (E1) with hydride shift
Elimination (E2) of alkyl halides to give alkenes
Elimination of alcohols to give alkenes using POCl3
Elimination of water from alcohols to form alkenes using acid
Enamine Hydrolysis
Formation of Acetals from Aldehydes and Ketones
Formation of alkynes through double elimination of vicinal dibromides
Formation of amides from acid chlorides and amines
Formation of Amides Using DCC
Formation of anhydrides from acid halides and carboxylates
Formation of Bromohydrins from alkenes using water and Br2
Formation of bromohydrins from alkenes using water and NBS
Formation of Carboxylic Acids from Acyl Chlorides
Formation of carboxylic acids from Grignard reagents and CO2
Formation of chlorohydrins from alkenes using water and Cl2
Formation of Cyanohydrins from ketones and aldehydes
Formation of cyclopropanes from alkenes using methylene carbene (:CH2)
Formation of Diazonium Salts from Aromatic Amines
Formation of enamines from ketones/aldehydes and secondary amines
Formation of epoxides from alkenes using m-CPBA
Formation of epoxides from bromohydrins
Formation of Gilman reagents (organocuprates) from alkyl halides
Formation of Grignard Reagents from Alkenyl Halides
Formation of Grignard Reagents from Alkyl Halides
Formation of hydrates from aldehydes/ketones and H2O
Formation of imines from primary amines and ketones
Formation of organolithium reagents from alkyl halides
Formation of thioacetals from aldehydes and ketones
Formation of tosylates from alcohols
Free Radical Addition of HBr To Alkenes
Free Radical Bromination of Alkanes
Free Radical Chlorination of Alkanes
Friedel Crafts alkylation of arenes
Friedel-Crafts acylation of aromatic groups to give ketones
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
Halogenation of Alkynes
Hell-Vollhard-Zelinsky Reaction
Hofmann elimination of alkylammonium salts to give alkenes
Hofmann Rearrangement of Amides to Amines
Hydroboration of Alkenes
Hydroboration of alkynes using BH3 to give aldehydes
Hydrogenation of Alkenes to give Alkanes
Hydrogenation of Alkynes to Alkanes using Pd/C
Hydrolysis of acetals to give aldehydes and ketones
Hydrolysis of esters to carboxylic acids with aqueous acid
Hydrolysis of imines to give ketones (or aldehydes)
Hydrolysis of nitriles with aqueous acid to give carboxylic acids
Iodination of alkenes to give vicinal diiodides (1,2-diiodides)
Iodination of Aromatics with I2
Keto-enol tautomerism
Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis
Nitration of aromatic groups
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (SNAr)
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Via Arynes
Opening of epoxides with acid and water to give trans diols
Opening of epoxides with nucleophiles under acidic conditions
Oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using Cr(VI)
Oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids with Ag2O
Oxidation of aromatic alkanes with KMnO4 to give carboxylic acids
Oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes
Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes using PCC
Oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids
Oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones using PCC
Oxidation of thiols to disulfides
Oxidative cleavage of 1,2-diols to give aldehydes/ketones
Oxidative cleavage of alkenes to give ketones/carboxylic acids using ozone (O3) – (“oxidative
workup”)
Oxidative cleavage of alkenes to ketones/carboxylic acids using KMnO4
Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes with KMnO4
Oxidative Cleavage of Alkynes with Ozone (O3)
Oxymercuration of Alkenes to form Ethers using Hg(OAc)2
Oxymercuration of Alkynes
Oxymercuration: Alcohols from alkenes using Hg(OAc)2 and Water
Ozonolysis of alkenes to ketones and aldehydes (reductive workup)
Partial reduction of alkynes to trans alkenes using sodium and ammonia
Partial reduction of alkynes with Lindlar’s catalyst to give cis alkenes
Pinacol Rearrangement
Polymerization of dienes with acid
Protection of alcohols as silyl ethers
Protonation of alcohols to give oxonium ions
Protonation of Grignard reagents to give alkanes
Reaction of alkyl halides with water to form alcohols (SN1)
Reaction of epoxides with nucleophiles under basic conditions
Reactions of Diazonium Salts
Reduction of aromatic ketones to alkanes with Pd/C and hydrogen
Reduction of aromatic nitro groups to amino groups
Reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols using LiAlH4
Reduction of esters to aldehydes using DIBAL
Reduction of esters to primary alcohols using LiAlH4
Reduction of nitriles to primary amines with LiAlH4
Reductive Amination
Sharpless Epoxidation
SN2 of Cyanide with Alkyl Halides to give Nitriles
SN2 reaction between azide ion and alkyl halides
Organic chemistry exam coming up?
to give alkyl azides
Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
SN2 Reaction of Acetylide Ions with Alkyl Halides
SN2 reaction of alkoxide ions with alkyl halides to give ethers (Williamson synthesis)
SN2 reaction of alkyl halides with hydroxide ions to give alcohols
SN2 reaction of amines with alkyl chlorides to give ammonium salts
SN2 reaction of carboxylate ions with alkyl halides to give esters
SN2 reaction of hydrosulfide ion with alkyl halides to give thiols
SN2 reaction of organocuprates (Gilman reagents) with alkyl halides to give alkanes
SN2 reaction of thiolates with alkyl halides to give thioethers (sulfides)
SN2 reaction of water with alkyl halides to give alcohols
Stille Reaction
Substitution (SN1) with hydride shift
Substitution with accompanying alkyl shift
Sulfonylation of Arenes to give sulfonic acids
Suzuki Reaction
The Gabriel synthesis of amines
The haloform reaction: conversion of methyl ketones to carboxylic acids
The Heck Reaction
The Malonic Ester Synthesis
The Mannich Reaction
The Robinson Annulation
Transesterification promoted by alkoxides
Wittig Reaction – conversion of ketones/aldehydes to alkenes
Wolff Kishner Reaction – conversion of ketones/aldehydes to alkanes
Wolff Rearrangement
Resource Guide
Resources
Share Your Organic Chemistry Story
Sign Up For The Reaction Guide
Sign Up To Be A Flashcards Beta Tester!
Signup for the Reaction Guide
Something Has Gone Wrong
Spectroscopy Video – Thanks!
Spectroscopy Video Checkout
Stereochemistry Webinar Sunday Nov 3
Store Action
Study and Exam Tips
Summary Sheets
Test Page
testtypg
Thanks for Joining!
Thanks! You’re signed up for the newsletter.
Thanks! You’re Signed Up For The Reaction Guide
The Cat Line Diagram
The Web of Reactions
Thoughts On O-Chem
Tips
#9109 (no title)
Conjugation
“Initial Tails” and “Final Heads”
3 Ways To Make OH A Better Leaving Group
A Simple Formula For 7 Important Aldehyde/Ketone Reactions
Acetoacetic
Acids (Again!)
Activating and Deactivating
Actors In Every Acid Base Reaction
Addition – Elimination
Addition Pattern 1 – Carbocations
Addition pattern 2 – 3 membered rings
Addition Reactions
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
Alcohol Personality Adjustment
Aldehydes And Ketones – Addition
Alkene Pattern #3 – The “Concerted” Pathway
Alkyl Rearrangements
Alkynes – 3 Patterns
Alkynes: Deprotonation and SN2
Amines
Aromaticity: Lone Pairs
Avoid These Resonance Mistakes
Best Way To Form Amines
Bulky Bases
Carbocation Stability
Carbocation Stability Revisited
Carboxylic Acids are Acids
Chair Flips
Cis and Trans
Conformations
Conjugate Addition
Curved Arrow Refresher
Curved Arrows
Decarboxylation
Determining Aromaticity
Diels Alder Reaction – 1
Dipoles: Polar vs. Covalent Bonding
E2 Reactions
Electronegativity Is Greed For Electrons
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution – Directing Groups
Elimination Reactions
Enantiocats and Diastereocats
Enolates
Epoxides – Basic and Acidic
Evaluating Resonance Forms
Figuring Out The Fischer
Find That Which Is Hidden
Formal Charge
Frost Circles
Gabriel Synthesis
Grignards
Hofmann Elimination
How Acidity and Basicity Are Related
How Are These Molecules Related?
How Stereochemistry matters
How To Stabilize Negative Charge
How To Tell Enantiomers From Diastereomers
Hybridization
Hybridization Shortcut
Hydroboration
Imines and Enamines
Importance of Stereochemistry
Intermolecular Forces
Intro to Resonance
Ketones on Acid
Kinetic Thermodynamic
Making Alcohols Into Good Leaving Groups
Markovnikov’s rule
Mechanisms Like Chords
Mish Mashamine
More On The E2
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
Newman Projections
Nucleophiles & Electrophiles
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution 2
Order of Operations!
Oxidation And Reduction
Oxidative Cleavage
Paped
Pi Donation
Pointers on Free Radical Reactions
Protecting Groups
Protecting Groups
Proton Transfer
Putting it together (1)
Putting it together (2)
Putting it together (3)
Putting the Newman into ACTION
Reaction Maps
Rearrangements
Recognizing Endo and Exo
Redraw / Modify
Return of The SN2
Robinson Annulation
Robinson Annulation Mech
Second Most Important Reactions of Alkynes: Lindlar – Na/NH3
Sigma and Pi Bonding
SN1 vs SN2
sn1/sn2 – Putting It Together
sn1/sn2/e1/e2 – Exceptions
sn1/sn2/e1/e2 – Nucleophile
sn1/sn2/e1/e2 – Solvent
sn1/sn2/e1/e2 – Substrate
sn1/sn2/e1/e2 – Temperature
Stereochemistry
Strong Acid Strong Base
Strong And Weak Oxidants
Strong and Weak Reductants
Stronger Donor Wins
Substitution
Sugars (2)
Synthesis (1) – “What’s Different?”
Synthesis (2) – What Reactions?
Synthesis (3) – Figuring Out The Order
Synthesis Part 1
Synthesis Study Buddy
Synthesis: Walkthrough of A Sample Problem
Synthesis: Working Backwards
t-butyl
Tautomerism
The Awesomeness Of The SN2
The Claisen Condensation
The E1 Reaction
The Inflection Point
The Meso Trap
The Michael Reaction
The Nucleophile Adds Twice (to the ester)
The One-Sentence Summary Of Chemistry
The Second Most Important Carbonyl Mechanism
The Single Swap Rule
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
The SN1 Reaction
The SN2 Reaction
The Wittig Reaction
Three Exam Tips
Tips On Building Molecular Orbitals
Top 10 Skills
Try The Acid-Base Reaction First
Two Key Reactions of Enolates
Welcome
What makes a good leaving group?
What Makes A Good Nucleophile?
What to expect in Org 2
Work Backwards
Zaitsev’s Rule
Tuesday Oct 22 Acid Base Webinar at 9pm EST
Videos
A Simple Trick For Determining R/S
Applying E2 Reactions with Newman Projections
Bond Rotations: Exercise 1
Bond Rotations: Exercise 2
Bond Rotations: Exercise 3
Bond Rotations: Exercise 4
Bond Rotations: Exercise 5
Bond Rotations: The “Steering Wheel” Analogy
Bronsted and Lewis Acidity
Bulky Bases in Elimination Reactions
Carbocation Stability
Comparing E1 and E2 Mechanisms
Comparing E1 and E2 Stereochemistry
Comparing the E1 and SN1
Comparing the SN1 and SN2
Converting a Fischer Projection To A Line Diagram
Converting a Line Diagram to a Fischer Projection
Converting a Newman Projection to a Line Diagram
Curved Arrows
Determining R/S on a Fischer Projection
E1 with Rearrangement
E1 With Rearrangement (2)
Elimination Exercise: Zaitsev’s Rule
Elimination Reactions in Cyclohexanes
Elimination Reactions in Cyclohexanes (2)
Evaluating Resonance Forms (1) Charges
Evaluating Resonance Forms (2) Octets
Evaluating Resonance Forms (3) Negative Charge
Evaluating Resonance Forms (4) Positive Charge
Evaluating Resonance Forms (5) Aromaticity
Exercise: Condensed Formula (1)
Exercise: Condensed Formula (2)
Factors that affect acidity – Aromaticity
Factors That Affect Acidity (1) Charge Density
Factors That Affect Acidity (2) Electronegativity
Factors That Affect Acidity (3) Polarizability
Factors That Affect Acidity (4) Electron Withdrawing Groups
Factors That Affect Acidity (4) Resonance
Factors That Affect Acidity (6) – Orbitals
Formal Charge (1) – Atomic Charge
Formal Charge (2) – Introduction to Formal Charge
Formal Charge Exercise: Allyl Carbocation
Formal Charge Exercise: CH2N2
Organic chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
Formal Charge Exercise: CH3NO2
Formal Charge Exercise: CN
Formal Charge Exercise: CO3
Formal Charge Exercise: Hidden Hydrogens
Formal Charge Exercise: Hidden Lone Pairs
Formal Charge Exercise: N3
Formal Charge Exercise: NH4
Formal Charge Exercise: O3
Formal Charge Exercise: Radicals and Carbenes
Hidden Hydrogens
How Formal Charge Can Mislead
How Heat Affects Elimination Reactions
How to draw an enantiomer
How To Use A pKa Table
In Summary: Resonance
Introduction to Elimination
Introduction to pKa
Introduction to Rearrangements
Introduction to Resonance
Introduction to the E2 Reaction
Introduction to the SN1: Experiments
Introduction to the SN2: Experiments
Key Patterns in Formal Charge
Line Drawings
Making OH Into A Good Leaving Group
Rearrangement Reactions: Alkyl Shifts
Rearrangement: Hydride Shift
Rearrangements: Carbocation Stability
Resonance – Common Mistakes (1)
Resonance – Common mistakes (2)
SN1 Exercise: The Substrate
SN1 Reaction Energy Diagram
SN1 vs. SN2 Overview
SN1 With Alkyl Shift (1)
SN1 With Alkyl Shift (2)
SN1 With Hydride Shift
SN1: Applying the SN1 Reaction
SN1/SN2/E1/E2 – Substrate
SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – Overview
SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – Solvent
SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – Temperature
SN1/SN2/E1/E2 Decision – The Nucleophile/Base
SN2 Exercise: Apply the SN2
SN2 Exercise: Leaving Groups
SN2 Exercise: The Substrate
Solvents in SN1 and SN2 Reactions
Stereochemistry Exercise 1
Stereochemistry Exercise 2
Stereochemistry Exercise 3
Stereochemistry Exercise 4
Stereochemistry Exercise 5
Strong and Weak Acids
Substitution: What is Substitution?
The 4 Components of Every Acid Base Reaction
The E1 Reaction
The Golden Rule of Acid Base Reactions
The Single Swap Rule
The SN1 Mechanism
TheOrganic
SN2 Mechanism
chemistry exam coming up? Check out our  "cheat sheets" ! 
The SN2 Reaction Energy Diagram
Understanding R/S Relationships
Unequal Resonance Forms
Using Electronegativity to Find Reactive Sites on a Molecule
What Makes A Good Leaving Group?
What Makes A Good Nucleophile? (1)
What Makes A Good Nucleophile? (2)
What Makes A Good Nucleophile? (3)
What’s A Nucleophile?
Zaitsev’s Rule
You’re Almost Subscribed To The Reaction Guide!