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BASICS of HARDWARE

INTRODUCTION
to
COMPUTERS
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What is a computer ?

 A Computer is an electronic device which takes input through input

devices, processes it and gives output through output devices.

 It also stores data for further processing.

 Computer works with 0’s & 1’s (Binary).

 Like all electronic devices a computer works with DC power supply.

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Block diagram of a computer

ALU

Control Output
Input Unit
Unit unit

Memory

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Components of a computer
 Motherboard  SMPS (Switched Mode Power
Supply)
 Processor
 Input Devices
 Primary Storage Devices
 Keyboard
 RAM (Random Access Memory)
 Mouse
 ROM (Read Only Memory)
 Output Devices
 Secondary Storage Devices
 Monitor
 HDD (Hard Disk Drive)
 Optical Drives (CDROM, DVD, etc)
 Floppy Disk drive

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Processors

 It is the brain of a computer


 It is a semi-conductor device

 It contains the complete CPU (Central Processing Unit) in a single chip

 It performs Arithmetic and logical functions

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Processor Specifications

 Speed (measured in Hz (Hertz))

 Width (measured in bits, Ex: 64bits)

 FSB Speed (Front Side Bus) (measured in Hz)

 Cache memory (measured in Kbytes/Mbytes)

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Specifications

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Processor Manufacturers

 Intel

 AMD(Advanced Micro Devices)

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Intel Core i3, Core i5 & Core i7

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Server Processors

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PRIMARY STORAGE
DEVICES

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Primary Storage Classification

PRIMARY STORAGE

RAM ROM

Static RAM Dynamic RAM

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Cache Location

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Dynamic RAM (Random Access Memory)

 Primary storage for a Computer

 It is a volatile memory (requires power to store the data).

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Types of Dynamic-Ram

DDR2-RAMS(Double data rate) DDR3-RAMS(Double data rate)


240 pins 240 pins.

DDR4-RAMS(Double data rate)


288 pins.
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Notch Comparison

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DDR4

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Laptop RAM

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ROM (Read Only Memory)

 Integrated circuits that are used to permanently store start-up (boot)

instructions and other critical information.

 EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)

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BIOS (Basic input output system)

 During the boot up it performs POST(Power On Self Test)

 Recognizes the hardware devices

 Locates and loads the operating system

 It helps the operating system to access the hardware devices

Bios chip

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Motherboard
 It is the main circuit board of a Computer .

 It controls all the physical devices and components that are connected
directly or indirectly.

 CPU, RAM, Hard-disk, Expansion cards are connected to it

 Motherboard comes in different form-factors.

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Server Motherboard

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Server Motherboard

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Components on the motherboard
 Processor slot/socket  CMOS Battery
 Memory Slots  Power Supply connector
 Expansion Slots  Heat Sink
 I/O Ports  Front Panel Connectors
 Chipsets
 IDE / SATA Connectors

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Expansion & Reserved slots

 PCI (Peripheral component interconnect)

 PCI EXPRESS

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Input / Output (I/O) PORTS

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Chipsets
 NORTH BRIDGE:
– It controls the processor and RAM (high speed devices)
– It is placed near to the processor
– It also contains graphic processor
– It is also called as GMCH (Graphic Memory Controller
Hub)
 SOUTH BRIDGE :
– It control low speed devices like I/O ports, slots etc
– It is placed near to the slots
– It is also called as IOCH (Input Output Controller Hub)

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CMOS Battery
 CMOS(Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) RAM is used to
store the date, time, and system configuration
 Battery which powers this memory is called as CMOS Battery

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SMPS

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Server SMPS

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Secondary Storage Devices
 Magnetic storage devices  Flash storage devices
- Hard disk  Pen Drive
- Tape drive (for backup)  Memory Card
 SSD (Solid State Drive)

 Optical storage devices


 Compact Disc (CD)
 Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
 Blue Ray Disc (BRD)

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SATA Hard Disk Connectors

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SCSI

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SCSI Connector

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SCSI Cable

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Server Hard Drive

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Hard Drive Tray caddy

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Server Rack

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