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Finite element prediction of blanking tool cost


caused by wear

Article in International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology · October 2009


DOI: 10.1007/s00170-008-1859-9

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Ridha Hambli Damien Soulat


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Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656
DOI 10.1007/s00170-008-1859-9

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Finite element prediction of blanking tool cost caused


by wear
Ridha Hambli & Damien Soulat & Abdesselem Chamekh

Received: 9 April 2008 / Accepted: 20 November 2008 / Published online: 9 December 2008
# Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Abstract The total cost of a blanked part is determined by 1 Introduction


a large number of factors, including the material cost,
manufacturing costs. Predicting the manufacturing costs of The estimation of tool wear in blanking operations is
a blanked part requires accurate estimation of tool cost important for scheduling tool changing times, for adaptive
caused by wear. The aim of this paper is to develop a finite process control, and tool cost evaluation. The costs of
element model allowing for the numerical prediction of the forming tools usually cover a substantial amount of the total
blanking tool life which allows for the evaluation of the manufacturing cost of forming parts [1–3]. The accuracy of
cost rate of blanking tool caused by wear needed to assess workpieces can be characterized by the following errors:
the total cost of a blanked part. A wear prediction model has dimensional error, positional error, and form or shape error.
been implemented in the finite element code Abaqus in The errors on blanks are influenced by material, the tool
which the tool wear is a function of the normal pressure and shape, process variations, and the machine. The form errors
some material parameters. In the present work, the tool is represented in Fig. 1 are connected to the geometry of the
modeled as rigid body hypothesis, and the wear variables sheared edge such as the roll-over depth, the fracture depth,
are computed in the contacting elements. The altered tool the smooth-sheared depth, the burr formation, and the
contact surface and contact pressure tool shapes are updated fracture angle. Various experimental studies [4–9] which
iteratively to simulate wear over a long period of time of showed that the mechanical and geometrical aspect of the
about 100,000 cycles. A damage model is used in order to sheared edge during the blanking operation for a given
describe crack initiation and propagation into the sheet. The material are affected by some parameters like the blanking
distribution of the tool wear on the tool profile is obtained clearance, the wear state of the tool, and the thickness of the
and compared to industrial observations. sheet.
Because of tool wear changes, the punch-die geometry
Keywords Blanking process . Tool wear . Tool wear cost . and clearance, the form of the sheared surface is
Finite element method . Experimental tests influenced. In addition, tool wear has adverse effects on
the dimensional accuracy and surface finish of the
product. The phenomena related to wear on the tools
have an important impact on the economy of industrial
metal blanking processes. Methodologies currently used
R. Hambli (*) : D. Soulat are based mainly on designer’s intuition and experience,
Université d’Orléans, Polytech’Orléans—Prisme/LMSP,
which are not the most adequate when considering the
8 rue Léonard de Vinci,
45072 Orléans, France complexity of the problem. Quantitative approach to tool
e-mail: ridha.hambli@univ-orleans.fr wear analysis would improve service life, leading to an
important reduction of manufacturing costs. Although
A. Chamekh
there are many papers dealing with sheet metal shearing
ENIM-LGM,
Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, processes, there is still a lack of models allowing for the
5019 Monastir, Tunisia tool wear prediction which affects blanked parts manu-
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 649

Fig. 1 Geometry of the sheared


workpiece Sheet

F Fracture
angle
Burr height

Fracture depth

Smooth-sheared Workpiece
depth
Roll-over depth

facturing costs. The influence of the tool wear on the The total cost per part is composed of five items, part
accuracy of the blanked parts has been investigated in a handling cost, blanking cost, tool change cost, tool cost due
previous work [9]. However, the main purpose of the to wear and tool cost due to maintenance.
present study is to propose a methodology to predict The total cost of producing one part Cp can be expressed
blanking tool costs due to wear. as:
In order to contribute toward a development of a
system for blanking tool cost assessment caused by wear, Tm
CP ¼ Ch Th þ Cb Tb þ Cc Tc Nc þ Ctw þ Cm
a finite element model has been developed and imple- Ntw
mented in the finite element code Abaqus [11] allowing ð4Þ
for the numerical prediction of tool wear evolution in
function of the various process and material parameters. To where Ch is the cost rate for the part handling, Cb the cost
illustrate the methodology, an example is presented based rate for blanking, Cc the cost rate for the tool change, Ctw
on experimental tests. the cost for the blanking tool subjected to wear by blanked
part, Cm the maintenance cost rate, and Ntw is the number
of blanking tool per part.
2 Model for blanking tool cost The production cost Eq. 4 can be expressed as a function
of production time Tp by:
Basically, maximizing the production rate is equivalent to
minimizing the blanking time per part. Therefore, the CP ¼ Cav Tp ð5Þ
objective is to complete the production order as quickly
as possible. The total production cycle time for one part is where Cav is the average cost rate.
composed of three items: part handling time, blanking time, Eqs. 1 and 5 can be used as objective functions in
and tool change time. The total production cycle time Tp for optimization algorithm to maximize the production rate and
one part can be expressed as: minimize the production cost.
The cost rate for blanking tool Ctw can be estimated
Tp ¼ Th þ Tb þ Tm ð1Þ according to the following relation:
where Th is the part handling time including clamp Cpunch Cdie
preparation, sheet feeding, CNC program selection, etc., Ctw ¼ þ ð6Þ
Npunch Ndie
Tb is the blanking time, and Tm the nonproductive times
(maintenance, inspection, faults, etc.). Cpunch and Cdie represent, respectively, the costs of the
Blanking time is calculated by: punch and the die. Npunch and Ndie represent, respectively,
the number of blanked parts produced by the punch and the
Tb ¼ Tud þ Tt þ Tch ð2Þ
die tool till their total wear.
where Tud, Tt, and Tch are respectively upstroke–downstroke In general, the need for changing the shearing tool which
time of the punch, the material transfer time, and the determine the number of blanking cycles for the punch and
total tools changing time used for the whole production the die (Npunch and Ndie) are determined on the basis of
given by: allowable burr height on the final product with critical
value about 10% [9].
Tch ¼ Tc Nc ð3Þ
Within this framework, it is necessary to assess the tool
Where Tc is the change time for a given tool, and Nc is life due to wear (Npunch and Ndie). The following section
the number of tool changes. describes the proposed method of tool life prediction.
650 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

Fig. 2 Wear profile of blanking


tool [9] If the parameters of the wear model are assumed to be
constant through time, the above wear model can be
rewritten as:
Wear profile
V ¼ g w FN s ð8Þ
Wear radius : R where γw denotes a wear coefficient depending on sliding
contact conditions. This parameter varies over the range of
10−2~10−7 mm2/N [3].
New tool profile
Based on the investigations presented in [14–16], the
wear causes the cutting edges to be rounded (Fig. 2). This
would reduce the sharpness of the punch during shearing
3 Tool life prediction and increase the deformation of workpiece. Moreover, the
burrs of the parts become larger, the noise level in the press
3.1 Tool wear modeling becomes very high—the punch penetration.

Abrasive wear most commonly occurs in blanking tooling 3.2 Apparatus and materials
when the surface of the working material contains hard
particles, such as carbides or oxides. Several authors [10, Experiments using devices equipped with displacement and
12–14] suggested that these carbide or oxide particles are force transducer were performed using 4000 KN hydraulic
harder than the tooling components and will scratch the tool press at a speed of 100 strokes a minute. An automated
when the working material slides over the tool surfaces. To feeding-evacuation system ensures an advance speed of
increase the abrasive wear resistance of blanking tool approximately 20 mm s−1
materials, one can increase the working hardness of the The study involves AISI 1060 steel (sheet material),
tool or choose a tool steel chemistry which forms hard AISI D2 (punch material), 3.5 mm (sheet thickness), and
carbide particles itself. circular blanking (die diameter=20 mm). A set of punches
The rate of wear is affected by parameters such as was used with different four values of clearances of 5%,
tool material, blanked part material, punch-die clearance, 10%, 15%, and 20%.
punch velocity, lubrication, and material thickness. The Three series of 100,000 blanked workpieces have been
quality of the workpiece is governed by the state of the performed for each clearance. The quantification of form
wear tool. errors of the sheared workpieces is made by means of a
Different wear theories have been developed by profile projector with a resolution of 0.05 mm.
different authors [2, 3]. Adhesive wear actually seems to
involve over 25 variables, some of which are difficult or
impossible to measure. Sophisticated models require sever- 4 Finite element approach
al parameters which need a long time of testing and not
always suitable from engineering point of view. In this The law describing the material behavior should allow for
investigation, Archard wear model [10] has been retained the description of the different stages of the process
for its simplicity to describe the wear evolution. It is observed experimentally starting from the elastic state and
expressed by: ending in the final rupture of the sheet material. For this, a
constitutive law including damage and failure phenomena
V FN
Wad ¼ ¼k ð7Þ
s 3H
Wad is the adhesive worn volume per unit sliding Prescribed displ. :
distance, V is the volume of the material removed by wear U= 3.5 mm
from surface, k is a material constant that expresses the
Punch t
probability of generating a wear particle (dimensionless), s
is the sliding distance, H is the hardness of the sheet, and
FN is the normal load applied on the tool. Observation of
R1
Eq. 7 shows that the hardness H (HRC or HB depending on
the material hardness) is the only material property Die (fixed)
appearing in the model. Typical values of the wear
coefficient k are given in [3] and [12] for a combination Fig. 3 Axisymmetric model of blanking operation (R1=20 mm, t=
of contacting materials. 3.5 mm)
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 651

Table 1 Material parameters

Parameters E (MPa) ν K (MPa) σel (MPa) n εD εR Dc

Value 210,000 0.3 980 250 0.20 0 0.8 0.45

must be chosen. In order to predict damage evolution into If the elastic prediction (Eq. 10) satisfies the yield
the sheet metal during blanking processes, the continuum condition f < 0, the prediction is true, and the local
damage mechanics approach has been applied in this work procedure is completed. Then it can be stated that:
as a means to describe the behavior of the sheet using
s nþ1 ¼ s Tnþ1 ð13Þ
Lemaitre damage model [17, 18].
The algorithms generally implemented in the finite Otherwise, this state must be corrected by means of a
element codes for integration of nonlinear constitutive plastic correction. For this purpose, the variables at
equations are the so-called radial return algorithms, and increment n+1 must satisfy the system:
they are used to solve the equations in an incremental form.
They are based upon the notion of an elastic predictor- f ¼0 ð14Þ
plastic corrector where a purely elastic trial state is followed
by a plastic corrector phase [11]. In this way, an implicit
algorithm has been developed which allows for the  
s nþ1  ð1  Dn Þ Cel "n þ Δ"  "pl
n  Δ"
pl
¼0 ð15Þ
integration of the constitutive equations. The integration
methods of the nonlinear constitutive equations are based
on the use of a special algorithm which solves the equations  
in incremental form. For this purpose, during a small time ΔH a ¼ ha Δ"ij ; ðs ij Þnþ1 ; Hija ð16Þ
interval [tn, tn+1], it is assumed that the whole increment is
purely elastic, then an elastic prediction is defined as: H a , α=1, 2,.., n, is a set of scalar state variables and ha
is the hardening law for H a.
s Tnþ1 ¼ s n þ Δs ð9Þ The wear model given by Eq. 8, can be expressed in the
incremental form:
Eq. 9 can be written as:
h   i d V ¼ g w d FN d s ð17Þ
s Tnþ1 ¼ ð1  Dn ÞCel ð"tot Þnþ1  "pl n ð10Þ
dV and dFN can be expressed as:
The superscript (·)T refers to trial test.Dn, Cel, (εtot)n+1,
d V ¼ d Dw d Ω ð18Þ
and (εpl)n denote, respectively, the damage state of the
material at iteration n, the elastic modulus tensor, total
strain tensor at n+1 and the plastic strain tensor at n. d FN ¼ P d Ω ð19Þ
The von Mises yield function coupled with damage is
given by: dDw is the depth of the wear, dΩ is the contact area, and P
the normal contact pressure acting on the tool.
f ¼ s eq  ð1  DÞðs el þ s 0 Þ ð11Þ By substituting Eqs. 18 and 19 into Eq. 17, we obtain:
σ0 is the strain hardening law of the material. d Dw ¼ g w P d s ð20Þ
The damage variable D is expressed by [17, 18]:
"  2 #
Dc 2 sH   b2
D¼ ð1 þ n Þ þ 3ð1  2n Þ "eq d"eq
"R  "D 3 s eq
ð12Þ
This model depends upon material constants for damage Punch
properties, the hardening exponent β, and the Poisson’s
ratio ν.
εD is the threshold logarithmic strain at which damage
initiates, εR is the logarithmic strain value at fracture and Die

εeq the logarithmic plastic strain. Dc is the critical damage Fig. 4 Mesh used for the F.E. model (wear punch radius R=0.05 mm
value at fracture. scale 1:1) [9].
652 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

Normal contact pressure (MPa)


2500

2000

3 1500
Distance : x
1000
2

2
1 500
1 2 3
0
0 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1
Distance x (mm)
1 : Flat punch area.
2 : Rounded area.
3 : Free area.

Fig. 5 Normal contact pressure variation with location on the punch (wear radius R=0.05 mm) [9]

The wear depth Dw can be expressed in the following 5 Numerical simulation of a blanking operation
integral form:
Z s The problem studied here consists of an axisymmetric
Dw ¼ g w Pds ð21Þ punching operation of a 0.6% carbon steel sheet metal
0
(AISI 1060) with 3.5 mm thickness (Fig. 3). The
This equation can be approximated as follows: mechanical characteristics of the material obtained by a
X
n X
m tensile test in previous work [16] are given in Table 1.
Dw ¼ g w PΔs ð22Þ In order to reduce the CPU time and to update in a simple
i¼1 j¼1 way the tool wear profile of the tool, the punch and the die
m is the total number of time steps Δt, and n is the total was modeled by adopting a rigid body hypothesis with
number of nodes at the punch-part contact area. contact elements. The contact surface laws are defined by a
Within a time interval [tn, tn+1], the wear prediction Coulomb friction model with a friction coefficient value of
algorithm leads to the following incremental wear depth 0,1 [16]. Once the contact has been established, the sliding or
form: sticking contact status of the contacting nodes is determined,
and Archard wear model is assessed in each node.
The distortion of the mesh is restricted to a small area
ðDw Þnþ1 ¼ ðDw Þn þg w ½Pnþ1 ðsnþ1  sn Þ ð23Þ
near the die-punch clearance. Such distorted elements
where (·)n and (·)n+1 denote the approximation of the undergoes total damage, and hence, no remeshing tech-
variable values at increment n and n+1. nique was needed in this work.

Fig. 6 Wear profile of the


punch after 50,000 blanking
cycles [9]

Radius : R = 0.2 mm
Radius : R = 0.19 mm

0.4 mm 0.41 mm

0.161 mm
0.16 mm

-a- FEM calculation. -b- Experiment.


Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 653

Fig. 7 Predicted and experi-


mental blanked profiles
corresponding to two states of
the punch wear (clearance =
10%) [9]

-a- New punch: R = 0.01 mm.


(i) Burr height=1% (ii) Burr height= 1.7%

Burr

-b- Used punch: R = 0.2 mm.


(i) Burr height=9 % (ii) Burr height=8.5 %

The meshing of the model is carried out by means of 6 Results and discussion
1,480 four-node axisymmetric elements (Fig. 4).
During the analysis, crack initiation is assumed to occur Figure 5 shows the variation of normal pressure on the
at any point in the structure where the damage reaches its punch profile versus the distance (x). It can be observed that
critical value Dc. The crack propagation is simulated by the the contact pressure at a particular state of the process
propagation of completely damaged elements in the FE varies with distance (x) on the punch profile. The maximum
model. This is taken into account in the FEM by a decrease pressure value is concentrated in the rounded area.
in the stiffness of the elements concerned. Experimental investigation developed by Hambli [16]
The corresponding simulation time was equal to approx- showed that the wear evolution can be assumed to be
imately 15 min using 2 GB processor computer. linear versus the number of produced blanked part.
654 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

12 14

10 12
Burr height (%)

8 10

Burr Height (%)


6 8

4 6
Experiment
2 4
Simulation
0 2
0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000
Punch wear radius: R (mm)
Blanking cycles
Fig. 8 Evolution of the burr height versus the punch wear radius [9]
Fig. 10 Predicted burr height versus blanking cycles (clearance=
10%) [9]
Therefore, the wear profile of the punch over time can be
obtained using the wear model given by Eq. 7. Starting
the punch edge radius R. Several calculations were
from the numerical results plotted in Fig. 5, at each node ‘I’
performed in order to compare the numerical results with
of the contact elements of the punch mesh, the local wear
experimental data. The two blanked profiles obtained by
volume of the material can be expressed as:
the finite element calculation and the experiment
Xn Z 
corresponding to a new punch with a cutting edge radius
Vi ¼ ðg w Þi ð PÞi d Ωi si ð24Þ R=0.01 mm and a used punch with R=0.2 mm which
1 Ω i
correspond to 50,000 blanking cycles, are shown in Fig. 7.
where P is the normal contact pressure acting on the punch, As it can be expected, in the case of a used punch, the
and n is the number of parts produced by the same tool. profile of the part boundary presents a bad quality due to
The tool is modeled as rigid body, and the wear variables the presence of a burr with a height about 9%.
are computed in the contacting elements. The worn tool The numerical results, compared with the experimental
contact elements of the tool are updated iteratively to ones, show the reliability of the finite element model in
simulate wear evolution versus blanked number of parts. describing the influence of punch wear in the case of
Figure 6 shows the wear profile of the punch obtained by blanking operation processes.
the numerical prediction and the experimental results after The failure of the sheet is obtained for a punch
50,000 blanking cycles. It can be observed that the wear displacement about 70% of the sheet thickness. A good
profile predicted by the proposed wear model give good correlation can be observed between the finite element
results compared to experimental ones. The comparison prediction and the experimental results (Fig. 7).
between the experimental and the predicted wear profiles Figure 8 shows the evolution of the burr height versus
shows that the deviations do not exceed 10%. Wear the punch wear radius obtained by experiments. This curve
resulting from punch/sheet contact causes the cutting edges is compared with that obtained by the different FEM
to be rounded; hence, it affects the quality of the parts calculations corresponding to different edge radii of the
produced and generate the burr formation [3, 8, 16]. The punch. It can be shown that results are in good agreement
influence of the tool wear on the blanking process can be
modeled in a simplified manner by changing the value of
60000
12
50000
10
Experiment
Punch life cycles

40000
Burr height (%)

8 Simulation

30000
6

20000
4

2 10000

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25
Clearance (%) Clearance (%)

Fig. 9 Burr height versus clearance (wear radius R=0.05 mm) [9] Fig. 11 Predicted punch wear life cycles versus clearance
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 655

with deviations of 9% between predicted and experimental 10

Punch rate cost (euro/part)


values (Fig. 8). Figure 9 shows that burr height grows c=5%
8
nonlinearly as clearance increases. Numerical results are in c=10%
good agreement with experimental ones obtained by the 6
c=15%
proposed wear algorithm. c=20%
From an industrial point of view, the need for regrinding 4
of the tool is determined on the basis of allowable burr
2
height (about 10%) on the final product [16]. Therefore,
based on this criterion, the tool life can be predicted as the 0
number of punching cycles corresponding to a maximum 1000 10000 19000 28000 37000 46000 55000
burr height increase of 10%. Parts production rate
For a given clearance, the burr height evolves according Fig. 12 Punch rate cost versus parts production rate
to blanking cycles as it can be seen in Fig. 10 for a clearance
value of 10%. The results shows that critical value of the
burr height (10%) is reached for a blanking cycle about possible to evaluate the influence of critical parameters on
Npunch =50,000 which correspond to the punch life. Figure process costs and quality.
11 represents the punch life evolution versus clearance. It
can be noticed that the punch life increases for a clearance
range located between 5% and 10%. The maximum is 7 Conclusion
reached for a clearance value about 10%. For smaller
clearances, the sliding distance is reduced. However, the A wide range of studies have been performed on the
contacting stresses are very high which explain the reduced modeling of blanking process. But the efforts of most of
tool life cycles. For a clearance values greater then 10%, it these works are concentrated on the development of finite
can be observed that the tool life decreases linearly. In this element models to predict the crack initiation and propaga-
range, the sliding distance is increased, and the contacting tion which affects the sheared edge. These studies focused
stresses are reduced compared to a small clearance values. on the blanked parts behavior and was performed by using
When making decisions on the blanking process, some fracture criteria or damage mechanics approaches.
economic aspects will includes the punch rate cost The aim of this paper is to introduce a finite element
assessment versus parts production rate and some process model allowing for the numerical prediction of the
parameters (mainly tool clearance) [1–4]. Several inves- manufacturing blanking costs generated by tool wear. A
tigations have been made to estimate tool costs from an wear model has been implemented in the finite element
engineering point of view [1–4, 19–22]. They are based on code ABAQUS in which the tool wear is a function of the
analytical techniques to predict costs based on certain normal pressure and some material parameters. In the
known physical principles [3, 4]. All input factors such as present work, the tool is modeled as rigid body hypothesis,
product design specifications, materials, energy, labor, and the altered tool contact surface and contact pressure
capital equipment, tool cost, and other factors consumed tool shapes are updated iteratively to simulate wear over a
by the process must be considered and calculated for all long period of time. The wear evolution is described by
process steps. Archard model in which the wear is a function of the
Since the cost rate for a blanking tool Cb can be normal pressure and some material parameters. The
estimated according to the Eq. 6 which depends on tool numerical results compared with the experimental ones,
cycle life related to wear (Npunch,), tool cost rate can be show the reliability of the finite element model in
predicted using FEM results and Eq. 6. describing the influence of punch/sheet wear on the punch
Based on the proposed method, the rate cost evolution wear profile. A constitutive law including damage and
versus parts production rate for different clearances values failure phenomena has been implemented in order to
(giving different punch life cycles) is plotted in Fig. 12. The simulate crack initiation and propagation.
results are plotted for a reference punch cost of 10,000 The proposed model can be used in order to assess the
euros [16]. manufacturing costs related to tool wear and contribute
For the given workpiece specifications, it can be toward the development of optimization procedure to
observed that the cost rates are very sensitive for a low reduce costs of blanked parts. The engineer, however, can
number of blanked parts. For a number greater then 15,000 increase the product reliability and minimize the cost of
parts, the cost rates reach asymptotes which depend on the these repeated prototype fabrications and testing if mechan-
tool clearance. One can notice that the clearance value have ical strength reliability procedures are used at the design
a strong effect on the blanking tool life. It is therefore stage prior to production.
656 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

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