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Finite Element Prediction of Blanking Tool Cost Caused by Wear

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Finite Element Prediction of Blanking Tool Cost Caused by Wear

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discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225421620

caused by wear

DOI: 10.1007/s00170-008-1859-9

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Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

DOI 10.1007/s00170-008-1859-9

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

by wear

Ridha Hambli & Damien Soulat & Abdesselem Chamekh

Received: 9 April 2008 / Accepted: 20 November 2008 / Published online: 9 December 2008

# Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

a large number of factors, including the material cost,

manufacturing costs. Predicting the manufacturing costs of The estimation of tool wear in blanking operations is

a blanked part requires accurate estimation of tool cost important for scheduling tool changing times, for adaptive

caused by wear. The aim of this paper is to develop a finite process control, and tool cost evaluation. The costs of

element model allowing for the numerical prediction of the forming tools usually cover a substantial amount of the total

blanking tool life which allows for the evaluation of the manufacturing cost of forming parts [1–3]. The accuracy of

cost rate of blanking tool caused by wear needed to assess workpieces can be characterized by the following errors:

the total cost of a blanked part. A wear prediction model has dimensional error, positional error, and form or shape error.

been implemented in the finite element code Abaqus in The errors on blanks are influenced by material, the tool

which the tool wear is a function of the normal pressure and shape, process variations, and the machine. The form errors

some material parameters. In the present work, the tool is represented in Fig. 1 are connected to the geometry of the

modeled as rigid body hypothesis, and the wear variables sheared edge such as the roll-over depth, the fracture depth,

are computed in the contacting elements. The altered tool the smooth-sheared depth, the burr formation, and the

contact surface and contact pressure tool shapes are updated fracture angle. Various experimental studies [4–9] which

iteratively to simulate wear over a long period of time of showed that the mechanical and geometrical aspect of the

about 100,000 cycles. A damage model is used in order to sheared edge during the blanking operation for a given

describe crack initiation and propagation into the sheet. The material are affected by some parameters like the blanking

distribution of the tool wear on the tool profile is obtained clearance, the wear state of the tool, and the thickness of the

and compared to industrial observations. sheet.

Because of tool wear changes, the punch-die geometry

Keywords Blanking process . Tool wear . Tool wear cost . and clearance, the form of the sheared surface is

Finite element method . Experimental tests influenced. In addition, tool wear has adverse effects on

the dimensional accuracy and surface finish of the

product. The phenomena related to wear on the tools

have an important impact on the economy of industrial

metal blanking processes. Methodologies currently used

R. Hambli (*) : D. Soulat are based mainly on designer’s intuition and experience,

Université d’Orléans, Polytech’Orléans—Prisme/LMSP,

which are not the most adequate when considering the

8 rue Léonard de Vinci,

45072 Orléans, France complexity of the problem. Quantitative approach to tool

e-mail: ridha.hambli@univ-orleans.fr wear analysis would improve service life, leading to an

important reduction of manufacturing costs. Although

A. Chamekh

there are many papers dealing with sheet metal shearing

ENIM-LGM,

Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, processes, there is still a lack of models allowing for the

5019 Monastir, Tunisia tool wear prediction which affects blanked parts manu-

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 649

workpiece Sheet

F Fracture

angle

Burr height

Fracture depth

Smooth-sheared Workpiece

depth

Roll-over depth

facturing costs. The influence of the tool wear on the The total cost per part is composed of five items, part

accuracy of the blanked parts has been investigated in a handling cost, blanking cost, tool change cost, tool cost due

previous work [9]. However, the main purpose of the to wear and tool cost due to maintenance.

present study is to propose a methodology to predict The total cost of producing one part Cp can be expressed

blanking tool costs due to wear. as:

In order to contribute toward a development of a

system for blanking tool cost assessment caused by wear, Tm

CP ¼ Ch Th þ Cb Tb þ Cc Tc Nc þ Ctw þ Cm

a finite element model has been developed and imple- Ntw

mented in the finite element code Abaqus [11] allowing ð4Þ

for the numerical prediction of tool wear evolution in

function of the various process and material parameters. To where Ch is the cost rate for the part handling, Cb the cost

illustrate the methodology, an example is presented based rate for blanking, Cc the cost rate for the tool change, Ctw

on experimental tests. the cost for the blanking tool subjected to wear by blanked

part, Cm the maintenance cost rate, and Ntw is the number

of blanking tool per part.

2 Model for blanking tool cost The production cost Eq. 4 can be expressed as a function

of production time Tp by:

Basically, maximizing the production rate is equivalent to

minimizing the blanking time per part. Therefore, the CP ¼ Cav Tp ð5Þ

objective is to complete the production order as quickly

as possible. The total production cycle time for one part is where Cav is the average cost rate.

composed of three items: part handling time, blanking time, Eqs. 1 and 5 can be used as objective functions in

and tool change time. The total production cycle time Tp for optimization algorithm to maximize the production rate and

one part can be expressed as: minimize the production cost.

The cost rate for blanking tool Ctw can be estimated

Tp ¼ Th þ Tb þ Tm ð1Þ according to the following relation:

where Th is the part handling time including clamp Cpunch Cdie

preparation, sheet feeding, CNC program selection, etc., Ctw ¼ þ ð6Þ

Npunch Ndie

Tb is the blanking time, and Tm the nonproductive times

(maintenance, inspection, faults, etc.). Cpunch and Cdie represent, respectively, the costs of the

Blanking time is calculated by: punch and the die. Npunch and Ndie represent, respectively,

the number of blanked parts produced by the punch and the

Tb ¼ Tud þ Tt þ Tch ð2Þ

die tool till their total wear.

where Tud, Tt, and Tch are respectively upstroke–downstroke In general, the need for changing the shearing tool which

time of the punch, the material transfer time, and the determine the number of blanking cycles for the punch and

total tools changing time used for the whole production the die (Npunch and Ndie) are determined on the basis of

given by: allowable burr height on the final product with critical

value about 10% [9].

Tch ¼ Tc Nc ð3Þ

Within this framework, it is necessary to assess the tool

Where Tc is the change time for a given tool, and Nc is life due to wear (Npunch and Ndie). The following section

the number of tool changes. describes the proposed method of tool life prediction.

650 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

tool [9] If the parameters of the wear model are assumed to be

constant through time, the above wear model can be

rewritten as:

Wear profile

V ¼ g w FN s ð8Þ

Wear radius : R where γw denotes a wear coefficient depending on sliding

contact conditions. This parameter varies over the range of

10−2~10−7 mm2/N [3].

New tool profile

Based on the investigations presented in [14–16], the

wear causes the cutting edges to be rounded (Fig. 2). This

would reduce the sharpness of the punch during shearing

3 Tool life prediction and increase the deformation of workpiece. Moreover, the

burrs of the parts become larger, the noise level in the press

3.1 Tool wear modeling becomes very high—the punch penetration.

Abrasive wear most commonly occurs in blanking tooling 3.2 Apparatus and materials

when the surface of the working material contains hard

particles, such as carbides or oxides. Several authors [10, Experiments using devices equipped with displacement and

12–14] suggested that these carbide or oxide particles are force transducer were performed using 4000 KN hydraulic

harder than the tooling components and will scratch the tool press at a speed of 100 strokes a minute. An automated

when the working material slides over the tool surfaces. To feeding-evacuation system ensures an advance speed of

increase the abrasive wear resistance of blanking tool approximately 20 mm s−1

materials, one can increase the working hardness of the The study involves AISI 1060 steel (sheet material),

tool or choose a tool steel chemistry which forms hard AISI D2 (punch material), 3.5 mm (sheet thickness), and

carbide particles itself. circular blanking (die diameter=20 mm). A set of punches

The rate of wear is affected by parameters such as was used with different four values of clearances of 5%,

tool material, blanked part material, punch-die clearance, 10%, 15%, and 20%.

punch velocity, lubrication, and material thickness. The Three series of 100,000 blanked workpieces have been

quality of the workpiece is governed by the state of the performed for each clearance. The quantification of form

wear tool. errors of the sheared workpieces is made by means of a

Different wear theories have been developed by profile projector with a resolution of 0.05 mm.

different authors [2, 3]. Adhesive wear actually seems to

involve over 25 variables, some of which are difficult or

impossible to measure. Sophisticated models require sever- 4 Finite element approach

al parameters which need a long time of testing and not

always suitable from engineering point of view. In this The law describing the material behavior should allow for

investigation, Archard wear model [10] has been retained the description of the different stages of the process

for its simplicity to describe the wear evolution. It is observed experimentally starting from the elastic state and

expressed by: ending in the final rupture of the sheet material. For this, a

constitutive law including damage and failure phenomena

V FN

Wad ¼ ¼k ð7Þ

s 3H

Wad is the adhesive worn volume per unit sliding Prescribed displ. :

distance, V is the volume of the material removed by wear U= 3.5 mm

from surface, k is a material constant that expresses the

Punch t

probability of generating a wear particle (dimensionless), s

is the sliding distance, H is the hardness of the sheet, and

FN is the normal load applied on the tool. Observation of

R1

Eq. 7 shows that the hardness H (HRC or HB depending on

the material hardness) is the only material property Die (fixed)

appearing in the model. Typical values of the wear

coefficient k are given in [3] and [12] for a combination Fig. 3 Axisymmetric model of blanking operation (R1=20 mm, t=

of contacting materials. 3.5 mm)

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 651

must be chosen. In order to predict damage evolution into If the elastic prediction (Eq. 10) satisfies the yield

the sheet metal during blanking processes, the continuum condition f < 0, the prediction is true, and the local

damage mechanics approach has been applied in this work procedure is completed. Then it can be stated that:

as a means to describe the behavior of the sheet using

s nþ1 ¼ s Tnþ1 ð13Þ

Lemaitre damage model [17, 18].

The algorithms generally implemented in the finite Otherwise, this state must be corrected by means of a

element codes for integration of nonlinear constitutive plastic correction. For this purpose, the variables at

equations are the so-called radial return algorithms, and increment n+1 must satisfy the system:

they are used to solve the equations in an incremental form.

They are based upon the notion of an elastic predictor- f ¼0 ð14Þ

plastic corrector where a purely elastic trial state is followed

by a plastic corrector phase [11]. In this way, an implicit

algorithm has been developed which allows for the

s nþ1 ð1 Dn Þ Cel "n þ Δ" "pl

n Δ"

pl

¼0 ð15Þ

integration of the constitutive equations. The integration

methods of the nonlinear constitutive equations are based

on the use of a special algorithm which solves the equations

in incremental form. For this purpose, during a small time ΔH a ¼ ha Δ"ij ; ðs ij Þnþ1 ; Hija ð16Þ

interval [tn, tn+1], it is assumed that the whole increment is

purely elastic, then an elastic prediction is defined as: H a , α=1, 2,.., n, is a set of scalar state variables and ha

is the hardening law for H a.

s Tnþ1 ¼ s n þ Δs ð9Þ The wear model given by Eq. 8, can be expressed in the

incremental form:

Eq. 9 can be written as:

h i d V ¼ g w d FN d s ð17Þ

s Tnþ1 ¼ ð1 Dn ÞCel ð"tot Þnþ1 "pl n ð10Þ

dV and dFN can be expressed as:

The superscript (·)T refers to trial test.Dn, Cel, (εtot)n+1,

d V ¼ d Dw d Ω ð18Þ

and (εpl)n denote, respectively, the damage state of the

material at iteration n, the elastic modulus tensor, total

strain tensor at n+1 and the plastic strain tensor at n. d FN ¼ P d Ω ð19Þ

The von Mises yield function coupled with damage is

given by: dDw is the depth of the wear, dΩ is the contact area, and P

the normal contact pressure acting on the tool.

f ¼ s eq ð1 DÞðs el þ s 0 Þ ð11Þ By substituting Eqs. 18 and 19 into Eq. 17, we obtain:

σ0 is the strain hardening law of the material. d Dw ¼ g w P d s ð20Þ

The damage variable D is expressed by [17, 18]:

" 2 #

Dc 2 sH b2

D¼ ð1 þ n Þ þ 3ð1 2n Þ "eq d"eq

"R "D 3 s eq

ð12Þ

This model depends upon material constants for damage Punch

properties, the hardening exponent β, and the Poisson’s

ratio ν.

εD is the threshold logarithmic strain at which damage

initiates, εR is the logarithmic strain value at fracture and Die

εeq the logarithmic plastic strain. Dc is the critical damage Fig. 4 Mesh used for the F.E. model (wear punch radius R=0.05 mm

value at fracture. scale 1:1) [9].

652 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

2500

2000

3 1500

Distance : x

1000

2

2

1 500

1 2 3

0

0 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5 1,8 2,1

Distance x (mm)

1 : Flat punch area.

2 : Rounded area.

3 : Free area.

Fig. 5 Normal contact pressure variation with location on the punch (wear radius R=0.05 mm) [9]

The wear depth Dw can be expressed in the following 5 Numerical simulation of a blanking operation

integral form:

Z s The problem studied here consists of an axisymmetric

Dw ¼ g w Pds ð21Þ punching operation of a 0.6% carbon steel sheet metal

0

(AISI 1060) with 3.5 mm thickness (Fig. 3). The

This equation can be approximated as follows: mechanical characteristics of the material obtained by a

X

n X

m tensile test in previous work [16] are given in Table 1.

Dw ¼ g w PΔs ð22Þ In order to reduce the CPU time and to update in a simple

i¼1 j¼1 way the tool wear profile of the tool, the punch and the die

m is the total number of time steps Δt, and n is the total was modeled by adopting a rigid body hypothesis with

number of nodes at the punch-part contact area. contact elements. The contact surface laws are defined by a

Within a time interval [tn, tn+1], the wear prediction Coulomb friction model with a friction coefficient value of

algorithm leads to the following incremental wear depth 0,1 [16]. Once the contact has been established, the sliding or

form: sticking contact status of the contacting nodes is determined,

and Archard wear model is assessed in each node.

The distortion of the mesh is restricted to a small area

ðDw Þnþ1 ¼ ðDw Þn þg w ½Pnþ1 ðsnþ1 sn Þ ð23Þ

near the die-punch clearance. Such distorted elements

where (·)n and (·)n+1 denote the approximation of the undergoes total damage, and hence, no remeshing tech-

variable values at increment n and n+1. nique was needed in this work.

punch after 50,000 blanking

cycles [9]

Radius : R = 0.2 mm

Radius : R = 0.19 mm

0.4 mm 0.41 mm

0.161 mm

0.16 mm

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 653

mental blanked profiles

corresponding to two states of

the punch wear (clearance =

10%) [9]

(i) Burr height=1% (ii) Burr height= 1.7%

Burr

(i) Burr height=9 % (ii) Burr height=8.5 %

The meshing of the model is carried out by means of 6 Results and discussion

1,480 four-node axisymmetric elements (Fig. 4).

During the analysis, crack initiation is assumed to occur Figure 5 shows the variation of normal pressure on the

at any point in the structure where the damage reaches its punch profile versus the distance (x). It can be observed that

critical value Dc. The crack propagation is simulated by the the contact pressure at a particular state of the process

propagation of completely damaged elements in the FE varies with distance (x) on the punch profile. The maximum

model. This is taken into account in the FEM by a decrease pressure value is concentrated in the rounded area.

in the stiffness of the elements concerned. Experimental investigation developed by Hambli [16]

The corresponding simulation time was equal to approx- showed that the wear evolution can be assumed to be

imately 15 min using 2 GB processor computer. linear versus the number of produced blanked part.

654 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

12 14

10 12

Burr height (%)

8 10

6 8

4 6

Experiment

2 4

Simulation

0 2

0 0,05 0,1 0,15 0,2 0,25 0

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000

Punch wear radius: R (mm)

Blanking cycles

Fig. 8 Evolution of the burr height versus the punch wear radius [9]

Fig. 10 Predicted burr height versus blanking cycles (clearance=

10%) [9]

Therefore, the wear profile of the punch over time can be

obtained using the wear model given by Eq. 7. Starting

the punch edge radius R. Several calculations were

from the numerical results plotted in Fig. 5, at each node ‘I’

performed in order to compare the numerical results with

of the contact elements of the punch mesh, the local wear

experimental data. The two blanked profiles obtained by

volume of the material can be expressed as:

the finite element calculation and the experiment

Xn Z

corresponding to a new punch with a cutting edge radius

Vi ¼ ðg w Þi ð PÞi d Ωi si ð24Þ R=0.01 mm and a used punch with R=0.2 mm which

1 Ω i

correspond to 50,000 blanking cycles, are shown in Fig. 7.

where P is the normal contact pressure acting on the punch, As it can be expected, in the case of a used punch, the

and n is the number of parts produced by the same tool. profile of the part boundary presents a bad quality due to

The tool is modeled as rigid body, and the wear variables the presence of a burr with a height about 9%.

are computed in the contacting elements. The worn tool The numerical results, compared with the experimental

contact elements of the tool are updated iteratively to ones, show the reliability of the finite element model in

simulate wear evolution versus blanked number of parts. describing the influence of punch wear in the case of

Figure 6 shows the wear profile of the punch obtained by blanking operation processes.

the numerical prediction and the experimental results after The failure of the sheet is obtained for a punch

50,000 blanking cycles. It can be observed that the wear displacement about 70% of the sheet thickness. A good

profile predicted by the proposed wear model give good correlation can be observed between the finite element

results compared to experimental ones. The comparison prediction and the experimental results (Fig. 7).

between the experimental and the predicted wear profiles Figure 8 shows the evolution of the burr height versus

shows that the deviations do not exceed 10%. Wear the punch wear radius obtained by experiments. This curve

resulting from punch/sheet contact causes the cutting edges is compared with that obtained by the different FEM

to be rounded; hence, it affects the quality of the parts calculations corresponding to different edge radii of the

produced and generate the burr formation [3, 8, 16]. The punch. It can be shown that results are in good agreement

influence of the tool wear on the blanking process can be

modeled in a simplified manner by changing the value of

60000

12

50000

10

Experiment

Punch life cycles

40000

Burr height (%)

8 Simulation

30000

6

20000

4

2 10000

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25

Clearance (%) Clearance (%)

Fig. 9 Burr height versus clearance (wear radius R=0.05 mm) [9] Fig. 11 Predicted punch wear life cycles versus clearance

Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656 655

values (Fig. 8). Figure 9 shows that burr height grows c=5%

8

nonlinearly as clearance increases. Numerical results are in c=10%

good agreement with experimental ones obtained by the 6

c=15%

proposed wear algorithm. c=20%

From an industrial point of view, the need for regrinding 4

of the tool is determined on the basis of allowable burr

2

height (about 10%) on the final product [16]. Therefore,

based on this criterion, the tool life can be predicted as the 0

number of punching cycles corresponding to a maximum 1000 10000 19000 28000 37000 46000 55000

burr height increase of 10%. Parts production rate

For a given clearance, the burr height evolves according Fig. 12 Punch rate cost versus parts production rate

to blanking cycles as it can be seen in Fig. 10 for a clearance

value of 10%. The results shows that critical value of the

burr height (10%) is reached for a blanking cycle about possible to evaluate the influence of critical parameters on

Npunch =50,000 which correspond to the punch life. Figure process costs and quality.

11 represents the punch life evolution versus clearance. It

can be noticed that the punch life increases for a clearance

range located between 5% and 10%. The maximum is 7 Conclusion

reached for a clearance value about 10%. For smaller

clearances, the sliding distance is reduced. However, the A wide range of studies have been performed on the

contacting stresses are very high which explain the reduced modeling of blanking process. But the efforts of most of

tool life cycles. For a clearance values greater then 10%, it these works are concentrated on the development of finite

can be observed that the tool life decreases linearly. In this element models to predict the crack initiation and propaga-

range, the sliding distance is increased, and the contacting tion which affects the sheared edge. These studies focused

stresses are reduced compared to a small clearance values. on the blanked parts behavior and was performed by using

When making decisions on the blanking process, some fracture criteria or damage mechanics approaches.

economic aspects will includes the punch rate cost The aim of this paper is to introduce a finite element

assessment versus parts production rate and some process model allowing for the numerical prediction of the

parameters (mainly tool clearance) [1–4]. Several inves- manufacturing blanking costs generated by tool wear. A

tigations have been made to estimate tool costs from an wear model has been implemented in the finite element

engineering point of view [1–4, 19–22]. They are based on code ABAQUS in which the tool wear is a function of the

analytical techniques to predict costs based on certain normal pressure and some material parameters. In the

known physical principles [3, 4]. All input factors such as present work, the tool is modeled as rigid body hypothesis,

product design specifications, materials, energy, labor, and the altered tool contact surface and contact pressure

capital equipment, tool cost, and other factors consumed tool shapes are updated iteratively to simulate wear over a

by the process must be considered and calculated for all long period of time. The wear evolution is described by

process steps. Archard model in which the wear is a function of the

Since the cost rate for a blanking tool Cb can be normal pressure and some material parameters. The

estimated according to the Eq. 6 which depends on tool numerical results compared with the experimental ones,

cycle life related to wear (Npunch,), tool cost rate can be show the reliability of the finite element model in

predicted using FEM results and Eq. 6. describing the influence of punch/sheet wear on the punch

Based on the proposed method, the rate cost evolution wear profile. A constitutive law including damage and

versus parts production rate for different clearances values failure phenomena has been implemented in order to

(giving different punch life cycles) is plotted in Fig. 12. The simulate crack initiation and propagation.

results are plotted for a reference punch cost of 10,000 The proposed model can be used in order to assess the

euros [16]. manufacturing costs related to tool wear and contribute

For the given workpiece specifications, it can be toward the development of optimization procedure to

observed that the cost rates are very sensitive for a low reduce costs of blanked parts. The engineer, however, can

number of blanked parts. For a number greater then 15,000 increase the product reliability and minimize the cost of

parts, the cost rates reach asymptotes which depend on the these repeated prototype fabrications and testing if mechan-

tool clearance. One can notice that the clearance value have ical strength reliability procedures are used at the design

a strong effect on the blanking tool life. It is therefore stage prior to production.

656 Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2009) 44:648–656

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