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128.

MASS PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF THE PORTABLE ENGINE-POWERED ABACA


SPINDLE STRIPPING MACHINE
Feliciano G. Sinon. National Abaca Research Center, Leyte State University, Visca, Baybay City,
Leyte, 6521-A, no year

ABSTRACT

129. REJUVENATION OF OLD/NEGLECTED ABACA PLANTATION


C.D. Carcallas and R.M. Santiago. Department of Horticulture, Visayas State College of
Agriculture, Terminal Report, 1986.

ABSTRACT

At 18 mo old, the sample plants did not vary significantly in terms of middle and top stalk
circumference, number of plants per plot and number of suckers per hill. Significant variations were
observed with respect to plant height and base stalk circumference. Plants in T 1 and T2 were comparable
in height and both were taller than those in T 3. On the other hand, base stalk circumference in T 2 and T3
were similar but both were inferior to those in T 1.

Fiber yield components of the sample plants did not vary among treatments but the highest total
fiber yield was obtained in T 1 and the lowest, in T3. T3 had a lower pest incidence than T 1 and T2 and the
corm weevil count appeared to have a direct relationship with rainfall. All the treatments had a negative
income.

130. THE POTENTIAL OF TWINING COIR AND WASTE ABACA FIBER USING NARC TWINING
MACHINE
Feliciano G. Sinon and Alberto C. Martinez. National Abaca Research Center, Visayas State
College of Agriculture, Book of Abstracts Regional RDE Symposium, July 2009

Twisting and twining machines for abaca fiber yarn and twine production was developed and
fabricated at the National Abaca Research Center to ease the traditional twine production. However, due
to the increasing cost of raw fiber material, twine production was only profitable at fiber cost of not more
than 25 php/kilogram. Thus, the potential of using other natural fibers which are cheap and abundant in
the locality such as coir and waste abaca fiber was evaluated.

Coir fiber from coconut husk was used as raw material in twine production using the NARC
developed coir twining machine. Technical performance of the machine was evaluated in the laboratory.
After some modifications, the coir twining machine was brought to Javier, Leyte and Matalom, Southern
Leyte for pilot testing. Positive response was received from different operators. However, profitability
evaluation comparing the manual and machine coir twine production yielded a negative net income of -
249 and -208 php/day respectively. This is basically due to the low buying price of coir twine at 0.12
php/m.

Waste and low cost abaca fiber were also used in the production of twine using the NARC twining
machine. The physical properties of the different abaca fiber types were evaluated. In terms of cleanness
and whiteness of yarn and twine, both TOW and Waste fibers got lower ratings since both yarn and twine
products are darker in color. These twines have also more protruding fiber tips. Furthermore, TOW twine
had lower strength rating since Waste, M1 and S3 were more or less in the same strength level, although
the waste fiber has high variation in strength which ranges from 90 to 190 kg breaking load. For typing
fiber bales and other purposes which requires strength of not more than 80 kg the Waste fiber is suitable.
Economically, Waste and M1 fibers have shown higher potential. The high twisting recovery of
M1 fiber has reduced its production cost while the zero cost of Waste fiber makes it more economical for
twine production, even though it only has 50% twisting recovery.
Generally, Waste and M1 fibers showed high potential as raw materials in the production of
twines for applications which does not require whiteness and cleanness such as tying bales and
packages.

131. REENGINEERING THE ABACA SPINDLE STRIPPING MACHINE


Feliciano G. Sinon1 and Roberto c. Guarte2. 1Project leader, “Development and Dissemination of
Portable Abaca Stripping Machine”, National Abaca Research Center, VSU, Baybay, Leyte.
2Program coordinator on abaca processing, “Utilization of Abaca Fiber in the Automotive

Industry”-PPP Abaca Project in the Phil, VSU, Baybay, Leyte, Book of Abstracts Regional RDE
Symposium, July 2009

ABSTRACT

Automotive manufacturers in Europe considered abaca fiber as potential material to replace glass
fiber in the production of composites for the interior and exterior of car’s body. However, 80% of the
abaca fiber produced in the Philippines is still done by hand stripping method. This fiber is of low quality
(contains many impurities not suitable for composite manufacturing) and the process of stripping is
tedious and very slow. Existing machines produce high quality fiber but the machines are expensive, fixed
and uneconomical to use. The raw materials (contain 10% fiber only) have to be transported from the
farm (scattered at an average distances of 2 km) to the stripping center. Thus, only few farmers adopted
machine stripping in fiber production. It was therefore the main object of this research to develop a
portable and economical abaca stripping machine.

Farmers in the abaca producing municipalities in Leyte and Samar were assessed as to their
farming conditions and stripping needs. The existing stripping machines were also evaluated as to the
design aspect, operational mechanism, costs, and production system. Torque requirement in abaca
stripping was also evaluated at optimum tuxy feeding using a torque meter attached at the spindle shaft
of the fixed-type machine.

A portable stripping machine was developed. Its power source and sizes of shaft and blade fram
were determined based on stripping torque requirement of 160 N-m and spindle speed of 400 RPM. The
machine weighed a total of 93kg including the 2.6 kW engine. Portability and high machine efficiency
were achieved using high flywheel speed computed through the kinetic energy equation. A total pulling
torque of 27358 N-m was obtained by the portable machine as compared to only 22000 N-m in the fixed
model.

Field evaluation study showed that the machine could be brought to the farm manually by three
persons or drawn in a sled by a carabao. It produced 100kg of fine, strong, and homogenous fiber per
day with 5 liters of gasoline fuel.

132. DEVELOPMENT OF TWISTING AND TWINING MACHINES FOR ABACA TWINE


PRODUCTION
Feliciano G. Sinon and Alberto C. Martinez Jr. National Abaca Research Center, Visayas State
College of Agriculture, 2008, Terminal Report Phase 1.

ABSTRACT

Abaca twine production has been a traditional source of income in Bicol, Leyte and in other abaca
producing areas of the country. However, the existing method of producing twines is slow, tedious and
backbreaking. The process requires twisting the raw fiber into yarn by rubbing them between the palms
and the legs or by using a spinning wheel which requires skill to operate. Two or more yarns are then
twisted together into twine or small rope using simple devices operated by at least three persons.
A fiber-twisting machine was developed at the National Abaca Research Center (NARC), VSU for
village-level application. The machine can twist different classifications of abaca fiber into yarn and
automatically spool and arranged them in the reel. Different sizes of twisted yarn ranging from 1/8ӯ to
½”Ø was produced by the machine by changing the gear combinations of the pulling and twisting
mechanism. Using abaca fiber (17 serrations), evaluation results showed that the machine has twisting
capacity of 360m/hr.

Some modifications were done on the machine to produce twisted yarn from abaca bacbac
materials (dried outer leafsheath of abaca stalk which is an excellent material for handicraft and furniture
making). Comparative evaluation of the twisting machine (after the modification) with the traditional
twisting wheel using bacbac materials showed that the machine has higher output capacity than the
traditional at 216 m/hr and 167 m/hr respectively. It has also higher efficiency at 74% than the traditional
technique at 72% even though the operators who operated the machine were experts in the traditional
wheel twisting which signifies that if they have used the machine for longer period, their efficiency could
have been much higher.

133. MECHANIZATION OF THE VILLAGE-LEVEL HANDMADE PAPER-MAKING


Feliciano G. Sinon, Richard L. Balaresia and Sherwin L. Ludevese. National Abaca Research
Center, Visayas State College of Agriculture, Terminal Report, 2008

ABSTRACT

Handmade paper-making involves the following basic steps: cutting the fiber, cooking, pulping,
sheet forming, couching, pressing, and drying. The manual method of sheet forming makes the
handmade paper unique and distinguishable from the large-scale mechanized process. Thus,
mechanization of handmade paper-making focused on pulping, water removal and drying.

The National Abaca Research Center (NARC) has designed and fabricated an abaca pulper,
paper dryer, and heated roller, modified a wet and dry vacuum cleaner as excess water expeller; and
adapted a household electric blender for complete disintegration of cellulose fiber.

The initial model of the village-level pulper has a liquid capacity of only 60 liters and powered by a
2 Hp single-phase electric motor. Evaluation of the machine showed a pulping capacity of only 0.5 kg
pulp per hour. Another prototype was designed and fabricated using impact principle of disintegrating the
fiber into pulp. The new prototype pulper has a liquid capacity of 200 kg and pulping capacity of about 3
times more than the previous model. Relative efficiency of the improved pulper was about 77% as
compared to the previous one. A handmade paper dryer was fabricated using ½ “G.I. pipe as burner and
gauge # 16 GI sheet as the drying surface. The dryer utilizes LPG fuel to heat the drying surface.
Evaluation showed that 40 sheets of letter sized handmade paper can be dried simultaneously on the
dryer. Another two models for paper dryer using different sources of heat such as: electricity and steam
was also tested. These have almost similar drying performance with the dryer fueled with LPG.

Comparative drying of handmade papers using sun drying technique and the developed dryer
showed significant differences in terms of drying time, percent moisture removed.

134. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTI-STRANDED YARNING MACHINE FOR ABACA FIBER


Feliciano G. Sinon and Macuin F. Delantar. National Abaca Research Center, Visayas State
College of Agriculture, Terminal Report, 2005

ABSTRACT

A multi-stranded yarning machine was developed at NARC, LSU, Baybay, Leyte to fill-in the need
of the fiber-craft industry. The machine can produce 2 continuous yarns simultaneously with lengths of
1.2 kilometer by wrapping around the abaca fiber with polyester yarn. The yarn produced is also
automatically arranged in the spool while a timing device automatically locks up when the yarn reached
1.2 kilometer long. Mechanisms of the machine were improved to allow easy joining of the binder in case
it breaks during the operation.

Evaluation showed that an unskilled operator produced yarn at the rate of 380-430 m/hr at an
efficiency of 80-95%. The quality of yarn from the machine was not significantly different with the yarn of
the traditional method.

A nicely woven product comparable to “sinamay” was produced from the multi-stranded yarn at
the Matalom Abaca-Based Integrated Project (MABIP), Matalom, Southern Leyte.

Comparative cost and return analysis showed that the machine has daily net income of P193,
payback period of 0.88 year and a return on investment of 114% while, manual tinagak production has
negative net income since one person can produce 1 kilo of yarn in 1 week time.

135. DEVELOPMENT OF A VILLAGE-LEVEL FIBER TWISTING MACHINE


Feliciano G. Sinon and Alberto C. Martinez,Jr. National Abaca Research Center, Visayas State
College of Agriculture, 2005, Terminal Report, The Philippine Journal of Crop Science Vol 29
Supplement no1, March 2004

ABSTRACT

A village-level twisting machine was designed and fabricated at the National Abaca Research
Center-LSU using locally available and adapted spare parts. Results of the evaluation showed that the
machine can produce twisted yarns at different sizes ranging from 1/8ӯ to 1/2 ү. Performance
evaluation revealed twisting capacities of 360m/hr and 220m/hr using abaca fiber and bacbac,
respectively. Acceptability evaluation of the produced bacbac yarn showed no significant difference with
the commercially available (manually processed) yarn. The cost and return analysis showed that the
machine has a payback period and ROI of 0.73 years and 138%, respectively. Using bacbac material, the
machine has a payback period and ROI of 0.52 year and 192% respectively.

NARC has also improved a manually operated Korean made rope making machine using rice
straw as raw material. Improvement was introduced by 1) changing the pedal with an electric-driven
power source and 2) by integrating an automatic feeding system for twisted yarn material. The machine
produced 2 or 3-filament abaca twines ranging from ¼”Ø to ½”Ø by changing its gear combinations.
Performance evaluation on the twining capacity and operators’ efficiency showed that the twining
machine is significantly better than the traditional method. While the traditional method requires four
persons, only one person is needed in the machine just to set the spooled yarn. The efficiency of the
machine was higher since the machine can run automatically and continuously with no operator needed
to feed the yarn. Setting the yarn is done only once in about 2,000 meters of twine produced.

Acceptability evaluation of bacbac twines revealed highly significant differences between the two
types of twine in terms of cleanness, uniformity and degree of twist, and general acceptability. The
machine twine had higher acceptability rating of 8.63 compared with 7.7 for the manually produced twine.
Cost and return analysis of operating the twining machine using bacbac-yarn material showed a net
income and payback period of P393/day and 0.51 yr, respectively. Using abaca fiber-yarn, the machine
has a net income and payback period of P192/day and 1.17 year, respectively.

136. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE DIFFERENT ABACA STRIPPING


MACHINES IN REGION VIII
Veronica L. Reoma, Nestor O. Morales and Vivencio A. Pelesco. Southern Leyte State College of
Science and Technology, Sogod Southern Leyte, Abstracts of Paper in 15th ViCARP-RRDEN,
2003
ABSTRACT

Six portable and one non-portable (traditional) stripping machines were evaluated to determine
their capacity and efficiency in terms of the fibers produced per unit time, quality of fibers in terms of
texture, color and fiber length and fresh fiber moisture content. The study also attempted to identify the
portable abaca stripping machine/s preferred by the abaca farmers and stakeholders

Among all portable stripping machines, the Catalo design is the most preferred by the abaca
farmer evaluators in the pair-wise evaluation.

In terms of the quality of the fiber output of the different stripping machines, the abaca farmer
evaluators agreed to rank SLSCST machine the best to produce quality fibers followed closely by Visca
and traditional machines.

Across all stripping machines, the traditional machine has the highest capacity of fiber produced
per unit time. Among the portable types however, Visca machines has the highest average output
followed by Catalo and Marte designs.

On the cost of fuel in a given quantity of fiber produced, among all machines, the traditional
machine has the lowest fuel cost but across all portable types, Catalo design has the lowest followed by
the Marte design. SLSCST machine on the other hand, had the highest cost of fuel used per kg dried
fiber produced.

Income-wise, all diesel engine-driven machines registered positive net incomes and investment
returns with the traditional machine having the highest in both. On the other hand, all gasoline engine-
driven machines gave negative net incomes due to high fuel costs which correspondingly obtained
negative investment returns.

Based on the above findings it is recommended that the gasoline engine driven-stripping
machines be driven by diesel engines or any other power source to make them more fuel cost efficient.

Considering the result of the farmers’ technology evaluation and researchers’ technical
evaluation, diesel engine driven machines as recommended for the following reasons: (a) machine’s
features which includes safety mechanisms, fiber output and quality and over-all maneuverability are
much acceptable by the farmer-evaluators, and (b) economy-wise, these machines registered positive
income and investment return.

137. DEVELOPMENT OF A PORTABLE ENGINE-POWERED ABACA SPINDLE STRIPPING


MACHINE
Feliciano G. Sinon. National Abaca Research Center, Leyte State University, Visca, Baybay,
Leyte 6521-A, 2000

ABSTRACT

The existing spindle stripping machines in abaca-producing towns of Leyte and Samar were
assessed as to the design aspect, materials and method of construction, stripping techniques, common
features and others. Assessment studies were also conducted on the factors affecting the spindle
stripping process. A portable engine-powered spindle stripping machine was designed, developed and
fabricated based on the results of the assessment studies and from locally available materials. The total
weight of the machine is 175kg (excluding engine) and can be dismantled into 4 main components. It can
be carried anywhere by a pick-up or by a sled. It costs about P 65,000.00 (including the 7.2 Hp gasoline
engine). It has an output capacity of 80-120 kg of dried fibers per day depending on the skill of the
operator. Cost and return analysis comparing the operation of the existing and the portable stripping
machines revealed that the portable machine reached a payback period earlier (2.84 years) than the
existing one (3.52 yrs).

The first model of the portable stripping machine was made of lumber materials, however, due to
several factors such as durability, transportability and the difficulty to repair, a new model of the portable
stripping machine was developed. The new prototype was fabricated using steel materials which can be
dismantled into four different components in 15 minutes and can be assembled back in less than 30
minutes. The acceptability of the machines was improved as proven from the number of units fabricated
(more than 60 units of the machine prototypes have been fabricated since 1996 up to the present time)
based from orders of private owners, family entrepreneurs, cooperative and government units from
different parts of Leyte, Samar, Panay Island, Bicol and in some areas in Mindanao.

138. FIBER RECOVERY AND QUALITY OF TEN ABACA VARIETIES


R.P. Bales, R.M. Santiago and N.M. Gloria. Department of Agronomy and Soil Science, Visayas
State College of Agriculture, Baybay Leyte, Philippines, 6521-A. Annals of Tropical Research Vol
3 No 4, 1981, pp 266-274

ABSTRACT

The 10 abaca varieties significantly differed in almost all of the parameters considered. Lawaan x
Tangongon had the heaviest weight of fresh stalk and tuxies in the outer and middle groups of
leafsheaths, produced the highest weight of dry fiber recovered, and ranked second in terms of tensile
strength per group of leafsheaths. Pacol x CES 2 ranked second in terms of weight of fresh stalks,
produced the heaviest weight of tuxies from the inner group, ranked second heaviest in the outer and
middle groups, but produced the lowest fiber recovery and percentage fiber stretch in the 3 groups of
leafsheaths. Furthermore, Pacol x CES 2 produced the lowest tensile strength from the outer and inner
groups and ranked second to the lowest in the middle group. Linawaan produced the highest fiber
recovery while the Ginabaki and Bulao Luno produced the highest tensile strength and percentage fiber
stretch in all groups of leafsheaths, respectively. With respect to fiber quality, Bulao Luno x Lawaan x
Tangongon, Linawaan, Casilihon, and Amokid had better quality fiber than the rest of the varieties tested.

139. FIBER QUALITY AND RECOVERY OF THREE ABACA VARIETIES AS AFFECTED BY TUXY
GROUP AND SETTING POSITION IN SPINDLE STRIPPING
Andres L. Alemania, R.M. Santiago and N.M. Gloria. Department of Agronomy and Soil Science,
Visayas State College of Agriculture, VISCA, Baybay Leyte, Philippines. Annals of Tropical
Research Vol 4 No 2, 1982, pp 127-135

ABSTRACT

Three abaca varieties (Linawaan, Inosa and Laylay) were evaluated for fiber quality and recovery.
Except for stretch percentage, Linawaan variety showed the highest recovery and tensile strength, and
the heaviest tuxies and dry fiber recovered per stalk. However, Laylay variety produced more fiber of
higher grade than the others. The outer group of leafsheaths produced stronger fibers than the middle
and inner groups, In that order. Middle, Inner and outer groups ranked first, second and third,
respectively, in weight of dry fiber per 15 stalks and average weight of tuxies stripped in 5 min. The
downward position with the tips of tuxies stripped first produced the highest weight of dry fiber per 15
stalks, while the downward position with butts stripped first appeared to have better quality fiber
compared to the rest of the treatments. No significant interaction between group of leafsheaths and
different positions of setting tuxies into the spindle was observed.
140. THE EFFECT OF DRYING SURFACE ON THE DRYING RATE OF ABACA FIBER UNDER
THE SUN
Carlos B. Cabahug. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 1984

ABSTRACT

Results showed that the rate of drying abaca fibers under the sun significantly varied with drying
surface. The fibers dried over the corrugated G.I. sheets had the greatest rate of moisture reduction
throughout the drying period, while the slowest to dry generally were those hand on bamboo pole. Said
difference in drying rate was caused by the great variation in temperature and area of the drying surface if
G.I. sheet or concrete floor is compared with bamboo pole. There was no significant effect of the drying
surface and variety on the tensile strength of the abaca fibers.
19. EFFECT OF AIR FLOW RATE AND VARIETY ON THE RATE OF DRYING ABACA FIBERS
Ma. Merline I. Iturralde. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-Industries,
Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 1984

ABSTRACT

The results of the study showed that there was no significant interaction effect between variety
and air flow rate on the rate of drying abaca fibers.

Variety had no significant effect on the rate of drying except on the first 30 minutes.

On the other hand, the air flow rate had greatly affected the rate of moisture reduction. The
shortest drying time for 9 abaca stalks (9.1 kg of fresh fibers) was 1.47 hours which was obtained using
an air flow rate of 3.5 m 3/min/m2 of floor area. This was followed by 1.82 hours using 2.5 m 3/min/m2 of
floor area and 2.30 hours using 1.5 m 3/min/m2 and 2.95 hours for the control.

141. THE EFFECT OF VARIETY AND STRIPPING KNIFE ON THE RECOVERY AND TENSILE
STRENGTH OF THE ABACA FIBER FROM STRIPPING WASTES
Francisca G. Jayectin. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 1984

ABSTRACT

Inosa variety stripped with the use of Benito knife No. 24 gave the highest waste fiber recovery
and the greatest dry weight of the recovered fiber. Fibers recovered from Minenonga variety stripped by
the use of Benito knife No. 46 had the highest tensile strength.

142. EFFECTS OF RETTING DURATION AND DEPTH OF WATER SUBMERGENCE ON THE


RECOVERY AND QUALITY OF ABACA FIBER
Adriano D. Deligero. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, April 1985

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine the effect of retting duration and depth of water submergence
on the percent fiber recovery and quality of abaca fiber and to compare the best retting method (duration
and depth of water submergence) with the traditional method of extracting fiber.

Results show that fiber recovery and quality were not significantly affected by the different depths
(25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100 cm) of water submergence, regardless of leafsheath groups.
On the other hand, retting duration of one week was found to give the highest fiber recovery and
the best quality compared to other retting durations (two, three and four weeks).

In terms of fiber recovery, retting for one week was comparable to non-retting (traditional
method). However, in terms of tensile strength, fiber stretchability and fiber grades, the traditional method
of extracting fiber was found superior over the retting method (one week duration).

Retting therefore is not recommended to be used in the extraction of abaca fiber since it only
entails more labor and higher production cost. It does not give any added advantages over the traditional
method.

143. EFFECT OF KNIFE SERRATION AND STRIPPING HEIGHT ON THE QUALITY AND
RECOVERY OF ABACA FIBERS
Virgilio A. Awayan. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, April 1985

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the effect of knife serration (12, 24 and 36 teeth per inch)
and stripping height (overhead, waistline and kneeline) on the quality and percent fiber recovery.

In terms of fiber grade and tensile strength, the 36-teeth knife serration was found the best.
Stripping height did not cause any significant effect on these two properties of the abaca fiber. Fiber
stretchability was not affected by knife serration while it was found significantly highest with overhead
stripping height compared to the other two stripping heights.

In terms of percent fiber recovery, the 12-teeth knife serration was found significantly better than
the other two serrations.

The above results suggest the following: a) for the manual extraction of abaca fiber, the stripping
height should be at the waistline level for convenience purposes, b) if quantity of fiber is the main aim,
one should use knife having fewer teeth, and c) if quality of fiber is the main aim one should use knife
having more teeth.

144. PERFORMANCE OF THE MIXED-MODE SOLAR DRYER FOR DRYING ABACA FIBERS
DURING DAYTIME
Gregorio G. Damicog, Jr. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, April, 1987

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the drying performance of the mixed-mode solar dryer for
abaca fibers and to compare the physical characteristics and tensile strength of the fibers dried inside and
outside the dryer. Due to economic constraints, this study was limited only to one loading density of 42 kg
for the drying chamber area of 4 m 2. The abaca fibers were hung inside the dryer using bamboo poles
following the farmers’ practice of hanging the fibers when dried directly under the sun.

Pre-evaluation of the study revealed that the temperature was higher and the relative humidity
was lower inside the dryer than outside. Temperature inside the dryer was high (35°c) even until 12:00
midnight. However, this information was not used to decide the proper drying time.

Results of the study indicated that the abaca fibers under the sun dried faster than the fibers
inside the solar dryer. This opposite result needs further verification because the method employed might
have caused it. In spite of this result, the dryer still offers some advantages because it was able to dry the
fibers within 5 hours and a second batch drying on the same day may be possible since its temperature
was still high until midnight. Furthermore, the fibers are protected from adverse condition of weather and
the attacks of insects, pests, and mold growth.

There were no significant differences between the color and tensile strength of the fibers dried
inside the solar dryer and the fibers dried directly under the sun.

145. PROCEDURE IN USING THE SHIMADZU UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE FOR TESTING
STRENGTH OF ABACA FIBERS
Teodulo J. Milleza, Jr. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 1988

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to utilize the Universal Testing Machine, which is normally used to test
construction materials, in testing abaca tensile strength.

The results indicated that the UTM could be used in place of the standard testing machine for
fibers. However, the reading from the UTM needs to be corrected before using, following the equation Y =
10.94 + 1.08 X, where: Y is the estimated tensile strength of the abaca fiber, X is the corrected UTM
reading, and 10.94 and 1.08 are the regression constant and coefficient, respectively.

146. THE EFFECT OF STRIPPER BLOCK CUSHION MATERIALS AND LENGTH OF LEVER ARM
ON THE QUALITY AND RECOVERY OF ABACA FIBERS
Henry T. Sabarez. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, April 1988

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the effect of stripper block cushion materials and the
length of lever arm on the quality and recovery of abaca fiber.

Stripper block cushion materials significantly affected the percent fiber recovery, fiber quality,
tensile strength, and the fiber stretch. Rubber and canvass-rubber cushion pads were found better in
terms of quality and tensile strength. While maong cloth-rubber and maong cloth-canvass cushion pads
were better on fiber recovery and fiber stretchability.

Length of lever arm significantly affected only the stretchability of abaca fibers. It was found
significantly highest at 100 cm length and lowest at 140 cm length.

147. THE EFFECTS OF HEATING ABACA LEAFSHEATH AND OF USING TWO BLADES IN
TANDEM ON THE QUALITY AND RECOVERY OF FIBERS
Manuel V. Abihay. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, April 1988

ABSTRACT

This study was done by subjecting abaca leafsheath to different heating durations (0, 10, 20, 30,
and 40 minutes) and stripping knife combinations (No. 0, Nos. 0 and 4, Nos. 0 and 8, and Nos. 0 and 12).

Results showed that leafsheath which were not heated significantly produces the highest
recovery and best grade fibers. Knife combination did not affect the recovery and grade of fibers.
In terms of fiber tensile strength, the combination between the twenty-minute heating duration
and Nos. 0 and 4 knife combination gave the highest.

Fiber stretchability was not affected significantly by any of the different treatments. It significantly
differed only between leafsheath groups.

148. STORAGE PRACTICES FOR THE ABACA FIBERS IN LEYTE


Gerardo G. Jabonete. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 1989

ABSTRACT

Classifying and packaging abaca fibers are storage practices observed by both farmers and
traders. Barrio traders and farmers used any available space of their houses as the storage space for
abaca fibers. However, town traders built either rooms or houses for abaca fibers storage. Greater
quantity of abaca fibers is stored during dry season. Traders store abaca fibers for longer period
compared to the farmers.

The problems related to the storage of abaca fibers mentioned by both farmers and traders were
lack of equipment, lack of technical knowledge, and lack of storage space. In addition, theft was a
problem among farmers who stored abaca fibers within or near the abaca plantation area.

Quality deterioration of abaca fibers during storage was primarily due to the fiber quality produced
after drying. In order to produce high quality abaca fibers, appropriate pre-storage practices especially
harvesting, stripping and drying must be observed.

149. EFFECT OF LOADING DENSITY AND SUPPLEMENTAL HEATING ON THE DRYING


CHARACTERISTICS OF ABACA FIBERS
Tomas Gilbert B. Garcia. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, April 1989

ABSTRACT

Result of the study indicated that there was no significant interaction effect between loading
density and supplemental heating on the rate of drying abaca fibers. However, the rate of drying abaca
fibers was affected individually by loading density and supplemental heating. Drying was fastest at a
loading density of one (1) kg/m and with supplemental heating using two burners. However, the optimum
density of drying abaca fibers was three (3) kg/m which could be air dried safely to 14% moisture content
fiber after 18 hours. Supplemental heating using two burners hastened drying of abaca fibers but the
drying rate did not compensate for the additional expense for fuel.

150. DRYING OF ABACA FIBERS USING THE HOHENHEIMER SOLAR TUNNEL DRYER
Marlon S. Dalde. Visayas State College of Agriculture, College of Engineering and Agri-
Industries, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2001

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the drying characteristics of abaca fibers, expressed in
terms of the instantaneous moisture content and drying rate during the different stages of drying using the
Hohenheimer solar tunnel dryer, and compare the tensile strength of abaca fibers dried in the solar tunnel
dryer and directly under the sun. the experiment was conducted using a 2 factor-factorial experiment in
RCBD with the kinds of leafsheaths (inner, middle, and outer) and loading density (1, 2, and 3 kg/m2) as
factors.
The instantaneous moisture content of fibers was significantly affected by the leafsheaths during
the first two hours of drying. Similarly the different loading densities significantly affect the instantaneous
moisture content during the whole duration of the drying process. The different sections of the solar
tunnel dryer and the interactions between the kind of leafsheaths and different loading densities did not
have any significant effect throughout the drying process. In terms of the tensile strength, fibers dried
under the sun was found to be stronger than those dried in the solar tunnel dryer. The tensile strength of
the outer leafsheaths was the strongest followed by the middle and the inner leafsheaths, in the order.

The drying time to reach the desired moisture content of 14%, wet basis, was shorter by one hour
in the solar tunnel dryer than sundrying of 3 hours and 4 hours, respectively using a maximum loading
density of 3 kg/m2.

151. EVALUATION OF THE NARC SPINDLE-STRIPPING MACHINE FOR ESCUJEDO FIBERS


Jerome P. Junco. Leyte State University, College of Engineering and Agri-Industries, Department
of Agricultural Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2003

ABSTRACT

The NARC spindle-stripping machine can extract 2.31 kg/hr of escujedo fiber about six times
faster than the traditional hand-stripping.. Stainless-steel sheet (gauge #28) cushion table casing had
higher machine capacity and durability as compared to ordinary GI sheet (gauge # 26). Generally, the
individual factors namely-spindle speed, blade pressing force, cushion table casing material and number
of tuxy fed had no significant effect on the fiber recovery and tensile strength. However, a combination
between blade pressing force 562.66 kgf and GI sheet cushion casing produced the highest fiber
recovery. Nevertheless, NARC spindle-stripping machine surpassed the manual-stripper in terms of
capacity, recovery and tensile strength.

152. EXTRACTION OF SECONDARY FIBERS FROM ABACA TUXY WASTES USING A ROLLER
PRESS AND A PORTABLE SPINDLE STRIPPING MACHINE
Lyman Denis O. Moreno. Leyte State University, College of Engineering and Agri-Industries,
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2005

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the efficiency of secondary fiber extraction using a roller
machine and spindle stripping machine available at NARC. The factors used in the experiment were the
group of tuxy waste, the number of passes of tuxy waste in the rollers, and the roller press spring
pressure. The effects of these factors were evaluated in terms of fiber recovery produced from the fibers
extracted from the tuxy wastes. The gross income from the secondary fiber, on a per hectare per
cropping basis, was also computed.

The fibers extracted from the tuxy wastes using the roller press and the spindle stripping machine
were of good quality. The extracted fibers were classified predominantly with the S-I grade. The fiber
recovery of the tuxy waste was significantly affected by the group of tuxy waste and the spring pressure.
However, the number of passes had no significant effect on the recovery. The spring pressure of 46 KPa,
using the outer and middle tuxy waste groups, produced the highest fiber recovery of 1.92% and 1.74%
respectively. The gross income on a hectare per cropping basis produced from the secondary fibers was
more than three times higher than the gross income generated from the primary fibers of about ₱46, 039
and ₱10, 760, respectively.

153. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE NARC COMBING MACHINE


Saul Jerome Q. Mantua. Leyte State University, College of Engineering and Agri-Industries,
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, October 2005
ABSTRACT

The study aimed to evaluate the performance of the NARC combing machine and analyze the
cost benefit in comparison with the existing method.

The NARC-developed combing machine can comb 0.852 kg/hr of abaca fibers, about twice faster
than the traditional or manual combing. The three individual factors namely: variety of fiber, amount of
fibers fed, and combing process had no significant effect on the combing capacity of the machine.

Amount of fibers fed and combing process showed significant and highly significant effect on the
combed fiber recovery, respectively. The bigger the amount of fiber fed, the lower was the recovery while
the application of wax showed higher fiber recovery than the unwaxed. There was no significant
difference observed on the recovery of the combed fiber as affected by the interaction of two
combinations of factors and three combinations of factors.

The machine has a benefit cost ratio of 3.07 while the manual combing has 2.29. The NARC
combing machine exceeds the manual method in terms of capacity and financial benefit.

154. EFFECTS OF DRYING METHOD, LOADING DENSITY AND KIND OF LEAFSHEATH ON THE
DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF ABACA FIBER AND MODELING ITS DRYING BEHAVIOR
Gretel R. Arinday. Leyte State University, College of Engineering and Agri-Industries, Department
of Agricultural Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2008

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the drying characteristics of abaca fibers using two
different drying methods, a portable solar dryer and direct sundrying. The experiment was conducted
using the analysis of variance for split-split-plots in a randomized complete block design and regression
analysis to determine the best model to describe the drying curve of the abaca fibers. The main plot factor
were two different drying methods which is portable solar dryer and direct sundrying; and the subplot
factor were the loading density of 1, 2 and 3 kilogram per meter and kind of leafsheath of inner, middle
and outer,

Results of the study indicated that drying method and kind of leafsheath is not significantly
affecting the drying characteristics of abaca fibers. However, it is affected by loading density. Drying was
fastest at a loading density of one (1) kg/m and slowest at three (3) kg/m

The moisture content values were then fitted in a two-parametric regression models namely:
Lewis, Modified Page and Approximate Diffusion models. In fibers dried directly under the sun, Lewis
equation best fitted to fibers dried at 1 kg/m loading density while Modified Page equation fitted best at 2
and 3 kg/m loading density. Generally, Modified Page equation fitted best the relationship of moisture
content as a function of drying time and loading density for fibers dried directly under the sun.

In fibers dried using a portable solar dryer Modified Page equation fitted 1 kg/m and
Lewis equation best fitted 2 and 3 kg/m loading density. Lewis equation fitted best the relationship of
moisture content as a function of drying time and loading density for fibers dried using a portable solar
dryer.

155. EFFECTS OF KNOTS AND FOLD ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF ABACA FIBER
Jonas R. Buhay. Visayas State University, College of Engineering, Department of Agricultural
Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2010

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to determine the effects of knots and fold on the tensile strength of
abaca fiber. The experiment was conducted using the Laylay variety at ten (10) replications only. Data
obtained was arranged in a 5 x 2 x 3 factorial experiment.

The results of the study showed that a fold of 17.40 kPa had no significant effect on the tensile
strength of abaca fiber from any location and position in the stalk.

Also, the results revealed that the tensile strength of the fiber was greatly affected by the type of
knot used in the experiment. The tensile strength of the abaca fiber was reduced about 50 to 60%
regardless on its position and location in the stalk. The square knot reduced the strength of the fiber to
about 58.27% while the sheet bend knot and angler knot reduced the strength of fiber to about 64.68%
and 60.34%, respectively. However, no significant difference was observed on the three different knots
evaluated.

156. SECONDARY FIBER RECOVERY OF FOUR ABACA VARIETIES


Juliet P. Casing. Visayas State University, College of Engineering, Department of Agricultural
Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2010

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the percentage secondary fiber recovery of four different
abaca varieties in three fiber locations. The factors used in the experiment were the varieties of abaca,
the types of fiber, and the group of tuxy and tuxy wastes. The effect of these factors was evaluated in
terms of percentage fiber recovery from the tuxy wastes and total fiber recovery which includes the
primary and secondary fibers.

The fibers recovered from the tuxy wastes were good both in quality and quantity. These fibers
were significantly affected by the varieties of abaca and the groups of leafsheath.

The Laguis abaca variety produced the highest fiber recovery of 1.99 percent using the inner leaf
sheath while the Balunan variety produced the least using outer leaf sheath. The total gross income from
the secondary fiber on a hectare per cropping season using the Laylay variety was ₱33, 746.00 which
was about 29.55% of the gross income (₱114, 198.33) generated from the total fiber recovery. Using the
Inosa variety, the additional gross income from secondary fiber on a per hectare per cropping basis was
₱45, 986.92 which was about 45.71% of the income derived from its total fiber recovery.

157. COMPARISON OF METHODS OF TENSILE STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS OF ABACA


FIBER
Catherine R. Regulacion. Visayas State University, College of Engineering, Department of
Agricultural Engineering, Visca, Baybay Leyte, 6521-A, March 2010

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to compare the specific tensile strength or tenacity of abaca (Musa
textilis Nee) fiber using two methods of tensile strength measurement (single strand and bundles-of-ten
strands) and two tensile strength meters (pendulum-type and Zwick) at the NARC-VSU and to determine
the tenacity of the fiber based on its location in the stalk (outer, middle and inner).

Results showed that tensile strength using the “single strand” (64.21 cN/Tex) is significantly
higher than the “bundles of ten strands” with the mean tenacity of only 39.00 cN/Tex. Also, the tenacity of
the fiber using the Zwick meter was significantly higher than the pendulum type meter. The Zwick was
also found to be more precise and accurate to read different variations in the readings of the fibers’
tensile strength. It has also smaller least count of 0.01 gram as compared to 1 gram in the pendulum
type. Moreover, a significant interaction between the methods of measurement and the meters was
observed. The tenacity of the “single strand” fiber with Zwick meter was higher than the other
combinations of methods and instruments. However, no significant difference was observed on the
tenacity of the fiber at different locations in the stalk.

GRADUATE THESES/DISSERTATIONS ON ABACA

158. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED VILLAGE SCALE ABACA PULPING MACHINE


Irven B. Cuen. Master of Science (Agricultural Engineering), Leyte State University, Visca,
Baybay, Leyte, 6521-A, March 2007

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to develop an improved village level abaca pulping machine and to evaluate its
optimum capacity and their quality of pulp produced such as brightness, capillary rise, texture, and tear
index. A constant angular speed of beating (230 rpm) was used in the evaluation using “Inosa” variety of
abaca fiber, cooked for eight hours in a 20 percent sodium hydroxide or caustic soda solution. Three
levels of pulp-water ratio and the eight level of beating time were used to evaluate the machine. This was
replicated three times.

Results showed that the optimum capacity of the improved beater was 3 kg fiber per batch per
day as compared to 0.67 kg fiber per batch per day capacity of the existing NARC beater. The relative
efficiency of the improved beater was 78% brightness ranging from 45% to 50% was not significantly
affected by the different levels of the two factors. The capillary rise however was highly affected only by
the cooking batch. The respective means obtained were 173.4mm, 174.6mm and 124.36mm for batches
1, 2 and 3 respectively. The texture was highly influenced by the beating time. An increase of the beating
time produces finer texture of the pulp. Pulp produced from the control did not significantly differ in texture
with the one-hour beaten pulp of the improved beater. The tear index was solely dependent on the time of
beating. There was also an increasing trend of it as the beating time increases. The smallest tear index
obtained by the improved beater was 11.15mN.m 2/g and the highest was 15.06mN.m2/g from the eight
hours of beating. The tear indices of the eight levels of beating of the improved beater did not show any
significant difference. It was the tear index from the control (5.5mN.m 2/g) which greatly varies from among
others. The means of tear indices of one hour to eight hours of beating were 14.45, 13.38, 11.15, 12.89,
14.72, 14.22, 14.11, and 15.06mN.m2/g respectively.

The total machine cost was ₱36, 252.00. The payback period and rate of return on investment
was 0.511 year or 102 days and 196% respectively. Based on the results in the performance tests and
economic assessment, the improved beater was advantageous and is economically viable.