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Introduction 3

Three-phase power 4

Phase power 4

Total true power 7

The power triangle 13

Power measurement 23

One wattmeter 23

Two wattmeter method 25

Three wattmeters 27

Power factor measurement 30

Summary 34

Answers 39

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

2 EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Introduction

When a load is connected to a three phase supply, it draws power from that

supply. The value of the load power is important in determining the actual

size of the load which the source is capable of supplying, the size of the

cables connecting the source to the load and the type and size of the

protection used to protect both the load and the source.

In this section we will examine some of the concepts relating to three phase

power, the methods used to minimise reactive power at the source and the

means of measuring true three phase power and determining the power factor

of a three phase load.

explain the purposes for measuring power, energy, power factor and

maximum demand of a.c. power systems and loads

explain the difference between true power, apparent power and

reactive power and the units in which these quantities are measured in

a three phase system

draw the power triangle to show the relationships between true

power, apparent power and reactive power in a three phase system

describe the methods used to measure three phase power , energy,

power factor and demand

determine how the power factor of a three phase installation can be

improved

using manufacturers catalogues, select measurement equipment for a

particular installation.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Three-phase power

phase power. The main difference is that three-phase power refers to the

total power of a three-phase load, whereas single-phase power refers to only

one part of a three-phase load, or to the total load if it is supplied from a

single-phase source.

Phase power

The power developed, used and/or consumed in a phase is determined using

the equations already covered in this module. Look at the basic three-phase

circuit in Figure 1.

In the circuit drawn in Figure 1 we can see that there are three independent

loads, supplied from a three-phase source. The power used by each section

of the load is calculated by using one of the following equations.

The equations for each phase are therefore the same, except that when we

are dealing with a specific phase subscripts identifying that phase are used.

For example, the equations for A phase would be written as:

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Example 1

consisting of inductors having an impedance of 24 with a power factor of

0.8 lagging, when supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source.

Solution

Step 1 Determine the phase voltage. As the load is star connected, use the

following equation:

B C

Similarly, V and V are also 240 V.

B C

By similar calculation, I and I are also 10 A.

Therefore:

P C VC I C cos C

240 10 0. 8

1920 W

As you can see from Example 1, if the load is balanced the values for

voltage, current and power have the same magnitude for each phase.

Student exercise 1

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

1 Determine the phase powers consumed by a three-phase star connected load consisting

of heaters having an impedance of 50 if it is supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50

Hz source.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 Determine the phase powers consumed by a three-phase delta connected motor, whose

winding impedance is 12 with a power factor of 0.7 lagging, if it is supplied from a

three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

Total power in any circuit is determined by simply adding together the

powers used by the load.

With true power there is no phase separation. This means that total true

power for a three-phase load is the numerical sum of the three individual

phase powers. This can be written as:

while Example 3 deals with unbalanced loads.

Example 2

where each phase of the load consists of inductors having an impedance of

10 with a power factor of 0.6 lagging, if it is supplied from a three-phase

415 V, 50 Hz source.

Step 1 Determine the phase voltage. As the load is star connected, use the

following equation:

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Rearrange to find Vphase

Therefore:

Example 3

supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source. The load consists of a

20 resistor (A phase), a 15 impedance with a power factor of 0.7

(B phase) and a 25 impedance with a power factor of 0.9 (C phase).

Solution

Step 1 Determine the phase voltage. As the load is star connected, use the

following equation:

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Step 2 Determine the phase current using Ohm’s law.

Balanced loads

As Example 1 showed, if the load is balanced the phase powers are equal,

and the simplest way of determining the total power is to calculate one phase

power and multiply it by three. That is:

If we substitute the star equations into the total power equation we can write

the often-used equation for total power in a balanced load:

If we substitute the delta equations into the total power equation we can

write the often-used equation for total power in a balanced load:

As you can see, the total power equation is identical for both types of

balanced loads, either star connected or delta connected. As the phase

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

values are typically unobtainable, being within the machine or equipment, it is

very important to be able to use line values of voltage and current—these are

the only values that can be measured at the point of connection.

Example 4

of 0.8 lagging from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz supply. Determine the

electrical input to the motor.

Solution

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Student exercise 2

lagging from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz supply. Determine the electrical input to the

motor.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

lagging. Determine the line current supplied by the transformer.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3 Determine the total power consumed by a three-phase delta connected load where each

phase of the load consists of inductors having an impedance of 25 with a power

factor of 0.8 lagging, if it is supplied from a three-phase 415 V, 50 Hz source.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

The power triangle

As you know there are three types of power in ac circuits: true power,

apparent power and reactive power.

You will remember that these powers can be linked together by means of a

power triangle. As power is the same for three-phase power as for single-

phase, the triangle is the same (Figure 2).

In Figure 2 the horizontal line represents the true power (P), the vertical line

represents the reactive power (Q) and the diagonal line represents the

apparent power (S). The triangle is always drawn this way, regardless of the

load type.

problems.

sine, cosine and tangent, and Pythagoras’ theorem. The equations commonly

used for calculating each power are:

These equations apply both to the individual phase powers and to the total

power of the three-phase load. Take care when performing calculations with

three-phase power that you keep phase power values separate from the

three-phase values.

Example 5

loaded, determine the true power and the reactive power for the transformer

if the load it is supplying has a power factor of 0.6 lagging.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Solution

pf = cos °

Since the power factor was lagging the phase angle is a negative value

with respect to the voltage.

= –53.13°

We have seen that keeping the power factor as close as practicable to unity

has a number of advantages, the most important being that the line current

drawn from the supply will have a minimum value.

The power triangle can also be used to illustrate and/or solve problems

dealing with power factor correction. (If the triangle is used to solve a

problem, remember that it must be drawn to scale). Example 6 gives the two

methods of solving a problem dealing with power factor correction, one

graphical and one analytical.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Example 6

power factor of 0.6 lagging and connected to a 415 V, 50 Hz three-phase

supply. Determine the kVAr rating and capacitance of a star connected

capacitor bank that would improve the power factor to 0.9 lagging.

Step 3 Determine the true, apparent and reactive powers for the original

load.

P = 180 kW (given)

Note that you only need P and the angle to construct the power triangle.

Step 3 to scaled values. We will use a scale of 5 kW (or kVA, or

kVAr) to 1 mm.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Figure 5: Phasors for example 6

Step 7 Draw a line at the new phase angle of the circuit onto the original

triangle representing the original load as in Figure 6.

Step 8 Using Figure 6, measure the distance between the points at which

the original and the new lines representing the apparent power

touch the reactive power side of the triangle. This distance

represents the capacitive VAr added to the circuit.

30.6 5

Qcap

1

153 kVAr

Step 9 Determine the phase current in the capacitor bank. In star, we have:

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

or, as the capacitor bank is star connected, and in star , the phase

current may be calculated using

pf = cos °

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Step 3 Determine the true, apparent and reactive powers for the original

load.

P = 180 kW (given)

Step 5 Determine the true, apparent and reactive powers for the new load

including the capacitor bank.

P = 180 kW (given)

P

Snew

cos

180 103

cos (–25.8)

180 103

0.9

200 kVA

between the original reactive power and the new reactive power.

Qcap Qold – Qnew

240 – 87

153 kVAr

Step 7 Determine the phase current in the capacitor bank. Remember that

in star

Or, as the capacitor bank is star connected, and in star , the phase

current may be calculated using

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Rearrange to find Iline

Step 8 Determine the phase impedance of each capacitor using Ohm’s law.

capacitive reactance: ie

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Step 9 Determine the capacitance in each phase of the load.

The analytical method looks easier, as there are fewer steps in solving the

problem. The graphical solution, however, allows the principles of power

factor correction to be more easily understood.

is delta, as this allows for maximum effect on the line current with minimum

current rating of the actual capacitors.

The capacitors may be arranged in delta whether the load is star connected

or delta connected. This is shown in Figures 7(a) for a star load and 7(b) for

a delta load.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Student exercise 3

factor of 0.75 lagging. It is connected to a 415 V, 50 Hz three-phase supply. Determine

the kVAr rating and capacitance of a delta connected capacitor bank that would

improve the power factor to

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Power measurement

There are a number of methods to measure the power used and/or developed

by a load. They all involve a meter called a wattmeter. This meter was

discussed in other resource modules.

method which is used, is determined by three factors:

• whether the load is balanced or unbalanced

• whether the supply system is three wire or four wire

• the availability and cost of the wattmeters.

One wattmeter

The one wattmeter method of connection can be used on both three wire and

four wire three-phase systems. It is easiest to look first at the three-phase

four wire system. This is illustrated in Figure 8.

In this method the voltage coil of the wattmeter is connected between one

phase and neutral. The power measured is phase power.

If the load is balanced, the total power used by the load is three times the

measured value. This is written as

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Example 7

load. If the wattmeter is connected to measure the power in the A phase of

the load and the reading is 1500 W, determine the total power in the load.

Solution

If the load is unbalanced, the technique is to measure each phase power and

add the three phase values together. This is written as

This method suffers the disadvantage that the connection process is more

tedious than for a balanced load, as the actual connections of the wattmeter

must be changed for each reading.

Example 8

three-phase load. If the power measured in A phase, B phase and C phase is

1200 W, 3245 W and 2790 W respectively, determine the total power in the

load.

Solution

for varying unbalanced loads.

The three-phase three wire system of supply can also be monitored using a

single wattmeter. Remember that to measure phase power the wattmeter

must be connected between one line and neutral. In the three wire system

there is no neutral. To overcome this, an artificial star point (neutral point) is

created by connecting one end of the voltage coil of the wattmeter to one

line and the other end to two impedances which are in turn connected to the

other two lines. This is illustrated in Figure 9.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Figure 9: Single analog wattmeter with artificial star point

It is very important that the impedance values of the two impedances used

with the voltage coil to create the artificial star point are the same as that of

the voltage coil of the wattmeter, otherwise inaccurate readings will result.

The easiest way to accomplish this is to use two coils identical to the voltage

coil of the wattmeter. These are obtainable from the manufacturers and

distributors of these meters.

balanced or unbalanced.

The total power for the load is determined in the same way as for the four

wire connection. That is, for balanced loads

This method may only be used on three wire systems. The connection

diagram is shown in Figure 10.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Figure 10: Connection of analog wattmeters for two wattmeter method

The total power is found by adding the readings of the two meters. This is

written as:

current and voltage to be e1 and i1 for A, e2 and i2 for B with e3 and i3 for C.

Voltage across W1 = e3 – e2

Voltage across W2 = e1 - e2

W1 +W2 i3 (e3 - e2 ) + i1 (e1 - e2 )

i3e3 - i3e2 + i1e1 - i1e2

i1e1 + i3e3 - e2 (i3 + i1 )

But (i3 + i1 ) -i2 ( total zero at node )

\W1 +W i1e1 + i3e3 + i2 e2

but it does give inaccurate readings for loads with low power factors. A

further disadvantage is that phase power cannot be measured.

Example 9

The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the

power used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 10 kW and W2

reads 7 kW, determine the total power in the load.

Solution

As most analog meters deflect in one direction only, for some loads, the

meter will try to deflect backwards due to the phase relationship between

current and voltage within the meter. When this occurs, the voltage coil

connections must be reversed. Some meters provide a reversing switch that

will reverse the connections of the voltage coil in the wattmeter. This will

then allow the meter to indicate the power that the load is consuming. For

the total power calculation, this reversal of the coil will mean that the value

measured by that wattmeter should be regarded as negative. Don’t forget to

alter the polarity of the reading in the total power equation.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Example 10

The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the

power used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 4.5 kW after the

reversing switch is closed and W2 reads 13 kW, determine the total power in

the load.

Solution

Three wattmeters

Like the single wattmeter, this may be used with either three phase three wire

system or three phase four wire systems.

We will look first at the four wire system. The current coil of each wattmeter

is connected in a line and the voltage coil is connected between one line and

neutral. This is shown in Figure 11.

With this method each phase power is measured, and the total power is the

sum of the three readings. This is written as

The main disadvantage of this method is the expense of installing and using

three meters.

Example 11

three phase load supplied from a three phase four wire source. If the power

measured by W1, W2 and W3 is 4700 W, 5200 W and 3750 W respectively,

determine the total power in the load.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Solution

given in Figure 12.

Figure 12: Connection of three analog wattmeters using artificial star point

Figure 12 shows how an artificial star point is created by connecting one end

of each of the voltage coils together. It must be stressed that this artificial

star point can only be created with the voltage coils if they are identical. If

they are not identical, they will not develop symmetrical phase voltages, and

the wattmeters will give incorrect readings.

The total power is again the sum of the phase powers measured by the three

wattmeters.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Student exercise 4

1 A single wattmeter is used to measure the power consumed by a balanced load. If the

wattmeter is connected to measure the power in the B phase of the load and the reading

is 4200 W, determine the total power in the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power

used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 40 kW and W2 reads 27 kW,

determine the total power in the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power

used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 6 kW after the reversing switch is

closed and W2 reads 9.2 kW, determine the total power in the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

4 Three wattmeters are used to measure the power consumed in an balanced three phase

load supplied from a three phase three wire source. If the power measured by W1, W2

and W3 is 1500 W, 3650 W and 2740 W respectively, determine the total power in the

load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Power factor measurement

An advantage of the two wattmeter method of measuring three phase power

is that it allows the power factor of the load to be determined. The circuit for

the two wattmeter connection is shown in Figure 13.

The equation for determining the power factor angle or phase angle of the

load is

Note: For this equation to work, W2 must be in the phase immediately before

W1 as shown below:

Phase sequence � :

A B C A B C A

b b

W2 W1

Recall that the cosine of the phase angle is the power factor (cos = pf).

Example 13

The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the

power used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 5 kW and W2

reads 7 kW, determine the power factor of the load.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

As mentioned earlier, most analogue meters deflect in one direction only, and

in some meters a reversing switch is provided which will reverse the

connections of the voltage coil in the wattmeter. This allows the meter to

indicate the power the load is consuming. For the power factor calculation,

this reversal of the coil means that the value measured by that wattmeter will

be a negative value. Don’t forget to alter the polarity of the reading in the

power factor equation.

lagging, while if the reading of W1 is greater than that of W2, the power

factor is leading. Typically, however, the nature of the load is used to

determine whether the power factor is leading or lagging. Inductive loads

have a lagging power factor and capacitive loads have a leading power

factor. As capacitors and capacitive loads are mainly used for power factor

correction, for normal distribution and utilisation purposes where wattmeters

are connected the usual power factor for a load is lagging.

If you have Jenneson, refer to section 9.8 ‘Three phase power’. See also

Appendix 1 for a description of a power factor meter. Note particularly

Figure A1.4 which clearly shows the same configuration of potential and

current coils used for the two wattmeter method.

systems, on page 204.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Student exercise 5

1 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power

used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 2.5 kW and W2 reads 12 kW,

determine the power factor of the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

2 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power

used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 0 kW and W2 reads 10 kW,

determine the power factor of the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

3 The two wattmeter method of measuring total power is used to measure the power

used by an unbalanced three phase load. If W1 reads 10 kW and W2 reads 10 kW,

determine the power factor of the load.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with those given at the end of the section.

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Summary

Total power is the power used by the total load. For three phase

loads it is the sum of the three phase powers.

There are three types of powers, apparent power (S), reactive power

(Q) and true power (P).

The three types can be linked by a power triangle in which the

horizontal line represents true power, the vertical line reactive power

and the diagonal line apparent power.

Capacitor banks are used to improve the power factor of an inductive

load. These capacitors are normally connected in parallel with the

load at the supply terminals of the load.

• When connecting capacitor banks in three phase systems, the

capacitors are usually connected in delta.

To measure power, a wattmeter is used.

To measure three phase power either one, two or three wattmeters

are used, depending upon the load, the type of supply and the

availability and cost of the wattmeters.

The power factor of the load can be determined when using the two

wattmeter method by the equations

and

In questions 1 to 9, place the letter matching your answer in the brackets provided.

1 The minimum number of fixed wattmeters required to measure total power drawn by a

three-phase four-wire unbalanced load is:

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

(a)one

(b)three

(c)two

(d) four. ( )

(a)volt amperes for a given time period

(b)volt amperes irrespective of time

(c)power used for a given time period

(d) power used irrespective of a time period. ( )

3 The total power in a three-phase system may be measured using a single fixed

wattmeter, provided the:

(a)load is not balanced

(b)load is balanced

(c)neutral is not connected

(d) load is star connected. ( )

4 When using a wattmeter to measure power in a three-phase star connected system, the

current coil is connected in:

(a)series with the load

(b)parallel with the supply

(c)series with the neutral

(d) parallel with the load. ( )

5 When using a wattmeter to measure power in a three-phase star connected system, the

voltage coil is connected in:

(a)series with the neutral

(b)series with the load

(c)parallel with the load

(d) series with the supply. ( )

6 When measuring balanced three-phase power with the two wattmeter method and both

readings are equal, the power factor is:

(a)unity

(b)zero

(c)0.5 leading

(d) 0.5 lagging. ( )

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

7 The power factor of a three-phase load may be determined by the two wattmeter

method provided:

(a)the load is balanced

(b)the power factor is greater than 0.5

(c)the neutral is connected

(d) there is no current in the middle phase. ( )

8 A three-phase wattmeter can be constructed using the concepts of the two wattmeter

method using:

(a)two current coils on a single shaft

(b)two potential coils on a single shaft

(c)fixed potential coils

(d) a current coil and potential coil on a single shaft. ( )

(a)crossed coil meter with coils at 60°

(b)VAr modified wattmeter

(c)maximum demand indicator

(d) crossed coil meter with coils at 90°. ( )

10 A star connected ac generator develops 11 000 volts per phase. Determine the MVA

rating of the machine if the current per phase is 50 A.

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

11 A three-phase alternator delivers a full load of 140 A at a power factor of 0.9 lagging. If

the terminal voltage is 415 V, calculate the:

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

12 A factory draws a line current of 130 A from a 415V supply at a power factor of

0.6 lag. Determine the:

(a) kVAr rating of a capacitor bank to improve the power factor to 0.866 lag

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

13 The power in a three-phase 415 V system is measured by the two wattmeter method

where W1 indicates 30 kW and W2 indicates 20 kW. Calculate the:

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

14 The power input to a three-phase, 415 V induction motor is measured by the two

wattmeter method where W1 indicates 10 kW and W2 indicates -6 kW (note the minus

sign). Calculate the:

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Answers

Student exercise 1

1 1152 W

2 10.05 kW

Student exercise 2

1 11.5 kW

2 17.5 A

3 16.53 kW

Student exercise 3

(a) 196 kVAr, 2290 µF per phase

Student exercise 4

1 12.6 kW

2 67 kW

3 3.2 kW

4 7.89 kW

Student exercise 5

1 0.6 3 1 (unity)

2 0.5

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

36 EGG202A: 14 Calculate and measure power in three phase systems

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

Check your progress

1 (b)

2 (c)

3 (b)

4 (a)

5 (c)

6 (a)

7 (a)

8 (b)

9 (d)

10 1.65 MVA

(b) 90.75 kW

(b) 90 A

13 (a) 50 kW

(b) 0.945 lag

(c) 73.6 A

14 (a) 4 kW

(b) 0.143

NSW DET 2006 2006/060/10/2006 LRR 4980

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