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DOCUMENT NO 213 Oct 2013

A.P.A.C. Ltd.
Archaeological Perspectives Analysis Consultancy

ARCHAEOLOGICAL

Report

Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon.

Watching brief

Planning Application No: 13/0693

Prepared for:
S Parry

By: Dr N Phillips.
A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12

Summary

A planning application was submitted to Newport City Council (NCC) and as part
of the planning process, Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust (GGAT) advised
the planning department that the proposed work at the site could likely impact on
archaeological resources.

NCC in accordance with the guidance from GGAT imposed conditions requiring a
Written Scheme of Investigation.

This document is the report arising from the archaeological watching brief that
was detailed in the Written Scheme of Investigation.

The report shows that no structures of any archaeological significance were


impacted upon during the observed ground works.

The work did however produce a few small finds: 18th – 19th century & Roman, the
latter including 4 fragments of a Mortarium.

Copyright Notice:
A.P.A.C. Ltd. retains copyright of this report under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988.

The Ordnance Survey has granted A.P.A.C. Ltd a Copyright Licence (No. 100046577) to reproduce map information; Copyright remains
otherwise with the Ordnance Survey.

Cover Photograph: DSC05347

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12

Summary .........................................................................................................................................1
Figures.............................................................................................................................................3
Plates ...............................................................................................................................................3
Introduction .....................................................................................................................................4
Site Location and Description .........................................................................................................4
Geology and Topography................................................................................................................4
Brief archaeological and historical background..............................................................................4
Aims and Objectives .......................................................................................................................4
Methodology ...................................................................................................................................5
Data Presentation.............................................................................................................................5
Watching Brief Results ...................................................................................................................5
Finds ................................................................................................................................................6
Discussion and Interpretation..........................................................................................................6
Acknowledgements .........................................................................................................................7
Bibliography and References: .........................................................................................................8
Staff .................................................................................................................................................8

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12

Figures

01 Site Location map


02 Trench Plan
03 Mortarium

Plates

1 Initial excavation of western trench 1.


2 Completion of western trench to depth of 600mm x 650mm
3 West section at south west corner of trench 1
4 Eastern trench 2 completed to 600mm
5 Completed trench 3 to 600mm.
6 Mortarium fragments from trench 2 Context 104

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12

Introduction

This report has been prepared by Dr Neil Phillips, A.P.A.C. Ltd, to record the results of an archaeological watching
brief undertaken during a program of works to construct a rear extension to the bungalow; Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath
Rd, Caerleon. NP18 1NF, NGR 336987 190770, fig 01.

The clients, agent, C Morgan of C M Design, having submitted a planning application 13/0693 to Newport County
Council; have been granted Approval of Planning Permission, with conditions;

No development shall take place until the applicant, or their agents or successors in title,
has secured the implementation of a programme of archaeological work in accordance
with a written scheme of investigation which has been submitted and approved to in writing
by the local planning authority.
NEW1223/CNM

A Written Scheme of Investigation; WSI: WB2/CAE/13, for a program of archaeological works was submitted and
later approved as ‘fit for purpose’, N. Maylan GGAT.

The watching brief was undertaken on the 30th of September 2013, during excavation of the foundation trenches of
the extension.

Site Location and Description

The location of the site is NGR 3336987 190770, just north west off the village green, fig 01

At the beginning of the watching brief, the site was a lawn, somewhat disturbed by building work on going within
the property Plate 1.

Geology and Topography

The solid geology of the site falls within the St Maugham’s Sandstone with a superficial deposits of River Terrace
deposit; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/geoindex/

Brief archaeological and historical background

There is a wealth of books available on the subject of Caerleon, therefore it is unnecessary to labour its many points
of archaeological and historical history in this report.

In brief, Caerleon is an important archaeological area and has produced archaeological resources from pre history to
present.

Known mostly for its Roman Legionary Fortress dating from AD 75 to around AD300; Caerleon also has the
IronAge hill fort at Lodge Hill, the motte and bailey castle and stone castle within the town and the post industrial
commerce and shipping links along the river.

The specific area of the site lies just outside the North West edge of the barracks field of the Roman Legionary
Fortress of ISCA.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of the watching brief was to preserve by record, within the resources available, any archaeological deposits
uncovered during groundwork.

The watching brief also ensured that: in the event of archaeological resources of significance, being discovered and
requiring treatment beyond the remit of the watching brief, that steps would be implemented to ensure that their
treatment would be undertaken within the standards recommended by the IFA.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12

Methodology

Groundwork at the site entailed one period of excavation on the 30th September 2013 during which all three
foundation trenches were completed.

As the proposed construction involves raising the ground level to the established floor level of the existing property
the resultant, foundations for the extension were shallow at 600mm.

The excavation was undertaken with a tracked mechanical digger.

Data Presentation

Data referred to within the text is illustrated in Figures, and Plates with stratigraphic contexts in [] and finds in {}.

Appendix I present a list and description of stratigraphic contexts revealed in the excavation.

Appendix II presents in spreadsheet format, details of all the photographs, including those not used in the text.

Appendix III presents a list of all finds recovered during the excavation.

Watching Brief Results

Soils and ground conditions

The site and weather conditions during the excavation were excellent.

Description

Trench 1. (refer to fig 02) and appendices I & II

The initial excavation was along the western part edge of the extension; extending 4m from the existing wall of the
house at 90°, Plate 2.

The 600mm wide trench revealed a simple stratigraphic sequence, Plate 3:

 [100] a grass lawn on soft sandy black topsoil to a depth of 50mm


 [101] black sandy clay some 100mm
 [102] slightly more grey soft sandy clay 100mm
 [103] orange sandy clay 100mm
 [104] degraded, rounded sandstone stones, Coarse yellow with blackened interiors 180mm
 [105] greasy orange/pink clay/sand minimum depth of 600mm

Trench 2. (refer to fig 02) and appendices I & II

The second trench was excavated at 90° from the northern edge of trench 1; running parallel to the rear of the house,
for a distance of 8m.

The stratigraphic sequence was the same as for trench 1 with a slight change of depth for [105].

Around 1.4m from the west corner, the depth of [105] reduced to 550mm and continued at this level for the rest of
the trench the reduction in depth being taken up in a narrowing of [104], Plate 4

Trench 3. (refer to fig 02) and appendices I & II

The third trench was excavated at 90º to trench 2 returning to the rear wall of the house, Plate 5.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12
This trench was edged along its eastern side by a concrete path under which was a backfill of material similar to
[102] which overlay the sequence [103][104][105].

The western side of the trench was similar to the sequence in 1 & 2.

Finds (refer to appendix III)


{1} an assortment of 10 sherds of domestic ceramics; plus one piece of stray wall plaster associated with current
demolition work was collected from [101]. Distribution was mostly from trenches 1 & 2 and datable to 19th & 20th
century.

{2} an assortment of 6 sherds of domestic ceramics; mostly 19th/20th with two earlier 17th/18th century sherds, were
evenly distributed across the trenches 1 & 2, in context [102].

{3} 6 angular fragments of Roman terracotta building materials (tiles/brick) were found in [103] at the northern end
of trench 1 and along the west portion of trench 2.

{4} 5 fragments of Mortarium were found some 3m from the eastern end of trench 2 within the stone layer of [104],
Plate 6.

{5} 13 fragments of water worn, Roman building material (pan tiles/tile) were found at the interface of [104] [105]
although the larger pieces were embedded within [105]. One sherd of 19th/20th c stoneware was also found at this
level but may have been introduced by the digger bucket.

Finds were donated to the Roman Legionary Museum Caerleon along with a copy of the archive.

Discussion and Interpretation

The stratigraphy of the site was very straightforward with the possible exception of the lack of [101] to the east
edge of trench 3. This is easily accounted for as the concrete path along the edge, which is relatively recent, would
have required a foundation and levelling.

The only other anomaly is a slight increase in depth towards the west for [105] possibly suggesting a gentle gradient
towards the west.

The upper layers; contexts [101] and [102] produced mostly 19th/20th century finds but it is likely that these upper
contexts have been disturbed by modern gardening.

The more visually contrasting orange layer [103] with its equally contrasting Roman assemblage would tend to
suggest a roman level at around 350mm.

The subsequent levels [104] and [105] support this judging by the finds. (It should be noted that the single piece of
stoneware with its non abraded edges taken from [105] may have been introduced by the digger bucket).

The origin [104], the band of degraded stone is not clear. It is fairly constant in regards to its upper level but it does
vary in thickness with the change in height of [105]. It is made up of rounded limestone pebbles/cobbles most of
which have a coarse yellowish crumbly surface over a band of ferrous leaching. A lot are cracked revealing dark
grey cores. They do not appear to be burnt.

It is in the interface between [103]/[104] in trench 2 that the fragments of Mortarium {4} were found Plate 05 & fig
03.

At the very bottom of trench 2, in the raised portion of [105], the largest assemblage of Roman finds {5} were
recovered; with just a few samples coming from trench 1.

It is only in the raised section of [105] that this layer was disturbed to any extent; even so, some of the larger
fragments of pan tile were firmly embedded beyond the depth of the excavation and were extracted from the
underlying clay with a trowel.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12
All of the finds in {5} are worn and they are embedded in a clay/silt suggesting a wet environment for their
deposition.

The results of the watching brief would suggest that little disturbance of archaeological resources has occurred
during this work but there is enough evidence to suggest that archaeological resources are likely to increase with
slightly greater depth.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Dave and his team for their careful and efficient handling of the work.

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A.P.A.C. Ltd Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath St, Caerleon WB2/CAE/12

Bibliography and References:

A.P.A.C. Ltd WSI:WB2/CAE/13. Written Scheme of Investigation for a Program of


Archaeological Work. Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon. 19/09/2013

English Heritage Management of Archaeological Projects (1991).

Understanding Historic Buildings A guide to good Recording Practice. 2006


Institute of
Archaeologists. Standards and Guidance for an archaeological watching brief. 2008.

Code of Conduct and the Code of Approved Practice for the regulation of
Contractual Arrangements in Field Archaeology. 2008.

Standards and Guidance for the collection, documentation, conservation


and research of archaeological materials. 2008.

GGAT 29/08/2013 NEW1223/CNM Proposed Single Storey Rear Extension and Drive: Lilac
Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon. PL. App. No:13/0693

Newport County
Council; Notice of Decision 13/0693

The Society of Museum


Archaeologists Towards An Accessible Archive (1995)

Staff
Dr. Neil Phillips, AIFA.
The copyright for this report shall remain with the A.P.A.C. Ltd.

A.P.A.C. Registered Address: 36 Hatherleigh Rd, Abergavenny Monmouthshire NP7 7RG.


Tel: 07734962919. Mobile: 07734962919 Email: apac.philips@btinternet.com
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Director: Dr. N. Phillips D.Phil. M. Phil. BA (Hons).Cert Ed/FE. AIFA. AAI&S.

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Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon

Adapted from

Fig 01: Location


A.P.A.C. WB2/CAE/13
Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon

{4}

1 3

Existing Plan supplied by client

Foundation trench in red at


relative scale : 4m x 8m x 4m

No scale given on original plan

Fig 02: Trench plan


A.P.A.C. WB2/CAE/13
Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon

1 1 2

Rim Profiles

Inner
rim diam
eter 0.256mm
Outer
rim diame
ter 0.283mm

0 10 20mm

Fig 03: Mortarium


A.P.A.C. WB2/CAE/13
Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon

DSC05341
Plate 1: Initial excavation of western trench 1.

DSC05343

Plate 2: Completion of western trench to depth of 600mm x 650mm A.P.A.C. WB2/CAE/13


Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon

DSC05344

DSC05345
Plate 3: West section at south west corner of trench 1 Plate 4: Eastern trench 2 completed to 600mm A.P.A.C. WB2/CAE/13
Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Lane, Caerleon

DSC5346
Plate 5: Completed trench 3 to 600mm

DSC05349

Plate 6: Mortarium fragments from trench 2 Context 104 A.P.A.C. WB2/CAE/13


A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix I Context Sheet Index

Site: Lilac Cottage, Grid Ref: Site No: Alternate No:


Cold Bath Rd, Caerleon 336987 190770 WB2/CAE/13
CONTEXT AREA FEATURE DESCRIPTION FINDS PHOTOGRAPHS
100 All surface Grass with soil, 50mm 05341, 05342,
101 All deposit Black sandy clay 10mm 1 05341, 05342,
102 All deposit Lighter shade of black soft sandy clay 10mm 2 05341, 05342, 05343,
05344, 05343, 05346,
103 All natural Orange sandy clay 10mm 3 05347
104 All deposit Lime stone, rounded and degraded 20mm 4 05341, 05342, 05343,
05344, 05343, 05346,
105 All Greasy orange/pink sandy clay at 550-600 mm 5 05347
A.P.A.C. Ltd Appendix II Digital photograph list

Site: Grid Ref: Site No: Alternate No:


Lilac Cottage, Cold Bath Rd, Caerleon 336987 190770 WB2/CAE/13
Photo no Date Camera Size Area View Description Plate
DSC05341 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 Site S Initial excavation of western trench 1. 1
DSC05342 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 TR1 SW Setting out
DSC05343 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 TR1 S Completion of western trench to depth of 600mm x 650mm 2
DSC05344 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 2448x3264 TR1 SW West section at south west corner of trench 1 3
DSC05345 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 2448x3264 TR2 NE Eastern trench 2 completed to 600mm 4
DSC05346 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 TR3 SW Completed trench 3 to 600mm. 5
DSC05347 30/09/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 TR1 NE Completed excavation
DSC05348 02/10/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 Mortarium fragments from trench 2 Context 104 (with flash)
DSC05349 02/10/2013 DSC-F828 3264x2448 Mortarium fragments from trench 2 Context 104 6
A.P.A.C. Ltd. Appendix III Finds Index

Site: Lilac Cottage, Grid Ref: Site No: Alternate No:


Cold Bath Rd, Caerleon 336987 190770 WB2/CAE/2013
Find No AREA Context DESCRIPTION Period Date
th – th
1 All 101 3 sherds earthenware, pancheon 19 20 30/09/2013
th – th
3 sherds porcelain 19 20
th – th
4 sherds blue & white china 19 20
th
1 fragment wall plaster 20
165grams
th th
2 1&2 102 1 sherd local slipware 17 -18 30/09/2013
th th
1 sherd pearl ware 18 – 19
th – th
3 sherds china 19 20
th – th
1 sherd stoneware 19 20
th – th
1 sherd stoneware (Mocha) 19 20
th – th
1 clay pipe stem 19 20
90grams
3 1&2 103 6 fragments of terracotta building material Roman 30/09/2013

810grams
4 2 104 5 sherds of Mortarium. Roman 30/09/2013
Outer rim dia 283mm
Inner rim dia 256mm

273grams
5 2 105 13 fragments of terracotta building material. Roman 30/09/2013
Water worn
th – th
1 sherd stoneware 19 20

409grams