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Conference report

Clean Steel 7
J. W. K. van Boggelen1, K. Tiekink2 and H. H. Visser2

Organised by the Hungarian Mining and Sweden in 1995 had to ‘buy this area (e.g. ULCOS), some
Metallurgical Society (OMBKE), Clean themselves in’. thermodynamic knowledge of the
Steel 7 was held in Balatonfüred, In the ECSC and RFCS 188 projects process is needed. Technologies that
Hungary on 4–6 June 2007. Seven on clean steel were proposed in the could not be studied in the past
sessions in a parallel session format period from 2002 to 2006, of which because of lack of data should be
covered a wide range of cleanness 10% were funded as RFCS projects in revisited as data have become
topics, from clean steel production committees TGS1, 2 and 3. available. There are also still areas (such
practices to improving the fundamental In discussion, it was stated that the as dioxins) where thermodynamic
understanding of inclusion formation, J40m per year spent on steel research knowledge is lacking.
and from new sample preparation (generally 50% funding) corresponds to R. Fandrich reviewed ‘Secondary
techniques to data analysis. Good and J0.20/t steel, although an estimated metallurgy – status 2007’, a
open discussion helped to provide J2/t is spent on research in total. presentation co-authored by H. B.
insight into the work presented by the P. Jönsson presented ‘Focus on Lüngen and C.-D. Wuppermann (Steel
various researchers. clean steel within Jernkontoret’s Institute VDEh, Germany) with a focus
research: an overview’, a contribution on practice in Germany. Achievements
co-authored by L. Jonsson (also Royal with respect to S and H and future
It is becoming more common to use a Institute of Technology, Sweden), expectations were presented (Table 1).
combination of techniques, e.g. J. Alexis (MEFOS, Sweden) and A fluid flow model of a ladle was shown
thermodynamic modelling and SEM L. Bentell (Jernkontoret, Sweden). He as well as optical measurements of the
analysis, to study inclusions in steels described the way research is done in plume eye (gas bubbling at Saarstahl)
and their development over the Jernkontoret: work is studied in and the ‘new’ AMEPA system to
production process. A general committees, which have a chairman detect slag carryover from the ladle into
observation is that many companies from industry; regular meetings are the tundish (TKS) was mentioned. In
have a lot of work in progress with held three to four times per year and discussion is was explained that the
respect to development of clean steel two seminars per year are organised. use of Ca in a reducing atmosphere
processes and cleanness assessment. Ladle metallurgy seminars are serves to reduce the contents of Cu,
In total almost 60 papers were organised with Finland to share As, Sn and Pb in liquid steel.
presented and about 175 people from knowledge. ‘Control of steel reoxidation and CC
the steel industry and research Examples were given of models that nozzle clogging’ was reviewed by M.
institutes around the world attended predict inclusion gradients in a ladle and Nadif in a presentation co-authored by
the conference. studies on vibration measurements J. Lehmann, M. Burty and J. F. Domgin
that relate to the amount of gas used (Arcelor Mittal, France) that contained
for stirring a ladle. Argon stirring at the much data and interesting discussion.
Invited speeches Some initial remarks were made that
bottom of the ladle gives inclusion
Dr J.-L. Delplancke (European content gradients in the steel. Sampling now at Arcelor the total oxygen content
Commission, Brussels) gave an can thus be done in ‘high’ or ‘low’ of the steel can be related to defects.
overview of clean steel research inclusion content areas, which can lead Lanthanum tracing is used to
supported by the Research Fund for to erroneous conclusions if this discriminate between deoxidation and
Coal and Steel, describing the history of phenomenon is not recognised. reoxidation inclusions. Large
the European Coal and Steel H. Gaye (POSTECH, Republic of Ti-aluminates, which cause clogging
Community (ECSC) and the transfer Korea) presented ‘Computational according to Arcelor data, are observed
from ECSC to RFCS. The research thermodynamics as a tool for clean especially when vortexing occurs
priorities for the RFCS were discussed. steelmaking’, starting with an overview
A change from ECSC is that of work done on thermodynamic Table 1 Evolution of achievable
participants from outside the EU are residual contents by secon-
modelling over the years (e.g.
dary metallurgy, ppm: after
welcome, although they are not eligible phosphorus distribution in slags and Fandrich et al., VDEh
for EU funding. New EC members, like desulphurisation during ladle
treatment). The presentation contained 1960 1980 2000 Future
interesting sections on phosphorus
1 C 250 150 20 10
Corus RD&T, Teesside Technology Centre, removal and there is an expectation this
PO Box 11, Grangetown, Middlesbrough, TS6
P 30 150 100(50) 30
will require further research in the S 300 30 10 10
6US, UK, email johan.van.boggelen@
corusgroup.com future. N 150 70 30 20
2
Corus RD&T, IJmuiden Technology Centre, Current work on thermodynamic Total O 30 30 10 10
PO Box 10 000, 1970CA IJmuiden, The H 6 6 1 1
Netherlands, email wouter.tiekink@corusgroup. models is focusing on more sustainable
Total 1036 436 171 (121) 81
com, henk.visser@corusgroup.com steelmaking. For all the ongoing work in

ß 2008 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining


Published by Maney on behalf of the Institute
DOI 10.1179/174328108X269414 Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2 81
NEWS AND VIEWS

between ladle and tundish during


casting. Ladle slag killing at the RH
degasser is rarely done with CaC2 and
Al containing slag passivation aids.
Argon is injected in the SES to prevent
clogging and a minimum flow of
5–7 L min21 has to be maintained to
avoid disruptive flows in the SES. A
normal rate is 7–10 L min21 when
casting steel at 4 t min21.
It is thought that traces of metals,
which form very stable oxides, cause
clogging. With FeTi, for example, the
calcium content should be ,0.01 wt-% 1 Dendrites originating from one spot (left) and dendrite growing from spheri-
in the alloy (this is rather low, and cal cluster (right) (after Tiekink et al., Corus RD&T)
measured with special OES
techniques). reaction site, and similar growth ‘Generation of non-metallic
In Ti alloyed steels Ti aluminates products were observed in industrial inclusions in high-cleanliness steel’ was
should be avoided also: therefore Ti/Al samples. Miscellaneous alumina discussed by K. Kawakami, in a
should be ,0.7. Unfortunately, no morphologies have been reported in presentation co-authored by T.
clogging versus Ti/Al ratio data were several laboratory studies. Clusters Taniguchi (also Sanyo Special Steel Co
presented. were observed as the result of a Ltd, Japan) and K. Nakashima (Kyushu
In discussion, it was stated that use reaction, but agglomeration of particles University, Japan), beginning with a
of calcium treatment to avoid argon is is also reported very often as a historical overview of oxygen levels
not feasible with IF grades since mechanism for cluster growth (Fig. 1). (Fig. 2). It is known that total oxygen
calcium aluminates are formed which Earlier reports describing the alumina ,5 ppm can be achieved in high carbon
will give product defects. When only a morphology in IJmuiden BOS2 steel chromium containing bearing steels
small amount of Ca is added solid plant strongly suggested that counter- (like SUJ2). Not all mechanisms and
inclusions are formed, leading to diffusion of aluminium and oxygen process steps that contribute to this
clogging: a good Ca-treatment is aiming followed by reaction to form large low level are clearly known and
for liquid inclusions. Low CaO content clusters is the main mechanism when understood. The use of BaO (3 wt-%)
in alumina expands the alumina lattice, deoxidation takes place during the in the ladle slag as a tracer was
resulting in a lower density product, RH-OB process or at the stirring station described in a 150 t EAF with slag
hence increased volume of the by wire injection. Large clusters easily removal and C deoxidation at tap. The
deposits and earlier clogging. float to the slag, which ensures that ladle slag contains 50–55%CaO,
low alumina contents (low total oxygen) 10%CaF2, 10%SiO2, 20–25%Al2O3
Formation of non-metallic can be achieved in the steel. and 3%MgO. After desulphurisation,
inclusions In discussion, it was confirmed that a 2%S is present in the slag. After this
single Al addition is made into the argon the steel is treated at an RH degasser
W. Tiekink presented ‘Initial stages of
plume during stirring in the ladle. for 20 min.
alumina inclusion formation in
Inclusions visible around a cavity may The use of BaO is mainly to study
steelmaking’, co-authored by R. Boom,
A. Overbosch, J. Landskroon (also result from the presence of Al vapour: the mixing of the slag with the steel
Corus RD&T, The Netherlands) and B. precipitation during solidification is during the secondary metallurgy
Deo (Indian Institute of Technology). unlikely. Nucleation of alumina is processes.
Aluminium is the preferred deoxidant in heterogeneous, although SEM images of inclusions were
steelmaking, reacting exothermically homogeneous nucleation in steel is shown from a sample taken at 4 m
with dissolved oxygen to form solid believed to be possible. depth in the ladle. BaO was found in
Al2O3 particles, partly as clusters. In
IJmuiden BOS2 the oxygen activities
before deoxidation are usually between
200 ppm (RH) and 500 ppm (stirring
station). Alumina does not wet easily
and high flotation is observed during
the addition of aluminium under
practical steelmaking conditions.
The morphology of Al2O3 created
during the deoxidation process is
dependent on the amount of available
oxygen and aluminium. Oxygen and
aluminium diffusion may determine the
shape of the reaction products: large
columnar and dendritically grown
reaction products were observed in
laboratory melts, when oxygen and 2 Transition of oxygen content in bearing steels and low alloy carburising
alumina counter-diffused to the steels (after Kawakami et al., Sanyo Special Steel Co. Ltd)

82 Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2


NEWS AND VIEWS

numerous inclusions all over the steel high MnO level in the inclusions, while ‘Combining thermodynamic models
but its content was much lower than at the same time avoiding high levels of with SEM analysis: a novel method to
would be expected from slag–metal aluminium to prevent high alumina assess changes in inclusion chemistry
mixing and chemical reactions. Most inclusions. through the steelmaking process’, was
inclusions did not contain slag In the CaO–Al2O3–SiO2(MnO) phase discussed by J. W. K. van Boggelen, in
components such as CaO and SiO2 but field a liquid/viscous phase at rolling a presentation co-authored by K. G.
were MgO-aluminates (also showing temperatures exists (gehlenite). Bain (Corus RD&T, UK). In high grade
some BaO). The stability of BaO and H. H. Visser spoke on ‘Solid silicon killed steels, control of inclusion
MgO in steel is close to that of Al2O3: inclusions in calcium treated composition is extremely important.
the dissolved Ba and Ca in the steel aluminium-killed steel’, a presentation The size and composition of the
were calculated, and could theoretically co-authored by W. K. Tiekink, M. inclusions dictates the quality and
be dissolved at low ppm levels. Koolwijk (also Corus RD&T, The properties of the steel in downstream
Inductively coupled plasma analysis Netherlands), R. A. L. Kooter, F. processing and end use. Metal samples
indicated 2–5 ppm of calcium in the Mensonides and J. P. T. M. Brockhoff were taken at various stages from
steel. The low BaO content and (Corus Strip Products, The tapping the BOF to casting and
absence of CaO in the inclusions is Netherlands). Calcium treatment is relatively large sample areas analysed
attributed to Al reaction with CaO and widely used to prevent clogging of for inclusions. The chemical
BaO, to create (CaO)-alumina/(BaO)- feeder systems by agglomerated compositions of the inclusions,
alumina, and similarly MgO–alumina is alumina, by transforming the alumina together with data from the
formed. into non-sticking, liquid calcium steelmaking slag, were translated,
In discussion, dissolved oxygen in aluminate inclusions. In some steel using a thermodynamics based model,
the tundish was reported as 7–8 ppm, grades, calcium addition is also used to into an exogenous slag seed and an
Ca is 4 ppm. control the morphology of sulphides. endogenous oxide that precipitates out
‘Examination of the development of The fact that oxygen and sulphur during cooling and solidification. The
non-metallic inclusions depending on compete to react with calcium, resulting curves, showing the amount
deoxidation and solidification especially in resulphurised grades, is a of entrainment versus the amount of
procedures in certain steels’ by J. complicating factor because solid CaS precipitated material, allow comparison
Wiener, co-authored by G. Gigacher can cause nozzle clogging as well as of large amounts of inclusion data,
(University of Leoben, Austria), alumina or alumina rich Ca-aluminates. enable determination of the extent of
discussed the relation between alloying Fully liquid inclusions are not slag entrainment and identify process
practice and inclusion formation. The necessary to avoid clogging, and the stages where sudden changes occur.
Mn–Al–Si deoxidation reaction had optimal inclusion composition has been This information is used to inform
been studied thermodynamically and in shown by Kusano to lie in the solid changes to operational practice, chiefly
laboratory experiments. It was found range 1,Al2O3/CaO,1.65 for stable in secondary steelmaking.
that in high Mn steels, MnS was casting of low carbon aluminium killed ‘Morphology and growth of Al2O3
always present around the complex (LCAK) steel. Above this range nozzle inclusions in Fe–Al alloys at low oxygen
MnO–SiO2–Al2O3 inclusions. clogging will occur; at ,1, erosion of partial pressure’ was described by
In discussion it was confirmed that the alumina graphite stopper was found M.-A. Van Ende, in a presentation
inclusions which are not owing to reaction of the Ca with the co-authored by M. Guo, B. Blanpain,
thermodynamically stable are observed refractory. Fuhr and Cicutti showed that P. Wollants, R. Dekkers, J. Proost (also
and that the MnS normally precipitates nozzle clogging starts when the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium)
during solidification rather than amount of solid inclusions exceeds a and E. Zinngrebe (Corus RD&T, The
post-solidification: MnS is found on critical value of 50 to 60%. The most Netherlands). Experiments in a tube
Al2O3 and SiO2 inclusions. common deposits in Ca treated furnace (80 g electrolytic Fe, 100 ppm
Microsegregation was not considered non-resulphurised steels were calcium O (activity ,10–20 PO2 in the argon
in the thermodynamic model. Sampling aluminates with variable amounts of shield gas)) were used to study the size
was conducted 30 s after alloying. MgO, similar to the non-metallic distribution and morphology of alumina
The decrease in MnS after Al inclusions normally observed in such inclusions in steel with up to 3%Al. A
addition, contrary to theory, was steels. Pistorius reported that MgO can population density function was used
attributed to interaction with the contribute significantly to the liquid for consistency and to allow linking to
oxygen rich slag. fraction of the inclusions in Ca treated statistical distributions.
‘Thermodynamic evaluation for steels so the ternary CaO–Al2O3–MgO Samples were taken from the
inclusion formation in high-carbon and system has to be considered. bottom of the crucible. The results
spring steels’ by L. Holappa, co- At Corus IJmuiden stable casting of suggest that it takes several minutes
authored by S. Nurmi, S. Louhenkilpi CaFe treated LCAK steels seems to be for aluminium added at the top of the
(also Helsinki University of Technology, possible with inclusions in the tundish tube furnace to disperse and react with
Finland) and T. Antola (Ovako Wire Oy that on first sight appear to be solid. In the whole sample.
AB, Finland), described the modelling contrast, the presence of (partly) liquid In discussion, it was noted that the Al
of inclusion formation in tyre cord and inclusions of CaSi treated, low (0.1%) content was still increasing after 1 h
spring steel. In the MnO–SiO2-Al2O3 sulphur, high strength low alloyed and the question posed of how the
phase field, liquid zones (i.e. grades does not appear to guarantee results would differ with more rapid
deformable inclusions) exist at rolling an absence of clogging. Clogging dissolution. The authors responded that
temperatures. To achieve the required deposits had been examined in Al super-saturation would change with
compositions, the oxygen in the steel comaprison to the inclusion population dissolution rate and that more
should be high enough to maintain a in the tundish. turbulence would be required to

Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2 83


NEWS AND VIEWS

increase dissolution. The results unavoidable. Solutions such as Ca a larger flowrate and stronger surface
suggest that more aggregates and a additions or two-step deoxidation fluctuation. There is also a higher
different size distribution would be require precise production control, probability of breakout at the narrow
observed with more rapid dissolution. posing technological challenges for face and corner on this side of the
D.-H. Woo presented ‘The formation quality control. In view of this, use of strand.
behaviour of large Nb–Ti carbonitride argon bubbling was proposed to bring ‘Experimental modelling of the
precipitates during unidirectional inclusions to the slag on the surface of interfacial and bulk flow in two
solidification of Nb–Ti microalloyed the molten steel in the ladle as quickly immiscible fluids’ was discussed by P.
steel’, co-authored by S.-M. Lee, H. as possible, which requires effective R. Scheller, a presentation co-authored
Gaye and H.-G. Lee (Pohang University flow within the ladle and slag that is by B. Sahebkar and O. Volkova
of Science and Technology, Korea). both physically and chemically suitable. (Freiberg University of Mining and
Directionally solidified and quenched J. Park described improvement of the Technology, Germany). Laboratory
material had been studied in the cleanliness of molten steel in the RH experiments using various liquids at
laboratory. Temperature profiles during process, a presentation co-authored by room temperature were reported to
solidification were calculated assuming S. Kang (POSCO, Korea). Gas injection simulate mass transport in thin liquid
the dendrite tip is at 1515uC. Images in RH process is generally done in the slag layers in continuous casting. The
were shown of the mushy zone with up-leg snorkel, to promote coagulation velocity of volume elements next to the
the dendrites and the calculated and flotation by using the mechanical interface due to disturbances of
temperatures, together with locations energy of the circulated steel. Gas interfacial tension was shown to be
at which the different precipitates were bubbling in the ladle is practised in dependent on liquid layer thickness and
found. refining to homogenise and remove the physical properties of the liquid
In discussion, it was stated that the impurities (dissolved or second phase). phase. A new dimensionless number
Cu level of 0.16% accounted for the A trial involving overlap between the was introduced to describe convective
presence of CuS precipitates. Ti(C,N) functions of circulation and bubbling in flow and its effect on the bulk flow in
can grow in the solid phase following the RH process was reported, in which thin liquid layers.
solidification, depending on bubbles injected through the down-leg ‘Steel/slag interaction in a gas stirring
composition. Only particles larger than snorkel are broken up and moved into ladle by numerical simulation and
,2 mm were considered. the ladle where they assist in transport physical modelling’ was described by
of inclusions to the slag. D.-Y. Sheng (Mefos, Sweden).
Influence of flow conditions ‘Melt flow characterisation in Mathematical and physical models built
‘Improvement in steel cleanness in continuous casting tundishes’ was to describe the interaction between
ladle and slab casting processes by reported by A. Bellaouar (Mentouri steel and slag in a gas stirring ladle
electromagnetic force’ was discussed University, Algeria) in a presentation were used to study ‘open eye’
by H. Yang in a presentation co-authored by A. F. Boudjabi (Centre formation and slag entrapment under
co-authored by A. Thrum (ABB Universitaire Oum-el-bouaghi, Algeria) different process parameters. For slag
Automation Technologies, Sweden). and Y. Riquier (Polytechnic of Mons, entrapment at the steel/slag interface
Production of steel with high Belgium). Flow in tundishes is normally in a 120 t ladle, a critical flowrate of
cleanliness requires good control of characterised by combined models, in 100 L min21 was reported.
both chemistry and fluid flow in the which the fluid volume is considered to In discussion, it was said to be
ladle furnace and slab casting consist of plug flow, well mixed flow, difficult to assess how the oil/water
processes. Electromagnetic stirring in and dead volumes, but these models interface used in the physical model
the ladle furnace (LF-EMS) and the are often used incorrectly or with relates to surface tension in steel, since
application of dc magnetic fields in the misleading assumptions. The combined the position of the steel/slag interface
slab caster (EMBR and FC Mould) have model was discussed and an improved is difficult to determine due to
consistently proved to be effective in approach to tundish melt flow outlined. instabilities. The residence time of slag
improving steel cleanliness. Plant Y. Wang discussed the ‘Effect of droplets in the liquid steel was
results demonstrating the SEN clogging on flow transport in calculated by using particle tracking and
improvements achieved were continuous casting mould’ in a concentration.
presented. presentation co-authored by Xi Zuo and
G. Károly (University of Miskolc, L. Zhang (Norwegian University of
Science and Technology). Through
Ladle metallurgy
Hungary) discussed ‘Effect of argon
bubbling on the cleanliness of low industrial measurements and numerical ‘Steel cleanliness during secondary
silicon, aluminium killed steels’ in a simulation, the effect of SEN clogging metallurgy of high-grade quality steels’
presentation co-authored by P. Tardy on flow transport in continuous casting was discussed by R. Dekkers in a
(Association Hungarian Steel Industry, strands was investigated. Fluid flow, presentation co-authored by B.
Hungary), Á. Szélig, A. T. Szabó inclusion motion and removal, slag Blanplain, P. Wollants (also Catholic
(Dunaferr Co., Hungary) and S. El- entrainment, heat transfer and possible University of Leuven, Belgium), N.
Ghazaly (Central Metallurgical R & D breakout induced by SEN clogging Jokanovic and A. Rombout (Nedstaal
Institute, Egypt). As well as were discussed and means of BV, The Netherlands). The effect of
homogenising temperature and prediction outlined. Unbalanced steelmaking parameters on spinel
composition, argon stirring has an clogging at the SEN generates formation, total oxygen and hydrogen in
important role in the control of asymmetrical flow in the mould region the steel was discussed, using a
impurities in low Si steel deoxidised by and results in more inclusion relatively simple statistical analysis that
aluminium, where the presence of the entrapment at the side with the less appears to highlight several important
classic Al2O3 type inclusions is clogged port, which is characterised by parameters.

84 Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2


NEWS AND VIEWS

In discussion, it was indicated that Institute of Technology, Sweden).


the effect of Ca treatment on spinel Oxygen activity measured in a Si killed
formation was not investigated. The steel was found to be lower than the
correlation between Al at tap and final theoretical level because the steel was
level is not fully understood and may not saturated in Si (in theory, O activity
require further study. should increase with temperature). The
Variables affecting inclusion Si/SiO2 equilibrium controls the oxygen
cleanliness in the ladle furnace at activity (or the Al/Al2O3 equilibrium for
Ternium Steel were considered by Al killed steels).
A. Martı́n in a presentation co-authored In discussion, it was stated that the 3 Characteristics of flow through
by E. Brandaleze, J. Madı́as (also slag was sampled but the activities outlets of umbrella design SEN
Instituto Argentino de Siderurgia), obtained were not used since they did (after Pindor et al., Třinecké
R. Donayo, A. Gómez and J. Pérez not match those from the steel. Železárny as)
(Ternium Siderar, Argentina). ‘Sulphide solubility limit in
Operations at Ternium regarding multicomponent slag system and its .0.3%C grades, a ‘straight through’
steel cleanliness have been revised. A influence on the desulphurisation rate SEN is used, giving macro-inclusions up
SEM–EDS study on inclusions .2 mm in steelmaking’ was discussed by to 300 mm in size. The umbrella SEN is
in size was reported that had led to M. Al-Harbi in a presentation not used for clogging critical grades.
adjustments of stirring time in the ladle co-authored by H. V. Atkinson and ‘Deoxidation practice in twin-roll-
and the Al shot addition to the slag. In S. Gao (University of Leicester, UK). A casting of aluminium-killed carbon
discussion, it was said that P reversion model study into desulphurisation in steels’ was discussed by A. Grosse in a
to reduce inclusion cleanness was vacuum was described, but no presentation co-authored by D. Senk
applied in the plant rather than slag validation against actual plant (RWTH Aachen, Germany). Strip
treatment so that slag analysis is not measurements has been performed. casting tests at Krefeld Nirosta on
required. Heats are 190 t in weight and The model links the software packages sequences of steel (90 t heats,
the steels are mainly low carbon Fluent and MT Data to combine fluid 1450 mm strip width, usually Si killed
(0.08%) grades. flow calculations for a gas stirred ladle stainless steel grades) were reported.
‘A study of slag/steel inclusion with slag–metal reactions. (At Nucor Crawfordsville carbon steels
interaction during ladle treatment’ was In discussion, it was confirmed that are cast using a transition piece and a
reported by J. Björklund, in a increased flowrates were employed to delivery nozzle 1600 mm wide. The
presentation co-authored by M. give the greater anticipated turbulence. 6–8 mm holes in this nozzle are prone
Andersson and P. Jönsson (Royal At present it is assumed the slag is to clogging when casting aluminium
Institute of Technology, Sweden). liquid, but the next step is to include a killed steel. However, the Eurostrip
Samples were taken at Ovako Hofors solid phase which may reduce the caster at Krefeld is more conventional
and Uddeholm Tooling at various desulphurisation capability. To model and it should be possible to cast Al
stages of steelmaking and the results 15 min of process takes about 5 days deoxidised steel.)
of calculation time. Aluminium deoxidation may give such
compared with theoretical calculations.
It was found that no equilibrium exists fine inclusions that they can be ‘hidden’
between the bulk of the top slag and Evolution of cleanness during in the 8–30 mm secondary arm spacing
the bulk of the steel melt during ladle continuous casting and found in strip cast steel (solidification
refining with respect to O activity. The solidification time is 0.25 s). Any gradient in the flow
inclusion composition in the steel is This session began with a presentation may cause macro-inclusions. In certain
affected principally by the top slag on ‘Effects of the use of umbrella stainless steels MnSi deoxidation is not
composition. design submerged entry nozzles on allowed and it would be very convenient
In discussion, it was asked if it is steel cleanliness’ by J. Pindor (Trinecké to use Al, but there is a risk of clogging
possible that slag pushed down during Železárny as, Czech Republic) when processing these steels on a strip
sampling has affected the formation of co-authored by K. Michalek (VŠB caster.
inclusions in the sample. The author Technical University, Czech Republic). Tests at Aachen were reported with
responded that Ar flushed samplers are A submerged entry nozzle for ‘pre-deoxidation’ in the ladle with Al to
used: with manual dips initially, but continuous casting of square/round 100 ppm O (dissolved aluminium is
later automated sampling. It is possible blooms has been designed based on then 60 ppm). Soft bubbling is applied
slag was picked up in the samples, but mathematical and physical modelling. to reduce some of the total oxygen,
there was no evidence of that. A The termination of the nozzle is after which the Al content is adjusted to
synthetic slag containing 10–16%MgO designed such that the steel flowing 0.040%. In the strip caster oxygen
was used. The O activity is calculated out of it is directed neither towards the activity is reduced from 10 to 3 ppm by
from the average inclusion body of the bloom, nor to the adding extra aluminium wire to the
composition. The inclusions are in solidification front, but rather towards steel just before solidification
equilibrium with the steel. For the steel level surface in the mould, (micro-inclusions are formed). It was
calculations, the average compositions which helps to float out the inclusions found that mainly large clusters are
of multiphase inclusions were used. (Fig. 3). Operating results for steel formed in pre-deoxidation, which can
A companion paper, ‘Effect of cleanliness in casting of 410 mm be floated out of the steel, and later
temperature on oxygen activity during diameter round blooms were given. additions mainly give small inclusions.
ladle treatment’, was presented by In discussion, it was indicated that This should help to avoid clogging.
T. Miki, co-authored by J. Björklund, M. the umbrella SEN is used for ,0.3%C In discussion, it was noted that the
Andersson and P. Jönsson (Royal grades where cleanliness is vital. For Alsol/Altotal ratio is 92–94%.

Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2 85


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H. Hägglund (Heraeus Electro-Nite,


Sweden) and P. Jönsson (Royal
Institute of Technology, Sweden). A
general overview was given on
sampling, possible problems and
solutions. In chemical analysis, round
robins and certified samples can be
used to check routines and values.
Sampling in a steel plant and sample
handling may give rise to errors, e.g.
from moisture or the type of sample;
especially when C segregation is
expected in the sample itself.
OES–PDA and automated SEM are
surface techniques and it is important
to know at which surface the data are
measured (top, middle of sample,
ground or polished etc).
Filling a sample chamber may entrap
4 Comparison of conventional and molten mould flux feeding technique (after
the ambient atmosphere which will
Park et al., Posco) dissolve into the steel; laminar filling is
recommended to improve protection of
the flux layer between the mould and the sample from the atmosphere. In all
Desulphurisation can be done in the steel shell was found to be twice that in cases manual sample taking should be
first step, followed by soft stirring, then normal casting (,1.2 mm). avoided – ideally the sample position
alloying. Al is added as wire in the Inclusions, lining materials and nozzle (and angle) should always be the same
‘tundish’. At 12 s steel residence time clogging during continuous casting of – and samplers should be stored dry to
and 1 g s21 addition, sufficient medium (0.45%) carbon steel billet avoid humidity problems (humidity may
distribution time is available. were discussed by S. Liu (Beijing lead to slag entrapment or even
Initial solidification behaviour under University of Science and Technology,
molten mould flux feeding technology refractory entrapment from the
China) in a presentation co-authored by sampler itself). The protective cap on
in the continuous casting mould was X. Zuo, Y. Wang, L. Zhang and X. Wang
reported by J.-K. Park in a presentation the sampler itself may influence the
(Norwegian University of Science and results. Argon flushed samplers are
co-authored by J.-W. Cho, K.-H. Moon, Technology). Tests were conducted on
S.-H. Lee, K.-H. Kim and H. S. Jeong preferred when H has to be measured
a billet caster with 60 t charges and a in a sample.
(Posco, Korea). A new liquid mould flux casting speed of 2 m min21. Large
practice (Fig. 4), now being ‘Experience with an innovative online
defects started to appear after the
commercialised, was tested at the inclusion determination system for
lining of the tundish was changed to a
Posco 5 m radius trial caster (12 t liquid steel’ was described by R. P.
high MgO material. The composition of
heats). LCAK steels are usually cast Stone in a presentation co-authored by
these defects was MgO–Al2O3,
without argon injection as an anti- C. C. Liu (Heraeus Electro-Nite Co.,
sometimes accompanied with 5%CaO.
clogging measure (so no argon escapes USA) and P. C. Glaws (Timken Co.,
Oxides in the defects with similar
in the mould to create surface USA). At the Timken Harrison plant
composition showed different
turbulence). Testing was done with data were generated on a three-strand
morphologies and Fe droplets between
standard mould flux (viscosity 2.3 P at the oxides were often observed. The
bloom caster (2806375 mm) using
1300uC) and with powders of 5.3 and most likely explanation is that these
the online inclusion measurement
10 P viscosity. The consumption of the system ESZ–PAS. Liquid metal
defects originate from dislodged
standard mould powder was twice passes through a narrow tube,
clogging. Agglomerates may sinter to
those of the others, which led to poor around which an electromagnetic
more compact deposits and the steel
surface quality: very deep oscillation sensing system (Coulter counter
flow cannot apparently break up these
marks and cracks (OSM 0.25, 0.18, aggregates. About 30% of the
principle) detects disruptions in the
0.21 mm for the standard, 5 P liquid inclusions collide with the nozzle. Most
metal. About 50 g of metal is sampled;
and 10 P liquid respectively). An the lower detection size limit is 25 mm.
will collide at the bottom, also observed
advantage is the elimination of carbon Argon bubbles can be electronically
in the nozzle practice, and deposit on
pick-up from the mould slag, since separated from inclusions as bubbles
the underside.
there is no carbon in the liquid flux, and change their size when passing through
this method does not generate dust. the tube.
In discussion, it was confirmed that
Assessment of clean steel The results indicate that in bearing
the composition of the molten slag is This session began with a presentation steels inclusions can be measured well,
the same as conventional powders on ‘Ideas for standardised sampling but problems arise during transient
except for the C content. A small routines – some thoughts about the conditions (very low tundish levels,
change in viscosity is observed but the necessity of developing adequate reoxidation during ladle changes) which
crystallisation behaviour of the slags is routines for durable sampling are registered as much higher inclusion
different. Friction was not found to procedures’ by T. Hansén (Mefos, levels. In discussion, it was indicated
increase at high casting speeds. As Sweden), co-authored by G. Runnsjö that liquid and solid inclusions can be
there is no rim, the total thickness of (Outokumpu Stainless AB, Sweden), distinguished from their deformation

86 Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2


NEWS AND VIEWS

behaviour, but no compositional co-authored by P. Kovalev and S. samples at once, although


information is available. Ryaboshuk (St Petersburg State 12–15 samples is also possible; 1000
‘Simulation of inclusion inspection Polytechnic University, Russia). Defect inclusions/indications are normally
methods to obtain their statistical failure analyses were presented for evaluated per sample. The PSEM is a
properties’ was discussed by E. several products of Severstal, leading workhorse for studies in US Steel, the
Hénault (Ascometal-CREAS, France). to suggestions for process focus being on inclusions smaller than
An automated FE-SEM method was improvements. A very high resolution 10 mm.
applied to steel products in which each optical microscope (Thixomet) was On one occasion a Ti addition was
inclusion (.5 mm) is photographed at used together with SEM. ‘forgotten’ in a TiSULC sequence and
high resolution; 45 s per inclusion is In an IF steel (0.10–0.16%Mn, that heat showed no clogging in a
required for photographic and 0 09–0.012%Ti, low Si, 60–100 ppm C)
. sequence of heats having clogging.
composition determination; the method a sliver defect was studied; the images This raises the questions:
does not have a standard. A simulation showed a small crack or a bubble N does Ti induce enhanced sintering of
with a virtual sample was shown, (lamination), Ti oxide/nitride was found alumina?
introducing inclusions with specified
size distributions generated using a
to be present (10–20%) but also
FeO.Al2O3. It was concluded that it
N does Ti change the Al2O3
morphology/composition and what
Monte Carlo method for location and was a combined hot strip mill/cold strip effect do these have on clogging
diameter. Extreme values statistics mill defect and suggested that a narrow tendency?
were applied on this virtual sample.
One result was that 11% of
stability region exists in the Al–Ti–O
phase field for FeO.Al2O3, but that
N does the Ti induce better wetting
with the steel and are inclusions
measurements were mistaken and FeO.Al2O3 will not be present in Al thus more difficult to remove
would lead to a wrong conclusion. killed steel, unless FeO.Al2O3 was a (currently the favoured explanation)?
‘Ultrasonic testing for the evaluation non-equilibrium phase. It was noted that studies of build-ups
of macro inclusions’ was discussed by In Si Al killed steels pure Al2O3 and from TiSULC casts show more
I. Takasu in a presentation co-authored hercynite type slivers were detected. A Al2O3.TiOx compounds when clogging
by K. Sato and Y. Unigame (Sanyo solution was to change the deoxidation is more severe.
Special Steel Co. Ltd, Japan). In 1970, practice: first Si alloys then Al instead Differences were tested in the time
15 ppm total oxygen was considered of first Al (‘dirty steel’) and then Si (Ca). between Al and Ti addition. Circulation
clean for bearing steels, whereas now Ten times better properties and 50% for 2 min before Ti addition gave
5 ppm is common. Nevertheless, large lower Al fades were claimed. significantly less Al2O3.TiO2
inclusions may still deteriorate end In certain cases a high melting point compounds than no pre-Ti circulation. A
product quality. The SNRP (Sanyo New defect, e.g. CaO depleted alumina, will 2 min circulation time after Ti addition
Refining Process) was introduced in mix with Fe from the steel base in the gives less Al2O3 than 0–1 min and the
1993 to attempt to reduce the number hot strip mill furnace or during rolling result after 7 min appears to be even
of these occasional large inclusions. because Fe will sinter with the particles lower. Adding Ti later (2 min after Al)
The 15 and 50 MHz ultrasonic tests to create Fe impregnated defects. In also improved Ti recovery by 3%.
were described for 10–100 mm another test it was concluded that the Together with improved steel
inclusions. The middle of round billet refractory lining of a steel ladle can cleanliness, surface quality increased
samples showed indications of porosity cause spinel inclusions if aluminium is from 0.6 to 0.1 at Gary and from 0.9 to
in some instances. added during ladle treatment near the 0.3 at Great Lakes.
In discussion, it was indicated that it lining; an Mg level of 5 ppm provokes Late FeP additions gave very bad
is difficult to distinguish between spinel formation. inclusion results and this is now
inclusions and porosity. The approach is Defects in high Si (Al) electrical steels considered bad steelmaking practice in
to try to exclude areas where porosity were discussed: AlN particles (10 mm) US Steel. The tundish flux was changed
may occur. The equipment is calibrated and mullite (Al2O3–40%SiO2). Stability to another basic flux using the area
using a sample 1.5 mm from the graphs showed that during steelmaking fraction of Al2O3 from inclusions in
bottom of a billet. The standard at high Al (,0.3%) mullite can be tundish samples as the main criterion
procedure is to test rolled material. and reduced to (harmless) Al2O3 but AlN for cleanliness.
a heat treatment is applied before will be formed at ,0.2%Al (at 57 ppm). In discussion it was stated that some
testing. Thus, an operating window to avoid improvements are seen in SEN tube
‘Classification of complex aluminate both cannot be found, but at levels of life; when the SEN is not partially
inclusions’ was presented by A. Szabó, 40 ppm it becomes rather wide empty an influence of wetting by Ti can
a presentation co-authored by Z. Szabó (0.27–0.33% will reduce mullite and be observed from the SENs. No total
(Dunaferr Co, Hungary). Optical avoid AlN). oxygen data are available, it is
microscopy with image analysis was A ‘Study of cleanliness and castability considered better to know the inclusion
used to classify complex calcium in Ti-stabilised ultra-low carbon steels composition. Locally the Ti
aluminate inclusions based on how the using automated SEM inclusion concentrations are sufficient during
inclusions deform in, for example, a hot analysis’ was discussed by S. R. Story alloying for TiOx to form; after some
rolled product. The results were good in a presentation co-authored by G. E. time the TiO(Al2O3) disappears. It is
and ideas were advanced for future Goldsmith and G. L. Klepzig (US Steel important to remove TiOx as fast as
work using optical microscopy. Corp., USA). Alloying procedures for possible after the Ti addition.
‘Metallurgical expertise for base making IF steel were studied in two US ‘Assessment of non-metallic
determination of nature of defects in steel plants: Gary and Great Lakes. inclusions in sheet metals by computer
metal products’ was discussed by Automated SEM software was used on analysis’ was described by P. Peetsalu
A. Kazakov in a presentation an SEM, capable of dealing with six in a presentation co-authored by M.

Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2 87


NEWS AND VIEWS

Saarna and V. Mikli (Tallin University of caused by exogenous inclusions and spring steels, used for engine valve
Technology, Estonia). The M and K sometimes agglomerated inclusions. springs, is sensitive to inclusions
methods (DIN 50 602) were applied to Thermodynamics combined with .15 mm in size. OES–PDA data giving
assess cleanliness. The M method is SEM analysis of subcritical inclusions indications about the presence of
easier and gives information on the are used to determine the endogenous elements associated with the large
biggest non-metallic inclusions. The K inclusion composition. Thermodynamic inclusions were correlated with optical
method is harder, especially with calculations on slag entrainment show microscopy data.
unclean steels, but shows quantities of very good agreement with detected ‘The effect of ladle vacuum treatment
sulphides and oxides. To describe fully slag based inclusions. The processing on inclusion characteristics for tool steel
the inclusions it is necessary to use of bearing steels has been improved by production’ was discussed by K.
both methods. Although more rapid, taking more care during casting to avoid Steneholm in a presentation co-
computer analysis experiences slag entrapment. authored by M. Nzotta (Uddeholm
problems in recognising non-metallic In discussion it was stated that the Tooling AB, Sweden), M. Andersson
inclusions, therefore different bearing steels are not given a Ca and P. Jönsson (Royal Institute of
preparation techniques are used to treatment, so the 10–20%Ca levels in Technology, Sweden). The inclusion
obtain a ‘clear’ picture; an Omnimet inclusions originate from CaO in the top characteristics were studied during ladle
system was used to measure sulphides slag. Inclusion density is determined vacuum degassing, by changing the top
and oxides in the steel. from longitudinal samples; spinel and slag composition and evaluating
‘Some aspects of boron alumina inclusions do not elongate in samples collected before and after
determination in micro-alloyed steels’ rolling. vacuum degassing. It was found that
by L. Kovács (University of Miskolc, ‘Developments in the production of the number of ‘small’ inclusions
Hungary) described a specialised high quality ingot casting bearing steels decreased and the number of ‘large’
sample preparation and wet analysis and their influence on steel cleanness (.11 mm) inclusions increased or was
method to distinguish between and fatigue life’ was discussed by not changed during vacuum treatment.
dissolved and undissolved boron for a I. Calderón in a presentation A participant in the discussion
specific steel grade. The method does co-authored by R. Elvira, A. Garcı́a de commented that slag composition
not seem directly transferable to other Andoin and J. Albarrán (Sidenor IzD strongly affects the efficiency of Ar
grades at the moment. In discussion it SA, Spain). A project to improve the stirring: electromagnetic stirring is not
was stated that spectroscopy had been cleanliness properties of bearing steel efficient for slag interaction. Trials at
tried but did not give very good results. at Sidenor found that process Dillinger had optimised slag
‘Use of surfactant aggregates for the improvements should be focused on composition and argon flowrate.
analysis of high-purity iron’ was limiting the Al2O3 population to avoid ‘The effect of chemical content on
described by H. Masataka in a formation of the alumina clusters MnS inclusion morphology in sulphur
presentation co-authored by M. Hiraide, .20 mm in size responsible for fatigue bearing steel’ was discussed by T. Nishi
H. Matsumiya and T. Kika (Nagoya failures. in a presentation co-authored by T. Kato
University, Japan). To avoid
In discussion, it was stated that the (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd,
interference, trace elements must be
initial O activity of the steel from the Japan). Results on the effect of steel
separated from the matrix signal. A
EAF is 150 ppm in the ladle. composition on the number and
method was described to separate the
‘Removal of hydrogen, nitrogen and morphology of MnS inclusions were
trace elements from an aqueous
sulphur from tool steel during vacuum presented. Unidirectional solidification
solution using surfactants. With this
degassing’ was discussed by experiments under controlled cooling
method very low concentrations can be
K. Steneholm in a presentation conditions were conducted. Ca and O
determined, although the extraction
co-authored by M. Andersson, are assumed to affect the interfacial
methods appear to be very laborious
M. Nzotta (Uddeholm Tooling AB, energy between MnS and the melt and
and complex. In another example
Sweden), P. Jönsson and A. Tilliander to influence morphology. It was found
ad-micells were used to remove Fe
(Royal Institute of Technology, that the morphology of eutectic MnS in
from the aqueous solution, leaving a
Sweden). Models to optimise ladle sulphur bearing steel is affected by the
solution of the trace elements. In some
metallurgy in a vacuum tank degasser Ca and O content, but hardly influenced
cases 0.001 mg/g can be detected. The
were presented. by the C content.
separation procedure takes 1 h, and
In discussion it was stated that In discussion, it was stated that in
,30 min for the emulsion method.
during degassing there always is an 0.5–1.5%Mn steel almost all sulphides
open eye; it is not possible to define a are MnS; only small amounts of FeS
Product related technologies reaction surface. N, H and S use were found. The MnS inclusions were
‘Improvement of inclusion cleanness in different reaction areas in the model. found in the interdendritic space in the
bearing steel and Ca treated steel’ was The argon flowrate is 80–100 L min21. microsegregation. The cooling rate of
discussed by F. Ruby-Meyer in a Slag entrainment cannot be used to 5 K min21 applied in the work
presentation co-authored by E. Hénault, improve desulphurisation since the slag corresponds, in a bloom CC mould,
M. Rocher-Bakour and F. Merchi CaO level is too low, though improving with a location 100 mm or more below
(Ascometal-CREAS, France). In bearing this is being considered. the meniscus.
steels inclusions 10–20 mm in size are ‘Development of inclusion ‘Cu enrichment behaviour at the
harmful for fatigue properties and determination method for spring steel steel/scale interface in Cu containing
therefore must be avoided. These by PDA–OES’ was discussed by Y. T. steel’ was discussed by S.-W. Kim in a
larger inclusions are detected using Shin in a presentation co-authored by presentation co-authored by H.-G. Lee
ultrasonic techniques. Analysis is done J. D. Seo, S. W. Choi and J. S. Lee (Pohang University of Science and
using SEM-EDS. Critical defects were (Posco, Korea). The fatigue life of Technology, Korea). When iron scrap is

88 Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2


NEWS AND VIEWS

used as a raw material, tramp elements


such as Cu accumulate because of
difficulty of removing them during
steelmaking. Tramp elements may be
enriched at the steel/scale interface by
preferential oxidation of Fe, leading to
liquid embrittlement or surface cracking
during hot working. The effects of Ni
and Sn concentration, temperature and
oxidising gas composition on Cu
enrichment at the steel/scale interface
were investigated and interpreted from
thermodynamic and kinetic viewpoints.
T. Mattar discussed the ‘Role of
refining in improving the properties of
new grades of maraging steels’ in a
presentation co-authored by A. Fathy,
M. Eissa, M. Kamal and F. Nassar
(Al-Azhar University, Egypt). Cobalt
free, low nickel maraging steels,
recently introduced as economical high
strength steels, include titanium as a 5 Experimental apparatus for production of very small inclusions in steel
basic alloying element. The new steels (after Jang et al., Nagoya University)
possess high strength but their
elongation, and consequently ductility vapour’ was discussed by J. Yang in a equilibrium content of nitrogen as a
and toughness, are poor, presumably presentation co-authored by function of nitrogen partial pressure
because of non-metallic inclusions and M. Kuwabara and T. Yamasaki (Nagoya (0–1 atm) and steel chromium and
non-optimised chemistry. It was shown University, Japan). A way to make very nickel content was defined. This
that both increased titanium content small inclusions in steel (,1 mm, equation will be used as a boundary
and electroslag refining improve preferably 0.5 mm) was described condition in the eventual mass transfer
hardness and strength and greatly (Fig. 5). First, Al is added for modelling of the AOD process.
enhance the ductility of these steels. deoxidation and argon stirring is ‘Reduction of turn down oxygen
performed for 60 min to remove content in basic oxygen furnace
Special problems and clusters. Then pellets of MgO or Mg through lance tip modification and
solutions may be introduced. The MgO will software prediction of oxygen required’
slowly react with aluminium, thereby was discussed by P. Kumar Sen in a
R. Hasenhündl discussed ‘Behaviour of
releasing Mg vapour which can react presentation co-authored by R. Gupta
non-metallic inclusions in managing
elsewhere in the melt with small and S. Rao Chodisetty (Visakhapatnam
steels during the VIM-VAR process
alumina particles to create MgO- Steel Plant, RINL, India). Reduction of
route’ in a presentation co-authored by
aluminates which stay small and do not turn-down oxygen at the end of
R. Tanzer, G. Reiter, W. Schützenhöfer
agglomerate. converter blow, on the basis of a
(Böhler Edelstahl GmbH, Austria),
In discussion, it was stated that tests charge balance model, was described
J. Korp and A. Graf (University of
with Ti additions to give very fine TiOx (previously the plant used fixed oxygen
Leoben, Austria). Böhler makes
speciality steels for aerospace particles are in progress. amounts). The BOF does not have
applications using the VIM–VAR ‘A computational study on the bottom blowing or bath agitation, but
process. The inclusions in these nitrogen content of liquid stainless the lance tip was modified to optimise
steels tend to be sulphides and steel in equilibrium with Ar–N2- the end point equilibrium. The blowing
carbo-nitrides (TiCN), and S content can atmospheres’ was discussed by pattern is controlled manually by an
be high, so MgS particles are observed. E.-P. Heikkinen in a presentation operator who has standard ladders as a
Oxides are rarely encountered in co-authored by J. Riipi and T. guide. The reduction of turn down
automated SEM–EDX studies. Though Fabritius (University of Oulu, Finland). oxygen has led to a reduction of total
the area fraction of inclusions does not A computational model based on the oxygen in the steel. The plant produces
change much during remelting, their mass transfer equations has been tyre bead and aims for spessartite
diameters increase, with an created to optimise blowing practice inclusions by reducing Al2O3 formation.
accompanying decrease in inclusion in AOD and to define the nitrogen ‘Optimisation of scrap charge in
number density, especially in the content of the stainless steel melt as a terms of impurity requirements of
centre of the ingot. function of blowing time. The produced steel’, presented by Z.
In discussion, it was stated that equilibrium compositions of stainless Taszner and co-authored by O. Grega
Böhler’s customers require a test for steel melts containing 15–20%Cr and (University of Miskolc, Hungary) and A.
mechanical properties and a cleanness 8–12%Ni in contact with Ar–N2 Ender (ThyssenKrupp Steel, Germany),
test that does not include TiCN. TiO2 atmospheres were defined using a described dynamic updating of scrap
and CaO are not observed, despite Ti computational thermodynamics compositions in the charge balance
additions. software package. model to ensure optimum scrap charge
‘Characteristics of inclusions in Based on the thermodynamic at ThyssenKrupp Bruckhausen. The
deoxidation of molten steel with Mg calculations, an equation describing the main products of this plant are flat

Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2 89


NEWS AND VIEWS

products and hot rolled coated coils for


automotive applications.
A mixture of steel scraps that do not
exceed the exact metallurgical
requirements would be preferred for
economy. The aim of the research is to
produce an algorithm for scrap quality
determination which can be integrated
online into the combined process
model. Evaluation of the applied
methods and results confirm that the
unknown composition of obsolete
scrap is a real problem, but use of this
material has economic potential to
increase the level of process
optimisation. Experience with scrap
6 Confocal scanning laser microscopy video images showing variation of par-
use in converter steel production was
ticle size with dissolution time of Al2O3 and MgO inclusions in various
reported.
CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 slags (after Park et al., Posco)
‘Physico-chemical properties of
slags: interfacial tension measurement
between liquid iron and slag using
‘Study of inclusion interaction on occur during argon bubbling in the ladle
synchrotron and dissolution behaviour
molten REM–Al deoxidised 20%Cr or tundish as well as on the free
of Al2O3 and MgO in the slags’ was
stainless steel surfaces’ was reported surface of the molten steel in the
discussed by S.-C. Park in a
by N. Kojola in a presentation stopper rod/seat region of a continuous
presentation co-authored by H.-G. Lee
co-authored by M. Andersson, caster. This presentation focused on a
(Postech, Korea), J.-H. Park (Posco, P. Jönsson, K. Nakajima (Royal comparison between the capillary
Korea) and I.-H. Jung (RIST, Korea). The Institute of Technology, Sweden), behaviour of alumina inclusions (light
removal of inclusions by slags involves H. Shibata and S. Kitamura (Tohoku particles) and REM oxide inclusions
three steps: transport to the slag/metal University, Japan). Rare earth metal (heavy particles).
interface; separation; and removal of (REM) killed steels suffer more severe ‘Thermodynamics of titanium,
inclusions from the interface by clogging problems than Al killed steels. nitrogen and oxygen in liquid alloy
dissolution. The dissolution Clusters of Ce and La oxides steels’ was discussed by Jong-Oh
behaviour of Al2O3 and MgO particles surrounded by solidified metal suggest Jo in a presentation co-authored
in various CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 slags at that REM oxides adhered to the by Wan-Yi Kim, Jin-Goo Kang,
1550uC was investigated using surface of the nozzle promote the Dong-Hyuk Shin and Jong-Jin
confocal microscopy (Fig. 6). Several nucleation of delta ferrite. REM Pak (Hanyang University, Korea).
dissolution mechanisms were inclusions reduce the degree of The thermodynamics of Ti, N and O
identified for different slag undercooling of iron more than in liquid iron was studied to
compositions. alumina (3 and 14 K respectively). establish a database for the
In discussion, it was indicated that Clogging can be solved by using an prediction of TiN and TiOx formation in
an influence of the metal phase oversized nozzle equipped with a liquid steels as a function of
would be anticipated, although it was stopper rod, since the nozzle outlet temperature.
not studied specifically in this work. would then be adjustable. In discussion, it was stated that
Work to investigate BOF conditions Nevertheless, accretion of oxides is no reaction was found between Ti
with lime dissolution is under way found both in the SEN and between the and the crucible to form Ti3O5.
while synchroton studies of the steel– stopper rod and stopper seat. Capillary Equilibrium is obtained after ,1 h in
slag interaction are planned. interaction causing agglomeration may an induction furnace.

90 Ironmaking and Steelmaking 2008 VOL 35 NO 2