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TROUBLE SHOOTING

1. Engine
2. Transmission
3. Brake
4. Hydraulic
5. Steering
6. Electrical
7. A/C

1
1. ENGINE
1.1 The Engine Crankshaft Will Not Turn When The Start Switch Is On.
Probable Cause
1. Low Output from The Battery
Check the condition of the battery.
Charge the battery or replace the battery, as required.
2. Defective Wires or Switches
Repair the wires or the switches or replace the wires or the switches, as required.
3. Defective Starting Motor Solenoid
Install a new starting motor solenoid.
4. Defective Starting Motor
Install a new starting motor.
5. An Internal Problem Prevents The Turning Of The Engine Crankshaft.
If the crankshaft cannot be turned after disconnecting the driven equipment, inspect the
cylinders for fluid while the crankshaft is being turned. If fluid in the cylinders is not the
problem, the engine must be disassembled. After disassembling the engine, inspect the
engine for other internal problems. Possible internal problems include the following
conditions:
Bearing seizure
Piston seizure
Valve and piston contact

1.2 The Engine Will Not Start.


Probable Cause
1. Slow Cranking Speed
Check the condition of the battery. Charge the battery or replace the battery, as
required. Inspect all cables and connections.
All connections should be cleaned and tightened. Replace all defective parts.
2. No Fuel in The Housing For The Fuel Injection Pumps
Use the priming pump in order to fill the housing for the fuel injection pumps with fuel.
Release the air with the purge valve.
3. Dirty Fuel Filter
Install a new fuel filter.
4. Broken Fuel Lines Or Dirty Fuel Lines
New fuel lines should be cleaned or installed, as required.
5. No Fuel To The Cylinders
Put fuel in the fuel tank. Prime the fuel system.
6. Low Quality Fuel Or Water In Fuel
Remove fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of
clean fuel in the fuel tank. Refer to Supplement, SEBD0717, "Diesel Fuels and Your
Engine". Also, refer to Special Instruction, SEHS6947 for additional information on fuel
correction factors and tables.
7. The Fuel Has A "Cloud Point" That Is Higher Than The Atmospheric Temperature.
(The "Cloud Point" Is The Temperature That Causes Wax To Form In Fuel.)
Drain the fuel tank, the lines and the fuel injection pump housing. Change the fuel filter.
Fill the tank with fuel that has the correct "cloud point". Use the priming pump in order to
remove air from the system.
8. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing
Make an adjustment to the timing.
9. No Installation Of Overfueling Spring Install the overfueling spring.
10. Defective Shutoff Solenoid Install a new shutoff solenoid.

2
1.3 The Engine Is Misfiring Or The Engine Is Running Rough.
Probable Cause
1. Air In Fuel System
Find the air leak in the fuel system and correct the air leak. If there is air in the fuel
system, the air generally enters the fuel system on the suction side of the fuel transfer
pump. Remove the air from the fuel system. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting, "Fuel
System" topic.
2. Low Fuel Pressure
The fuel pressure at the outlet of the fuel filter housing must be a minimum of 105 kPa
(15 psi) at high idle. If fuel pressure is lower than the above pressure, check the
following items:
Plugged fuel filters
Fuel transfer pump
Ensure that there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bends in the fuel line between
the fuel tank and the fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel system. Also look for a
defective return fuel pressure regulating valve.
3. Leakage Or Breakage In Fuel Line Between Fuel Injection Pump And Fuel Injector
Nozzle
Install a new fuel line.
4. Defect In Fuel Injector Nozzle(s) Or Fuel Injection Pump(s)
Run the engine at an rpm that gives the maximum misfiring or rough running. Then,
loosen a fuel line nut on the fuel injector nozzle for each cylinder one at a time. When a
fuel line nut is loosened, the misfiring or rough running will increase. If the misfiring or
rough running does not increase then test the fuel injection pump. Then check the fuel
injector nozzle for that cylinder. Install new parts, if necessary.
5. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing
Make the adjustment to the timing, if necessary.
6. Wrong Valve Lash
Make adjustment to valve lash. Refer to theTesting And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And
Exhaust System" topic.
7. Bent Pushrod Or Broken Pushrod Make a replacement of pushrod, if necessary.
8. Worn Valve Seat Or Face Of Valve A reconditioning of the cylinder head is necessary.
9. Bent Valve Or Broken Valve Use a new valve, if necessary

1.4 The Engine Stalls At Low RPM.


Probable Cause
1. Low Engine Idle RPM
Make adjustment to the governor. Ensure that the idle rpm setting matches the rpm that
is listed in Technical Marketing Information (TMI).
2. Defect In Fuel Injector Nozzle(s) Or Fuel Injection Pump(s)
Run the engine at an rpm that gives the maximum misfiring or rough running. Then,
loosen a fuel line nut on the fuel injector nozzle for each cylinder one at a time. When a
fuel line nut is loosened, the misfiring or rough running will increase. If the misfiring or
rough running does not increase then test the fuel injection pump. Then check the fuel
injector nozzle for that cylinder. Install new parts, if necessary.

3
1.5 There Are Sudden Changes In Engine RPM.
Probable Cause
1. Failure Of Governor Or Fuel Injection Pump Look for the springs, the linkage or other
parts that are damaged or broken. Remove the governor. Check for free travel of the
fuel rack. Ensure that the fuel
injection pumps are installed correctly. Check for the correct governor spring.
Install new parts for those parts that are damaged or defective.

1.6 The Engine Does Not Have Enough Power.


Probable Cause
1. Air In Fuel System
Find the air leak in the fuel system and correct the air leak. If there is air in the fuel
system, the air generally enters the fuel system on the suction side of the fuel transfer
pump. Remove the air from the fuel system. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting, "Fuel
System" topic.
2. Low Fuel Pressure
The fuel pressure at the outlet of the fuel filter housing must be a minimum of 105 kPa
(15 psi) at high idle. If fuel pressure is lower than the above pressure, check the
following items:
Plugged fuel filters
Fuel transfer pump
Ensure that there is fuel in the fuel tank. Look for leaks or bends in the fuel line between
the fuel tank and the fuel transfer pump. Look for air in the fuel system. Also look for a
defective return fuel pressure regulating valve.
3. Low Quality Fuel Or Water In Fuel
Remove fuel from the fuel tank.
Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of clean fuel in the fuel tank. Refer to
Supplement, SEBD0717, "Diesel Fuels and Your Engine". Also, refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS6947 for additional information on fuel correction factors and tables.
4. The Constant Purge Valve Stays Open Or Closed.
Install new parts, if necessary.
5. Leaks In Air Inlet System.
Check the pressure in the air inlet manifold. Look for restrictions in the air cleaner.
6. Governor Linkage
Make an adjustment in order to obtain the full travel of the linkage. Install new parts for
those parts that are damaged or defective.
7. Wrong Valve Lash
Make adjustment to valve lash. Refer to theTesting And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And
Exhaust System" topic.
8. Defect In Fuel Injector Nozzle(s) Or Fuel Injection Pump(s)
Run the engine at an rpm that gives the maximum misfiring or rough running. Then,
loosen a fuel line nut on the fuel injector nozzle for each cylinder one at a time. When a
fuel line nut is loosened, the misfiring or rough running will increase. If the misfiring or
rough running does not increase then test the fuel injection pump. Then check the fuel
injector nozzle for that cylinder. Install new parts, if necessary.
9. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make an adjustment to the timing. Use the dynamic
timing indicator.
10. Low Fuel Setting Refer to the Technical Marketing Information (TMI) for additional
information.
11. Carbon Deposits On Turbocharger Or Other Causes Of Friction
Inspect the turbocharger. Repair the turbocharger, if necessary. Check for low boost
pressure. Low boost pressure is 10 percent below initial boost pressure.

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1.7 The Engine Has Too Much Vibration.
Probable Cause
1. Loose Vibration Damper Or Loose Pulley
Inspect the vibration damper and the pulley for damage. Tighten the bolts, if necessary.
If the vibration damper or pulley bolt holes have damage or wear, replace the vibration
damper or pulley bolt holes with new parts.
2. Defective Vibration Damper Or Pulley
Inspect the vibration damper and the pulley for leakage. Inspect the vibration damper
and the pulley for a damaged case assembly. Either of the above conditions can cause
the weight to come into contact with the housing. If the weight contacts the housing, the
operation of the vibration damper and the pulley is affected.
3. Driven Equipment Is Not In Alignment Or Driven Equipment Is Not In Balance. Check
alignment and balance. Correct alignment and balance, if necessary.
4. Engine Supports Are Loose or Defective. Tighten all mounting bolts. Install new
components, if necessary.

1.8 The Engine Has A Loud Combustion Noise (Knock).


Probable Cause
1. Low Quality Fuel Or Water In Fuel
Remove fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of
clean fuel in the fuel tank. Refer to Supplement, SEBD0717, "Diesel Fuels and Your
Engine". Also, refer to Special Instruction, SEHS6947 for additional information on fuel
correction factors and tables.
2. Defect In Fuel Injector Nozzle(s) Or Fuel Injection Pump(s)
Run the engine at an rpm that gives the maximum misfiring or rough running. Then,
loosen a fuel line nut on the fuel injector nozzle for each cylinder one at a time. When a
fuel line nut is loosened, the misfiring or rough running will increase. If the misfiring or
rough running does not increase then test the fuel injection pump. Then check the fuel
injector nozzle for that cylinder. Install new parts, if necessary.
3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make an adjustment to the timing. Use the dynamic
timing indicator.

1.9 The Engine Has A Valve Train Noise (Clicking).


Probable Cause
1. Damage To Valve Train Components
Inspect all of the following valve train components:

Valves
Springs
Camshaft
Lifters
Rocker arms
Pushrods
Valve guides
Check for worn parts or damaged parts. Replace worn parts or damaged parts, as
required.
2. Not Enough Lubrication Check the lubrication in the valve compartment. There must
be a small flow of oil through the rocker arm shaft and rocker arms. The oil then flows to
the tops of the pushrods and the tops of the valve stems. Oil passages must be clean.
The oil passages that send the oil through the cylinder head to the rocker arm shaft are
particularly important.
3. Too Much Valve Lash
Make adjustment to valve lash. Refer to Testing And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust
System".

5
1.10 Oil Is In The Cooling System.
Probable Cause
1. Defect In Core Of Engine Oil Cooler
Inspect each engine oil cooler. Repair any defective oil cooler or replace any defective
oil cooler, as required.
2. Defect In Head Gasket Install a new head gasket.

1.11 Mechanical Noise (Knock) Is In The Engine.


Probable Cause
1. Failure Of Bearing For Connecting Rod
Inspect the bearings for the connecting rods and the bearing surfaces (journals) on the
crankshaft. Install new parts, as required.
2. Damaged Gears
Install new parts, as required.
3. Damaged Crankshaft
Repair the crankshaft or replace the crankshaft, as required.

1.12 Fuel Consumption Is Too High.


Probable Cause
1. Fuel System Leaks
Tighten parts or make replacement parts at points of leakage.
2. Fuel And Combustion Noise (Knock)
Small increases in fuel consumption may be the result of defective fuel injector nozzles.
Install new parts, if necessary.
3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing
Make an adjustment to the timing.
4. Excess Idle Time
Shut off the engine if the engine is not needed.
5. Brakes Drag.
Adjust the brakes or repair the brakes.
6. Low Quality Fuel Or Water In Fuel
Remove fuel from the fuel tank. Install a new fuel filter element. Put a good grade of
clean fuel in the fuel tank. Refer to Supplement, SEBD0717, "Diesel Fuels and Your
Engine". Also, refer to Special Instruction, SEHS6947 for additional information on fuel
correction factors and tables.

1.13 The Engine Has A Loud Noise (Clicking) From The Valves Or From The Valve
Operating Components.
Probable Cause
1. Damage To Valve Spring(s)
Replace the damaged parts.
2. Damage To Camshaft
Replace the damaged parts. Clean the engine thoroughly.
3. Damage To Valve Lifter
Clean the engine thoroughly. Replace the camshaft and the valve lifters. Look for valves
that do not move freely. Adjust the valve lash. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting, "Air
Inlet and Exhaust System" topic for additional information.
4. Damage To Valve(s)
Replace the damaged parts and make an adjustment, if necessary.

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1.14 Little Movement Of The Rocker Arm And Too Much Valve Lash Is Present.
Probable Cause
1. Too Much Valve Lash
Adjust the valve lash. Refer to the Testing and Adjusting, "Air Inlet and Exhaust System"
topic for additional information.
2. Not Enough Lubrication
Check the lubrication in the valve compartment. There must be a strong flow of oil at
engine high rpm. There must be a small flow of oil at low rpm. Oil passages must be
clean. The oil passages that send the oil to the cylinder head are particularly important.
3. Worn Rocker Arm
If the face of the rocker arm that makes contact with the valve bridge has too much
wear, install new parts or rocker arms. Make adjustment to valve lash. Refer to Testing
And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust System".
4. Worn Valve Stem
If the end of the valve stem has too much wear, install new valves. Make adjustment to
valve lash. Refer to Testing And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust System".
5. Worn Pushrods
If the pushrods have too much wear, install new pushrods. Make adjustment to valve
lash. Refer to Testing And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust System".
6. Broken Valve Lifters Or Worn Valve Lifters
Install new valve lifters. Check the camshaft for wear. Check for free movement of
valves or bent valve stem. Clean the engine thoroughly. Make adjustment to valve lash.
Refer to Testing And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust System".
7. Worn Camshaft Check valve lash. Check for wear on camshaft lobes. Check for free
movement of valves or bent valve stems. Install a new camshaft. Install new valve lifters.
Make adjustment to valve lash. Refer to Testing And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust
System".

1.15 The Valve Rotocoil Or The Spring Lock Is Free.


Probable Cause
1. Damage To Locks
Locks with damage can cause the valve to fall into the cylinder. This will cause severe
damage.
2. Damage To Valve Spring(s)
Install the new valve spring(s).

1.16 Oil Is In The Exhaust.


Probable Cause
1. Too Much Oil In The Valve Compartment Be sure that the plugs are installed in the
ends of the rocker arm shaft.
2. Worn Valve Guides
Reconditioning of the cylinder head is required.
3. Worn Piston Rings Inspect piston rings and install new parts, as required.

1.17 Little Valve Lash Or No Valve Lash Is Present.


Probable Cause
1, Worn Valve Seat Or Worn Valve Face
Reconditioning of the cylinder head is required. Make adjustment to valve lash.
Refer to Testing And Adjusting, "Air Inlet And Exhaust System".

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1.18 The Engine Has Early Wear.
Probable Cause
1. Dirt In Lubrication Oil
Remove dirty lubrication oil. Install new filter elements. Put clean oil in the engine.
2. Air Inlet Leaks Inspect all gaskets and connections. Make repairs if leaks are found.
3. Fuel Leakage Into Lubrication Oil This will cause high fuel consumption and low
engine oil pressure. This condition may also increase the oil level in the crankcase.
Make repairs if leaks are found. Install new parts-probably Injector and/or Pump, as
required.

1.19 Coolant Is In The Lubrication Oil.


Probable Cause
1. Failure Of Any Of The Engine Oil Cooler Cores
Install a new core for the defective engine oil cooler. Drain the crankcase and refill the
crankcase with clean lubricant. Install new oil filters.
2. Failure Of The Cylinder Head Gasket
Install a new cylinder head gasket. Tighten the bolts that hold the cylinder head. Refer
to the Specifications, "Cylinder Head" topic for additional information on the proper
tightening sequence and torques.
3. Crack Or Defect In Cylinder Head
Pressurize the cooling system in order to determine whether the cylinder head needs
repair. While the cylinder head is removed from the engine, inspect the cylinder head in
order to determine the extent of the damage. Repair the cylinder head or replace the
cylinder head, as required.
4. Crack Or Defect In Cylinder Block
Pressurize the cooling system in order to locate the damage. Inspect the cylinder block.
Repair the cylinder block or replace the cylinder block, as required.
5. Failure Of Cylinder Liner Seals Replace cylinder liner seals.

1.20 Too Much Black Smoke Or Gray Smoke Is Present.


Probable Cause
1. Not Enough Air For Combustion
Check the air cleaner for restrictions. Follow the procedure for replacing the air cleaner
elements. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual. Check the inlet manifold
pressure. Inspect the turbocharger for correct operation.
2. Defective Fuel Injector Nozzle(s) Test all of the nozzles. Install new nozzles if the test
shows that a replacement is needed.
3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing. Refer to Testing And
Adjusting, "Fuel System".

1.21 Too Much White Smoke Or Blue Smoke Is Present.


Probable Cause
1. Too Much Lubrication Oil In Engine
Check the engine oil level gauge and oil level. Remove extra oil. Find the source of the
extra oil. Put the correct amount of oil in engine.
2. The Engine Is Misfiring Or The Engine Is Running Rough. Check the following items:
Air in fuel system
Low fuel pressure
Defect in fuel injector nozzle
Repair the parts or replace the parts, as required.
3. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing. Refer to Testing And
Adjusting, "Fuel System".
4. Worn Valve Guides
Refer to the Specifications, "Cylinder Head Valves" topic for the maximum permissible
wear of the valve guides. Reconditioning of the cylinder head is required.
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5. Worn Piston Rings Or Improperly Installed Piston Rings
Worn piston rings and/or cylinder walls can cause blue smoke and a loss of
compression. Make a visual inspection of the cylinder walls and piston rings. Measure
the cylinder walls and piston rings, if necessary. Refer to the Specifications, "Piston and
Rings" and Specifications, "Cylinder Liner" topics for more information.
6. Failure Of Turbocharger Oil Seal
Check the air inlet manifold (Plenum) for oil and repair the turbocharger, as required.

1.22 The Engine Has Low Oil Pressure.


Probable Cause
1. Defective Oil Pressure Gauge Install new gauge.
2. Dirty Engine Oil Filter Or Engine Oil Cooler
Check the operation of the bypass valve for the filter. Install new engine oil filter
elements, if necessary. Clean the engine oil cooler core or install a new engine oil
cooler core. Remove dirty oil from the engine. Put clean oil in the engine.
3. Diesel Fuel In Lubrication Oil
Find the source of the leakage of the diesel fuel into the lubrication oil. Make repairs, as
required. Remove the lubrication oil that has been contaminated with diesel fuel. Install
new oil filters. Put clean oil in the engine.
4. Too Much Clearance Between Rocker Arm Shaft And Rocker Arms Check lubrication
in valve compartments. Install new parts, as required.
5. Defective Oil Pump Suction Pipe
Replacement of oil pump suction pipe is required.
6. Stuck Open Oil Pressure Relief Valve
Clean the valve and the housing. Install new parts, as required.
7. Defective Oil Pump
Repair the oil pump or replace the oil pump.
8. Too Much Clearance Between Camshaft And Camshaft Bearings
Inspect the camshaft and the camshaft bearings. Replace the camshaft and the
camshaft bearings, as required.
9. Too Much Clearance Between Crankshaft And Crankshaft Bearings Inspect the
crankshaft bearings and make replacement, as required.
10. Too Much Bearing Clearance For Idler Gear
Inspect the bearings and make replacement, as required.
11. Piston cooling Jets Are Not Installed. Install the piston cooling jets.

1.23 The Engine Uses Too Much Lubrication Oil.


Probable Cause
1. Too Much Lubrication Oil In Engine
Remove the excess oil. Locate the source of the excess oil.
Check the oil level when the engine has been stopped for 20 minutes. Maintain the oil
level below the full mark. When you maintain the oil level below the full mark this will
prevent overfilling. Use the "run" marks on the dipstick to ensure that there is oil in the
oil pan. Check dipstick calibration at oil changes.
2. Oil Leaks
Locate all oil leaks. Make repairs, as required. Check for dirty crankcase breathers.
3. High Oil Temperature
Check operation of oil cooler and oil temperature regulator. Install new parts, as
required. Clean the oil cooler cores.
4. Too Much Oil In The Valve Compartment Be sure that the plugs are installed in the
ends of the rocker arms.
5. Worn Valve Guides
Reconditioning of the cylinder head is required.
6. Worn Piston Rings Or Improperly Installed Piston Rings
Inspect the piston rings and install new parts, as required.
9
7. Failure Of Turbocharger Oil Seal Check the air inlet manifold for oil and repair the
turbocharger, as required.

1.24 The Engine Coolant Is Too Hot.


Probable Cause
1. Restricted Flow Of Air Through the Radiator Or Restricted Flow Of Coolant Through
the Radiator
Remove all of the flow restrictions.
2. Low Coolant Level
Add coolant to the cooling system. Check for leaks.
3. Defective Pressure Cap Check operation of the pressure cap. Install a new pressure
cap, as required.
4. Combustion Gases In Coolant
Find the source of the leakage of combustion gases into the cooling system. Make
repairs, as required:
Cylinder liner
Water cooled valve seat insert
5. Defective Water Temperature Regulators
Check water temperature regulators for correct operation. Check the water temperature
gauge for correct operation. Install new parts, as required.
6. Defective Water Pump
Make repairs to the water pump, as required.
7. Too Much Load On The System
Reduce the load on the system.
8. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing. Refer to Testing And
Adjusting, "Fuel System".

1.25 Engine Temperature Is Too Cool.


Probable Cause
1. Excessive Idle Time
Do not idle the engine for long time periods.
2. Very Light Loads
Very light loads can cause overcooling. Low heat into the engine causes overcooling.
3. Defective Water Temperature Regulators
Check water temperature regulators for correct operation. Check the water temperature
gauge for correct operation. Install new parts, as required.

1.26 Coolant Leaks Outside The Engine And Coolant Leaks Inside the Engine.
Probable Cause
1. Coolant Leaks In Hoses Or Coolant Leaks In Hose Connections.
Check all hoses and connections for signs of leakage. Repair the damaged parts or
replace the damaged parts.
2. Leaks In The Water Pump.
Check the water pump for leaks before starting the engine. Then start the engine and
look for leaks. Repair the damaged parts or replace the damaged parts.
3. Cylinder Head Gasket Leakage
Look for leaks along the surface of the head gasket. If leaks are present replace the
head gasket.
4. Crack(s) In The Cylinder Head
Cracks in the cylinder head will allow coolant to flow into the crankcase. Repair the
cylinder head or replace the cylinder head.
5. Crack(s) In The Cylinder Block
Cracks in the cylinder block will allow coolant to flow into the crankcase.
Repair the cylinder block or replace the cylinder block.

10
1.27 The Exhaust Temperature Is Too High.
Probable Cause
1. Restriction At The Air Inlet System Or The Exhaust System
Remove the restriction.
2. Wrong Fuel Injection Timing Make adjustment to timing. Refer to Testing And
Adjusting, "Fuel System".

1.28 The Starting Motor Does Not Turn.


Probable Cause
1. Low Output From The Battery Check the condition of the battery. Charge or replace
the battery, as required.
2. Defective Wires Or Switches
Repair the wires or the switches or replace the wires or the switches, as required.
3. Defective Starting Motor Solenoid
Install a new starting motor solenoid.

1.29 The Alternator Gives No Charge.


Probable Cause
1. Loose Drive Belt For The Alternator
Adjust the drive belt in order to obtain the correct tension.
2. Defective Charging, Ground Return Circuit Or Battery Connections
Inspect all cables and connections. All connections should be cleaned and tightened.
Replace all defective parts.
3. Brushes In The Alternator Are Defective.
Install new brushes.
4. Defective Rotor (Field Coil) Install a new rotor.

1.30 The Alternator Charge Rate Is Low Or The Alternator Charge Rate Is Not
Regular.
Probable Cause
1. Loose Drive Belt For The Alternator
Adjust the drive belt in order to obtain the correct tension.
2. Defective Charging, Ground Return Circuit Or Battery Connections
Inspect all cables and connections. All connections should be cleaned and tightened.
Replace all defective parts.
3. Defective Alternator Regulator
Install a new alternator regulator.
4. Brushes In The Alternator Are Defective.
Install new brushes.
5. Defective Rectifier Diodes
Replace the defective rectifier diode.
6. Defective Rotor (Field Coil)

1.31 The Alternator Charge Is Too High.


Probable Cause
1. Loose Connections On The Alternator Or The Alternator Regulator Tighten all
connections to the alternator or the alternator regulator.
2. Defective Alternator Regulator
Install a new alternator regulator

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1.32 The Alternator Has Noise.
Probable Cause
1. Drive Belt For The Alternator That Is Worn Or Defective
Drive Belt For The Alternator That Is Worn Or Defective
2. Loose Alternator Drive Pulley
Check the groove in the pulley for a key that holds the pulley in place. If the groove is
worn, install a new pulley. Refer to the Specifications, "Alternator and Regulator" topic
for the proper torques.
3. Misaligned Drive Belt And Drive Pulley For The Alternator Misaligned Drive Belt And
Drive Pulley For The Alternator
4. Worn Alternator Bearings
Install new bearings in the alternator.
5. Bent Rotor Shaft
Replace the rotor shaft.
6. Shorted Rectifiers In The Alternator Replace the diode assembly.

1.33 The Shutoff Solenoid Does Not Stop The Engine.


Probable Cause
1. Incorrect Electrical Connections
Correct the electrical connections and wiring.
2. Incorrect Adjustment For The Plunger Shaft
Adjust the plunger shaft.
3. Wrong Plunger In The Solenoid
Install the correct plunger in the solenoid.
4. Not Enough Plunger Travel
Adjust the plunger shaft or replace the solenoid, if necessary.
5. Defective Solenoid Wiring Replace the solenoid.

1.34 Excessive Fuel Is Present In Lubrication Oil.


Probable Cause
1. Fuel leakage in the fuel pump housing.
2. Fuel leakage to the outside of the fuel pump plunger and barrel assemblies.

12
2.Transmission
2.1 Transmission oil pressure is too low in every gear.
Cause Remedy
Transmission oil level is too low
Oil leakage in main pipe lines

1 Fill transmission oil level to the
proper fill marks
Transmission oil pump is damaged 
2 Check and repair
3 Repair or replace the pump

2.2 Transmission oil pressure is too low in some gears.



1 Damage to piston seal ring
2 Damage to seal rings in the

1 Replace the seal rings
2 Replace the seal rings
transmission lines

3 Oil leakage in the transmission
lines

3 Check and repair

2.3 Torque converter oil temperature is too high



1 Transmission oil level is too low 
1 Fill the transmission oil level to
2 Transmission oil level is too high the proper fill marks

blocked

3 Torque converter radiator port is 2 Drain the oil until the oil level is at
the proper fill marks

4 Clutch is slipping 
3 Clean or replace the radiator
4 Check and adjust the

5 Excessive time running the transmission oil pressure
machine at high loads 
5 Idle or turn off the machine to
cool it down

2.4 Loader cannot move after the engine has been started

1 Gear shift not selected 
1 Shift to desired gear or adjust the
transmission control lever to the
desired position

2 Low transmission oil pressure   
2 Refer to 2.1 and 2.2

2.5 Insufficient machine power to drive the machine



1 Low transmission oil pressure     
1 Refer to 2.1 and 2.2
2 Torque converter oil temperature 2 Refer to 2.3
is too high

3 Damage to torque converter
impeller blades

3 Disassemble and check the
converter, replace the damaged
4 Insufficient output power from the blades

engine

5 Service or parking brake is

4 Check and repair the engine

engaged 
5 Check and repair the brake
system, and/or disengage the service
and/or parking brake

13
Trouble-Shooting of Power-shift ZF Transmission
Instructions for functional Measuring and Trouble –Shooting on 4WG200
1, Precondition for a functional measuring is a gearbox temperature of 80-1000C
2, Oil level as well as oil quality must be corresponding to the Lubrication Instructions
3, It is absolutely necessary to pay attention that the prescribed operation instructions
are used.
4, Carry out the functional test of the electric system with the prescribed Tester and
Adapter cable (if have this equipment).
5, NOTE:
In case of mechanical clutch defects is in most cases always that clutch defective in
which the vehicle can be moved.

A: CONTROL PRESSURE TOO LOW IN ALL SPEED

Check main pressure on measuring point 65 (see Model identification plate)

(OK) Replace installed pressure gauges


(Too low) Check main pressure on measuring point 58/57/56
(OK) Check control orifice; inspect pressure control spool; replace control
valve assembly
(Too low)
Check torque limited of control valve assembly screws max. 20Nm
check control pressure valve and pressure filter
check converter charge and control pressure pump

Remarks: drawing of the orifice (from ZF Service page 59)

B: MAIN PRESSURE TOO LOW IN SEVERAL SPEEDS

Check main pressure on measuring point 65


(Too low in several speeds) close hose to the presumable defective clutch. At the
same time, the main pressure must rise up to the prescribed valve.
OK Repair transmission.

C: SHIFTING TIME TOO LONG IN ALL SPEEDS

Check pressure build up on measuring point 65.


(Too long) Clean pressure control orifice and check pressure control valve

D: SHIFTING TIME TOO SHORT IN ALL SPEEDS

Check pressure built up on measuring point 65


(Too short) check pressure control orifice and pressure control valve.
Check torque limited of cap screws (control valve assembly max. 20 Nm)

E: TEMPERATURE TOO HIGH

Check oil level see operation instructions (wrong) control to Max.oil level at engine
idling speed
watch the breather function
Check cooler difference temperature 8-100C. (external contamination) clean
Ok

14
Check converter output pressure (nominal valve 3-6.5bar) too high repair converter
holding valve
Wrong operation---drive vehicle in the correct speed
(Too low): check converter relief valve ok renew converter sealing
(defective) Repair

F: NO FUNCTION IN ALL SPEEDS

Check oil level too low correct oil level


Check mech, connection engine-converter defective repair
Check main pressure no pressure pump defective (repair transmission)
Check current for transmission-control (use PR test boxes)
No current check 5, Ampere fuse in the controller wiring
Check current on switch output (use PR test boxes)
no current Controller defective (replace)

G: NO FUNCTION IN 1ST AND 2ND SPEED

Check current on the solenoids (use PR test boxes), shift through all gears, don not
actuate pressure cut off-switch.
No coding Check pressure cut off switch with PR test boxes
No reaction Pressure switch on parking or service brake defective
Ok check current input on all solenoids with PR test boxes
Wrong Replace defective solenoids
Ok repair control valve assembly

H: REDUCED TRACTIVE POWER AND INCREAESING TEMPERATURE

Check converter output pressure at measuring point 63/52


Too low check converter relief valve opening pressure at measuring point 51
Ok measure suppression speed ok check solenoid selection
Too high
check diesel supply as well as Diesel filter
(Engine has no power)
Check working hydraulics

15
3.Brake system
3.1 Insufficient service brake force

1 Brake system oil leakage
2 Air present in the brake system

1 Replace the sealing parts
2 Bleed the air out of the brake
hydraulic brake lines system hydraulic brake lines

lines

3 Insufficient pressure in the air 
3 Check the sealing performance in
the air compressor, storage tank, and
lines

4 Leather cup of booster is worn
5.Oil on friction plates

4 Replace the leather cup
5. Investigate root cause and
determine corrective action
6 High abrasion of the friction disc 
6 Replace with a new friction disc

3.2 Brakes do not release normally



1 Pushrod of brake valve is not
aligned to the correct position, or the

1 Check, adjust, or replace the
damaged parts
piston rod is blocked and the reset
spring is incorrectly set 
2 Check, clean, and identify

2 Inflexible reset of booster piston
3 Brake pliers piston cannot reset
potential solutions

3 Clean or replace the rectangular
seal ring

3.3 Rapid air storage tank pressure loss after the machine is parked

1 Brake inlet valve is blocked or
damaged

1 Brake continuously for several
times to remove dirt, or replace with a
new valve
 
2 Pipe connectors are loose or lines 2 Tighten the connectors or replace
are damaged the lines

3 Relief valve is not sealed 
3 Investigate and replace the valve
if necessary

3.4 slow pressure rise after the engine is started


 
1 Abnormal working condition of the 1 Inspect the working condition of
air compressor the air compressor

2 Loose connectors
3 Unsealed brake or relief valve

2 Tighten the connectors
3 Repair or replace

3.5 Machine turns when brakes are applied



1 The brake force for the right and
left tires are different

1 Check and repair the brake pliers
and pipe lines

2 Air pressure in the right and left
tires are different

2 Ensure all tires are filled with the
correct pressures

3.6 insufficient brake force



1 Excessive clearance between the
brake hubs and brake discs

1 Readjust to meet the
recommended clearance

2 Oil on brake discs
2 
Clean the oil off

16
4. Hydraulic system
4.1 Lift arm raise and bucket tilt functions are slow or dysfunctional


1 Damaged cylinder oil seals
2 Oil leakage in hydraulic lines 
1 Replace with new seals

3 Severe inner leakage of the pump 2 Check and repair
4 Improper adjustment of the safety
valve, resulting in low system

3 Repair or replace the pump
4 Adjust the system pressure to the
pressure required specification

5 Air enters into the oil suction lines
of the hydraulic pump, or the oil filter

5 Clean the filter and/or replace the
oil suction pipe
is blocked 
6 Repair or replace the valve

6 Excessive hydraulic valve fitting
clearance

4.2 Voiding of hydraulic oil in suction line or foaming of hydraulic oil


1 Hydraulic oil level is too low
2 Filter is blocked

1 Fill oil to the required level
2 Clean the filter

3 Damaged oil pump
4 Air leakage in oil suction linesor

3 Repair or replace the pump
4 Repair or replace the damaged
parts
damaged pump seals

5 Contaminated and/or deteriorated
hydraulic oil

5 Replace with recommended new
hydraulic oil

4.3 Hydraulic oil temperature is too high


1 Excessive time running the
machine at high loads

1 Stop the machine to cool it down
2 Adjust to the required pressure

2 Hydraulic system pressure is too
low

3 Fill oil to the required level
4 Repair or replace the pump

3 Hydraulic oil level is too low
4 Damaged oil pumps

5 Repair, clean, or replace the
hydraulic lines and/or filter screen

5 Blocked hydraulic lines and/or filter
screen

6 Adjust the engine fan belt to meet
the engineering requirement

6 Insufficient engine fan cooling

4.4 Failure in resetting


1 Deformation of the reset spring in
PPC valve
1  Replace


2 Dirt between the PPC valve clamp
rod and the fitting hole
2  Clean the parts


3 Deformation of the multi-way valve
reset spring
3  Replace


4 Oily dirt between multi-way valve
spools
4  Clean the parts

17
4.5 Unreliable positioning of the PPC valve

Cause Remedy

1 Insufficient power of the solenoid 1. Replace
2 Dirty contacting surface between
the solenoid and spring seat
3. Gap between the sway and the
2 
Clean the parts

press bar is not adjusted per the 3 Adjust according to the engineering
engineering requirement requirement

5.STEERING SYSTEM
5.1 Heavy Steering

5.1 -1
fast
 Normal steering when the steering is slow, heavy steering when the steering is

Insufficient oil supply from the pump


Repair and replace
Inflexible operation of the priority
Identify potential solutions and/or
valve spool
replace the priority valve
Adjust the control pressure
Priority valve control pressure is too
Turn the steering wheel until the tires
low
are at its maximum steering position,
Air present in the oil lines between
and then continue to turn the steering
the priority valve and hydraulic
wheel, forcing the safety valve open,
metering unit (HMU)
thereby discharging the air out of the
steering system.

5.1 –2 Foam in the oil, abnormal sound coming from the oil, the cylinders sometimes
move and stop while the steering wheel is being turned

Check oil level and refill oil to the


required level. Check whether there
Air in the system is air leakage in the suction oil and
resolve by discharging the air out of
the system.


5.1 - 3 Easy steering without load, heavy steering with load

Set the steering safety valve pressure Readjust the steering safety valve
lower than the operation pressure pressure setting
Steering safety valve is blocked Clear the dirt off
Viscosity Replace with the recommended oil


5.1 - 4 Heavy steering when the throttle is low
Normal steering when the throttle is high

Low pump volume efficiency


Replace the pump
Large clearance between the priority
Replace the priority valve
valve spool and block

18
5.2 No tactile operator feedback that the tires are at its maximum steering limit
Operation of the steering wheel is still light when the tires are at their maximum
limited steering position

Set the pressure of the bidirectional


cushion valve on the oil port of the Readjust the bidirectional cushion
hydraulic metering unit (HMU) to be valve starting pressure, which should
lower than that of the steering safety not be lower than 1.25 times the
valve. steering safety valve set pressure
Severe wear and excessive clearance
between the valve body, sleeve, and
spool, or between the stator and rotor

2 Replace the worn parts of the
hydraulic metering unit (HMU)
pair of the hydraulic metering unit
(HMU)

5.3 Steering failure

5.3 –1 Steering wheel cannot return to the neutral position, and the pressure drop
increases in the neutral position

Spring plates are broken Replace the broken spring plates

5.3 – 2 Steering wheel freely moves in the vertical direction, and cannot even rotate

Center pin or drive shaft is broken or


Replace center pin or drive shaft
deformed

6.Electric system
6.1 Generator does not generate electricity, or the voltage is low
Cause Remedy

1 Belt is slipping
2 Commutator contains oily dirt

1 Adjust the belt
2 Clean the oily dirt off using a clean cloth
or is worn moistened with gasoline or grind it using fine
3 Loose contact between electric abrasive paper

brush and commutator

4 Excitation coil is broken

3 Check and repair
4 Inspect the outer magnetic field and check
5 Residual magnetism the excitation loop with a light bulb
disappears
generator

5 Magnetically charge or replace with a new

6.2 Accumulator does not charge or the charging current is weak

Cause Remedy

1 Damaged voltage regulator
2 Loose wire contacts or a broken

1 Repair or replace the regulator
2 Check connecting wires between
circuit the generator and battery
6.3 Large spark between the generator brush and commutator
Cause Remedy
Severe commutator wear Clean commutator, clear the dirt out
from the filters

19
7. Air conditioning system
7.1 Cool air not emitted from the air conditioning vents

Drive belt is too loose or is broken Tighten belt or replace with a new
Fuse is blown, wire is disconnected, belt
cooling air switch is damaged, or Replace with new fuse, repair wire,
blower motor stops working switch, and/or blower motor.
Compressor does not rotate; belt is
slipping on the pulley. Disassemble the compressor, repair
Compressor does not work. When or replace it.
the engine speed varies, only slight Repair or replace with a valve plate.
changes are observed between low
and high-pressure readings.
Cooling system lines are broken, or Repair cooling system lines, inspect
refrigerant is leaking. , Low and high system for leakage, evacuate lines,
pressure readings are zero and fill with Freon.
Dryer of the receiver or expansion
valve is blocked. Disassemble, repair or replace

7.2 Insufficient cooling air volume

Insufficient volume of air in the vent Clean or replace the air filter screen,
duct, air leakage in the vent duct clear off obstructions in the vent
Blower motor does not function duct, reconnect the vent duct.
properly Repair or replace the blower motor.
Compressor electromagnetic clutch Repair or replace the
slips electromagnetic clutch.
Compressor efficiency decreases Repair or replace the compressor.
Air exists in the cooling system, Exhaust air, evacuate the lines, and
excessively high pressure shown in fill with Freon.
the high pressure gauge, misty /
murky substances seen in the sight
glass.
Insufficient refrigerant, bubbles can Add refrigerant until the bubbles
be seen in the sight glass, disappear.
excessively high pressure shown in
the high pressure gauge
Insufficient air circulation around the Clean the radiator and engine water
radiator, excessively high pressure tank, or add a condensation fan.
shown in the high pressure gauge

7.3 Cooling system working intermittingly

Controllers for idle running and Readjust or repair.


temperature are out of control.
Compressor electromagnetic clutch Disassemble the bracket or replace.
is slipping
Electromagnetic clutch coil is loose Disassemble to repair or replace the
or not grounded well. coil
Water in the cooling system causes
an intermittent blocking of the Replace the dryer of the receiver.
expansion valve
20
7.4 Increasing noise

Drive belt is loose or worn Tighten or replace the belt


Compressor is loose on its Tighten compressor mounting
mounting bracket screws
Blower motor is loose or worn
Slip of the electromagnetic clutch is Repair or replace the motor.
resulting in noise. Disassemble the clutch, repair or
Inner parts of the compressor are replace.
worn
Repair or replace the compressor.

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Note:

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