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KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (2014) 18(5):1364-1371 Highway Engineering

Copyright ⓒ2014 Korean Society of Civil Engineers

DOI 10.1007/s12205-014-0516-0 pISSN 1226-7988, eISSN 1976-3808

Effect of Aggregate Shape on the Surface Properties of Flexible Pavement

Burak Sengoz*, Amir Onsori**, and Ali Topal***
Received October 22, 2012/Accepted September 2, 2013/Published Online March 15, 2014



One of the most important properties of flexible pavements in terms of tire-pavement interface is surface texture. The texture of a
pavement surface and its ability to resist polishing effect of traffic is of prime importance in providing skidding resistance. Pavement
surface texture greatly contributes to tire-pavement skid resistance which has a direct effect on traffic operation and safety
particularly at high speeds. Doubtless, there exists a close relationship between pavement surface texture and aggregate angularity
within the wearing course. This paper is aimed to determine the effect of aggregate shape on the surface properties of Hot Mix
Asphalt (HMA). Two different mineralogical types of aggregate (basalt and limestone) have been crushed with impact, jaw and roll
type of crushers. Various types of aggregate with different shapes have been mixed with 50/70 penetration grade bitumen to form
dense graded mixtures. Test methods related with the evaluation of shape and texture characteristics have been utilized to
characterize the geometrical properties of aggregates. The texture and friction properties of asphalt slabs have been evaluated by
means of sand patch test, 3D laser scanner and dynamic friction tester respectively. The results indicated that a relationship exists
between the shape characteristics of aggregate and the surface properties of HMA.
Keywords: aggregate shape, mineralogy, crusher, friction, surface texture

1. Introduction surface from a true planar surface (PIARC, 1987). Macrotexture

is characterized by wavelengths between 0.5 to 50 mm and peak
Each year unacceptably large number of fatalities and to peak amplitudes usually between 0.1 to 20 mm. Microtexture
injuries resulting from accidents on highways make roadway is characterized by wavelengths shorter than 0.5 mm and with
safety one of the most important international issue. With peak to peak amplitudes usually between 0.001 and 0.5 mm
continuous growth in the amount of highway traffic and (PIARC, 1995; ISO, 2002). Texture wavelength is defined as the
capacity, traffic crashes increase annually over the whole minimum distance between periodically repeated parts of the
world. Along this increase, a great demand and focus on the curve in its direction along the surface plane (ISO, 2002). Both
need for safer roads and highways become prior in road microtexture and macrotexture influence the skid resistance of a
projects. In addition to security factors such as highway pavement.
geometry, operating speed driver dynamics, pavement surface It is widely recognized that pavement surface texture influences
properties are also critical factor in highway safety. A proper many different pavement-tire interactions. Fig. 1 illustrates the
design to provide adequate pavement surface properties and ranges of texture wavelengths affecting various vehicle-road
practically monitoring these properties has been high priority interactions, including friction, interior and exterior noise, splash
in recent projects worldwide. and spray, rolling resistance, and tire wear.
Many factors influence pavement surface properties such as: Pavement friction is the force that resists the relative motion
age of the surface course, seasonal variations and rainfall, traffic between a vehicle tire and a pavement surface. This resistive
intensity, road geometry and aggregate mineralogy and shape force is generated as the tire rolls or slides over the pavement
properties (Chelliah et al., 2003). surface (Rado, 2006). Pavement friction plays a vital role in
Among these categories, shape properties of aggregates gained keeping vehicles on the road, as it gives drivers the ability to
attention in the last decade. Investigation of a potential relationship control/maneuver their vehicles in a safe manner, in both
between pavement surface characteristics, such as friction and longitudinal and lateral directions.
texture, and shape characteristics of aggregate will help better The surface properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) are also
understand and mitigate the problem. affected substantially by the shape characteristics of aggregates.
Pavement texture is defined as the deviations of the pavement The successful quantification of aggregate geometric irregularities

*Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir, Turkey (Corresponding Author, E-mail: burak.sengoz@deu.edu.tr)
**MSc. Researcher, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir, Turkey (E-mail: a.onsori@gmail.com)
***Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir, Turkey (E-mail: ali.topal@deu.edu.tr)

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Effect of Aggregate Shape on the Surface Properties of Flexible Pavement

the Type 1 wearing course of Turkish specifications. Various

types of aggregate with different shapes have been mixed with
50/70 penetration grade bitumen to form a dense graded mixture.
The shape characteristics of the aggregate have been determined
by ASTM C1252, modified ASTM C1252, EN 933-6, ASTM
D4791 and BS 812. The primary indices used to characterize
texture are Mean Texture Depth (MTD) determined by sand
patch test and Mean Profile Depth (MPD) determined by 3D
laser scanner. The friction measurements have been performed
by means of dynamic friction tester. The hypothesis behind this
experimental design is that it is possible to improve the frictional
performance of the pavement surface by the selection of aggregate
shape characteristics and mineralogical types of aggregates.

Fig. 1. Texture Wavelength Influence on Pavement Tire Interac- 2. Experimental

2.1 Materials
The base bitumen with a 50/70 penetration grade was procured
is essential for understanding their effects on pavement surface from Aliaga/Izmir Oil Terminal of the Turkish Petroleum Refinery
properties and for selecting aggregates to produce pavements of Corporation. In order to characterize the properties of the base
adequate quality. Thus, the quantification of the shape is important bitumen, conventional test methods such as: penetration test,
as high-quality pavements are needed to meet increases in traffic softening point test, ductility were performed. These tests were
volume and load. A number of studies related skid resistance conducted in conformity with the relevant test methods that are
with surface texture. Masad et al. studied the influence of texture presented in Table 1.
on tire and pavement surface friction. Skid numbers were The aggregate samples were prepared by limestone and basalt
governed by six texture parameters. The three macrotexture type aggregate crushed with impact, jaw, and roll type crushers.
parameters and three microtexture parameters were expressed in The general properties of aggregates are presented in Table 2.
terms of texture size, spacing or distribution, and shape (Masad Grading of aggregate was chosen in conformity with the Type 1
et al., 2009). Do et al. (2007) defined three parameters for wearing course of Turkish Specifications. Table 3 presents the
characterizing a surface texture; size, interspace (or density) and aggregate gradation board.
shape. Ergun et al. (2005) developed a friction-coefficient prediction
model which is based on texture profiles measured by using an 2.2 Preparation of HMA Slabs
image capturing technique. Wu and King (2011) showed how The aggregate type for producing HMA slabs are divided into
differences on texture of pavement surfaces influence peak brake three main groups. Limestone and basalt aggregates (as coarse,
coefficients of a standard test tire. Gardiner et al. (2001) demonstrated fine and filler fraction) constitute the first two group whereas
how skid resistance tests taken from different pavement surfaces mix aggregate (basalt aggregate as coarse fraction and limestone
are different based on their texture. aggregate as fine fraction) constitute the third group. It should be
This research aims to characterize the surface properties of noted that both limestone and basalt aggregate was crushed with
HMA slabs by means of texture and friction measurements. Two different types of crushers. Table 4 presents the detailed description
different mineralogical types of aggregate (basalt and limestone) of the slabs produced.
were crushed with three different types of crushers (impact Related to the preparation of each slab, Marshall stability and
crusher, jaw crusher and roll crusher) and screened with ASTM flow tests were carried out at various bitumen contents based on
E11 sieves. Grading of aggregate was chosen in conformity with ASTM D1559. The bitumen content corresponding to 4% air

Table 1. Properties of Base Bitumen

Test Specification Results Specification limits
Penetration (250°C; 0.1 mm) ASTM D5 EN 1426 55 50-70
Softening point (°C) ASTM D36 EN 1427 49.1 46-54
Viscosity at (135°C)-Pa.s ASTM D4402 412.5 -
TFOT (163°C; 5h) ASTM D1754 EN 12607-1 137.5 -
Change of mass (%) 0.04 0.5 (max)
Retained penetration (%) ASTM D5 EN 1426 51 50
Specific gravity ASTM D70 1.030 -

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Burak Sengoz, Amir Onsori, and Ali Topal

Table 2. Properties of Aggregate Samples

Specific gravity
Specification Limestone Basalt Specification limits
(coarse aggregate)
Bulk 2.686 2.666
SSD ASTM C 127 2.701 2.810
Apparent 2.727 2.706
Specific gravity
(fine aggregate)
Bulk 2.687 2.652
SSD ASTM C 128 2.703 2.770
Apparent 2.732 2.688
Specific gravity (filler) 2.725 2.731 -
Los Angeles abrasion (%) ASTM C 131 22.600 14.200 Max 30
Sodium sulphate soundness (%) ASTM C 88 1.470 2.600 Max 10-20

Table 3. Aggregate Gradation Board of the fine aggregates (ASTM, 1998). This method estimates the
Gradation (%) Specification angularity, sphericity and surface texture of the aggregate having
Sieve Size/No. Specification
and results limits a given grading. There are three methods for running this test:
3/4'' 100 100 Methods A, B and C. The mass of the sample for all methods is
1/2'' 92 83-100 fixed at 190 g. Method A specifies a standard gradation ranging
3/8'' 80.5 70-90 from No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve to No. 100 (0.15 mm). Method B
No. 4 47.3 40-55 specifies that the test be run on the three individual size fractions;
ASTM C 136
No. 10 33.0 25-38 No. 8-16 (2.36-1.18 mm), No. 16-30 (1.18-0.6 mm) and No. 30-
No. 40 13.5 10-20 50# (0.6-0.3 mm). Method C specifies that the test is run on the
No. 80 9.0 6-15 as received gradation. Since the aggregate samples were
No. 200 5.3 4-10 produced by mean of laboratory type crusher, method C is not
included in the scope of the study. Modified ASTM C1252
Table 4. Optimum Bitumen Content for Each of Specimens “Uncompacted Void Content of coarse Aggregate” (AASHTO
Slab Aggregate Crusher Optimum TP 56) was also used to determine the angularity, sphericity and
identification type type bitumen content
surface texture of the coarse aggregate. The mass needed to
LIP Limestone Impact 4.65
perform the test is 5000 g. Method A specifies a standard
LJP Limestone Jaw 4.60
gradation ranging from 19 mm sieve to 4.75 mm. Method B
LRP Limestone Roll 4.60
specifies that the test be run on the three individual size fractions;
BIP Basalt Impact 4.70
BJP Basalt Jaw 4.75
3/4''-1/2'' (19 mm-12.5 mm), 1/2''-3/8'' (12.5 mm-9.5 mm) and 3/
MIP Mix Impact 4.70
8''-No4 (9.5 mm-4.75 mm).
MJP Mix Jaw 4.65 The EN 933-6 ‘‘Geometrical properties of aggregates assessments
MRP Mix Roll 4.70 of surface characteristics, flow coefficient of aggregates’’ test
method was used to determine the flow coefficient of aggregates
(European standard tests, 2001). The test performed using
void in total mixture were taken as optimum bitumen content. Table 4 No.200-No.10 (0.08-2 mm) and No.200-No.5 (0.08-4 mm) sized
illustrates the optimum bitumen content related to each slab. sand samples.
Following the determination of optimum bitumen content, In addition to the above tests, the flat and elongated particles
approximately 50 mm thick asphalt slabs were produced (650 × 650) (ASTM D4791) and flakiness index of coarse aggregate (BS
using a kneading slab laboratory compactor. 812) characteristics were also determined on the aggregate
2.3 Test Methods
2.3.2 Test Methods Related to Surface Texture and Fric-
2.3.1 Test Methods Related to Aggregate Shape Charac- tion of HMA
teristics There are many methods developed to measure texture and
ASTM C1252, modified ASTM C1252, EN 933-6, ASTM friction properties of a pavement so far. Methods and the
D4791 and BS 812 were performed to evaluate the shape associated tests used in this study are mostly based on ASTM
characteristics of the limestone and basalt types of aggregates. standards. These methods are accordingly, the Sand patch test
The ASTM C1252 ‘‘Uncompacted void content of fine method (ASTM, 1998) to measure Mean Texture Depth (MTD),
aggregate’’ was used to determine the uncompacted unit weights a recent and more reliable Laser Scanner (ASTM E 1845-01,

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Effect of Aggregate Shape on the Surface Properties of Flexible Pavement

2003) to obtain Mean Profile Depth (MPD) (ASTM, 2003), This device provides a better tradeoff between resolution and
Dynamic Friction Tester (ASTM E 1911-98, 1999) used to efficiency in texture data collection.
measure the friction coefficient of a surface at a regular speed (0 As shown in Fig. 2, the device measures texture by means of
-80 Km/h) (ASTM, 1999). laser light. Laser intensity output is controlled by the processing
unit to maintain a constant level of light on the detector. The Sand Patch Test Method possible angle of incidence will depend on the measured material
The test procedure used for the study follows the procedures and on the surface geometry. The sensor consists of a light
included in ASTM E965. It uses a volumetric approach of source and a detector integrated with optics and electronics. It is
measuring pavement macrotexture defined as mean texture insensitive to ambient light. When the light source projects a
depth. The principle is fairly obvious that the greater the texture, beam to hit a pavement surface, a scattered reflection will occur.
the more the sand will be taken up by it and the smaller the circle This light spot on the surface is viewed by a camera mounted
that can be achieved from the standard quantity of sand. In this inside the sensor. Depending on the distance between the laser
study a known volume of glass spheres (24.6 mL) was spread head and the measured spot, the image of the light spot will be
evenly over the pavement surface to form a circle, thus lling the reflected to focus on a certain position on the detector. As the
surface voids with glass beads. The diameter of the circle was resolution depends on the range to the object, in the field studies
measured on four axes and the value averaged. This value was the scanners enhanced sensor was established to provide an
used to calculate the Mean Texture Depth (MTD) in mm (Eq. 1). optimum resolution of 15 µm in the lateral direction and an
optimum resolution of 10 µm in the vertical direction. For the 3D
MTD = ---------------------
- (1) laser scanner utilized, the accuracy is expressed in terms of
Π.D avg standard deviation of the ten measurements made on the same
Where; test surface. The standard deviation related to the calibration
Davg = Average diameter of sand patch in, mm surface was found as 0.04 mm.
V = Exact volume of glass spheres, mL The Model Maker D is capable of sampling 1000 texture
elevation points across a 100 mm wide laser line at 150 Hz as it 3D Laser Scanning scans the road surface at about 0.1 m/sec. More importantly, the
In this study, the Model Maker 3D laser scanner (class 2M) result is a 3D texture profile along a 100 mm wide swath of
including enhanced sensors was utilized to inspect full range of pavement surface. The laser scanner adapts its laser power to suit
colors and depths on the selected asphalt pavement surfaces. The the surface characteristics of pavement through enhanced scanning
laser equipment was mounted on a portable vehicle attached to a performance. During scanning process, laser device automatically
computer as presented in Fig. 2. The Model Maker D with true digital tracks changes based on the surface conditions (both color and
camera technology includes several groundbreaking innovations reflectivity of the bitumen as well as some minerals) parallel to
such as second generation Enhanced Sensor Performance (ESP2). the direction of the moving traffic and adapts laser power and

Fig. 2. 3D LASER Scanning Test Device Fig. 3. Scanning Process

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Burak Sengoz, Amir Onsori, and Ali Topal

Fig. 4. The profile and a Cross Section Example of an Asphalt Pavement Surface

Fig. 5. Standard Method used for Calculating MPD

sensor settings. Fig. 3 depicts the scanning process by the 3D laser Fig. 6. Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)
The surfaces scanned with the Model Maker D were also
captured by 12.1 Mp CCD camera as illustrated in Fig. 4. The spinning disk fitted with three spring-mounted rubber sliders.
Model Maker D laser scanner are also supplied with a data During testing, the disk is lowered so that the three sliders are in
acquisition software (Kube®) which is integrated and specifically contact with the test surface under a constant force perpendicular
designed for capturing and processing the laser stripe data. to the test surface. The disk is driven by a motor and rotates at a
Following the acquisition procedure of the set of surface (Fig. tangential speed varying from 0 to 80 km/h which is determined
4a) and cross-section (Fig. 4b) of pavement samples with Kube® from the rotary speed of the disk. Water is delivered to the test
software, it is necessary to characterize them with appropriate surface by a water supply unit. The horizontal force required to
indicators such as mean profile depth (MPD). overcome the friction is measured by a transducer. The test result
Based on descriptions given in ASTM E 1845 standard, before is reported as the coefficient of friction and is plotted against the
computing the MPD, the surface profile was filtered by applying speed. DFT measurement corresponding to 20 km/h is taken as
a low pass filter in order to remove wavelengths 2.5 mm followed the friction value (PIARC, 1995).
by suppressing the profile slope by subtracting a regression line
from the profile. The MPD was computed from a sample 3. Results and Discussion
baseline divided into two equal half as presented in Fig. 5. The
peak level in each half was determined and the average of the 3.1 Aggregate Characteristics
two peaks was termed as MPD. Figure 7 and Fig. 8 present the uncompacted void (U)
content (%) related to fine aggregate and coarse aggregate Dynamic Friction Tester respectively. In figures the first letter L and B are the
The Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT), as shown in Fig. 6, is a abbreviations of limestone and basalt aggregates respectively.
portable device for measuring surface friction. The test procedures The second letter presents the type of crusher. As seen in Fig.
are covered in ASTM E-1911. The fundamental principle is the 7, method B yields higher U content (which is an indicator of
Coulomb’s friction law. This device consists of a horizontal higher angularity and aggregate surface texture) compared to

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Effect of Aggregate Shape on the Surface Properties of Flexible Pavement

Fig. 7. Uncompacted Void Contents for Fine Aggregate (ASTM Fig. 10. Flat and Elongated Particle Results (ASTM D4791)

Fig. 11. Flakiness Index Values

Fig. 8. Uncompacted Void Contents for Coarse Aggregate (Modi-

fied ASTM C1252) yield highest flow rates. Unlike the results obtained from ASTM
C1252, aggregates crushed with jaw crushers yield lowest flow
rate. Flow rates for the samples crushed with roll crushers (R) are
higher than the flow rates related to the samples crushed with jaw
crusher (J). This is because the roll crushers produce more flat
and elongated particles than the other type of crushers. Irregular
aggregate particles lead blockages passing through the orifice of
the funnel and also the more irregular particles the more air space
under them. Similar conclusions can also be made based on Fig.
10 and 11.
As seen in Fig. 10 and 11 aggregates crushed with Roll crushers
Fig. 9. Flow Rates of Fine Aggregate Aamples by EN 933-6
have the highest flat and elongated particle values. Higher flat
and elongated particle value is not desirable since the aggregate
method A. Since method B specifies the test be run on the can be easily broken down during mixing with bitumen and in
individual size fractions, the internal friction between the aggregate compaction process.
particles is higher. As depicted in Fig. 7; basalt type aggregate has
higher U content compared to limestone aggregate for all type of 3.2. Surface Characteristics
crushers. This is due to the mineralogical properties of the basalt The calculated MTD values, MPD values analyzed with
aggregate (Topal, 2008). Besides, based on the same mineralogical MATLAB program, and DFT20 values obtained from DFT
type of aggregate, among the crushers utilized the sample crushed performed on asphalt slabs involving only limestone, basalt
with impact crusher yields the highest U content; whereas the aggregate as well as combination of basalt and limestone aggregate
sample crushed with roll crusher yields the lowest U content. Also, (mix type) can be seen in Fig. 12 and 13.
LR sample failed to satisfy the minimum requirement of U content.
Also similar conclusions can be made for Fig. 8.
The flow coefficients of fine aggregates passing both No.5-200
and No.10-200 are given in Fig. 9.
As seen in Fig. 9 the flow coefficients related to No.10-200
yield higher values (which are an indicator of higher angularity)
compared to No.5-200 which demonstrates the effect of gradation
on the flow coefficients of the samples. As expected regardless
of the crusher type, basalt aggregates depicts higher flow rate
than limestone aggregates.
As presented in Fig. 9, for all type of aggregate, impact crushers Fig. 12 MPD and MTD Values

Vol. 18, No. 5 / July 2014 − 1369 −

Burak Sengoz, Amir Onsori, and Ali Topal

types of crushers. As a consequence, it is possible to con-

sider that, the sharp and angular particles produce deep tex-
ture and profile values as compared to more rounded
5. Dynamic friction tester is used to estimate the frictional
properties of flexible pavements. The sample exhibiting
higher texture and profile depth values also demonstrates
higher DFT20 values. Regardless of the crusher type, basalt
type aggregates display higher friction values compared to
Fig. 13. Measured Friction Coefficients at 20 km/h
limestone aggregates. Based on the findings from DFT it can
also be concluded that the aggregates crushed with impact
As presented in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13, regardless of the crusher crusher yield the higher friction values.
type, the asphalt slab involving only basalt aggregate demonstrates
the highest surface texture (MTD and MPD) and friction values. References
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