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# Design of BFV raft

## Reference : IS 14448 : 1997, Code of Practice for Reinforcement of Rock Slopes

with Plane Wedge Failure.
1.Design Data :
Maximum water level = + 232.00 m
Top level of Raft = + 216.70 m
Grade of concrete fck = 20 N/mm2
Grade of steel fy = 415 N/mm2
Unit weight of water = 10 kN/m3
Unit weight of concrete = 25 kN/m3
Bond Strength ζbd = 1.28 N/mm2
Permissible comp. bending stress (бcbc) = 7 N/mm2

2.Design Constants :
m = 280/(3*σcbc) = 13.33
k = 1/(1+(бst/mбcbc)) = 0.23
j = 1 - k/3 = 0.92
Q = 0.5 * j * k * бcbc = 0.732

3. Design :
Thickness of Raft = 2 m
Depth of Rock Anchors = 2.5 m
Note : Considered as Rock Anchors also acts monolithic with raft for uplift.
Total 4.5 m

## Total Downward force = 2.5 x 1.5

= 3.75 t/m2
Assumed Spacing of Anchor Rods = 1.5 m c/c
Panel size 1.5 m x1.5 m
Load on Anchor ( P ) = 3.75 * 1.5 * 1.5
= 8.44 t

## ii. Calculation of diameter, As per Failure of Anchor rod criteria :

As per IS 14448:1997(6.4.3), The diameter of Anchor rod shall be obtained
from the following expression.

As *σy
P =
F
Where
P = Pull force, in N
As = Area of steel bar, in mm2
σy = Yield stress of steel used for anchor,in mm2 as per IS:456
F = Factor of safety which will be taken as 1.3
As = (1.3 * 8.438*10^3) / 415
= 26.431 mm2
Required Diameter of the anchor rod = SQRT((4*26.431)/3.142)
= 5.801 mm
Provide 25 mm dia. Anchor Rods.

iii. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the grout /Anchor rod Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.2.3) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P
L= ∏*ds*ζa
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
ds = dia. Of anchor bar, in mm
P = Pull out force due to uplift, in N
ζa = Permissible bond stress, in N/mm2
ζa = fck/10 < 2.5 N/mm2( for deformed bars) i.e 2.0 N/mm2

## Length of Anchor Rod ( L ) = (8.438*10^3) / (3.142 * 25 * 2)

= 53.708 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia. of deformed anchor bars.
= 60 * 25
= 1500 mm
Also, As per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall not
be less than 2m.
Provide 25 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 2.50 m into Rock

iv. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the Rock / Grout Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.1) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P*F
L=
∏*D*ζ
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
F = Factor of safety is 3
D = Dia meter of bore hole (ds+30mm) in mm.
P = Pull out force due to water, in N
ζ = Bond stress at failure, in N/mm2
1.225 N/mm2 for very good rock condition.

L = (8.438*3*10^3)/(3.142*25*1.225)
= 263.0588 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia of deformed bars.
= 60 * 25
= 1500 mm
Provide Maximum of above 2 conditions.
Provided Length = 2.50 m
Also, as per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall
not be less than 2m.
Provide 25 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 2.50 m into Rock

## v. Length of embedment into concrete :

Embedment length ( Ld ) = Φ * σst
4 * ζbd
Actual Stress in Anchors (σst) = P/As
σst = (8.438*10^3)/(0.7854*25^2)
= 17.2 N/mm2
Φ = 25.00 mm
ζbd = 1.28 N/mm2
Ld = (25*17.189)/(4*1.28)
= 83.92936 mm
Anchor Rods are Extend to 1.80 m into Concrete.

Hence Provide 25.0 dia. Anchor Rods 1.50 m c/c and Embeded
3.25 m into Rock and 1.8 m into concrete with M-20 Grout.
2. Above EL + 342.20 :
i . Calculation of Loads :
Water Head = 350.4 - 339.2
= 11.20 m

= 67.00 kN/m2

## Assumed Spacing of Anchor Rods = 1.5 m c/c

Panel size 1.5 m x1.5 m
Load on Anchor ( P ) = 67 * 1.5 * 1.5
= 150.75 kN

## ii. Calculation of diameter, As per Failure of Anchor rod criteria :

As per IS 14448:1997(6.4.3), The diameter of Anchor rod shall be obtained
from the following expression.

As *σy
P =
F
Where
P = Pull force, in N
As = Area of steel bar, in mm2
σy = Yield stress of steel used for anchor,in mm2 as per IS:456
F = Factor of safety which will be taken as 1.3
As = (1.3 * 150.75*10^3) / 415
= 472.229 mm2
Required Diameter of the anchor rod = SQRT((4*472.229)/3.142)
= 24.519 mm
Provide 25 mm dia. Anchor Rods.

iii. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the grout /Anchor rod Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.2.3) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P
L= ∏*ds*ζa
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
ds = dia. Of anchor bar, in mm
P = Pull out force due to uplift, in N
ζa = Permissible bond stress, in N/mm2
ζa = fck/10 < 2.5 N/mm2( for deformed bars) i.e 2.0 N/mm2

## Length of Anchor Rod ( L ) = (150.75*10^3) / (3.142 * 25 * 2)

= 959.580 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia. of deformed anchor bars.
= 60 * 25
= 1500 mm
Also, As per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall not
be less than 2m.
Provide 25 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 2.00 m into Rock
iv. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the Rock / Grout Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.1) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P*F
L=
∏*D*ζ
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
F = Factor of safety is 3
D = Dia meter of bore hole (ds+30mm) in mm.
P = Pull out force due to water, in N
ζ = Bond stress at failure, in N/mm2
1.225 N/mm2 for very good rock condition.

L = (150.75*3*10^3)/(3.142*25*1.225)
= 4699.983 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia of deformed bars.
= 60 * 25
= 1500 mm
Provide Maximum of above 2 conditions.
Provided Length = 4.80 m
Also, as per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall
not be less than 2m.
Provide 25 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 4.80 m into Rock

## v. Length of embedment into concrete :

Embedment length ( Ld ) = Φ * σst
4 * ζbd
Actual Stress in Anchors (σst) = P/As
σst = (150.75*10^3)/(0.7854*25^2)
= 307.1 N/mm2
Φ = 25.00 mm
ζbd = 1.28 N/mm2
Ld = (25*307.106)/(4*1.28)
= 1499.538 mm
Anchor Rods are Extend to 1.50 m into Concrete.

Hence Provide 25.0 dia. Anchor Rods 1.50 m c/c and Embeded
4.8 m into Rock and 1.5 m into concrete with M-20 Grout.
3. Above EL + 345.20 :
i . Calculation of Loads :
Water Head = 350.4 - 339.2
= 11.20 m

= 37.00 kN/m2

## Assumed Spacing of Anchor Rods = 1.5 m c/c

Panel size 1.5 m x1.5 m
Load on Anchor ( P ) = 37 * 1.5 * 1.5
= 83.25 kN

## ii. Calculation of diameter, As per Failure of Anchor rod criteria :

As per IS 14448:1997(6.4.3), The diameter of Anchor rod shall be obtained
from the following expression.

As *σy
P =
F
Where
P = Pull force, in N
As = Area of steel bar, in mm2
σy = Yield stress of steel used for anchor,in mm2 as per IS:456
F = Factor of safety which will be taken as 1.3
As = (1.3 * 83.25*10^3) / 415
= 260.783 mm2
Required Diameter of the anchor rod = SQRT((4*260.784)/3.142)
= 18.221 mm
Provide 20 mm dia. Anchor Rods.

iii. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the grout /Anchor rod Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.2.3) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P
L= ∏*ds*ζa
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
ds = dia. Of anchor bar, in mm
P = Pull out force due to uplift, in N
ζa = Permissible bond stress, in N/mm2
ζa = fck/10 < 2.5 N/mm2( for deformed bars) i.e 2.0 N/mm2

## Length of Anchor Rod ( L ) = (83.25*10^3) / (3.142 * 20 * 2)

= 662.397 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia. of deformed anchor bars.
= 60 * 20
= 1200 mm
Also, As per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall not
be less than 2m.
Provide 20 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 2.00 m into Rock
iv. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the Rock / Grout Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.1) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P*F
L=
∏*D*ζ
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
F = Factor of safety is 3
D = Dia meter of bore hole (ds+30mm) in mm.
P = Pull out force due to water, in N
ζ = Bond stress at failure, in N/mm2
1.225 N/mm2 for very good rock condition.

L = (83.25*3*10^3)/(3.142*20*1.225)
= 3244.391 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia of deformed bars.
= 60 * 20
= 1200 mm
Provide Maximum of above 2 conditions.
Provided Length = 3.50 m
Also, as per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall
not be less than 2m.
Provide 20 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 3.50 m into Rock

## v. Length of embedment into concrete :

Embedment length ( Ld ) = Φ * σst
4 * ζbd
Actual Stress in Anchors (σst) = P/As
σst = (83.25*10^3)/(0.7854*20^2)
= 265.0 N/mm2
Φ = 20.00 mm
ζbd = 1.28 N/mm2
Ld = (20*264.993)/(4*1.28)
= 1035.129 mm
Anchor Rods are Extend to 1.00 m into Concrete.

Hence Provide 20.0 dia. Anchor Rods 1.50 m c/c and Embeded
3.5 m into Rock and 1.0 m into concrete with M-20 Grout.
4. Above EL + 348.20 :
i . Calculation of Loads :
Water Head = 350.4 - 339.2
= 11.20 m

## Assumed Spacing of Anchor Rods = 1.5 m c/c

Panel size 1.5 m x1.5 m
Load on Anchor ( P ) = 22 * 1.5 * 1.5
= 49.50 kN

## ii. Calculation of diameter, As per Failure of Anchor rod criteria :

As per IS 14448:1997(6.4.3), The diameter of Anchor rod shall be obtained
from the following expression.

As *σy
P =
F
Where
P = Pull force, in N
As = Area of steel bar, in mm2
σy = Yield stress of steel used for anchor,in mm2 as per IS:456
F = Factor of safety which will be taken as 1.3
As = (1.3 * 49.5*10^3) / 415
= 155.060 mm2
Required Diameter of the anchor rod = SQRT((4*155.061)/3.142)
= 14.050 mm
Provide 20 mm dia. Anchor Rods.

iii. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the grout /Anchor rod Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.2.3) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P
L= ∏*ds*ζa
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
ds = dia. Of anchor bar, in mm
P = Pull out force due to uplift, in N
ζa = Permissible bond stress, in N/mm2
ζa = fck/10 < 2.5 N/mm2( for deformed bars) i.e 2.0 N/mm2

## Length of Anchor Rod ( L ) = (49.5*10^3) / (3.142 * 20 * 2)

= 393.857 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia. of deformed anchor bars.
= 60 * 20
= 1200 mm
Also, As per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall not
be less than 2m.
Provide 20 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 2.00 m into Rock
iv. Length of Anchor rod as per Failure of the Rock / Grout Bond :
As per IS 14448:1997 Cl:(6.4.1) Anchorage length shall be obtained from
the following expression

P*F
L=
∏*D*ζ
Where
L = Fixed anchor length, in mm
F = Factor of safety is 3
D = Dia meter of bore hole (ds+30mm) in mm.
P = Pull out force due to water, in N
ζ = Bond stress at failure, in N/mm2
1.225 N/mm2 for very good rock condition.

L = (49.5*3*10^3)/(3.142*20*1.225)
= 1929.098 mm
Fixed Anchor length shall not be less than 60 times dia of deformed bars.
= 60 * 20
= 1200 mm
Provide Maximum of above 2 conditions.
Provided Length = 2.00 m
Also, as per cl. 6.4.2.3 for very good rock the fixed anchorage length shall
not be less than 2m.
Provide 20 m m dia. Anchor Rods Extended 2.00 m into Rock

## v. Length of embedment into concrete :

Embedment length ( Ld ) = Φ * σst
4 * ζbd
Actual Stress in Anchors (σst) = P/As
σst = (49.5*10^3)/(0.7854*20^2)
= 157.6 N/mm2
Φ = 20.00 mm
ζbd = 1.28 N/mm2
Ld = (20*157.564)/(4*1.28)
= 615.482 mm
Anchor Rods are Extend to 1.00 m into Concrete.

Hence Provide 20.0 dia. Anchor Rods 1.50 m c/c and Embeded
2.0 m into Rock and 1.0 m into concrete with M-20 Grout.
Stress parameters for Numerical Analysis
Section Overburden(m) Vertical stress(Mpa) In-Plane Hor stress(Mpa) Out of Plane Hor stress(Mpa)
1 4.25 0.17
(3.5+5) x 0.5
2 7.25 Varied
(6.5+8) x 0.5 0.74
3 Varied Varied
5 14 0.17
4 Varied Varied
5 8 0.17

Analysis type:

Tolerance:

## Maximum number of iterations:

Convergence type:
Mesh Type

Element type

## Number of excavation nodes

Boundary conditions

Stresses Gravity

## Parameters: Symbol: Values: Source:

Input
Boundary conditions:
- Surface of the model free to move in all directions
- The left and right boundaries are allowed to move in the vertical direction, but not in the horizontal
This allows deformation and prevents stress concentration.
- Additionally bottom line locked vertically, but the lower corners were free to move horizontally.

## Meshing & Discretisation:

- After defining all boundaries, the finite element mesh can be created.
- Finite element mesh generator generates either triangular or quadrilateral finite elements.
This allows deformation and prevents stress concentration.
- A six noded triangular element mesh was adopted.

External Boundary:
- The finite element mesh stretches to the ground surface and extends in lateral directions more than
five times the cavern span.

Excavation Boundary:
- The Pump House cavern has a span of 26 m and a height to the top of the domed arch of 25 m.
- The transformer cavern has a span of 26 m and a height to the top of the domed arch of 25 m.
- The Surge Shaft cavern has a span of 26 m and a height to the top of the domed arch of 25 m.

## In-situ Rock Stress:

- The stress conditions existent in the rock mass before an excavation is referred to as the in-situ
stresses.
• Gravitation stresses: These are the result of gravity alone.
• Tectonic stresses: These are mainly caused by plate tectonics.

• Topographic stresses: They occur when the surface is not horizontal, and the topography will
have a considerable influence on rock stress situation.

• Residual stresses: are stresses locked into the rock material from earlier
stages of its geologic history.

Gravitational stresses: The gravitational stress is divided into a vertical and horizontal
component.

Principal stresses:
- Due to the topographical effect, the principal in situ stresses deviate very much from the vertical
and horizontal directions in the pump house cavern area compared to surge shaft and transformer
cavern area even before excavation.

## Principal Stress Cone:

- The location and thickness of the natural roof arch can be determined by the concept of invert
principal stress cone developed in the numerical modelling.
- The arch profile is so selected to reduce the destressed zone above cavern crown.
- Passive support such as fully grouted rock bolts are selected since active support generates vertical
forces which destroy the natural arch resulting in opening or sliding of roof wedges.
- The stress trajectories are displayed in Fig.10(b), and show that there is no confining stress along
the walls of the cavern.
- This causes high concentration of compressive tangential stresses in the high walls.
Deviatoric Stress:
- The difference in the major and minor principal stress directly relates to the maximum shear stress.
- Deviatoric stresses are obtained by subtracting mean (or hydrostatic) stress from each principal
stress (σ1-σm).
- It controls the degree of distortion, allowing for a material to deform in one direction more than
the others (i.e in the direction of smaller stress.). In effect, this allows fracturing, rupture and
shearing of the rock to occur.
- The difference in the major and minor principal stress referred as deviatoric stress should be less
than UCS of rock mass.

Strength Factor: -

A strength factor less than one means the material will fail, and plastic analysis is necessary.

Strength Factor:
- It is defined as the ratio of strength of rock mass to the induced stress at a particular point in the
rock mass.
- If the Strength Factor is greater than 1, this indicates that the material strength is greater than the
induced stress.
- A strength factor less than one means the material will fail, and plastic analysis is necessary.

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ysis
Out of Plane Hor stress(Mpa)
0.17

Varied
4.17
Varied
4.17
Varied
5.31

## Details of Applied Support in Surge shaft

Support Type Location Description
Rock bolt
Crown Fully bonded,25 mm dia,length 4 m @ 1.2 m spacin
Walls Fully bonded,25 mm dia,length 4 m @ 2 m spacin
Invert Fully bonded,25 mm dia,length 4 m @ 2 m spacin
Shotcrete
Crown 30 cm thick shotcrete
Walls 31 cm thick shotcrete
Invert 32 cm thick shotcrete

0.001

## ber of iterations: 500

Absolute energy

6 noded triangular

## avation nodes 800

Bottom:restrain y
Left:restrain x
Right:restrain x
Top (surface):free
Lower corners:restrain x,y
Unit weight :0.027
Total stress ratio in plan (σH/σv) : 1
Total stress ratio out of plane(σh/σv):1
Locked-in-horizontal stress:0

Source:
ction, but not in the horizontal

## the domed arch of 25 m.

he domed arch of 25 m.
he domed arch of 25 m.

## In-situ Rock Stress:

s referred to as the in-situ

The initial stress conditions in a rock mass are a result of the following comp
rizontal, and the topography will
stress situation.

## ery much from the vertical

surge shaft and transformer

## by the concept of invert

vern crown.
ive support generates vertical
ding of roof wedges.
is no confining stress along

## the high walls. Deviatoric Stress:-

to the maximum shear stress.
stress from each principal

## in one direction more than

allows fracturing, rupture and

## iatoric stress should be less

analysis is necessary.

## al strength is greater than the

c analysis is necessary.

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s-pir-panjal-mountain-range-the-longest-transportation-tunnel-in-india
urge shaft
Description

## dia,length 4 m @ 1.2 m spacing

dia,length 4 m @ 2 m spacing
dia,length 4 m @ 2 m spacing

thick shotcrete
thick shotcrete
thick shotcrete
result of the following components
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