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Department of Precision Machinery Engineering

The University of Tokyo

7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan

{ kanai,suzuki,kimura} @cim.pe.u-tokyo.ac.jp

the user. This method has also been presented for alter-

Recently, animations with deforming objects are fre- ing the topology of the surface mesh during transformation.

quently used in various Computer Graphics applications. However, the intermediate shape is represented as a volume,

Me famorphosis (or morphing) of three dimensional objects extraction to isosurface by such as Marching Cube method

is one of techniques which realize a shape transformation [ I l l is required for getting polygonal surfaces. Then, the

between existing two or more objects. We present a new extracted objects don’t have smooth surfaces.

algorithm for 3 0 geometric metamorphosis between two Kent et al. [8] offer an algorithm for the metamorphosis

objects based on Harmonic Map. Our algorithm is appli- of polyhedral objects topologically equivalent to a sphere.

cablefor arbitrary polyhedra that are homeomorphic to the First, two objects are mapped into a sphere, and are merged

three dimensional sphere or the two dimensional disk. In by clipping one sphere to another. Then a new shape which

our algorithm, each of two 3 0 objects is first embedded to has connectivity information (vertices, edges, and faces) of

the circular disk on the plane. This embedded model has two objects is created. However this method is applicable

the same graph structure as its 3 0 objects. By overlapping only for star-shaped, swept or revolutionary objects.

those two embedded models, we can establish correspon- Parent [ 131 presents a recursive algorithm which auto-

dence between the two objects. Using this correspondence, matically finds correspondences of surfaces between two

inkmediate objects between two objects are easily gener- objects of equivalent topology. This algorithm uses several

ated The user only specijies a boundary loop on an object sheets for covering the whole shape of the object. Those

and a vertex on that boundary, and which control the inter- two objects must have the equal number of sheets. The

polation. boundary of sheets is composed of edges of the object. Ob-

jects of genus G are automatically subdivided into 2(G 1) +

sheets. Each sheet is recursively subdivided up to a face

1. Introduction level. Vertex-to-vertex interpolations and thus deformations

between two objects are completely established.

Image metamorphosis, or image morphing, is a popular Delingette et al. [4] use a simplex mesh, and propose

technique for creating a smooth transition between two im- basic mesh operations to alter the shape topology. The in-

ages by interpolating both color information and geometric terpolation was performed using a physically-based defor-

shapes approximately [ l , 15, 91. These techniques have a mation approach, using a method derived from a data fitting

number of advantages, but only in the case that underlying process.

both objects in images don’t move, or eye positions are not Decarlo et al. [3] describe another framework for the

changed when two metamorphosis images are created by metamorphosis between two objects which have different

rendering. topologies, for example, from a sphere to a torus. The user

Therefore, 3D metamorphosis (morphing), direct geo- controls the transformation by specifying a sparse control

metric interpolation of two 3D objects, has become one of mesh on each surface and by associating each face in one

active research themes in recent years. control mesh with that in the other. In this method, the

Lerios et al. [ 101 extended Beier’s feature-based image user has to create control meshes by considering how to

metamorphosis method [ 11 to volume representation. Two transform from one object to another. Therefore, the more

objects are translated into volumes, and each corresponding complicated shape is, the harder users breate control meshes.

pair of volume values for volumes is interpolated accord- In this paper, a new 3D metamorphosis algorithm based

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on Harmonic Map is presented. The main contributions of

our algorithm are as follows:

3D objects

0 Metamorphosis between two arbitrary objects, which Mi

have the same topology as a sphere or a disk, is avail-

able. 1 Harmonic Map

1

0 User only has to specify a boundary in each object.

0 Numerically stable and fast computation qf correspon-

dence are presented. Embeddings

tion 2 describes an overview of our method for 3D meta-

morphosis based on Harmonic Map. In this section we I U1 I U2

I

overviews the algorithm, and explains mathematical back-

ground of harmonic map as an internal structure. Section

3 shows how to realize 3D metamorphosis. In this section

we presents an algorithm for creating a new embeddings by

merging two 2D embeddings generated from 3D objects,

and shows a method for interpolation between two objects.

Section 4 describes graphical user interface for an efficient

implementation of our method, and discusses our results.

We conclude with suggestions for future work and applica-

tions in Section 5. InterpolationfromMl to M Z

Figure 1. A overview of our method for estab-

2.1. Overview lishing 3D geometric metamorphosis.

are topologically equivalent to a sphere, or to a disk. These

objects are represented as a triangular mesh, or a polyhedron given two objects M I and M z , 2D objects, respectively

with triangular faces. We also assume that these two objects 3-11 and 3-12, are created by mapping into a unit disk using

have the same topology. Hereafter we call them the source Harmonic Map.

object M 1 and the target object M2. Next, these two embeddings are merged and a new object

An approach to transforming from M 1 to M z is usually 3-1, is created which has connectivity inherited from both

divided the problem into two steps. The first step is to es- two objects and defines one-to-one correspondence between

tablish a correspondence from each point of M 1 to a point each position of M 1 to that of M2. Since 3-1, has not only

of M 2. Once this correspondence is established, in the next the connectivity of 3-11(M1),but also that of X2(M2). The

step a series of intermediate objects are created by interpo- correspondence between 3-11 and 3 c 2 (and thus between M 1

lating corresponding points from their original position to and M2 ) is established.

the target. These steps are called correspondence problem In the same way as most of previously addressed works,

and interpolation problem respectively. The algorithm we our method for solving the correspondence problem will

suggest is referred to mainly the former issue. be based on surgery ofconnectivity. That is, to create a

Our algorithm for finding correspondence begins to de- new object which has a blended connectivity of both two

velop M I and M 2 to a two dimensional unit disk D2 and objects (or those projects) , it is nessessary to subdivide

create embeddings by Harmonic Map. These 2D embed- those original faces, and to create new verticesledgeslfaces,

dings, called 3-11 and 3-12, have the same connectivity'as then mesh connectivities are changed. In our notation, a

MI and M2 respectively, i.e. adjacent relations of vertices, new object corresponds to 3-1,. These operations will be

edges, and faces are preserved. Figure 1. shows an overview implemented geometically, that causes to some numerical

for establishing correspondence between two objects. For unstabilities. Our method can avoid such unstabilities when

]we use a word connectivify to denote a vertexledgelface graph of a

creating correspondences as described later (Section.3.1).

polygon. By using 'HC, continuous intermediate objects are created

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by interpolation. To establish an interpolation between M 1

and M2, we use a simple linear interpolation technique. M H

Note that these two embeddings are used for internal data

structure, whose related calculation is implicitly processed.

The user specifies only correspondence information on the

boundary of Harmonic Map as described later.

background and a method for mapping from an object M in

R3 to a unit circle R in R2.

Harmonic Map, h : M +

R is one of the mapping

that realizes embedding from a topological disk to a planar Figure 2. Harmonic Map: (a) a bunny model.

graph, which has a property to minimize metric dispersion (b) Harmonic Map.

( see [2]about other mathematical terminologies).

To construct this embedding, we adopted a method pro-

posed by Eck et al. [5]. Strictly speaking, Eck's mapping A unique solution that minimizes Eharm can be found

method is a piecewise linear approximation method for re- by solving a sparse linear system VEharm = 0, where

alizing embedding from M to R. A similar method is VEharm is the gradient of Eharm over U , because Eharm

proposed by Marillot et al. [ 121. The reason why we adopt is a positive quadratic function over vertex positions in H .

Eck's embedding method is that stable and fast embedding To solve the gradient of EhaTm,z,y components of v are

can be established. listed in order and a 2N dimensional vector V is defined as

Eck's embedding method is established in the following follows:

steps: First, n vertices, which make up a boundary segment

of H,are positioned on the disk (the boundary of D 2 ) in

R2 whose center point is the origin, so that angles between v= ,

(2112, V l y , U21 2129, ..',U N 1 ,w y ) , (3)

two boundary vertices are proportional to edge lengths con-

nected to those vertices. The positions of the rest of the where N denotes the number of vertices. Eharm is

vertices are calculated so that the total energy Eharm is quadratic form over every component in V ,it can be repre-

minimized. Eharmcan be represented as a sum of the en- sented as a form EhaTm= V T H V . Then the gradient of

ergy of a configuration of springs with one spring placed Eharmcan be expressed as VEhaTm= aEhaTm/aV.

along each edge of M : Moreover vertices on the boundary are fixed. To solve a

linear system, we first divide a variable vector V into two

parts, a free part V" and a fixed part Vp,and the constant

matrix H is also divided accordingly. Thus, an energy

function Eharmis rewritten as follows:

and w is the set of w,. Edges(7-l) denotes the set of edges

in 31' and (2, j} is an edge connecting vertices i and j. K , , ~

denotes a spring constant for edge { z , j } , and is calculated As this energy function is constant for fixed parts, we

as follows. For each edge {i, j}, let la,gdenote its length as only solve a linear equation from the gradient VEharm over

measured in M . For each face {i,j,k}, let Aa,3,kdenote its free parts v" to minimize Eharm:

area, again as measured in M . For each interior edge {i, j }

incident to two faces {i,j,kl}, {z,j,k z } :

An original 3D "bunny" model (Figure 2. (a)) has a closed

boundary segment along its neck. 17 vertices consisting

2h/Ietric dispersion means a measure of distortion, i.e. the extent to of a boundary segment are positioned on a unit circle in

which a map stretches regions of small diameter in D2. R2. Faces of the original object are developed into the

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boundary control vertex

, \

Vt

has convex region or concave region. For example, the

result (Figure 2. (b)) shows that bunny's ears which include

concave regions are successfully developed into the disk.

3D objects M 1 , M2 were generated respectively. Each of

two embeddings has the same connectivity as its 3D object.

This subsection describes how to create new embedding U ,

by merging 3-11 and 312. RChas a combined connectivity Figure 4. Mapping vertices in 311 to U2.

of those two embeddings 311,312, and as a result, M 1 , M2.

Moreover, correspondences from arbitrary points of to the

3D position v k of a vertex w k over M2 is calculated as

source object to those to the target object are also established

follows:

in ?ic,

Kent et al. [ 81 has proposed a similar method. The differ-

ence between our method to their method is that we take into vk = Uv$+vv; + wv;, (6)

account coincidence issues. Their method assumes that no

u+v+w=l.

embedded vertices of the two objects are coincident and that

no embedded vertex of the source object lies on a projected In a similar way, for each vertex in 3 1 2 its corresponding

edge of the target object. Our method can handle these co- 3D position at M 1 is calculated. To speed up the searching

incident issues. This is important for avoiding numerical of a face including a vertex, we use a spatial partitioning

unstability which frequently occurs from these coincidence data structure such as the quad-tree data structure [6], then

cases especially when objects have a number of faces. the search is performed in O(nlog n ) time.

The construction of U , consists of four steps. Especially vertices near the boundary are not included

The first step rotates ?i1 (or ?i2) around the center of any faces can exist (such as w r in Figure 4). For these

D2 so that an embedded vertex of 311 selected by a user vertices, we calculate a 3D position by using barycentric

(hereafter we call it boundary control vertex) is coincident coordinates of the face which has the nearest distance from

with that in 3 1 2 (Figure 3). its edges.

The second step calculates corresponding 3D positions One of the reason why a calculation failure by numerical

in M1 and M2 of each vertex at 311 and 3 1 2 . First, to errors occurs is a coincidence issue. There are cases in which

calculate 3D position at M2 for each vertex v& in 311, we a vertex in 311 and a vertex in 3 t 2 are as being located nearly

search a face at 3 1 2 that v k is included. Let v k , v & be at the same position, or in which a vertex of one embedding

corresponding 3D positions of v k at M I ,M2 respectively. is as being nearly on an edge of the other embedding (Figure

When w?, is included in a face f = ( 2 , j , IC} of 3 1 2 , a 5).

barycentric coordinate ( U , U ,w) of w; for f is calculated as To solve this issue, we first consider two vertices of U1

shown in Figure 4. Using this coordinate, a corresponding and ' H 2 within a threshold distance to be coincident. After

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Figure 5. Coincidence issues: (a) two vertices

in1 'Idl and 3c2 have same position. (b) a vertex

in13.1, is on a edge in 3.1* (an opposite case can

be done).

again1 with coincident vertices fixed. Each position of coin-

cident vertices is set to an average of their incident vertices.

When 3-11 and 3.12 are re-calculated, we can again use the Figure 6. A method for creating a new object

energy function (Equation (4)). In Equation (4), the number 3.1, from XI and 362

of rows of VO is increased. These operations are repeated

and terminated if no coincident vertices are generated. The

process dealing with the case in which a vertex of one em-

beddnng is on an edge of the other embedding is also realized

by similar substeps. In this case, the boundary vertices of an

associated edge are fixed. Moreover, the relative position of

a veriex to the edge is preserved as a parametric form, and a

new fixed position is calculated using this parametric value.

The third step investigates edge-to-edge intersection be-

tween edges of 3.1, and those of 3.12. If an intersection is

found, both edges are divided each other at this intersection

point. This process is also established in O ( nlog n ) time

by using the spatial partitioning data structure.

3.1,:generated by the above step is composed of vertices Figure 7. Graphical User Interface

and edges, but has no triangular faces. The last step gen-

erates triangular faces in 3.1, (Figure 6). First at every ver-

tex, edges incident to the vertex are sorted in the counter- are generated.

clockwise order. A new face f ,= {i, j , k } is generated by

using two continuous edges e, = {i, k } and e3 = { j , k } .

If there is no edge between j and k , a new edge { j ,k } is

3.2. Interpolation

created simultaneously and is added to the edge-list of ver-

tices j and IC. This operation continues until all of edges An interpolation between the source object M I to the

in 3.1, have a face on both sides. This greedy-like opera- target object M Z is realized by applying a simple linear

tion executes in O ( n )time (A simple proof that single time method. Let v&(m : 1 . . , N C )be a 3D position of a vertex

search of vertices which have a list of neighboring edges in U& in U,,where N Cdenotes the number of vertices in 31,.

clockwise or counter-clockwise order makes covering all of For any time t E [0, 11, v& are calculated using v k and v&

faces in 31, is described in [ 2 ] ) . as follows:

For objects which are topologically equivalent to a

sphere, two embeddings are generated over each object. v & = ( l - t ) v , +1t v , . 2

In this case, we can apply an above approach to each of two (7)

pairs of embeddings 3.11 and 3.12 respectively, then two 3.1,

101

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generated by Hoppe’s surface reconstruction and simplifi-

cation method [7] from range images. Each of both objects

has a unique center point (an average of center of balances

of faces) which is located near to the origin of the world

coordinate system.

Figure 9. (a) shows a sequence of metamorphosis using

user-specifiedboundary loops and boundary control vertices

illustrated in Figure 7. Figure 9. (b) shows another sequence

of metamorphosis. In this metamorphosis, only a boundary

Figure 8. (a) “Volkswagen Golf” model. (b) control vertex of ear-phone model is changed (to be that

“Porsche 911” model. opposite side of the boundary loop). In both examples,

each of 3-1, was obtained within a second (MIPS R4400

250MHz). The calculation is sofast that we can interactively

create more fine results by some changes of transformations,

rotations or scaling o f only one object of the two.

The other metamorphosis is made between a “Volkswa-

4.1. User Interface gen Golf” model (Figure 8. (a), #vertices: 2978, #faces:

5798) and “Porsche 911” model (Figure 8. (b),#vertices:

Based on the methods described in the preceding sec- 1955, Maces: 3765). Both two models are topologically

tions, we developed a prototype system on a Sillicon Graph- equivalent to a disk. Figure 10. shows result of metamor-

ics workstation. Figure 7. shows the layout of the user- phosis. ‘fl, (#vertices: 16909, #faces: 32101) was obtained

interface. This user-interface has two windows. The left in about 46.0 seconds.

window displays the source object, and the right displays One problem that arises during the interpolation is that

the target object. Users can interactively operate transforma- an intermediate object can have self-intersections. It seems

tions, rotations, scalings of objects by a mouse. Of course, quite difficult to avoid such self-intersections. Because, for

these objects are located on the same coordinate system. example, we consider metamorphosis between certain two

Moreover, users can check a transition from the source ob- objects without such intersection. However if one of these

ject to the target object by this system. objects is transformed, there is no guarantee that intermedi-

To establish the 3D metamorphosis method described ate shapes during the interpolation between two objects that

above, the following operations must be done by users: are at new locations are not self-intersected. That is, loca-

tions of the object have an effect on the self-intersections of

Boundary loop specification To calculate embedding de-

intermediate objects. Thus whether these self-intersections

scribed as a subsection 2.2, users must specify a bound-

are permitted or not depends on the application.

ary loop on both objects. Each boundary loop is com-

posed of edges of the objects, and must contain more

than three vertices. Directions of two loops must be 5. Conclusion and Future Work

same directions.

A boundary control vertex specification A vertex on We described a method for three dimensional geometric

each boundary loop must be specified. Because these metamorphosis based on Harmonic Map for any two objects

two vertices define the relative position of the two which are topologically equivalent to a sphere or to a disk.

boundary loops. These vertices are used in the sub- Interpolation can be controlled by specifing only a boundary

section 3.1. loop and a vertex on the boundary. This method is executed

so fast that finer control of the interpolation can also be

In both original objects in Figure 7., bold lines denote achieved.

boundary loops and filled rectangle marks denote boundary We think that the following three extensions are effective

control vertices. for interactive control of the interpolation:

For more complicated objects, an extension for some

We first demonstrate two metamorphosis examples be- local shape control have to be needed. For example, in

tween a golf club model (#vertices: 149, #faces: 287) and metamorphosis between one person to the other person,

an ear-phone model (#vertices: 245, Maces: 477). Both two we may wish local controls so that the right arm of one

models are topologically equivalent to the sphere, and are person is transformed to that of the other person.

102

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Figure 9. (a) "golf club" to "phone" metamorphosis. (b) "golf club" to "phone" metamorphosis with

a user-specified vertex on a loop of ear-phone model is changed.

0 A11 of vertices at a correspondence object are trans- problem, and we know our method can cause some

formed simultaneously from t = 0 (object A ) to t = 1 problems (self intersection, shape distortion, and so

(object B). It is desired that only a part of a object is on), and we know that some approaches address this

transformed, while the rest of it is not changed. problem ([ 141for 2D polygon case, [ 161for 3D polyhe-

dral polygon case). Unfortunatelly, these approaches

0 The number of faces of 7-c, is greatly increased. There- are useful only for the case that two models are similar

fixe, it is quite slow to display animation during meta- shape. We are going to find a interpolation algorithm

morphosis. To establish real-time animation of meta- that can work well with our correspondence algorithm.

morphosis, a method for decreasing number of faces

without losing surface features of the original objects

are needed. Many approaches such as [7] address sur- 6 Acknowledgements

face simplification.

Our method can be referred only the correspondence We thank all the referees for making us a aware of refer-

problem. We use a linear method for the interpolation ences and giving us a lot of useful comments.

103

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Figure 10. "volkswagen"to "porsche" metamorphosis.

tion interpolation: a recursive approach to establishing face

correspondences. In Journals of Visualization and Computer

[l] T. Beier and S. Neely. Feature-based image metamorphosis.

Animation, volume 3 , pages 219-239, 1992.

In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH'92, pages 35-42. ACM

141 T. W. Sederberg, P. Gao, G. Wang, and H. Mu. 2-D shape

Press, 1992.

blending: An instrinsic solution to the vertex path problem.

[2] G. Chartrand and L. Lesniak. Graphs & Digraphs. The In Proceedings ofACM SIGGRAPH'93, pages 15-18. ACM

Wadsworth & BrooksJCole, 2nd edition, 1986. Press, 1993.

[3] D. DeCarlo and J. Gallier. Topological evolution of surfaces. 151 T. W. Sederberg and E. Greenwood. A physically based

In Graphics Inteiface'96, pages 194-203. CHCCS, 1996. approach to 2D shape blending. In Proceedings of ACM

[4] H. Delingette, Y. Watanabe, and Y. Suenaga. Simplex based SIGGRAPH'92, pages 25-34. ACM Press, 1992.

animation, In N. M. Thalmann and D. Thalmann, editors, 161 Y. M. Sun, W. Wang, and E Y.L. Chin. Interpolating poly-

Models and Techniques in Computer Animation. Springer- hedral models using intrinsic shape parameters. In Pac$c

Verlag, 1993. Graphics '95, Aug. 1995.

[5] M. Eck, T. DeRose, T. Duchamp, H. Hoppe, M. Louns-

bey, and W. Stuetzle. Multiresolution analysis of arbitrary

meshes. In Proceedings ofACMSIGGRAPH'95, pages 173-

182. ACM Press, 1995.

[6] J. D. Foley, A. van Dam, S. K. Feiner, and J. E Hughes.

Computer Graphics - Principles and Practice -. Addison-

Wesley Publishing Company, 2nd edition, 1990.

[7] H. Hoppe. Suiface reconstruction from unorganized points.

PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science and Engineer-

ing, University of Washington, 1994.

[8] J. R. Kent, W. E. Carlson, and R. E. Parent. Shape trans-

formation for polyhedral objects. In Proceedings of ACM

SIGGRAPH'92, pages 47-54. ACM Press, 1992.

[9] S.-Y. Lee, K.-Y. Chwa, and S. Y. Shin. Image metamorphosis

using snakes and free-form deformations. In Proceedings of

ACM SIGGRAPH'95, pages 439-448. ACM Press, 1995.

[lo] A. Lerios, C. D. Garfinkle, and M. Levoy. Feature-based

volume metamorphosis. In Proceedings of ACM SIG-

GRAPH'95, pages 449-456. ACM Press, 1995.

[ l 11 W. E. Lorensen and H. E. Cline. Marching cubes: A high

resolution 3D surfaceconstruction algorithm. In Proceedings

ofACM SIGGRAPH'87, pages 163-169. ACM Press, 1987.

[12] J. Maillot, H. Yahia, and A. Verroust. Interactive texture

mapping. In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH'93, pages

27-34. ACM Press, 1993.

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