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Roberto T.


Engenharia Civil: Estrutura em Aço

The new 2005 AISC specification

(A nova norma americana do AISC 2005)

Roberto T. Leon
Professor - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 300332-033, USA
E-mail: roberto.leon@ce.gatech.edu.

Resumo Abstract
No final de 2005, o American Institute of Steel In late 2005, the American Institute of Steel
Construction editou a versão mais recente da norma Construction issued its most recent Specification for
norte-americana para estruturas de edifícios em aço, Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05). This
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings specification includes updated design provisions in both
(ANSI/AISC 360-05). Essa norma inclui prescrições para allowable strength design (ASD) and load and
projetos com base nos métodos das tensões admissíveis resistance factor design methods (LRFD), and
(ASD) e dos estados-limites (LRFD) e incorpora, ainda, incorporates the design provisions for hollow structural
prescrições para seções tubulares e cantoneiras. Entre as sections and single angles. Amongst the major changes
mais importantes modificações destacamos a completa are a complete revamping of the methodologies for
renovação das metodologias para a verificação da assessing stability of framed structures, new provisions
estabilidade de estruturas aporticadas, novas prescrições for composite columns and updated material
para pilares mistos e atualização das especificações dos requirements. This paper will describe the changes and
materiais. O presente artigo descreve essas alterações e highlight those of practical significance.
destaca aquelas com interesse prático.
Keywords: Steel design, specifications, codes, ultimate
Palavras-chave: Projeto em aço, normas, resistência strength, allowable stress.
última, tensão admissível.

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The new 2005 AISC specification

1. Introduction For ASD: In the new AISC Manual, color-

coded tables are used to highlight the
For the past 20 years, the American Rn
Ra ≤ difference between LRFD and the NEW
Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Ω ASD. Figure 1 shows one such table for
has maintained two different
specifications: a limited state or ultimate Note that the nomenclature the flexural capacity of beams. The blue
strength one (AISC LRFD 1999), whose maintains the use of the terms resistance color for LRFD and the highlighted green
first edition dates to 1986, and an and safety factors. While the origin of background for ASD clearly separate the
allowable or working stress design one the former is clear and rooted in reliability two design cases.
(AISC ASD 1989), whose last edition theory, the latter is based mostly on In addition to supporting two
dates to 1989. In the USA, although experience and cannot be given a different approaches, at least the
limited state design of reinforced consistent meaning across all forms of following major editorial changes in the
concrete structures has been common loading. Thus, while for simple loading
since the early 1960’s, design for metal new AISC Specification should be
conditions such as tension, the NEW highlighted:
structures has remained for the most part ASDF and OLD ASD are the same, this
under the allowable stress approach. In is not a statement that can be generalized 1. Nomenclature: An attempt has been
this last cycle of its main specification, to the rest of the code. made to coordinate the nomenclature
AISC decided that it could no longer to a standard one to be adopted by
afford to maintain two separate The procedure for determining the
all metal specifications. This was
specifications, and decided to develop a new ASD safety factors (Duncan 2006)
achieved through the work of a joint
set of unified provisions that merged is based on the concept of an effective
committee of the American Institute
both approaches. With the new load factor. The effective load factor, γ,
Specifications, AISC intends to is determined by setting the ASCE 7 of Iron and Steel (AISI) and AISC,
consolidate its design provisions into (ASCE, 2005) LRFD load combination - and gives greater clarity and
four broad documents: basic for live load (L) and dead load (D) only - transparency to this code.
requirements (AISC 2005a/ ANSI 360-05), equal to the equivalent ASD load 2. Mandatory language: All non-
seismic design (AISC Seismic 2005b/ combination. An effective load factor, γ, mandatory language has been
ANSI 341-05), nuclear design (AISC 2006 may be determined for the ASD side of eliminated, and very few locations
/ N690) and contractual provisions (Code the equation as follows. remain where designers are given a
of Standard Practice for Structural Steel
Buildings, AISC 2005c). 1.2D + 1.6L = γ(L + D) (1) choice of whether to use or not a
particular clause of the code.
In order to rationalize the design 1.2 + 1.6(L/D) = γ ((L/D) + 1) (2)
process along an ultimate strength 3. Loading: All references to loads have
design approach, the 2005 version of this been eliminated; all loading is taken
specification contains a dual set of γ = effective load factor. from ASCE 7-05 (ASCE 7, 2005). This
provisions. One set of provisions will The AISC LRFD Specification for means that AISC has now completely
follow closely the current Load and Structural Steel Buildings (1986) was decoupled the loading and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) format resistance part of the design process,
originally calibrated to the OLD ASD at
and the other set will follow an Allowable and loads have become material
Strength Design (henceforth, NEW ASD) L/D = 3. For L / D = 3, Equation 2 yields
independent as they should be.
approach. Although the NEW ASD 1.2 + 4.8 = γ (4)
bears a similar name to the older 4. New section types: All requirements
Allowable Stress Design (henceforth, γ = 6/4 = 1.5 pertaining to single angles and pipe/
OLD ASD), the two are not to be hollow structural (HSS) sections
Therefore, for calibration at L/D = 3
confused. In the 2005 AISC have been incorporated into the main
with γ = 1.5 as the target effective load
Specification, a single expression will be Specification. These two types of
factor, and using the following inequality
given for the nominal resistance of a sections were covered in separate
member or component (Rn), and that that the design strength (φRn) must equal
documents in the past. While the
resistance will be reduced by a resistance or exceed the required strength (γR), and
consolidation of all the rules into the
factor (f) for LRFD design or divided by solving for the safety factor, Ω, yields: main specification was deemed as
a safety factor (W) for the NEW ASD.
φRn ≥ γR very desirable, it has led to some very
The general format is: large chapters. For example,
For LRFD: Rn γ 1.5 incorporation of these section types
Ω= ≥ =
Ru ≤ φ Rn R φ φ has nearly doubled the size of
Chapter F - Flexure.

242 REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007
Roberto T. Leon
5. Reorganization: The content has In the next sections of this paper, 2. Highlights of new
been extensively reorganized, so that some of the more notable changes are
each topic is clearly addressed in a discussed. The sections referenced are
2005 AISC specification
chapter. For example, there is now a given in parenthesis after the title; issues 2.1 Scope (Section A1)
chapter on shear (Chapter G) that related to stability (Chapter C and
groups provisions that were A major change in the scope of the
Appendices 1 and 7) are left to the latter 2005 Specification is the elimination from
scattered through many chapters in
parts of the paper because they are the this section of the traditional
previous codes (mainly section F2).
In previous editions, Chapter G was more complex. The entire provisions and construction types (FR and PR for LRFD
very short and only addressed plate commentary are downloadable free from and Types 1 through 3 for ASD).
girders. In general, one can say that www.aisc.org. Designers are directed to Differentiation between different
each chapter now addresses a the new AISC Manual and its construction types is now embedded in
specific type of failure mode. accompanying CD, which contains appropriate sections, such as in Chapter
hundreds of design examples and tables, C for issues related to stability. In
6. Importance: In addition to the addition to this major change in
reorganization of the material along for more details. Finally, it should be
approach, the new Specification now
failure modes, the chapters are noted that this is the first steel
explicitly recognizes its applicability for
organized such that the more specification issued under the American design in areas of low to moderate
commonly used provisions are at the National Standards Institute (ANSI) seismicity (Seismic Design Categories A
front. The intent of the Specification approval. The ANSI process insures a through C). This is a significant change
committee was that even though a more public development of the because as new areas of the USA become
topic may cover many pages, 90% of provisions, a careful documentation of zoned at higher seismic levels, this
the everyday design requirements the changes made, and the development clause intends to alert designers that
are covered by the first few pages of of future specifications under a traditional steel structural systems can
each chapter. consistent basis. still be used.
7. User Notes: The new specification
makes extensive use of “user notes.”
These are the equivalent of a quick
commentary or clarification, and are
embedded inside the specification
although they are not legally part of
it. The intent of these notes, which
are highlighted inside a gray box in
the text, is to provide designers with
guidance where legal requirements
force an arcane wording of the
provisions. An example of its use is
in Chapter D (Tension) where the
limitations on the maximum
slenderness have been removed
from the Specification. A user note
has been inserted to indicate that this
limit should preferably not exceed L/
300, but that this recommendation
and does not apply to rods or
hangers in tension.
8. Commentary: The commentary has
been completely rewritten to provide
more useful information to designers.
Where possible, all historical
descriptions have been eliminated
and emphasis has been put on
documenting why changes have
been made. Figure1 - Example design table highlighting differences in LRFD and ASD values.

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The new 2005 AISC specification

2.2 Materials (Sections A2-A3) 2. Sections B3 and B4 give concise but 2.4 Compression (Chapter E)
complete descriptions of the dual
The confusing collection of material approaches (LRFD and NEW ASD) One of the main logistical decisions
and codes referenced in Chapter A of used in the specification. in the development of the 2005
previous specifications has been Specification hinged on the choice of the
completely revamped, with standards 3. Section B6 now contains a clear format of the equations for compression,
clearly labeled and material description of connection types, which is the first difficult design topic to
specifications grouped by type. Given which are now divided into simple be addressed by the Specification. While
the great variety of steel grades available and moment connections, with the the LRFD and OLD ASD curves were
throughout the world and the fact that a latter further subdivided into fully very similar, they were specified in
designer is unlikely to know the source (PR) and partially restrained (PR) different formats and units. Those for
of the steel that will be used in a particular ones. It allows the designer to use LRFD were couched mostly on a strength
project, AISC has taken great care to limit simple and rigid conditions in the basis (units of load) while those for the
the Specification to the more common analysis of most connections, but OLD ASD where on a stress basis. The
ASTM grades, including the new ASTM requires the explicit use of moment- new Specification opted to adopt the
rotation curves in the analysis of PR
913 and 992. Perhaps the greatest stress format but using the existing
changes in the materials area are (1) the LRFD equations with a non-dimensional
allowance of materials with yield points 4. Sections 7 through 11 explicitly slenderness parameter (function of
up to 100 ksi (about 700 MPa) and (b) require that the designer account for √E/Fy). The specification has removed
the requirements for a minimum impact serviceability, ponding, fatigue, fire, all limits on slenderness ratios, includes
resistance for thick sections to be welded and corrosion in the design. These ASD provisions for singly and non-
using complete joint penetration welds sections do not contain specific symmetrical members, and includes all
(20 ft-lbs at 70º F / 27 J 21º C). requirements for these conditions; the necessary provisions for the design
those are given in other parts of the of slender members within the chapter.
In addition, the new specification
Specification (Chapter L for
takes into account the large differences serviceability and Appendix IV for
in properties due to the manufacturing fire, for example). While a number of
process. For example, the fact that some 2.5 Flexure (Chapter F)
these have been present in the
of the hollow structural section (HSS) Specification for some time, they had The new specification has
grades (ASTM A500, Grade A) do not been relegated to later Chapter or collapsed the 5 equations based on the
meet the ductility requirements, Appendices, often falling “below the unbraced length of the compression
necessitated that the usable stress be radar screen” of many designers. By flange in the OLD ASD into three
limited to 80% of its yield stress. explicitly calling for their equations based on lateral-torsion
incorporation into the basic design buckling conditions similar to those in
requirements, the Specification now the existing LRFD. In most cases, this
2.3 Design Requirements
makes clear that many limit states, has resulted in increases in capacity for
(Chapter B) besides strength, need to be members designed under the ASD
Several important changes have considered. approach and on the removal of a number
occurred in this chapter. Amongst them of the step functions that characterized
5. The requirements for local buckling
are: the design of some wide flange shapes
(formerly Section B5 and now Section
under the OLD ASD procedures (see
1. Section B2 now contains no B4) have been considerably
Figure 2). The equations have also been
information on load combinations. expended and clarified.
changed so that the flexural breakpoint
For all such information, the reader 6. Section B6 on evaluation of existing between inelastic and elastic buckling
is referred to ASCE 7. A user note structures has now been reduced to (Mr) has been substituted by the much
reminds the reader of the ASCE 7 a reference to the new Appendix 5, simpler expression of 0.7SxFy.
section where load combinations can which contains all the provisions. In
be found for either LRFD or ASD the past, the move to an Appendix The chapter now covers all types
design. This is important because has implied considerable interest in of members, including single angles and
the load combination for ASD design the topic and the possible future square and rectangular hollow sections
have been considerably expanded in development of a stand-alone (HSS), as well as unsymmetrical shapes.
the latest ASCE 7 document, specification. There is now a new A especially useful user note, in the form
effectively eliminating the large Appendix on fire design (Appendix of a table (Figure 3), now clearly gives
disparity between the design 4), which may in the future also be a designers guidance on the applicability
methods inherent in the existing separate document or incorporated of different failure modes and relevant
LRFD and OLD ASD approaches. into the main Specification. clauses of the chapter to the flexural

244 REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007
Roberto T. Leon
design of all different types of members. Thus, while the Chapter itself appears as 2.7 Interaction (Chapter H)
more dense and complicated in the new version, its usability has been considerably
improved by careful attention to the governing failure modes. Chapter H addresses members
subjected to axial force and bending
about one or both axes, with or without
2.6 Shear (Chapter G) torsion, and members subject to torsion
alone. The chapter basically preserves
Chapter G, which used to cover only the design of plate girders, now has the existing LRFD approach, in which
condensed all the shear design provisions (including the old section F2 which the interaction between flexure and axial
governed the shear design for most other members) into a single section. The load is handled by equations involving
provisions have been calibrated to the OLD ASD one, with the result that while the sum of the ratios of the required to
expressions similar to those in the existing LRFD are used, the limits and resistance the available strengths. However, new
factors have changed in some cases. equations have been developed in
conjunction with the stability provisions
Probably the most striking change for those used to the LRFD format, is the use
of Chapter C. For an unsymmetrical
of a φv = 1.00 (and corresponding Ωv = 1.50) for the shear capacity of doubly-
section, the summation is for the stresses
symmetric sections and channel sections. In addition, provisions are now given for
rather than strengths. For double-
the shear strength of HSS sections as follows:
symmetric sections under uniaxial
bending and axial load, the new
Ag Fcr
Vn = specification permits the separation into
2 two independent limit states (in-plane
instability and out-of-plane instability/
where F cr is the larger of: flexural torsion buckling).

1.60 E 0.78 E
Fcr = or Fcr =
5 3 2.8 Composite members
Lv ⎛ D ⎞ 4 ⎛ D ⎞2 (Chapter I)
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
D⎝ t ⎠ ⎝ t ⎠
The 2005 version of Chapter I
and Ag is the gross area based on the design wall thickness, D is the outside diameter, includes both extensive technical and
Lv is the distance from maximum to zero shear force, and t is the design wall thickness format changes as well as significant new
(equal to the nominal wall thickness for submerged arc welded (SAW) and 0.93 for material when compared to previous
electric resistance welded (EWS) HSS). editions. The major technical change
consist of new design provisions for
composite columns (Section I2), which
now includes new cross-sectional
strength models, provisions for tension
and shear design, and a liberalization of
the slenderness limits for HSS tubes and
pipes. Other significant technical
changes are the new, more rational shear
stud strengths values for design (Section
I3.2d), the use of an ultimate strength
model for ASD design of composite
beams (I3.2), and new material limits
usable for design (Section I1.2).
The new provisions require that the
strength of composite sections shall be
computed based on first principles of
mechanics and robust constitutive
models for materials. Two approaches are
given to satisfy this requirement. The
first is the strain compatibility approach,
Figure 2 - Comparison of OLD ASD and the unified 2005 Specification for the flexural which provides a general method. The
capacity of a W36 x 182, F y = 50 ksi beam (W920x271, 350 MPa) second is the plastic stress distribution

REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007 245
The new 2005 AISC specification
approach, which is a subset of the strain
compatibility one. The plastic stress
distribution model provides a simple and
convenient calculation method for the
most common design situations, and is
thus treated first.
An example of the differences in
design strength for encased composite
columns is given in Figure 4, which
contrasts the capacities given by current
reinforced concrete provisions (ACI 318,
2005) and the 1999 LRFD (AISC 1999)
ones with two versions proposed in the
2005 Specification (AISC 2005a). The
AISC 2005 (1) curve corresponds to the
polygonal approach pioneered in the
Eurocodes and adopted into the 2005
specification, and the AISC 2005 (2)
shows a simplified bi-linear approximation
useful for design.

2.9 Stability (Chapter C)

Chapter C, which covers stability
provisions, is probably the most
radically changed chapter in the
Specification. While the older methods
(the effective length method for
individual members, for example) remain
valid, Chapter C takes an important step
towards recognizing advanced analysis
and design techniques rendered possible
by personal computers and advanced
commercial software. The chapter is the
result of several years of work of a joint
AISC - SSRC (Structural Stability
Research Council) committee that
examined a number of techniques ranging
from full-advanced analysis including
geometrical and material non-linearities
to the nominal load concepts such as
those incorporated in the Australian and Figure 3 - User note from the beginning of Chapter F indicating applicability of different
European codes. The General clauses and failure modes in design.
Requirements to Chapter C state it as
to residual stresses on the stability
Stability shall be provided for the of the structure and its elements is
structure as a whole and for each of permitted. The methods prescribed Parts of the Specification and Commentary
its elements. Any method that in this Chapter and Appendix 7 are include here because precise language is
considers the influence of second- satisfy these requirements. All needed in order not to confuse the reader;
thus rather than paraphrasing these parts
order effects (including P-∆ and P-δ component and connection
with the possibility of distorting the meaning,
effects), flexural, shear and axial deformations that contribute to the parts of the introductory material to Chapter
deformations, geometric imperfections, displacements shall be considered C and Appendix 7 are reproduced verbatim
and member stiffness reduction due in the stability analysis. in Sections 2.9 and 2.10.

246 REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007
Roberto T. Leon
In structures designed by elastic
analysis, individual member
stability and stability of the
structure as a whole are provided
jointly by:
(1) Calculation of the required
strengths for members, connections
and other elements using one of the
methods specified in Section C2.2,
(2) Satisfaction of the member and
connection design requirements in
this specification based upon those
required strengths.
In structures designed by inelastic
analysis, the provisions of Appendix
1 shall be satisfied.
The commentary says that:
The stability of structures must be Figure 4 - Comparison of the design strength for a 24 in. x 24 in. encased column
considered from the standpoint of the (f’ c = 5 ksi) with 4 # 8 bars and a Grade 50 W10x49 section (610 mm x 610mm concrete
structure as a whole, including not column (35 MPa) with 4 D25 bars and a W250x73 column (350MPa).
only compression members, but also
beams, bracing systems, and
nominal geometric imperfection and as an alternative method to improve
connections. The stability of
stiffness reduction effects directly and simplify design for stability. In
individual components also must be
within the structural analysis. In this case, the inclusion of nominal
provided. Considerable attention
either the Effective Length or the geometric imperfection and member
has been given in the technical
Direct Analysis approaches, the stiffness reduction effects directly in
literature to this subject, and various
structural analysis by itself is not the analysis allows the use of
methods are available to assure
sufficient to ensure the stability of K = 1.0 in calculating the in-plane
stability (Galambos, 1998). In all
the structure as a whole. The overall column strength Pn within the beam-
approaches, the method of analysis
stability of the structure as well as column interaction equations of
and the equations for checking of
the stability of individual elements Chapter H. This simplification comes
component resistances are
is ensured by the combined about because the Direct Analysis
inextricably interlinked. Traditionally,
calculation of the required strengths Method provides a better estimate
the effects of unavoidable geometric
by structural analysis and the of the true internal forces within the
imperfections (within fabrication
satisfaction of the member and structure. The Effective Length
and erection tolerances) and
connection design provisions of the Method, in contrast, includes the
distributed yielding at strength limit
Specification. above effects indirectly within the
states (including residual stress
member resistance equations.
effects) are addressed solely within In general, it is essential that an
member resistance equations. accurate second-order analysis of
Correspondingly, the structural the structure be performed. The
analysis is conducted using the analysis should in general consider 2.10 Direct Design Method
nominal structure geometry and the influence of second-order effects (Appendix 7)
elastic stiffness. The Specification (including P-∆ and P-δ effects as The commentary to Appendix 7
addresses this traditional shown in Figure C-C1.1), flexural, says:
approach, termed the Effective shear, and axial deformations. More
Length Method in this commentary, rigorous analysis methods allow The Direct Analysis Method,
as well as a new approach which is formulation of simpler limited state addresses a new method for the
termed the Direct Analysis Method models. One such example can be stability analysis and design of
and is addressed in Appendix 7. The found in Appendix 7 where the new structural steel systems comprised of
Direct Analysis Method includes Direct Analysis Method is presented moment frames, braced frames, shear

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The new 2005 AISC specification
walls or combinations thereof structures, although this buckling, flexural buckling, and
(AISC-SSRC, 2003a). While the application is not explicitly lateral-torsion or torsion-flexure
precise formulation of the method is addressed in this edition. buckling.
unique to the AISC Specification,
5. For the in-plane buckling check, the
some features of it have similarities Chapter C requires that the Direct effective length can be assumed to
to other major design specifications Analysis Method, as described be equal to 1.
around the world including the herein, be used wherever the value
Eurocodes, the Australian Standard, 6. Residual stresses are assumed to be
of the sidesway amplification
the Canadian Standard, and ACI linearly distributed and have a
∆ 2nd order / ∆ 1st order (or B 2 from
318. maximum value of 0.3 Fy at the flange
Equation C2-3), determined from a
first-order analysis of the structure,
The Direct Analysis Method has exceeds 1.5. It may also be used in
been developed with the goal to lieu of the methods described in The direct design method requires
more accurately determine internal Chapter C for the analysis and that:
forces in the structure in the analysis design of any lateral load resisting
1. A rigorous second-order analysis be
stage and to eliminate the need for frame in a steel building.
conducted that accounts for both
calculating the effective buckling
P-∆ and P-δ effects.
length (K factor) for columns in the
first term of the beam-column Some of the most important 2. The application of a notional load
interaction equations. This method assumptions embedded in the direct Ni = 0.002 Yi where Yi is the gravity
is, therefore, a major step forward in design method are: load from the appropriate load
the design of steel moment frames combination acting on level i.
1. Initial member out-of-straightness is
from past versions of the 3. That the analysis be based on a
L/1000, where L is the length of the
specification. In addition, it can be reduced stiffness (EI* = 0.8τbEI and
used for the design of braced frames EA* = 0.8EA) in the structure.
and combined frame systems. Thus, 2. The initial frame out-of-plumbness
this one method can be used for the for a story is assumed as H/500, Figure 5 shows a comparison of the
design of all types of steel framed where H is the story height of the in-plane beam-column interaction checks
structures used in practice. The building. using the two main different methods
method can be expanded in the allowed in Chapter C. On the left part
3. The total out-of-plumbness of the
future beyond its use as a second- (Figure 5(a)), the conventional effective
structure is bounded by the limits
order elastic analysis tool as length approach is shown. In this case,
given in the Code of Standard
presented here. For example, it can the yield strength (Py) is reduced by the
be applied with inelastic or plastic conventional approach (kL effect) and
analysis. Also, it can be used in the 4. The limit states considered include the usual interaction equations applied.
analysis of composite and hybrid cross section yielding, local On the right side of the figure (Figure

Figure 5 - Comparison of in-plane interaction checks for (a) the Effective Length Method and (b) the Direct Analysis Method (Figure
C-A-7.1 in AISC 2005a).

248 REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007
Roberto T. Leon
5(b)), the direct analysis method is shown. Note that for this ry = radius of gyration about minor axis, in. (mm)
case, because of the reductions on the axial and flexure stiffness
(M1 / M2) is positive when moments cause reverse curvature
of the members, the elastic second-order response falls below
and negative for single curvature.
the actual response for much of the load path.
(b) For solid rectangular bars and symmetric box beams:

2.11 Inelastic Analysis and Design ⎡ M ⎤ E E

L pd = ⎢0.17 + 0.10 1 ⎥ r y ≥ 0.10 ry (A-1-6)
(Appendix 1) ⎣ M 2 ⎦ Fy Fy

Inelastic analysis is permitted for LRFD but not ASD There is no limit on Lb for members with circular or square
design. As the design is governed by the ductility of the plastic cross sections or for any beam bent about its minor axis.
hinge zones, the specified minimum yield stress for members
undergoing plastic hinging shall not exceed 65 ksi (450 MPa) The required axial strength of members subjected to plastic
and the compacteness criteria are those of Table B4.1 for λp hinging in combined flexure and axial compression shall not
modified as follows: exceed 0.7AgFy. The column slenderness ratio L/r of members
subjected to combined flexure and axial compression shall not
(a) For webs of doubly-symmetric wide flange members and
rectangular HSS in combined flexure and compression exceed 4.71 E / F y .

(i) for Pu/φb Py ≤ 0.125 Connections shall be designed with sufficient strength
and ductility to sustain the forces and deformations imposed
E ⎛ 2.75Pu ⎞ under the required loads.
h/tw ≤ 3.76 ⎜1 − ⎟
Fy ⎜ φ b Py ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Stability: Second-order effects may be neglected in frames
(ii) for Pu/φb Py > 0.125 where the ratio of the elastic buckling load to the loading
requirements specified in Section B3.3
⎛ ⎞
h/tw ≤ 1.12
E ⎜ 2.33 − Pu ⎟ ≥ 1.49 E (A-1-2) λcr > 10 (A1-7)
Fy ⎜ φ b Py ⎟ Fy
⎝ ⎠
For 5 < λcr < 10, second-order effects may be neglected
(b) For flanges of rectangular box and hollow structural sections provided that the design load effects are amplified by the factor:
of uniform thickness subject to bending or compression,
flange cover plates and diaphragm plates between lines of 0 .9
fasteners or welds: AF =
λ cr
b/t ≤ 0.94 E / Fy
For λcr < 5, the design shall be based on a second-order
(c) For circular hollow sections in flexure:
inelastic analysis. Two options are given: direct elastic-plastic
D/t ≤ 0.045E/Fy hinge analysis or distributed plasticity.
The laterally unbraced length, Lb, of the compression
flange adjacent to plastic hinge locations shall not exceed Lpd, Direct analysis: The requirements for direct elastic-plastic
determined as follows. hinge analysis are governed by the provisions of Appendix 7,
with the following modifications:
(a) For doubly symmetric and singly symmetric I-shaped
members with the compression flange equal to or larger than (1) Inelastic redistribution is permitted in members satisfying
the tension flange loaded in the plane of the web: the provisions of Section 1.2. Moments shall be
redistributed based on the assumption of elastic-perfectly
⎡ M ⎤ E plastic hinge response at the member resistance defined
L pd = ⎢0.12 + 0.076 1 ⎥ ry by the provisions of Appendix 7.
⎣ M 2 ⎦ Fy
(2) The notional load Ni shall be applied as an additive lateral
where load for all load combinations.
M1 = smaller moment at end of unbraced length of beam, kip-
in. (N-mm) Distributed plasticity: A second-order inelastic analysis
M2 = larger moment at end of unbraced length of beam, kip-in. that takes into account the relevant material properties,
(N-mm) geometric imperfections, residual stresses, partial yielding of

REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007 249
The new 2005 AISC specification
member cross sections and connection
force-deformation characteristics may be
used to assess the design strength of
structural frames, provided that the
analysis is shown to model the behavior
and the following requirements are
(1) All contributions to the elastic
stiffness of the structure shall be
reduced by a factor of 0.9.
(2) The material strength used in the
analysis shall be reduced by a factor
of 0.9.
(3) Unless member torsion-flexure
instabilities are captured by the
analysis, doubly-symmetric I-section
members shall satisfy Eq. H1-2 and
all other members shall satisfy
Eq. H1-1 for the limited state of out- Figure 6 - Computer model for the 300m long (200 m clear span) trusses of the
of-plane buckling. retractable roof of the Houston Reliant Energy Stadium (SAP 2000 model by Walter P.
Moore and Assoc., Houston, TX)
Moments shall be redistributed
based on the assumption of elastic-
perfectly plastic hinge response at the Specification presents a unified treatment of both the ASD and LRFD approach, and
member resistance defined by the incorporates the latest knowledge in material, member, connection and structural
provisions of Section H1, with the system behavior. In particular, through the new material in Chapters C and Appendices
nominal column strengths, P n , 1 and 7, the new Specification brings in advanced analysis methods into the design
determined using K = 1.0. For members of steel structures. It is expected that this will lead to more safe and reliable designs,
where the required axial strength is less more economical steel structures, more efficient design and use of steel in even more
than 0.15P y , moments may be daring structures (Figure 6).
redistributed based on the assumption
of elastic-perfectly plastic hinge
response at a member resistance of φbMp, 4. References
where φb = 0.9. 1. ACI Committee 318. ACI 318-02/ACI 318R-02 Building code requirements for reinforced
concrete and commentary. American Concrete Institute. Farmington Hills, MI. 2002.
2. AISC LRFD. Specification for steel buildings - load and resistance factor design (3rd
Edition). American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago. 1999.
3. Conclusions 3. AISC ASD. Manual of steel construction - allowable stress design (9th Edition). American
The 2005 AISC Specification Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago. 1989.
represents a significant improvement 4. AISC 2005a/ ANSI 360-05. Specification for structural steel buildings. American Institute
over previous editions from both the of Steel Construction, Chicago.
editorial and technical standpoint. From 5. AISC 2005b/ ANSI 341-05.Seismic provisions for structural steel buildings. American
Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.
the editorial standpoint, the
6. AISC, 2005c. Code of standard practice for steel buildings and bridges. American Institute
nomenclature has been tightened and of Steel Construction, Chicago.
the organization of the material follows 7. AISC, 2006/ ANSI N690L-06. Design specification for steel safety-related structures for
more closely how designers would use nuclear facilities, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago.
the specification in practice. From the 8. DUNCAN, 2006. Private communication (to be published in AISC EJ in 2006).
technical standpoint, the 2005 Artigo recebido em 04/12/2006 e aprovado em 05/12/2006.

250 REM: R. Esc. Minas, Ouro Preto, 60(2): 241-250, abr. jun. 2007

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