Você está na página 1de 20

21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus


As fontes cristãs, como os livros do Novo Testamento na Bíblia cristã,
incluem histórias detalhadas sobre Jesus, mas os estudiosos diferem na
historicidade de episódios específicos descritos nas narrativas bíblicas de
Jesus. [1] Os únicos dois eventos sujeitos ao "consentimento quase
universal" são que Jesus foi batizado por João Batista e foi crucificado pela
ordem do Prefeito Romano Pôncio Pilatos . [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]

Fontes não-cristãs que são usadas para estudar e estabelecer a


historicidade de Jesus incluem fontes judaicas como Josefo e fontes
romanas, como Tácito . Essas fontes são comparadas com fontes cristãs, A Pedra de Pilatos de Caesarea
como as Epístolas Paulinas e os Evangelhos Sinópticos . Essas fontes Maritima , agora no Museu de Israel
geralmente são independentes uma da outra (por exemplo, fontes judaicas
não se baseiam em fontes romanas), e as semelhanças e diferenças entre
elas são usadas no processo de autenticação. [10] [11]

Em uma revisão do estado da pesquisa, o estudioso judeu Amy-Jill Levine afirmou que "nenhuma imagem única de
Jesus convenceu a todos, ou mesmo a maioria dos estudiosos", e que todos os retratos de Jesus estão sujeitos a críticas
por algum grupo de estudiosos. [2]

Conteúdo
fontes não-cristãs
Principais fontes
Josefo
Tácito
Fontes relevantes
Mara bar Sarapion
Suetonius
O Talmud
Fontes menores
Fontes contestadas
James Ossuary

fontes cristãs
Epístolas paulinas
Visão geral
Referências específicas
Credos pré-paulinos
Evangelhos
Pais da Igreja primitiva
Textos gnósticos e apócrifos
Veja também
Notas
Referências

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 1/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Fontes não-cristãs

Fontes principais

Josefo
Os escritos do romano do século 1 - historiador judeu Flavius Josefo incluem
referências a Jesus e as origens do cristianismo . [12] [13] As antiguidades de Josefo
dos judeus , escritas em torno de 93-94 CE, incluem duas referências a Jesus nos
Livros 18 e 20 . [12] [14]

Das duas passagens, a passagem de James no Livro 20 é usada por estudiosos para
apoiar a existência de Jesus, o Testimonium Flavianum no Livro 18, sua
crucificação. [10] A passagem de Josefo James atesta a existência de Jesus como
uma pessoa histórica e que alguns de seus contemporâneos o consideraram o
Messias. [10] [15] De acordo com Bart Ehrman, a passagem de Josefo sobre Jesus foi
alterada por um escriba cristão, incluindo a referência a Jesus como o Messias. [16]

Um argumento textual contra a autenticidade da passagem de James é que o uso do


termo "Christos" parece incomum para Josefo. [17] Um argumento baseado no fluxo Uma página de uma cópia
1466 de Antiguidades dos
do texto no documento é que, dado que a menção de Jesus aparece nas
Judeus
Antigüidades antes da do João Batista, uma interpoladora cristã pode ter inserido
para colocar Jesus no texto antes John. [17] Um outro argumento contra a
autenticidade da passagem de James é que teria lido bem mesmo sem uma referência a Jesus. [17]

A passagem trata da morte de "Tiago, o irmão de Jesus" em Jerusalém. Enquanto as obras de Josefo se referem a pelo
menos vinte pessoas diferentes com o nome de Jesus , esta passagem especifica que este foi Jesus aquele que foi
chamado de Cristo. [18] [19] Louis Feldman afirma que esta passagem, acima de outros, indica que Josefo disse algo
sobre Jesus. [20]

A erudição moderna quase universalmente reconheceu a autenticidade da referência no Livro 20, Capítulo 9, 1 das
Antiguidades ao "irmão de Jesus, que se chamava Cristo, cujo nome era Tiago" [21] e considera-o como o mais alto
nível de autenticidade entre as referências de Josefo ao cristianismo. [12] [13] [22] [23] [24] [25]

O Testimonium Flavianum (o que significa o testemunho de Flavius [Josefo]) é o nome dado à passagem encontrada
no Livro 18, Capítulo 3, 3 das Antiguidades em que Josefo descreve a condenação e a crucificação de Jesus nas mãos
das autoridades romanas. [26] [27] Os estudiosos têm opiniões diferentes sobre a autenticidade total ou parcial da
referência na passagem para a execução de Jesus por Pontius Pilate . [12] [27] A visão acadêmica geral é que enquanto o
Testimonium Flavianumprovavelmente não é autêntico na sua totalidade, é amplamente acordado que originalmente
consistiu em um núcleo autêntico com uma referência à execução de Jesus por Pilatos que estava então sujeito à
interpolação cristã. [15] [27] [28] [29] [30] Embora a natureza exata e a extensão da redação cristã permaneçam incertas
[31], existe um amplo consenso quanto ao que o texto original do Testemunho de Josefo teria parecido . [30]

As referências encontradas nas Antigüidades não têm textos paralelos na outra obra de Josefo, como a Guerra
Judaica , escrita vinte anos antes, mas alguns estudiosos forneceram explicações sobre a ausência deles, como as
Antiguidades cobrem um período de tempo mais longo e que durante a intervalo de vinte anos entre a escrita das
Guerras Judaicas (c. 70 CE) e Antiguidades (após 90 EC), os cristãos se tornaram mais importantes em Roma e,
portanto, chamaram atenção nas Antigüidades . [32]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 2/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Existem várias variações entre as declarações de Josefo sobre as mortes de James e as contas do Novo Testamento .
[33] Os estudiosos geralmente vêem essas variações como indicações de que as passagens de Josefo não são
interpolações, porque um interpolador cristão mais provavelmente os teria feito corresponder às tradições cristãs.
[18] [33] Robert Eisenman fornece inúmeras fontes cristãs primitivas que confirmam o tese de Josefo, que James era o
irmão de Jesus. [34]

Tácito
O historiador romano e senador Tácito referida Cristo , sua execução por Pôncio
Pilatos ea existência de primeiros cristãos em Roma em seu trabalho final, Anais
(escrito ca. CE 116), livro 15, capítulo 44 . [35] [36] [37] A passagem relevante lê:
"chamados cristãos pela população. Christus, de quem o nome teve sua origem,
sofreu a pena extrema durante o reinado de Tibério nas mãos de um dos nossos
procuradores, Pontius Pilatus ".

Os estudiosos geralmente consideram a referência de Tácito à execução de Jesus


por Pontius Pilate para ser autêntico e de valor histórico como uma fonte romana
independente sobre o cristianismo primitivo que está em uníssono com outros
registros históricos. [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] William L. Portier afirmou que a consistência
nas referências de Tácito, Josefo e as cartas ao Imperador Trajano de Plínio, o
Jovem, reafirmam a validade das três contas. [42]

Tácito foi um senador romano patriótico e seus escritos não mostram simpatia em A página de título da edição
relação aos cristãos. [39] [43] [43] [44] [45] Andreas Köstenberger e, separadamente, 1598 das obras de Tácito,
Robert E. Van Voorst afirmam que o tom da passagem para os cristãos é muito mantidas em Empoli , na
negativo para ser autoreado por um escriba cristão - uma conclusão compartilhada Itália.

por John P. Meier [38] [46] [47] Robert E. Van Voorst afirma que "de todos os
escritores romanos, Tácito nos dá a informação mais precisa sobre Cristo". [38]

John Dominic Crossan considera a passagem importante ao estabelecer que Jesus existiu e foi crucificado, e afirma:
"Que ele foi crucificado é tão seguro quanto qualquer coisa histórica pode ser, já que Josefo e Tácito ... concordam com
as contas cristãs pelo menos esse fato básico ". [48] Bart D. Ehrman afirma: "O relatório de Tácito confirma o que
sabemos de outras fontes, que Jesus foi executado por ordem do governador romano da Judéia, Pôncio Pilatos,
durante algum tempo durante o reinado de Tibério". [49] Eddy e Boyd afirmam que agora está "firmemente
estabelecido" que Tácito fornece uma confirmação não-cristã da crucificação de Jesus. [50]

Embora a maioria dos estudiosos considere genuíno, alguns estudiosos questionam a autenticidade da passagem, dado
que Tácito nasceu 25 anos após a morte de Jesus. [38]

Alguns estudiosos discutiram o valor histórico da passagem, dado que Tácito não revela a fonte de sua informação. [51]
Gerd Theissen e Annette Merz argumentam que Tácito às vezes se baseou em obras históricas anteriores já perdidas
para nós, e ele pode ter usado fontes oficiais de um arquivo romano neste caso; no entanto, se Tácito estivesse
copiando de uma fonte oficial, alguns estudiosos esperariam que ele classificasse Pilatos corretamente como um
prefeito em vez de um procurador . [52] Theissen e Merz afirmam que Tácito nos dá uma descrição de preconceitos
generalizados sobre o cristianismo e alguns detalhes precisos sobre "Christus" e o cristianismo, cuja fonte ainda não
está clara. [53]No entanto, Paul R. Eddy afirmou que, dada a sua posição de senador, Tácito também teria acesso a
documentos oficiais romanos da época e não precisava de outras fontes. [54]

Michael Martin observa que a autenticidade desta passagem dos Anais também foi contestada com o argumento de
que Tácito não teria usado a palavra "messias" em um autêntico documento romano. [55]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 3/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Weaver observa que Táchito falou da perseguição dos cristãos, mas nenhum outro autor cristão escreveu sobre essa
perseguição por cem anos. [56]

Hotema observa que esta passagem não foi citada por nenhum pai da Igreja até o século XV, embora a passagem lhes
tenha sido muito útil em seu trabalho; [57] e que a passagem se refere aos cristãos em Roma sendo uma multidão,
enquanto naquela época a congregação cristã em Roma realmente teria sido muito pequena. [57]

Richard Carrier apresentou as ideias de que o "Cristo, o autor deste nome, foi executado pelo procurador Poncio
Pilatos no reino da linha de Tibério é uma interpolação cristã e que Tázus escreveu sobre os cristãos chrestianos não
cristãos. [58] [59]

Os estudiosos também discutiram a questão do boato na referência feita por Tácito. Charles Guignebert argumentou
que "desde que haja essa possibilidade [que Tácito está apenas fazendo eco do que os próprios cristãos estavam
dizendo], a passagem continua sem valor". [60] RT A França afirma que a passagem de Tácito é, na melhor das
hipóteses, tácito, repetindo o que tinha ouvido através dos cristãos. [61] No entanto, Paul R. Eddy afirmou que, como
historiador preeminente de Roma, Tácito era geralmente conhecido por verificar suas fontes e não tinha o hábito de
relatar fofocas. [54] Tácito foi membro do Quindecimviri sacris faciundis, um conselho de sacerdotes cujo dever era
supervisionar os cultos religiosos estrangeiros em Roma, que, como observa Van Voorst, faz razoável supor que ele
teria adquirido conhecimento de origens cristãs através do seu trabalho com esse corpo. [62]

Fontes relevantes

Mara bar Sarapion


Mara (filho de Sarapion) era um filósofo estóico da província romana da Síria . [63] [64] Em algum momento entre 73 e
o século III, Mara escreveu uma carta a seu filho (também chamado de Sarapion), que pode conter uma referência
não-cristã inicial à crucificação de Jesus . [63] [65] [66]

A carta refere-se ao tratamento injusto de "três homens sábios": o assassinato de Sócrates , a queima de Pitágoras e a
execução do "rei sábio" dos judeus. [63] [64] O autor explica que, em todos os três casos, o engano resultou no castigo
futuro dos responsáveis por Deus e que, quando os sábios são oprimidos, não só a sua sabedoria triunfa no final, mas
Deus castiga seus opressores. [66]

A carta não inclui temas cristãos e o autor é presumido como um pagão . [64] [65] Alguns estudiosos vêem a referência à
execução do "rei sábio" dos judeus como uma referência inicial não-cristã a Jesus. [63] [64] [65] Os critérios que
sustentam a origem não-cristã da carta incluem a observação de que "o rei dos judeus" não era um título cristão, e que
a premissa da carta de que Jesus vive depende da sabedoria de seus ensinamentos contrastam com o conceito cristão
de que Jesus continua a viver a sua ressurreição . [65] [66]

Estudiosos como Robert Van Voorst vê poucas dúvidas de que a referência à execução do " rei dos judeus " é sobre a
morte de Jesus . [66] Outros, como Craig A. Evans, vêem menos valor na carta, dada a data incerta e a possível
ambigüidade na referência. [67]

Suetonius
O historiador romano Suetonius (c. 69 - depois de 122 aC) fez referência aos primeiros cristãos e seu líder em seu
trabalho Vidas dos Doze Caesares (escrito 121 EC). [63] [68] [69] [70] As referências aparecem em Claudius 25 e Nero 16
que descrevem a vida dos imperadores romanos Claudius e Nero . [68] A passagem de Nero 16 refere-se aos abusos de
Nero e menciona como ele infligiu punição aos cristãos - o que geralmente é datado em torno de CE 64. [71]Esta

passagem mostra o claro desprezo de Suetônio pelos cristãos - o mesmo desprezo expresso por Tácito e Plínio, o mais
jovem em seus escritos, mas não se refere ao próprio Jesus. [69]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 4/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

A passagem anterior em Claudius, pode incluir uma referência a Jesus, mas está sujeita
a debate entre os estudiosos. [70] Em Cláudio 25 Suetônio se refere à expulsão dos
judeus por parte de Cláudio e afirma: [68]

"Uma vez que os judeus constantemente provocaram distúrbios


por instigação de Chrestus, ele os expulsou de Roma".

A referência em Claudius 25 envolve as agitações na comunidade judaica que levaram à


expulsão de alguns judeus de Roma por parte de Cláudio, e provavelmente é o mesmo
evento mencionado nos Atos dos Apóstolos ( 18: 2 ). [63] A maioria dos historiadores
data desta expulsão em torno de CE 49-50. [63] [72] Suetônio refere-se ao líder dos
cristãos como Chrestus , um termo também usado por Tácito , referido em dicionários
latinos como uma (entre outras coisas) versão de 'Christus'. [73] No entanto, a redação Uma cópia 1540 de
usada por Suetonius implica que Chrestus estava vivo no momento da perturbação e Lives of the Twelve
estava agitando os judeus em Roma. [30] [63]Isso enfraquece o valor histórico de sua Caesars por Suetonius
referência como um todo, e não há um consenso escolar geral sobre seu valor como
uma referência a Jesus. [30] [70] No entanto, a confusão de Suetonius também aponta
para a falta de interpolação cristã, pois um escriba cristão não teria confundido os judeus com os cristãos. [30] [70]

A maioria dos estudiosos assume que, na referência, Jesus é significado e que os distúrbios mencionados foram
devidos à propagação do cristianismo em Roma . [70] [74] [75] No entanto, os estudiosos são divididos sobre o valor da
referência de Suetonius. Alguns estudiosos como Craig A. Evans , John Meier e Craig S. Keener vêem isso como uma
referência provável a Jesus. [76] [77] Outros como Stephen Benko e H. Dixon Slingerland vêem como tendo pouco ou
nenhum valor histórico. [70]

Menahem Stern afirma que Suetonius definitivamente estava se referindo a Jesus; porque ele teria acrescentado
"certo" a Chrestus se ele tivesse significado algum agitador desconhecido. [78]

O Talmud
O Talmud da Babilônia em alguns casos inclui possíveis referências a Jesus usando
os termos "Yeshu", "Yeshu ha-Notzri", "ben Stada" e "ben Pandera". Algumas
dessas referências provavelmente datam do período Tannaitic (70-200 CE). [79] [80]
Em alguns casos, não está claro se as referências são para Jesus, ou outras pessoas,
e os estudiosos continuam a debater o seu valor histórico, e exatamente quais as
referências, se houver, para Jesus. [81] [82] [83]

Robert Van Voorst afirma que a escassez de referências judaicas a Jesus não é
surpreendente, dado que Jesus não era uma questão proeminente para os judeus
durante o primeiro século, e após a devastação causada pelo cerco de Jerusalém no
ano 70, estudiosos judeus foram concentrando-se na preservação do próprio
judaísmo , em vez de prestar muita atenção ao cristianismo. [84]
Uma página do Sinédrio no
Robert Eisenman argumenta que a derivação de Jesus de Nazaré de "ha-Notzri" é século 12 Reuchlin Codex
impossível por motivos etimológicos, como sugeriria "o Nazirite " ao invés de "o Talmud
Nazareno". [85]

Van Voorst afirma que, embora a questão de quem foi referido em vários pontos do Talmud continua sujeita a debate
entre estudiosos, no caso do Sinédrio 43a (geralmente considerado a referência mais importante a Jesus na literatura
rabínica), Jesus pode ser confirmado como O assunto da passagem, não apenas da referência em si, mas do contexto

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 5/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

que a rodeia, e há poucas dúvidas de que se refere à morte de Jesus de Nazaré. [86] [87] Christopher M. Tuckett afirma
que se é aceito que a narrativa da morte do Sinédrio 43a se refere a Jesus de Nazaré, então fornece provas da
existência e execução de Jesus. [88]

Andreas Kostenberger afirma que a passagem é uma referência Tannaitic ao julgamento e a morte de Jesus na Páscoa
e é provavelmente mais cedo do que outras referências a Jesus no Talmud. [80] A passagem reflete hostilidade em
relação a Jesus entre os rabinos e inclui este texto: [79] [80]

É ensinado: na véspera da Páscoa eles penduraram Yeshu e o criador saiu por quarenta dias antes
declarando que "[Yeshu] será apedrejado por praticar feitiçaria, por atrapalhar e desviar Israel. Quem
sabe alguma coisa para limpá-lo deveria vir e exonerá-lo ". Mas ninguém tinha nada exonerando para ele
e o penduraram na véspera da Páscoa. [89]

Peter Schäfer afirma que não há dúvida de que a narrativa da execução de Jesus no Talmud se refere a Jesus de
Nazaré, mas afirma que a literatura rabínica em questão não é Tannaitic, mas de um período amoraico posterior e
pode ter atraído o cristão evangelhos, e pode ter sido escrito como respostas para eles. [90] Bart Ehrman e,
separadamente, Mark Allan Powell afirmam que, dado que as referências do Talmud são bastante atrasadas, elas não
podem fornecer informações historicamente confiáveis sobre os ensinamentos ou ações de Jesus durante sua vida.
[91] [92]

Another reference in early second century Rabbinic literature (Tosefta Hullin II 22) refers to Rabbi Eleazar ben Dama
who was bitten by a snake, but was denied healing in the name of Jesus by another Rabbi for it was against the law,
and thus died.[93] This passage reflects the attitude of Jesus' early Jewish opponents, i.e. that his miracles were based
on evil powers.[93][94]

Eddy and Boyd, who question the value of several of the Talmudic references state that the significance of the Talmud
to historical Jesus research is that it never denies the existence of Jesus, but accuses him of sorcery, thus indirectly
confirming his existence.[81] R. T. France and separately Edgar V. McKnight state that the divergence of the Talmud
statements from the Christian accounts and their negative nature indicate that they are about a person who
existed.[95][96] Craig Blomberg states that the denial of the existence of Jesus was never part of the Jewish tradition,
which instead accused him of being a sorcerer and magician, as also reflected in other sources such as Celsus.[79]
Andreas Kostenberger states that the overall conclusion that can be drawn from the references in the Talmud is that
Jesus was a historical person whose existence was never denied by the Jewish tradition, which instead focused on
discrediting him.[80]

Minor sources
Pliny the Younger (c. 61 - c. 112), the provincial governor of Pontus and Bithynia, wrote to Emperor Trajan c. 112
concerning how to deal with Christians, who refused to worship the emperor, and instead worshiped "Christus".
Charles Guignebert, who does not doubt that Jesus of the Gospels lived in Gallilee in the 1st century, nevertheless
dismisses this letter as acceptable evidence for a historical Jesus.[97]

Thallus, of whom very little is known, and none of whose writings survive, wrote a history allegedly around the
middle to late first century CE, to which Eusebius referred. Julius Africanus, writing c 221, links a reference in the
third book of the History to the period of darkness described in the crucifixion accounts in three of the Gospels .[98][99]
It is not known whether Thallus made any mention to the crucifixion accounts; if he did, it would be the earliest
noncanonical reference to a gospel episode, but its usefulness in determining the historicity of Jesus is uncertain.[98]
The dating of Thallus is dependent on him writing about an event during the 207th Olympiad (49-52 AD), which
means he wrote after that date, not near that date. This depends on the text being corrupt, which would mean Thallus
could have been writing after the 217th Olympiad (89-92 AD), or even the 167th Olympiad (112-109 BC). He is first

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 6/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

referenced by Theophilus, writing around 180 AD, which means Thallus could have written any time between 109 BC
and 180 AD. All we know is Thallus mentioned a solar eclipse, and as solar eclipses are not possible at Passover, that
would mean Thallus was not talking about the crucifixion of Jesus at all.[100]

Phlegon of Tralles, A.D. 80 - 140, similar to Thallus, Julius Africanus mentions a historian named Phlegon who
wrote a chronicle of history around A.D. 140, where he records: “Phlegon records that, in the time of Tiberius Caesar,
at full moon, there was a full eclipse of the sun from the sixth to the ninth hour.” (Africanus, Chronography, 18:1)
Phlegon is also mentioned by Origen (an early church theologian and scholar, born in Alexandria): “Now Phlegon, in
the thirteenth or fourteenth book, I think, of his Chronicles, not only ascribed to Jesus a knowledge of future events . . .
but also testified that the result corresponded to His predictions.” (Origen Against Celsus, Book 2, Chapter 14) “And
with regard to the eclipse in the time of Tiberius Caesar, in whose reign Jesus appears to have been crucified, and the
great earthquakes which then took place … ” (Origen Against Celsus, Book 2, Chapter 33) “Jesus, while alive, was of no
assistance to himself, but that he arose after death, and exhibited the marks of his punishment, and showed how his
hands had been pierced by nails.” (Origen Against Celsus, Book 2, Chapter 59).[101] However, Eusebius in The
Chronicon (written in the 4th century AD) records what Phlegon said verbatim. "Now, in the fourth year of the 202nd
Olympiad [32 AD], a great eclipse of the sun occurred at the sixth hour [noon] that excelled every other before it,
turning the day into such darkness of night that the stars could be seen in heaven, and the earth moved in Bithynia,
toppling many buildings in the city of Nicaea." Phlegon never mentions Jesus or the 3 hour darkness. He also
mentions a solar eclipse, which can not occur at Passover. Apart from the year (which may be a corruption), this
description fits an earthquake and eclipse that occurred in North West Turkey on November, 29 AD.[102]

Celsus writing late in the second century produced the first full-scale attack on Christianity.[98][103] Celsus' document
has not survived but in the third century Origen replied to it, and what is known of Celsus' writing is through the
responses of Origen.[98] According to Origen, Celsus accused Jesus of being a magician and a sorcerer. While the
statements of Celsus may be seen as valuable, they have little historical value, given that the wording of the original
writings can not be examined.[103]

The Dead Sea scrolls are first century or older writings that show the language and customs of some Jews of Jesus'
time.[104] Scholars such as Henry Chadwick see the similar uses of languages and viewpoints recorded in the New
Testament and the Dead Sea scrolls as valuable in showing that the New Testament portrays the first century period
that it reports and is not a product of a later period.[105][106] However, the relationship between the Dead Sea scrolls
and the historicity of Jesus has been the subject of highly controversial theories, and although new theories continue
to appear, there is no overall scholarly agreement about their impact on the historicity of Jesus, despite the usefulness
of the scrolls in shedding light on first-century Jewish traditions.[107][108]

Disputed sources
The following sources are disputed, and of limited historical value, but they are at least proof of Christians existing and
being known and talked about in the first and second centuries.

Lucian of Samosata (born 115 CE), a well-known Greek satirist and traveling lecturer wrote mockingly of the
followers of Jesus for their ignorance and credulity.[98][109] Given that Lucian's understanding of Christian
traditions has significant gaps and errors, his writing is unlikely to have been influenced by Christians themselves,
and he may provide an independent statement about the crucifixion of Jesus.[98] However, given the nature of the
text as satire, Lucian may have embellished the stories he heard and his account cannot have a high degree of
historical reliability.[109]
Emperor Trajan (c. 53 - 117), in reply to a letter sent by Pliny the Younger, wrote "You observed proper procedure,
my dear Pliny, in sifting the cases of those who had been denounced to you as Christians. For it is not possible to
lay down any general rule to serve as a kind of fixed standard. They are not to be sought out; if they are
denounced and proved guilty, they are to be punished, with this reservation, that whoever denies that he is a
Christian and really proves it—that is, by worshiping our gods—even though he was under suspicion in the past,
shall obtain pardon through repentance. But anonymously posted accusations ought to have no place in any
prosecution. For this is both a dangerous kind of precedent and out of keeping with the spirit of our age."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 7/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Epictetus (A.D. 55 - 135) provides another possible yet disputed reference to Christians as "Galileans" in his
"Discourses" 4.7.6 and 2.9.19-21: "Therefore, if madness can produce this attitude [of detachment] toward these
things [death, loss of family, property], and also habit, as with the Galileans, can no one learn from reason and
demonstration that God has made all things in the universe, and the whole universe itself, to be unhindered and
complete in itself, and the parts of it to serve the needs of the whole."
Numenius of Apamea, in the second century, wrote a possible allusion to Christians and Christ that is contained in
fragments of his treatises on the points of divergence between the Academicians and Plato, on the Good (in
which according to Origen, Contra Celsum, iv. 51, he makes an allusion to Jesus Christ).[110]
Claudius Galenus (Galen) (A.D. 129 - 200) may reference Christ and his followers; From Galen, De differentiis
pulsuum (On the pulse), iii, 3. The work is listed in De libris propriis 5, and seems to belong between 176-192 AD,
or possibly even 176-180: "One might more easily teach novelties to the followers of Moses and Christ than to the
physicians and philosophers who cling fast to their schools"[111]

James Ossuary
There is a limestone burial box from the 1st century known as the James Ossuary with the Aramaic inscription,
"James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus." The authenticity of the inscription was challenged by the Israel Antiquities
Authority, who filed a complaint with the Israeli police. In 2012, the owner of the ossuary was found not guilty, with
the judge ruling that the authenticity of the ossuary inscription had not been proven either way.[112] It has been
suggested it was a forgery.[113]

Christian sources
Various books, memoirs and stories were written about Jesus by the early Christians. The most famous are the gospels
of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. All but one of these are believed to have been written within 50–70 years of the
death of Jesus, with the Gospel of Mark believed to be the earliest, and the last the Gospel of John.[114][115] Blainey
writes that the oldest surviving record written by an early Christian is a short letter by St Paul: the First Epistle to the
Thessalonians, which appeared about 25 years after the death of Jesus.[116] This letter, while important in describing
issues for the development of Gentilic Christianity, contains little of significance for understanding the life of the
historic Jesus.[117]

Bart Ehrman, Robert Eisenman and others critical of traditional Christian views, in assessing the problems involved in
conducting historical Jesus research, say the Gospels are full of discrepancies, were written decades after Jesus' death,
by authors who had not witnessed any events in Jesus' life. They go on to say the Gospels were authored not by
eyewitnesses who were contemporary with the events that they narrate but rather by people who did not know Jesus,
see anything he did, or hear anything he taught, and that the authors did not even share a language with Jesus. The
accounts they produced are not disinterested; they are narratives produced by Christians who actually believed in
Jesus, and were not immune from slanting the stories in light of their biases. Ehrman points out that the texts are
widely inconsistent, full of discrepancies and contradictions in both details and larger portraits of who Jesus
was.[118][119]

Pauline epistles

Overview
In the context of Christian sources, even if all other texts are ignored, the Pauline epistles can provide some
information regarding Jesus.[7][120] This information does not include a narrative of the life of Jesus, and refers to his
existence as a person, but adds few specific items apart from his death by crucifixion.[121] This information comes
from those letters of Paul whose authenticity is not disputed.[120] Paul was not a companion of Jesus and claims his
information comes from the holy spirit acquired after Jesus' death.[122]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 8/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Of the thirteen letters that bear Paul's name, seven are considered authentic by almost
all scholars, and the others are generally considered pseudepigraphic.[123][124][125][126]
The 7 undisputed letters (and their approximate dates) are: 1 Thessalonians (c. 51 CE),
Philippians (c. 52-54 CE), Philemon (c. 52-54 CE), 1 Corinthians (c. 53-54 CE),
Galatians (c. 55 CE), 2 Corinthians (c. 55-56 CE) and Romans (c. 55-58
CE).[123][125][126] The authenticity of these letters is accepted by almost all scholars, and
they have been referenced and interpreted by early authors such as Origen and
Eusebius.[124][127]

Given that the Pauline epistles are generally dated to CE 50 to CE 60, they are the
earliest surviving Christian texts that include information about Jesus.[126] These
letters were written approximately twenty to thirty years after the generally accepted A page from 2
time period for the death of Jesus, around CE 30-36.[126] The letters were written Corinthians in Papyrus
during a time when Paul recorded encounters with the disciples of Jesus, e.g. Galatians 46, c. CE 200
1:18 states that several years after his conversion Paul went to Jerusalem and stayed
with Apostle Peter for fifteen days.[126] During this time, Paul disputed the nature of
Jesus' message with Jesus's brother James, concerning the importance of adhering to kosher food restrictions and
circumcision, important features of determining Jewish identity.[128][129]

The Pauline letters were not intended to provide a narrative of the life of Jesus, but were written as expositions of
Christian teachings.[126][130] In Paul's view, the earthly life of Jesus was of a lower importance than the theology of his
death and resurrection,a theme that permeates Pauline writings.[131] However, the Pauline letters clearly indicate that
for Paul Jesus was a real person (born of a woman as in Gal 4.4), a Jew ("born under the law", Romans 1.3) who had
disciples (1 Corinthians 15.5), who was crucified (as in 1 Corinthians 2.2 and Galatians 3.1) and who resurrected from
the dead (1 Corinthians 15.20, Romans 1.4 and 6.5, Philippians 3:10-11).[7][120][126][131] And the letters reflect the
general concept within the early Gentillic Christian Church that Jesus existed, was crucified and was raised from the
dead.[7][126]

The references by Paul to Jesus do not in themselves prove the existence of Jesus, but they do establish that the
existence of Jesus was the accepted norm within the early Christians (including the Christian community in
Jerusalem, given the references to collections there) twenty to thirty years after the death of Jesus, at a time when
those who could have been acquainted with him could still be alive.[132][133]

Specific references
The seven Pauline epistles that are widely regarded as authentic include the following information that along with
other historical elements are used to study the historicity of Jesus:[7][120]

Existence of Jesus: That in Paul's view Jesus existed and was a Jew is based on Galatians 4:4 which states that
he was "born of a woman" and Romans 1:3 that he was "born under the law".[7][120][134] Some scholars such as
Paul Barnett hold that this indicates that Paul had some familiarity with the circumstances of the birth of Jesus,
but that is not shared among scholars in general.[130][135] However, the statement does indicate that Paul had
some knowledge of and interest in Jesus' life before his crucifixion.[130]
Disciples and brothers: 1 Corinthians 15:5 states that Paul knew that Jesus had 12 disciples, and considers Peter
as one of them.[7][134][136] 1 Corinthians 1:12 further indicates that Peter was known in Corinth before the writing
of 1 Corinthians, for it assumes that they were familiar with Cephas/Peter.[137][138] The statement in 1 Corinthians
15:5 indicates that "the twelve" as a reference to the twelve apostles was a generally known notion within the
early Christian Church in Corinth and required no further explanation from Paul.[139] Galatians 1:18 further states
that Paul personally knew Peter and stayed with him in Jerusalem for fifteen days, about three years after his
conversion.[140] It also implies that Peter was already known to the Galatians and required no introduction.[141] 1
Corinthians 9:5 and Galatians 1:19 state that Jesus had brothers, one being called James, whom Paul met or
"saw."[7][7][121][134] James was claimed by early Christian writers as Origen and Eusebius to have been the leader
of the followers of Jesus, after his brother's death, and to have been the first bishop, or bishop of bishops in
Jerusalem.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 9/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Betrayal and rituals: That Jesus was betrayed and established some traditions such as
the Eucharist are derived from 1 Corinthians 11:23-25 which states: "The Lord Jesus in
the night in which he was betrayed took bread; and when he had given thanks, he brake
it, and said, This is my body, which is for you: this do in remembrance of me.".[7][134]
Crucifixion: The Pauline letters include several references to the crucifixion of Jesus e.g.
1 Corinthians 11:23, 1 Corinthians 2:2 and Galatians 3:1 among others.[7][134] The death
of Jesus forms a central element of the Pauline letters.[131] 1 Thessalonians 2:15 places
the responsibility for the death of Jesus on some Jews.[7][134] Moreover the statement in
1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 about the Jews "who both killed the Lord Jesus" and "drove out
us" indicates that the death of Jesus was within the same time frame as the persecution
of Paul.[142]

Burial: 1 Corinthians 15:4 and Romans 6:4 state that following his death Jesus was
buried (but does not mention a tomb).[134] This reference is then used by Paul to build on
the theology of resurrection, but reflects the common belief at the time that Jesus was
buried after his death.[143][144]
The existence of only these references to Jesus in the Pauline epistles has given rise to
criticism of them by G. A. Wells, who is generally accepted as a leader of the movement to
deny the historicity of Jesus.[145][146] When Wells was still denying the existence of Jesus, he
Early 3rd century
criticized the Pauline epistles for not mentioning items such as John the Baptist or Judas or copy of Epistle to
the trial of Jesus and used that argument to conclude that Jesus was not a historical the Romans from
figure.[145][146][147] Papyrus 27

James D. G. Dunn addressed Wells' statement and stated that he knew of no other scholar
that shared that view, and most other scholars had other and more plausible explanations for the fact that Paul did not
include a narrative of the life of Jesus in his letters, which were primarily written as religious documents rather than
historical chronicles at a time when the life story of Jesus could have been well known within the early Church.[147]
Dunn states that despite Wells' arguments, the theories of the non-existence of Jesus are a "thoroughly dead
thesis".[131]

While Wells no longer denies the existence of Jesus, he has responded to Dunn, stating that his arguments from
silence not only apply to Paul but all early Christian authors, and that he still has a low opinion of early Christian texts,
maintaining that for Paul Jesus may have existed a good number of decades before.[145]

Pre-Pauline creeds
The Pauline letters sometimes refer to creeds, or confessions of faith, that predate their writings.[148][149][150] For
instance 1 Corinthians 15:3-4 reads: "For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for
our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the
Scriptures."[148] Romans 1:3-4 refers to Romans 1:2 just before it which mentions an existing gospel, and in effect may
be treating it as an earlier creed.[148][149]

One of the keys to identifying a pre-Pauline tradition is given in 1 Corinthians 15:11[150]

Whether then [it be] I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed.

Here Paul refers to others before him who preached the creed.[150] James Dunn states that 1 Corinthians 15:3 indicates
that in the 30s Paul was taught about the death of Jesus a few years earlier.[151]

The Pauline letters thus contain Christian creed elements of pre-Pauline origin.[152] The antiquity of the creed has
been located by many Biblical scholars to less than a decade after Jesus' death, originating from the Jerusalem
apostolic community.[153] Concerning this creed, Campenhausen wrote, "This account meets all the demands of
historical reliability that could possibly be made of such a text,"[154] whilst A. M. Hunter said, "The passage therefore
preserves uniquely early and verifiable testimony. It meets every reasonable demand of historical reliability."[155]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 10/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

These creeds date to within a few years of Jesus' death, and developed within the Christian community in
Jerusalem.[156] Although embedded within the texts of the New Testament, these creeds are a distinct source for Early
Christianity.[149] This indicates that existence and death of Jesus was part of Christian belief a few years after his death
and over a decade before the writing of the Pauline epistles.[156]

Gospels
The four canonical gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, are the main sources
for the biography of Jesus' life, the teachings and actions attributed to
him.[157][158][159] Three of these (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are known as the
synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view"),
given that they display a high degree of similarity in content, narrative
arrangement, language and paragraph structure.[160][161] The presentation in the
fourth canonical gospel, i.e. John, differs from these three in that it has more of a
thematic nature rather than a narrative format.[162] Scholars generally agree that
it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the synoptic
gospels and the Gospel of John.[162]

The authors of the New Testament generally showed little interest in an absolute
chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular
history of the age.[163] The gospels were primarily written as theological
documents in the context of early Christianity with the chronological timelines as P52, a papyrus fragment
a secondary consideration.[164] One manifestation of the gospels being theological from a codex (c. 90–160),
documents rather than historical chronicles is that they devote about one third of one of the earliest known
their text to just seven days, namely the last week of the life of Jesus in New Testament manuscripts.
Jerusalem.[165] Although the gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the
demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, scholars have used them to
reconstruct a number of portraits of Jesus.[163][164][166] However, as stated in John 21:25 the gospels do not claim to
provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus.[167]

Scholars have varying degrees of certainty about the historical reliability of the accounts in the gospels, and the only
two events whose historicity is the subject of almost universal agreement among scholars are the baptism and
crucifixion of Jesus.[3] Scholars such as E.P. Sanders and separately Craig A. Evans go further and assume that two
other events in the gospels are historically certain, namely that Jesus called disciples, and caused a controversy at the
Temple.[9]

Ever since the Augustinian hypothesis, scholars continue to debate the order in which the gospels were written, and
how they may have influenced each other, and several hypothesis exist in that regard, e.g. the Markan priority
hypothesis holds that the Gospel of Mark was written first c. 70 CE.[168][169] In this approach, Matthew is placed at
being sometime after this date and Luke is thought to have been written between 70 and 100 CE.[170] However,
according to the competing, and more popular, Q source hypothesis, the gospels were not independently written, but
were derived from a common source called Q.[171][172] The two-source hypothesis then proposes that the authors of
Matthew and Luke drew on the Gospel of Mark as well as on Q.[173]

The gospels can be seen as having three separate lines: A literary line which looks at it from a textual perspective,
secondly a historical line which observes how Christianity started as a renewal movement within Judaism and
eventually separated from it, and finally a theological line which analyzes Christian teachings.[174] Within the
historical perspective, the gospels are not simply used to establish the existence of Jesus as sources in their own right
alone, but their content is compared and contrasted to non-Christian sources, and the historical context, to draw
conclusions about the historicity of Jesus.[7][15][175]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 11/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

Early Church fathers


Two possible patristic sources that may refer to eye witness encounters with Jesus are
the early references of Papias and Quadratus, reported by Eusebius of Caesarea in the
4th century.[176][177]

The works of Papias have not survived, but Eusebius quotes him as saying:[176]

"…if by chance anyone who had been in attendance on the elders


should come my way, I inquired about the words of the elders –
that is, what according to the elders Andrew or Peter said, or
Philip, or Thomas or James, or John or Matthew or any other of
the Lord’s disciples, and whatever Aristion and the elder John, the
Eusebius of Caesarea
Lord’s disciples, were saying."

Richard Bauckham states that while Papias was collecting his information (c. 90),
Aristion and the elder John (who were Jesus' disciples) were still alive and teaching in Asia minor, and Papias
gathered information from people who had known them.[176] However, the exact identity of the "elder John" is wound
up in the debate on the authorship of the Gospel of John, and scholars have differing opinions on that, e.g. Jack
Finegan states that Eusebius may have misunderstood what Papias wrote, and the elder John may be a different
person from the author of the fourth gospel, yet still a disciple of Jesus.[178] Gary Burge, on the other hand sees
confusion on the part of Eusebius and holds the elder John to be different person from the apostle John.[179]

The letter of Quadratus (possibly the first Christian apologist) to emperor Hadrian (who reigned 117 – 138) is likely to
have an early date and is reported by Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History 4.3.2 to have stated:[180]

"The words of our Savior were always present, for they were true: those who were healed,
those who rose from the dead, those who were not only seen in the act of being healed or
raised, but were also always present, not merely when the Savior was living on earth, but
also for a considerable time after his departure, so that some of them survived even to our
own times."[181]

By "our Savior" Quadratus means Jesus and the letter is most likely written before CE 124.[177] Bauckham states that
by "our times" he may refer to his early life, rather than when he wrote (117–124), which would be a reference
contemporary with Papias.[182] Bauckham states that the importance of the statement attributed to Quadratus is that
he emphasizes the "eye witness" nature of the testimonies to interaction with Jesus.[181] Such "eye witness statements"
abound in early Christian writings, particularly the pseudonymous Christian Apocrypha, Gospels and Letters, in order
to give them credibility.

Gnostic and apocryphal texts


A number of later Christian texts, usually dating to the second century or later, exist as New Testament apocrypha,
among which the gnostic gospels have been of major recent interest among scholars.[183] The 1945 discovery of the
Nag Hammadi library created a significant amount of scholarly interest and many modern scholars have since studied
the gnostic gospels and written about them.[184] However, the trend among the 21st century scholars has been to
accept that while the gnostic gospels may shed light on the progression of early Christian beliefs, they offer very little
to contribute to the study of the historicity of Jesus, in that they are rather late writings, usually consisting of sayings
(rather than narrative, similar to the hypothesised Q documents), their authenticity and authorship remain
questionable, and various parts of them rely on components of the New Testament.[184][185] The focus of modern
research into the historical Jesus has been away from gnostic writings and towards the comparison of Jewish, Greco-
Roman and canonical Christian sources.[184][185]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 12/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

As an example, Bart Ehrman states that gnostic writings of the Gospel of Thomas (part of the Nag Hammadi library)
have very little value in historical Jesus research, because the author of that gospel placed no importance on the
physical experiences of Jesus (e.g. his crucifixion) or the physical existence of believers, and was only interested in the
secret teachings of Jesus rather than any physical events.[185] Similarly, the Apocryphon of John (also part of the Nag
Hammadi library) has been useful in studying the prevailing attitudes in the second century, and questions of
authorship regarding the Book of revelation, given that it refers to Revelation 1:19, but is mostly about the post
ascension teachings of Jesus in a vision, not a narrative of his life.[186] Some scholars such as Edward Arnal contend
that the Gospel of Thomas continues to remain useful for understanding how the teachings of Jesus were transmitted
among early Christians, and sheds light on the development of early Christianity.[187]

There is overlap between the sayings of Jesus in the apocryphal texts and canonical Christian writings, and those not
present in the canonical texts are called agrapha. There are at least 225 agrapha but most scholars who have studied
them have drawn negative conclusions about the authenticity of most of them and see little value in using them for
historical Jesus research.[188] Robert Van Voorst states that the vast majority of the agrapha are certainly
inauthentic.[188] Scholars differ on the number of authentic agrapha, some estimating as low as seven as authentic,
others as high as 18 among the more than 200, rendering them of little value altogether.[188] While research on
apocryphal texts continues, the general scholarly opinion holds that they have little to offer to the study of the
historicity of Jesus given that they are often of uncertain origin, and almost always later documents of lower value.[183]

See also
Christ myth theory
Census of Quirinius, the enrollment of the Roman provinces of Syria and Judaea for tax purposes taken in the
year 6/7.
Cultural and historical background of Jesus
Historical Jesus
Historical reliability of the Gospels
Quest for the historical Jesus
The Bible and history

Notes
1. Powell, Mark Allan (1998). Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee.
p. 181. ISBN 0-664-25703-8.
2. Levine, Amy-Jill (2006). Amy-Jill Levine; et al., eds. The Historical Jesus in Context. Princeton University Press.
pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6.
3. Dunn, James D. G. (2003). Jesus Remembered. p. 339. ISBN 0-8028-3931-2. States that baptism and crucifixion
are "two facts in the life of Jesus command almost universal assent".
4. William, R. Herzog (2005). Prophet and Teacher: An Introduction to the Historical Jesus. pp. 1–6.
ISBN 0664225284.
5. Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. p. 145. ISBN 0-06-061662-8.
"That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus...agree with
the Christian accounts on at least that basic fact."
6. Craig, A. Evans (2001). Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies. pp. 2–5. ISBN 0391041185.
7. Tuckett, Christopher M. (2001). Markus N. A. Bockmuehl, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. pp. 122–126.
ISBN 0521796784.
8. Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. pp. ix–xi.
ISBN 0195124731.
9. Chilton, Bruce; Evans, Craig A. (2002). Authenticating the Activities of Jesus. pp. 3–7. ISBN 0391041649.
10. Bockmuehl, Markus N. A. (2001). The Cambridge Companion to Jesus. pp. 121–125. ISBN 0521796784.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 13/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

11. Chilton, Bruce; Evans, Craig A. (1998). Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current
Research. pp. 460–470. ISBN 9004111425.
12. Feldman, Louis H.; Hata, Gōhei, eds. (1987). Josephus, Judaism and Christianity BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-08554-
1. pages 54-57
13. Maier, Paul L. (December 1995). Josephus, the essential works: a condensation of Jewish antiquities and The
Jewish war. Kregel Academic. ISBN 978-0-8254-3260-6 pages 284-285
14. Maier, Paul L. (December 1995). Josephus, the essential works: a condensation of Jewish antiquities and The
Jewish war. Kregel Academic. ISBN 978-0-8254-3260-6-page 12
15. Kostenberger, Andreas J.; Kellum, L. Scott; Quarles, Charles L. (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An
Introduction to the New Testament ISBN 0-8054-4365-7 pages 104-105
16. Bart Ehrman, Jesus Interrupted, pg 159, Harper Collins
17. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus
Tradition. ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 128-130
18. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus
Tradition. ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 129-130
19. Painter, John (2005). Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition. ISBN 0-567-04191-3-page 137
20. Feldman, Louis H.; Hata, Gōhei. Josephus, Judaism and Christianity. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-08554-8. page 56
21. Louis Feldman (ISBN 90-04-08554-8 pages 55-57) states that the authenticity of the Josephus passage on
James has been "almost universally acknowledged".
22. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm.
B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9-page 83
23. Richard Bauckham "FOR WHAT OFFENSE WAS JAMES PUT TO DEATH?" in James the Just and Christian
origins by Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans 1999 ISBN 90-04-11550-1 pages 199-203
24. Painter, John (2005). Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition. ISBN 0-567-04191-3 pages 134-
141
25. Sample quotes from previous references: Van Voorst (ISBN 0-8028-4368-9-page 83) states that the
overwhelming majority of scholars consider both the reference to "the brother of Jesus called Christ" and the
entire passage that includes it as authentic." Bauckham (ISBN 90-04-11550-1 pages 199-203) states: "the vast
majority have considered it to be authentic". Meir (ISBN 978-0-8254-3260-6 pages 108-109) agrees with Feldman
that few have questioned the authenticity of the James passage. Setzer (ISBN 0-8006-2680-X pages 108-109)
also states that few have questioned its authenticity.
26. Flavius Josephus; Whiston, William; Maier, Paul L. (May 1999). The New Complete Works of Josephus. Kregel
Academic. ISBN 0-8254-2948-X page 662
27. Schreckenberg, Heinz; Schubert, Kurt (1992a). Jewish Traditions in Early Christian Literature. 2. ISBN 90-232-
2653-4 pages 38-41
28. Evans, Craig A. (2001). Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies ISBN 0-391-04118-5-page 316
29. Wansbrough, Henry (2004). Jesus and the oral Gospel tradition. ISBN 0-567-04090-9-page 185
30. Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 pages 141-143
31. Wilhelm Schneemelcher, Robert McLachlan Wilson, New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and Related Writings,
page 490 (James Clarke & Co. Ltd, 2003). ISBN 0-664-22721-X
32. Feldman, Louis H. (1984). "Flavius Josephus Revisited: The Man, his Writings and his Significance". In Temporini,
Hildegard; Haase, Wolfgang. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, Part 2. pp. 763–771. ISBN 3-11-
009522-X page 826
33. Painter, John (2005). Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition. ISBN 0-567-04191-3 pages 143-
145
34. Eisenman, Robert (2002), "James the Brother of Jesus: the key to unlocking the secrets of Early Christianity and
the Dead Sea Scrolls" (Watkins)
35. P.E. Easterling, E. J. Kenney (general editors), The Cambridge History of Latin Literature, page 892 (Cambridge
University Press, 1982, reprinted 1996). ISBN 0-521-21043-7
36. A political history of early Christianity by Allen Brent 2009 ISBN 0-567-03175-6 pages 32-34
37. Robert Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence, Wm. B.
Eerdmans, 2000. p 39- 53
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 14/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

38. Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence, Wm. B.
Eerdmans, 2000. p 39- 53
39. Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 0-391-04118-5-page 42
40. Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9-page 343
41. Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation by Helen K. Bond 2004 ISBN 0-521-61620-4-page xi
42. Tradition and Incarnation: Foundations of Christian Theology by William L. Portier 1993 ISBN 0-8091-3467-5-
page 263
43. Ancient Rome by William E. Dunstan 2010 ISBN 0-7425-6833-4-page 293
44. Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-
664-25703-8-page 33
45. An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity by Delbert Royce Burkett 2002 ISBN 0-521-
00720-8-page 485
46. The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L.
Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 109-110
47. Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Doubleday: 1991. vol 1: p. 168-171.
48. Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-061662-8-page 145
49. Ehrman p 212
50. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus
Tradition Baker Academic, ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 127
51. F.F. Bruce,Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974) p. 23
52. Theissen and Merz p.83
53. Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette (1998). The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide (https://books.google.com/?i
d=3ZU97DQMH6UC&pg=PA83). Minneapolis: Fortress Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8006-3122-2.
54. The Jesus legend: a case for the historical reliability of the synoptic gospels by Paul R. Eddy, et al 2007 ISBN 0-
8010-3114-1 pages 181-183
55. The Case Against Christianity, By Michael Martin, pg 50-51, at https://books.google.com/books?
id=wWkC4dTmK0AC&pg=PA52&dq=historicity+of+jesus&hl=en&sa=X&ei=o-_8U5-
yEtTH7AbBpoCoAg&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tacitus&f=false
56. The Historical Jesus in the Twentieth Century: 1900-1950, By Walter P. Weaver, pg 53, pg 57, at
https://books.google.com/books?id=1CZbuFBdAMUC&pg=PA45&dq=historicity+of+jesus&hl=en&sa=X&ei=o-
_8U5-yEtTH7AbBpoCoAg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=tacitus&f=false
57. Secret of Regeneration, By Hilton Hotema, pg 100, at https://books.google.com/books?
id=jCaopp3R5B0C&pg=PA100&dq=interpolations+in+tacitus&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CRf-U9-
VGZCe7AbxrIDQCA&ved=0CCAQ6AEwATge#v=onepage&q=interpolations%20in%20tacitus&f=false
58. Carrier, Richard (2014) "The Prospect of a Christian Interpolation in Tacitus, Annals 15.44" Vigiliae Christianae,
Volume 68, Issue 3, pages 264 – 283 (an earlier and more detailed version appears in Carrier's Hitler Homer
Bible Christ)
59. Carrier, Richard (2014) On the Historicity of Jesus Sheffield Phoenix Press ISBN 978-1-909697-49-2 pg 344
60. Jesus, University Books, New York, 1956, p.13
61. France, RT (1986). Evidence for Jesus (Jesus Library). Trafalgar Square Publishing. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-340-
38172-8.
62. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2011). Handbook for the Study of the Historical Jesus. Brill Academic Pub. p. 2159.
ISBN 978-9004163720.
63. The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L.
Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3-page 110
64. Evidence of Greek Philosophical Concepts in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian by Ute Possekel 1999 ISBN 90-
429-0759-2 pages 29-30
65. Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research edited by Bruce Chilton, Craig A.
Evans 1998 ISBN 90-04-11142-5 pages 455-457
66. Jesus outside the New Testament: an introduction to the ancient evidence by Robert E. Van Voorst 2000 ISBN 0-
8028-4368-9 pages 53-55

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 15/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

67. Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 978-0-391-04118-9-page 41
68. Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius, Catharine Edwards 2001 ISBN 0192832719 pages 184 and 203
69. Birth of Christianity by John Dominic Crossan 1999 ISBN 0567086682 pages 3-10
70. Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus outside the New Testament: an introduction to the ancient evidence, Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. pp 29-39
71. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire by Matthew Bunson 1994 ISBN 081602135X page 111
72. Christianity and the Roman Empire: background texts by Ralph Martin Novak 2001 ISBN 1-56338-347-0 pages
18-22
73. R. T. France. The Evidence for Jesus. (2006). Regent College Publishing ISBN 1-57383-370-3. p. 42
74. Louis H. Feldman, Jewish Life and Thought among Greeks and Romans (1 Oct 1996) ISBN 0567085252 p. 332
75. González, Justo (1984), The Story of Christianity (https://books.google.com/books?id=QZO-lwEACAAJ), 1, Prince
Press, p. 32, ISBN 978-1-56563-522-7, retrieved 23 April 2013
76. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus
Tradition. ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 pages 166
77. The Historical Jesus of the Gospels by Craig S. Keener 2012 ISBN 0802868886 page 66
78. Menahem Stern, 1980, Jerusalem, Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism Vol.2, p.116
79. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg (1 Aug 2009) ISBN 0805444823 page
280
80. Kostenberger, Andreas J.; Kellum, L. Scott; Quarles, Charles L. (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An
Introduction to the New Testament ISBN 0-8054-4365-7. pages 107-109
81. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus
Tradition ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 pages 170-174
82. Theissen, Gerd, Annette Merz, The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide, Fortress Press, 1998 pages 72-76
83. The Blackwell Companion to Jesus by Delbert Burkett 2010 ISBN 140519362X page 220
84. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 129-130
85. Einsenman, Robert (2002), "James; the Brother of Jesus" (Watkins)
86. In Jesus: The Complete Guide edited by J. L. Houlden (8 Feb 2006) ISBN 082648011X pages 693-694
87. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 177-118
88. In The Cambridge Companion to Jesus by Markus N. A. Bockmuehl 2001 ISBN 0521796784 page 123
89. Sanhedrin 43a.
90. Jesus in the Talmud by Peter Schäfer (24 Aug 2009) ISBN 0691143188 page 141 and 9
91. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium by Bart Ehrman 2001 ISBN 019512474X page 63
92. Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell (1 Nov
1998) ISBN 0664257038 page 34
93. Jesus and the Politics of his Day by E. Bammel and C. F. D. Moule (30 Aug 1985) ISBN 0521313449 page 393
94. The Beginnings of Christianity by Howard Clark Kee (22 Nov 2005) ISBN 0567027414 page 71
95. R. T. France The Evidence for Jesus 2006 ISBN 1573833703 page 39
96. Jesus Christ in History and Scripture by Edgar V. McKnight 1999 ISBN 0865546770 pages 29-30
97. Jesus, by Ch. Gugnebert, Translated from the French by S. H. Hooke, University Book, New York, 1956, p. 14
98. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus
Tradition. ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 pages 122-126
99. Julius Africanus, Extant Writings XVIII in Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. A. Roberts and J. Donaldson (Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 1973) vol. VI, p. 130
100. http://infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/thallus.html
101. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/origen162.html see book 2, chapter 33 and 59
102. http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEsearch/SEsearchmap.php?Ecl=00291124

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 16/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

103. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm.
B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 65-68
104. Douglas R. Edwards (2004). Religion and society in Roman Palestine: old questions, new approaches (https://boo
ks.google.com/?id=Wq-zBEqzRx0C&pg=PA164). Routledge. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-0-415-30597-6. Retrieved
4 August 2010.
105. Henry Chadwick (2003). The Church in ancient society: from Galilee to Gregory the Great (https://books.google.c
om/?id=nLic1cabc8gC&pg=PA15). Oxford University Press. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-0-19-926577-0. Retrieved
4 August 2010.
106. George J. Brooke (1 May 2005). The Dead Sea scrolls and the New Testament (https://books.google.com/?id=hP
x8vvYPuc8C&pg=PA20). Fortress Press. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-8006-3723-1. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
107. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0805444823 pages 53-54
108. Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence.
Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 75-78
109. Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus outside the New Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. pp 58-64
110. http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/origen164.html
111. https://books.google.com/books?id=NmZ7Q1-
8QkEC&pg=PA274&lpg=PA274&dq=One+might+more+easily+teach+novelties+to+the+followers+of+Moses+and+C
112. Lorenzi, Rossella (March 14, 2012). "Trial Does Not Settle 'Brother of Jesus' Controversy" (http://news.discovery.c
om/history/archaeology/james-ossuary-120314.htm). Discovery News.
113. Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., & Goren, Y. (2004). "Authenticity examination of the inscription on the ossuary
attributed to James, brother of Jesus". Journal of Archaeological Science. 31 (8): 1185–1189.
doi:10.1016/j.jas.2004.03.001 (https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jas.2004.03.001).
114. Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; pp.xix-xx & pp.46-47
115. Mack, Burton L. (1996)"Who Wrote the New Testament: the making of a Christian Myth"(Harper One)
116. Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; pp.46-47
117. Buetz, Jeffrey J.(2005), "The Brother of Jesus and the Lost Teachings of Christianity".(Inner Traditions)
118. Ehrman, Bart D. (2010), "Jesus, Interrupted: Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (And Why We Don't
Know About Them)" (Harper One 1 Reprint edition (2 February 2010)).pg 143-144
119. Einsenman, Robert (2002), "james, the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity
and the Dead Sea Scrolls" (Watkins)
120. Jesus Christ in History and Scripture by Edgar V. McKnight 1999 ISBN 0865546770 page 38
121. Victor Furnish in Paul and Jesus edited by Alexander J. M. Wedderburn 2004 (Academic Paperback)
ISBN 0567083969 pages 43-44
122. From Jesus to Christianity, San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2004 pg 4
123. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible by James D. G. Dunn (19 Nov 2003) ISBN 0802837115 page 1274 "There is
general scholarly agreement that seven of the thirteen letters beariing Pau's name are authentic, but his
authorship of the other six cannot be taken for granted... Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1
Thessalonians and Philomen are certainly Paul's own."
124. The Blackwell Companion to The New Testament by David E. Aune ISBN 1405108258 page 9 "... seven of the
letters attributed to Paul are almost universally accepted as authentic (Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians,
Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philomen)..."
125. Pheme Perkins, Reading the New Testament: An Introduction (Paulist Press, 1988), ISBN 0809129396 pp. 4-7.
126. Edward Adams "Paul, Jesus and Christ" in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus edited by Delbert Burkett 2010
ISBN 140519362X pages 94-96
127. Peter Gorday in Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism by Harold W. Attridge 1992 ISBN 0814323618 pages 139-
141
128. Buetz, Jeffrey (op cit)
129. Eisenman, Robert (op cit)
130. Jesus Remembered: Christianity in the Making by James D. G. Dunn (29 Jul 2003) ISBN 0802839312 page 143
131. James D. G. Dunn "Paul's understanding of the death of Jesus" in Sacrifice and Redemption edited by S. W.
Sykes (3 Dec 2007) Cambridge University Press ISBN 052104460X pages 35-36

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 17/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

132. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0805444823 pages 441-
442
133. Encyclopedia of Theology: A Concise Sacramentum Mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0860120066 page 31
134. Jesus according to Paul by Victor Paul Furnish 1994 ISBN 0521458242 pages 19-20
135. Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002
ISBN 0830826998 pages 95-96
136. Paul and Scripture by Steve Moyise (1 Jul 2010) ISBN 080103924X page 5
137. Paul, Antioch and Jerusalem by Nicholas Taylor 1991 ISBN 1850753318 page 177
138. The Tapestry of Early Christian Discourse by Vernon K. Robbins (10 Oct 1996) ISBN 0415139988 pages 74-75
139. Jesus Remembered: Christianity in the Making by James D. G. Dunn (29 Jul 2003) ISBN 0802839312 page 507
140. Galatians by Frank J. Matera 2007 ISBN 0814659721 Pages 65-66
141. Galatians by Martinus C. de Boer 2011 ISBN 0664221238 page 121
142. The Jesus legend: a case for the historical reliability of the synoptic gospels' by Paul R. Eddy, Gregory A. Boyd
2007 ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 pages 46-47
143. 1 Corinthians by Richard Oster 1995 ISBN 0899006337 page 353
144. Apostle Paul: His Life and Theology by Udo Schnelle (1 Nov 2005) ISBN 0801027969 pages 329-330
145. Can We Trust the New Testament? by George Albert Wells 2003 ISBN 0812695674 pages 49-50
146. 'Jesus of Nazareth: An independent historian's account of his life and teaching by Maurice Casey page 39-40
147. The Evidence for Jesus by James D. G. Dunn (1 Jan 1986) ISBN 0664246982 page 29
148. Paul's Letter to the Romans by Colin G. Kruse (1 Jul 2012) ISBN 0802837433 pages 41-42
149. The Blackwell Companion to The New Testament edited by David E. Aune 2010 ISBN 1405108258 page 424
150. Worship in the Early Church by Ralph P. Martin 1975 ISBN 0802816134 pages 57-58
151. Jesus Remembered: Christianity in the Making, Volume 1 by James D. G. Dunn (29 Jul 2003) ISBN 0802839312
pages 142-143
152. Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964) p. 47
Reginald H. Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (New York: Macmillan, 1971) p. 10
Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia:
Westminster, 1968) p. 90
Oscar Cullmann, The Earlychurch: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins
(Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 64
Hans Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians, translated James W. Leitch (Philadelphia: Fortress 1969) p. 251
Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol. 1 pp. 45, 80–82, 293
R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp.
81, 92
153. see Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia:
Westminster, 1968)p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed.
A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 66–66; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily
Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81; Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom
of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986 pp. 110, 118; Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection
translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2; Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte,
Second Edition (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p96; Grass favors the origin in Damascus.
154. Hans von Campenhausen, "The Events of Easter and the Empty Tomb," in Tradition and Life in the Church
(Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968) p. 44
155. Archibald Hunter, Works and Words of Jesus (1973) p. 100
156. Creeds of the Churches, Third Edition by John H. Leith (1 Jan 1982) ISBN 0804205264 page 12
157. Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 pages 441-
442
158. The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, 2005 ISBN 978-0-8028-2416-5 pages 52-56
159. The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages 465-477
160. New Testament Theology by Paul Haffner 2008 ISBN 88-902268-0-3-page 135

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 18/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

161. A Guide to the Gospels by W. Graham Scroggie 1995 ISBN 0-8254-3744-X page 128
162. The Gospel of John by Francis J. Moloney, Daniel J. Harrington 1998 ISBN 0-8146-5806-7-page 3
163. Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 pages 730-
731
164. Interpreting Gospel Narratives: Scenes, People, and Theology by Timothy Wiarda 2010 ISBN 0-8054-4843-8
pages 75-78
165. Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0-8010-2684-9-page 613
166. Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus ISBN 0140144994 Penguin, 1993. p. 3
167. Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus by Gerald O'Collins 2009 ISBN 0-19-955787-X
pages 1-3
168. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible edited by James D. G. Dunn (19 Nov 2003) ISBN 0802837115 pages 1064-
1065
169. Meier, John P. (1991). A Marginal Jew. New York City: Doubleday. pp. v.2 955–6. ISBN 0-385-46993-4.
170. Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "The Gospels" p. 266-268
171. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (31 Jan 1995) ISBN 0802837840
pages 1-3
172. The New Testament: History, Literature, Religion by Gerd Theissen 2003 ISBN page 31
173. Three Views on the Origins of the Synoptic Gospels by Robert L. Thomas 2002 ISBN 0825438381 page 35
174. The New Testament: History, Literature, Religion by Gerd Theissen 2003 ISBN page x
175. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm.
B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9-page 7
176. Richard Bauckham Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Eerdmans, 2006), ISBN 0802831621 pp. 15–21.
177. The Early Christian Church: Volume 2, The Second Christian Century by Philip Carrington (11 Aug 2011)
ISBN 0521157382 pages 22-23
178. The archeology of the New Testament by Jack Finegan (1 Jan 1981) ISBN 0709910061 pages 42-43
179. Interpreting the Gospel of John by Gary M. Burge (1 Sep 1998) ISBN 0801010217 pages 52-53
180. Eusebius: The Church History by Eusebius and Paul L. Maier (31 May 2007) ISBN 082543307X page 119
181. Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), pp. 53-54
182. Richard Bauckham, Jesus and the Eyewitnesses (Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2006), pp. 53l.
183. Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence.
Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9-page 215-217
184. The Historical Jesus of the Gospels by Craig S. Keener 2012 ISBN 0802868886 pages 52-54
185. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium by Bart D. Ehrman 2001 ISBN 019512474X pages 72-78
186. The Book of Revelation by Robert H. Mounce 1997 ISBN 0802825370 page 11
187. The Symbolic Jesus by William Edward Arnal 2005 ISBN 1845530071 pages 60-70
188. Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence.
Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9-page 183

References
Brown, Raymond E. (1997) An Introduction to the New Testament. Doubleday ISBN 0-385-24767-2
Daniel Boyarin (2004). Border Lines. The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Doherty, Earl (1999). The Jesus Puzzle. Did Christianity Begin with a Mythical Christ? : Challenging the Existence
of an Historical Jesus. ISBN 0-9686014-0-5
Drews, Arthur & Burns, C. Deslisle (1998). The Christ Myth (Westminster College-Oxford Classics in the Study of
Religion). ISBN 1-57392-190-4
Ellegård, Alvar Jesus – One Hundred Years Before Christ: A Study in Creative Mythology, (London 1999).
France, R.T. (2001). The Evidence for Jesus. Hodder & Stoughton.
Freke, Timothy & Gandy, Peter. The Jesus Mysteries - was the original Jesus a pagan god? ISBN 0-7225-3677-1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 19/20
21/02/2018 Fontes para a historicidade de Jesus - Wikipedia

George, Augustin & Grelot, Pierre (Eds.) (1992). Introducción Crítica al Nuevo Testamento. Herder. ISBN 84-254-
1277-3
Koester, Helmut (1992). Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, PA: Continuum. ISBN 0-334-02450-1.
Gowler, David B. (2007). What Are They Saying About the Historical Jesus?. Paulist Press.
Grant, Michael, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner, 1995. ISBN 0-684-81867-1
Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Anchor Bible Reference Library, Doubleday

(1991), v. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, ISBN 0-385-26425-9
(1994), v. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, ISBN 0-385-46992-6
(2001), v. 3, Companions and Competitors, ISBN 0-385-46993-4
(2009), v. 4, Law and Love, ISBN 978-0-300-14096-5

Mendenhall, George E. (2001). Ancient Israel's Faith and History: An Introduction to the Bible in Context. ISBN 0-
664-22313-3
Messori, Vittorio (1977). Jesus hypotheses. St Paul Publications. ISBN 0-85439-154-1
Mykytiuk, Lawrence (2015). "Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible." Biblical Archaeology
Society, Bible History Daily section. December 2014. http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/people-cultures-in-
the-bible/jesus-historical-jesus/did-jesus-exist/
New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, New Revised Standard Version. (1991) New York, Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-528356-2
Price, Robert M. (2000). Deconstructing Jesus. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-758-9.
Price, Robert M. (2003). The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man: How Reliable is the Gospel Tradition?. Amherst,
N.Y.: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-121-9.
Wells, George A. (1988). The Historical Evidence for Jesus. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-429-X
Wells, George A. (1998). The Jesus Myth. ISBN 0-8126-9392-2
Wells, George A. (2004). Can We Trust the New Testament?: Thoughts on the Reliability of Early Christian
Testimony. ISBN 0-8126-9567-4
Wilson, Ian (2000). Jesus: The Evidence (1ª ed.). Regnery Publishing.

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus&oldid=826628865"

Esta página foi editada por última vez em 20 de fevereiro de 2018, às 04:51.

O texto está disponível sob a licença Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike ; podem ser aplicados termos
adicionais. Ao usar este site, você concorda com os Termos de Uso e Política de Privacidade . Wikipedia® é uma
marca registrada da Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , uma organização sem fins lucrativos.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sources_for_the_historicity_of_Jesus 20/20

Você também pode gostar