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Optimization of

Boiler total air

Concept
• Efficient operation of boiler depends on
optimisation of CO2 and O2
• This involved elimination of source of air ingress.
• As different losses of boiler is affected by variation
of air, the optimum value is determined by plotting
the total loss and thereby determining CO2 and O2.
Oxygen % at various locations in boiler
10

6
O2 %

0
Furn Outlet AH Inlet AH Outlet ID outlet
210 MW 210 MW 500 MW 210 MW
4. Boiler Air Ingress
• Cold air leaks into the boiler from openings in the furnace
and convective pass and through open observation doors.
• Some of the boiler leakage air aids the combustion
process; some air that leaks into the boiler in the low
temperature zones causes only a dilution of the flue gas.
• This portion of air appears as a difference in O2 level
between the furnace exit and oxygen analysers at
economizer exit. Actual oxygen in the furnace could be
much less.
• Also, boiler casing and ducting air ingress affects ID fans’
power consumption and margins in a major way.
Air Ingress Points – Furnace Roof , Expansion
joints, Air heaters, Ducts, ESP Hoppers, Peep
Holes, Manholes, Furnace Bottom
Air-in-
leakage

Furnace
Outlet
Zirconia
O2 Probe
Expansion Joints

AH ESP
Seal
Lkg
Air Ingress Calculations
Air ingress quantification is done with the same formulae as those
used for calculation of AH leakage

(21- O2out)

The basis of O2 or CO2 calculation should be the same – either

wet or dry.
Air optimization process
• Find Dry gas, unburnt gas, combustible in ash and
auxiliary power (fans) to find the total loss.
• Repeat the same for different test air (% of CO2 at
A/H inlet) settings.
• Find the minimum total loss.
• Find air setting corresponding to minimum total
loss.
Boiler loss calculation- an
example
Fuel firing rate = 5599.17 kg/hr
Steam generation rate = 21937.5 kg/hr
Steam pressure = 43 kg/cm2(g)
The data collected are Steam temperature = 377 oC
for a boiler using coal Feed water temperature = 96 oC
as the fuel. %CO2 in Flue gas = 14
%CO in flue gas = 0.55
Find out the boiler Average flue gas temperature = 190 oC
efficiency by indirect Ambient temperature = 31 oC
method. Humidity in ambient air = 0.0204 kg / kg dry air
Surface temperature of boiler = 70 oC
Wind velocity around the boiler = 3.5 m/s
Total surface area of boiler = 90 m2
GCV of Bottom ash = 800 kCal/kg
GCV of fly ash = 452.5 kCal/kg
Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash = 90:10
Fuel Analysis (in %)
Ash content in fuel = 8.63
Moisture in coal = 31.6
Carbon content = 41.65
Hydrogen content = 2.0413
Nitrogen content = 1.6
Oxygen content = 14.48
GCV of Coal = 3501 kCal/kg
Boiler efficiency by indirect method

Step – 1 Find theoretical air

requirement
= [(11.43 x C) + {34.5 x (H2 – O2/8)} + (4.32 x S)] /
Theoretical air required for 100 kg/kg of coal
complete combustion
= [(11.43 x 41.65) + {34.5 x (2.0413 – 14.48/8)} +
(4.32 x 0)] / 100

= 4.84 kg / kg of coal
Step – 2 Find theoretical CO2 %
Moles of C
% CO2 at theoretical condition =
( CO2 )t Moles of N2 + Moles of C

Where,
4.84 x 77/100 0.016
Moles of N2 = + = 0.1332
28 28

Where moles of C = 0.4165/12 = 0.0347

0.0347
( CO2 )t =
0.1332 + 0.0347

= 20.67
Step – 3 To find Excess air
supplied

(CO2)a x [100 – (CO2)t ]

= 7900 x [20.67 – 14 ]

14a x [100 – 20.67]

= 47.44 %
Step – 4 to find actual mass of air supplied

Actual mass of air supplied = {1 + EA/100} x theoretical air

= {1 + 47.44/100} x 4.84

Step –5 to find actual mass of dry flue gas

Mass of dry flue gas consists of Mass of CO2 +Mass of N2 content in the fuel+ Mass
of N2 in the combustion air supplied + Mass of
oxygen in combustion air supplied

0.4165 x 44 7.13 x 77 (7.13-4.84) x 23

Mass of dry flue gas = + 0.016 + +
12 100 100

= 7.562 kg / kg of coal
Step – 6 to find all losses

x 100
GCV of fuel

7.562 x 0.23 x (190 – 31)

= x 100
3501

L1 = 7.89 %
2. % Heat loss due to formation = 9 x H2 x {584 + Cp (Tf – Ta )}
of water from H2 in fuel (L2) x 100
GCV of fuel

9 x .02041 x {584 + 0.45(190-31)}

= x 100
3501
L2 = 3.44 %

M x {584 + Cp ( Tf – Ta )}
3. % Heat loss due to moisture in = X 100
fuel (L3) GCV of fuel

0.316 x {584 + 0.45 ( 190 – 31) }

= x 100
3501

L3 = 5.91 %
AAS x humidity x Cp x (Tf – Ta ) x 100
4. % Heat loss due to moisture in =
air (L4) GCV of fuel

7.13 x 0.0204 x 0.45 x (190 – 31) x 100

=
3501
L4 = 0.29 %

%CO x %C 5744
5. % Heat loss due to partial = x x 100
conversion of C to CO (L5) % CO + (% CO2)a GCV of fuel

0.55 x 0.4165 5744

x x 100
= 0.55 + 14 3501

L5 = 2.58 %
6. Heat loss due to radiation and = 0.548 x [ (343/55.55)4 – (304/55.55)4] + 1.957 x
convection (L6)
(343 - 304)1.25 x sq.rt of [(196.85 x 3.5 + 68.9) /
68.9]
= 633.3 w/m2
= 633.3 x 0.86
= 544.64 kCal / m2
Total radiation and convection = 544.64 x 90
loss per hour
= 49017.6 kCal
% radiation and convection loss = 49017.6 x 100

3501 x 5591.17
L6 = 0.25 %
7. % Heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash

% Ash in coal = 8.63

Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash = 90:10
GCV of fly ash = 452.5 kCal/kg
Amount of fly ash in 1 kg of coal = 0.1 x 0.0863
= 0.00863 kg
Heat loss in fly ash = 0.00863 x 452.5
= 3.905 kCal / kg of coal
% heat loss in fly ash = 3.905 x 100 / 3501
L7 = 0.11 %

8. % Heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash

GCV of bottom ash = 800 kCal/kg
Amount of bottom ash in 1 kg of = 0.9 x 0.0863
coal
= 0.077 kg
Heat loss in bottom ash = 0.077 x 800
= 62.136 kCal/kg of coal
% Heat loss in bottom ash = 62.136 x 100 / 3501
L8 = 1.77 %
Boiler efficiency by indirect = 100 – (L1+ L2+ L3+ L4+ L5+ L6+ L7+ L8)
method

0.11+1.77)

= 100-22.24
= 77.76 %

Summary of Heat Balance for Coal Fired Boiler

Input/Output Parameter kCal / kg of % loss
coal
Heat Input = 3501 100
Losses in boiler
1. Dry flue gas, L1 = 276.23 7.89
2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel, L2 = 120.43 3.44
3. Loss due to moisture in fuel, L3 = 206.91 5.91
4. Loss due to moisture in air, L4 = 10.15 0.29
5. Partial combustion of C to CO, L5 = 90.32 2.58
6. Surface heat losses, L6 = 8.75 0.25
7. Loss due to Unburnt in fly ash, L7 = 3.85 0.11
8. Loss due to Unburnt in bottom ash, = 61.97 1.77
L8
Boiler Efficiency = 100 – (L1 + L2+ L3+ L4+ L5+ L6+ L7+ L8) = 77.76 %
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