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European Journal of Scientific Research

ISSN 1450-216X Vol.40 No.4 (2010), pp.589-597


© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010
http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

Effects of Temperature on Abrasion Loss of Porous and Dense


Asphalt Mixes

M.O. Hamzah
School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Tel: +604-5995999; Fax: +604-5941009
E-mail: cemeor@eng.usm.my

M. R. M. Hasan
School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

M. R. Ismail
School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Z. Shahadan
School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Abstract

Particle loss of asphalt mix from pavement surfacing leads to a surface distress
described as ravelling which in turn affects pavement performance. In the quest for a better
mix design, this phenomenon has been studied for many years. In this paper, ravelling was
simulated by subjecting a Marshall specimen in the Los Angeles drum to a certain number
of rotations. The percentage loss of particles after the test gave an indication of the severity
level of mix ravelling. The abrasion loss of porous and dense mixes was compared. The
mixtures were prepared according to Spanish porous asphalt (PA-12) and Malaysian dense
asphalt concrete wearing course (ACW14) gradation specifications. Both mixes were
prepared using conventional 80/100 penetration bitumen and compacted using the Gyratory
compactor. The mixtures were evaluated for abrasion loss property in the Cantabrian test at
3 different temperatures, 18°C, 24°C and 29°C. The results showed that the dense asphalt
mixes exhibited higher resistance to abrasion loss compared to porous asphalt. In addition,
higher abrasion loss took place for mixes prepared at lower binder contents and tested at
lower temperatures.

Keywords: Porous Asphalt, Dense Asphalt, Abrasion Loss, Temperature

1. Introduction
Asphaltic concrete and porous asphalt are widely used in flexible pavement construction. Bitumen or
asphalt binder is used in both mixes to bind together aggregate particles. Binders are known to deform
Effects of Temperature on Abrasion Loss of Porous and Dense Asphalt Mixes 590

and flow at high temperatures but become brittle at low temperature. The abrasive action of vehicle
wheel on pavement surfacing, especially on high stressed areas, can initiate particle loss while the
action of water results in stripping. This leads to a pavement distress type known as ravelling and is
more predominant in porous asphalt compared to dense asphalt. According to Herrington el al (2005)
the open nature of porous asphalt allows faster oxidation and binder embrittlement compared to
conventional dense mix. Resistance to particle loss of mix depends not only on the oxidation resistance
of the binder but also on the binder film thickness, aggregate grading and percentage of air voids, and
sometimes the failures may occur as early as six to eight years old (Kandhal and Mallick, 1998; Huber,
2000).
Annually, Malaysia is subjected to high intensity rainfall. Heavy precipitation creates water
ponding on road surfacing. Long period of water ponding on pavement surface will likely undermine
bonding strength between the bitumen and aggregates. Subsequently, under traffic shearing stress, it
can further promote failure of the mix through loss of material from the surface (Herrington el al,
2005) and makes the pavement surface rough and uneven.
Abrasive forces between tires also hasten particle loss. Over time, potholes may form because
of the constant particle loss. If potholes remain unattended, the service life of the road will be adversely
affected.
The Cantabrian test can simulate the rolling impact created by the traffic on the road (Kandhal
and Mallick, 1999). The condition used in the Cantabrian test vary somewhat, but typically involved
revolving a compacted Marshall sample in a steel drum without steel balls for 300 revolutions at 30
rpm and the weight lost from the specimen is recorded as a percentage of the original weight
(Herrington et al, 2005; Khalid and Perez Jimenez, 1994; Cabrera and Hamzah, 1996). According to
Herrington et al (2005) the suggested test temperature was up to 25ºC; however the chosen temperature
may vary from country to country.
The Cantabrian test is commonly used to evaluate the resistance to particle loss by abrasion and
the effect of impact on porous mixes. As the drum rotated, the steel plate picked up the specimen, lifted
it up and then dropped the specimen down thus subjecting it to impact forces. The specimen then rolled
within the drum with an abrading action until the steel bar picked up the specimen again and the cycle
repeated (Khedoe, 2006). Abrasion loss is used as an important parameter for gauging bonding
properties between aggregates and bitumen. Poulikakos et al (2004), reports that this test is commonly
used in Japan to evaluate the particle loss resistance of porous asphalt under winter conditions.

2. Objectives
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of different temperatures and binder
contents on the abrasion loss of porous and dense asphalts. To accomplish this, a laboratory work was
initiated which primarily involved subjecting Marshall specimens to several rotations in the Los
Angeles drum.

3. Materials and Methods


3.1. Variables
The effects of asphalt type and temperature on abrasion loss were evaluated at different mix parameters
which include two gradations, five binder contents and three levels of conditioning as summarised in
Table 1. The specimens were then exposed to the selected conditioning temperature at 18ºC, 24ºC and
29ºC prior to the Cantabrian test.
591 M.O. Hamzah, M. R. M. Hasan, M. R. Ismail and Z. Shahadan
Table 1: Experimental Design

Number of Cumulative Number of


Predictor Variables
Variables Samples
Dense Asphalt (ACW 14)
Asphalt Type 2 2
Porous Asphalt (PA-12)
18 ºC
Conditioned
24 ºC 3 6
Temperature
29 ºC
3.5%
4.0%
Binder Content 4.5% 5 30
5.0%
5.5%
Specimen 1
Repetition 2 60
Specimen 2

3.2. Materials
In this study, local crushed granite aggregates were used. The aggregates were washed, dried and then
sieved into the selected size range according to the Spanish porous asphalt PA-12 and Malaysian
asphalt concrete wearing course (ACW14). The conventional 80/100 bitumen grade was used and two
types of fillers namely, hydrated lime and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were selected in this
investigation. The material properties are tabulated in Table 2.

Table 2: Properties of Materials Used

Material Standard Properties Result


AASHTO T85-91 Apparent Specific Gravity 2.646 g/cm3
AASHTO T85-91 Water Absorption 1.27%
Aggregate BS 812-112:1990 Aggregate Impact Value 20.60%
BS 812-110:1990 Aggregate Crushing Value 18.60%
BS 812-105.1: 1989 Flakiness Index 21.20%
Bitumen Grade ASTM D5-97 Penetration at 25°C (x 0.1mm) 82
80/100 ASTM D36-95 Softening Point 49.5°C
ASTM D113-86 Ductility at 25°C 135.5 cm

3.3. Mix Preparation


Two types of gradations were selected as shown in Figure 1. The PA-12 gradation was based on a
study in Spain (Alvarez et al, 2006), while the ACW14 gradation was for a typical hot mix asphalt used
on Malaysian roads. The mixes were prepared at binder contents ranging from 3.5 to 5.5% at 0.5%
increment. The mixes were compacted by a Gyratory compactor, and were then allowed to cool down
to ambient temperature overnight. The compacted specimens were selected randomly for the
Cantabrian test at three different temperatures; 18, 24 and 29°C.
Effects of Temperature on Abrasion Loss of Porous and Dense Asphalt Mixes 592

Figure 1: Aggregate Grading Adopted in This Study

100
90 PA-12
ACW14
80
70
% Passing
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Sieve Size (mm)

3.4. Resistance to Abrasion Loss of Asphalt Samples


Prior to the Cantabrian test, specimens were conditioned at the designated temperature. For test at 18
and 24°C, the specimens were pre-conditioned in an incubator for 4 hours. The Los Angeles drum was
placed in a controlled environmental room such that the surrounding temperature was equivalent with
the test temperature. When tested at 29°C, the test was conducted under normal laboratory ambient
temperature. Each specimen was subjected to 300 revolutions at 30 rpm in the steel drum without steel
balls. Specimen mass was recorded before and after test. The abrasion loss, in percentage, was
calculated using Equation 1.
P = P1-P2 X 100 (1)
P1
Where;
P = Abrasion loss (%)
P1 = Mass before test (g)
P2 = Mass after test (g)

4. Result and Discussion


4.1. The Effect of Mix Type on Abrasion Loss
The results of the abrasion loss on different mixes tested at various temperatures are shown in Figure 2.
The figure shows a decreasing trend for the abrasion loss of both asphalts as asphalt content increases
at all test temperatures. By comparing the results of PA-12 and ACW14, the results indicate that the
porous asphalt (PA-12) abrasion loss mean value is 61.9% higher compared to dense asphalt
(ACW14). This indicates that the presence of air voids in the mix and oxidation of binder may
undermine some of its binding characteristics. To test the effect of asphalt type on abrasion loss, the
One-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the Tukey’s method at the binder content range (3.5
and 5.5%), with a confidence level 95% (α = 0.05) was used. The ANOVA result for the effect of
asphalt type on the abrasion loss is shown in Table 3.
593 M.O. Hamzah, M. R. M. Hasan, M. R. Ismail and Z. Shahadan
Figure 2: Abrasion Loss Test Results

120

100
ACW14 (29oC)

Abrasion Loss (%) .


80 ACW14 (24oC)

ACW14 (18oC)
60
PA-12 (29oC)

40 PA-12 (24oC)

PA-12 (18oC)
20

0
3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
Binder Content (%)

Table 3 indicates that the P-Value for effect of asphalt mix type on abrasion loss is less than
0.05, so this explains that mix type has a significant impact on the abrasion loss in this study. The
result further indicates that the mean value of the ACW 14 is lower than PA-12, which are 31.5% and
51.1% respectively.

Table 3: One-Way ANOVA on Effects of Gradation on Abrasion Loss

Source DF SS MS F P-Value
Asphalt Type 1 11425 11425 14.86 0.000
Error 118 90706 769
Total 119 102131
Level N Mean SD
ACW14 60 31.53 25.21
PA-12 60 51.05 30.03
Pooled SD = 27.73

Figure 3 shows the linear regression equation of data obtained for both asphalt types. The result
indicates the relationship between abrasion loss and test temperature. It shows the general trend of
abrasion loss reduction with an increase in test temperature. From the mean abrasion loss at each
temperature, a significant effect can be observed on the effect of temperature ranging from 18 to 29ºC
on the abrasion loss behaviour, which is 65.0 and 50.8% for ACW14 and PA-12 respectively.
Effects of Temperature on Abrasion Loss of Porous and Dense Asphalt Mixes 594

Figure 3: Relation between Abrasion Loss and Temperature

120
ACW14 PA-12
100

Abrasion Loss (%)


80 y = -3.2743x + 130.29

60

40

20 y = -2.9788x + 101.2

0
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
o
Temperature ( C)

4.2. The Effect of Temperature on Abrasion Loss


Regardless of test temperature, the porous mix is found to be more prone to abrasion loss since such
mix exhibit higher air voids and lower stability. Figure 4 presents the individual plot of abrasion loss
values for dense asphalt at various percentages of binder contents and three test temperatures. The
results indicate a decrease in mean abrasion loss with increasing binder content and Cantabrian test
temperature. The plot also indicates low rate of reduction of abrasion loss at binder content exceeding
4.5% compared to mixes prepared at 3.5 and 4.0% binder contents.

Figure 4: Individual Plot Abrasion Loss of Dense Asphalt

100

80
Abrasion Loss (%)

60

40

20

0
TEMP 18 24 29 18 24 29 18 24 29 18 24 29 18 24 29
BC (%) 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5

Further analyses are carried out using a Two-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at three
temperatures and binder contents ranging from 3.5 to 5.5%, at 95% confidence level. The results for
abrasion loss of dense asphalt are shown in Table 4 which indicates that binder content and
temperature are two factors that has a significant impact on abrasion loss of dense asphalt.
Furthermore, the interaction factor also indicates that the effect is significant.
595 M.O. Hamzah, M. R. M. Hasan, M. R. Ismail and Z. Shahadan
Table 4: Two-Way ANOVA on Abrasion Loss of Dense Asphalt

Source DF SS MS F P-Value
Binder Content 4 23933.5 5983.37 71.47 0.000
Temperature 2 6534.0 3267.01 39.02 0.000
Interaction 8 3250.4 406.29 4.85 0.000
Error 45 3767.3 83.72
Total 59 37485.1
r2 = 89.95%

Figure 5 shows the individual plot of abrasion loss on porous asphalt mix which also indicates
the mean abrasion loss of the individual mixes tested. The lines connecting the mean show the trends in
variation of temperature and binder content. The trends indicate sharp decreases in the mean abrasion
loss of mixes as test temperature increases at all binder contents tested. The result shows that porous
asphalt mixes are very susceptible to abrasion loss and are easily affected by temperature variations
while exhibiting high air voids content.

Figure 5: Individual Plot on Abrasion Loss of Porous Asphalt

100

80
Abrasion Loss (%)

60

40

20

0
TEMP 18 24 29 18 24 29 18 24 29 18 24 29 18 24 29
BC (%) 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5

The same Two-Way ANOVA was performed on the Cantabrian test results on porous asphalt
(Table 5) based on the same 95% (α = 0.05) confidence level. The results indicate that binder content
and test temperature are significant factors but the interaction factor shows otherwise.

Table 5: Two-Way ANOVA on Abrasion Loss of Porous Asphalt

Source DF SS MS F P-Value
Binder Content 4 37460.8 9365.21 170.24 0.000
Temperature 2 12608.6 12608.31 114.60 0.000
Interaction 8 675.7 84.46 1.54 0.172
Error 45 2475.5 55.01
Total 59 53220.6
r2 = 95.35%
Effects of Temperature on Abrasion Loss of Porous and Dense Asphalt Mixes 596

5. Single and Interaction Effect on Abrasion Loss Using General Linear Model
General Linear Model of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the Cantabrian test data
with abrasion loss as the response variable and binder content, temperature and asphalt type as factors
at 95% of confidence level (α= 0.05). Table 6 presents the ANOVA result for abrasion loss, the effect
of binder content, test temperature and type of asphalts are all significant, as well as all of the
interactions.

Table 6: Analysis of Variance for Abrasion Loss for Single and Interaction Factors

Source DF Seq SS Adj ss Adj Ms F P-Value Significant


Binder Content 4 58735.4 58735.4 14683.8 211.69 0.000 Yes
Temperature 2 17981.6 17981.6 8990.8 129.62 0.000 Yes
Asphalt Type 1 11425.1 11425.1 11425.1 164.71 0.000 Yes
Binder Content
8 1474.9 1474.9 184.4 2.66 0.011 Yes
*Temperature
Binder Content
4 2659.0 2659.0 664.7 9.58 0.000 Yes
*Asphalt Type
Temperature*
2 1161.0 1161.0 580.5 8.37 0.000 Yes
Asphalt Type
Binder Content *Temperature
8 2451.1 2451.1 306.4 4.42 0.000 Yes
*Asphalt Type

Interaction effect plots for abrasion loss are shown in Figure 6. From these plots, several
inferences can be made. Firstly, abrasion loss decreases with increasing binder content and test
temperature. Secondly, the plot also indicates that dense asphalt are more resistant to abrasive forces
compared to porous asphalt regardless of binder content and test temperature. Finally, abrasion loss of
dense and porous asphalts tends to converge to almost the same value as the binder content approaches
5.5% and at 29°C.

Figure 6: Interaction Effect Plots

18 24 29
100 BINDER
CONTENT
3.5
50 4.0
Binder Content
4.5
5.0
0 5.5
100

TEMPERATURE
18
50
Temperature 24
29

0
100
ASPHALT
TYPE
50 1
Asphalt Type
2

0
3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 1 2
1 = Dense Asphalt 2= Porous Asphalt
597 M.O. Hamzah, M. R. M. Hasan, M. R. Ismail and Z. Shahadan

Conclusion
The results indicate that binder content, test temperature and asphalt mix type are factors that
significantly affect abrasion loss. The dense asphalt mixes are more resistant to abrasion loss compared
to porous mix. Porous asphalts are more prone to abrasion loss due to its high air voids which results in
lesser adhesion between aggregate particles. This study also shows that the abrasion loss sensitivity of
dense asphalt is less influenced by the temperature at binder contents in excess of 4.5%. In contrast, the
resistance to abrasion loss of porous asphalt is very much affected by temperature variations.

References
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Coarse Aggregate”, 22nd Ed., American Association of State Highway and Transportation
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