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The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine

Publishedin Hollywood,
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May, 1937 )
American Society
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174 American Cinematographer • May, 1937


One characteristic of a good neg- Made by Agfa Ansco Corpora-
ative is fineness of grain. Agfa Super- tion in Binghamton, N. Y.
pan offersyou supersensitive speed,
wide latitude and unparalleled emul- C. KING CHARNEY,
sion quality, together with a remark- HOLLYWOOD NEW VORIv
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able fineness of grain. Tel.Hollywood 2918-2919 New York City
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 175

A Technical and Educational publication
on motion picture photography.

Published monthly by the

1782 N. Orange Drive
Hollyv'ood, California

Telephone GRanite 2135

JOHN ARNOLD. President, A.S.C.

FREID W. JACKMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C.


Vol. 18 May, 1937 No. 5

By George Blaisdell 177
STUMAR Directs Shaw 179
THE MOVIE — Uncle Sam’s
The Staff
International Salesman 182 EDITOR
ASC MEMBERS on Parade 184 George Blaisdell


Coronation Emery Huse, A. S. C.
By W. T. Crespinel 186
B-H Camera 188 Victor Milner, A. S. C.
James Van Trees, A. S. C.
HOW LIGHTING Units Are Fred W. Jackman, A. S. C.
Developed Today 189 F'arciot Edouart, A. S. C.
Fred Gage, A. S. C.
HARRY PERRY Talks to Pilots on Dr. J. S. Watson, A. S. C.
Air Photography 190 Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C.
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C.
DEATH OF Ernest Cousin, Beloved Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C.
French Camerist 191 Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C.
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C.
NEW Burroughs Wellcome Diary Out .192 .


L. Graham

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phone LeRaincy 13-19.


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City. Phone Plaza 3-0483.

ESTABI.ISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on applica- Neither the American Cinematographer nor
tion. Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada, $3.50 the American Society of Cinematographers
a year ;Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies, 25c :

back numbers, 30c. Foreign single copies, 35c back is responsible for statements made by au-

numbers, 40c. COPYRIGHT 1937 by American Soci- thors, This magazine will not be respon-
ety of Cinematographers, Inc. sible for unsolicited manuscripts.
American Cinematographer • May, 1937


-L ]\IATOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918

purpose of bringing' into closei

for the

cooperation ail those leaders in cinematog-

raphy who strive for pre-eminence in
perfection and technical mastery; to

the artistic and scientific advancement

of the
cinema and its allied crafts through unceas- OFFICERS
ing research and experimentation
as well as JOHN ARNOLD President
VICTOR MILNER First Vice President
through bringing the artists and the scien- CHARLES LANG Second Vice President

tists of cinematography into more intimate JAMES VAN TREES Third Vice Pres. .


fellowship. Its membership is composed of
FRANK B. GOOD Secretary

outstanding cinematographers of the

world, with Associate and Honorary
member- John Arnold Fred W. Jackman
Elmer Dyer Ray June
ships bestowed upon those who, though not Arthur Edeson Charles B. Lang, Jr.
Georpre Folsey Victor Milner

active cinematographers, are engaged

none Alfred Gilks Ted Tetzlaff
Bert Glennon James Van Trees
the less in kindred pursuits, and who have Frank Good Joseph Walker
Vernon I.. Walker
by their achievements contributed outstand- Frederick E. Kley. E> ?cutive Business Manager

ingly to the progress of cinematography as PAST PRESIDENTS

Philip E. Rosen Hal Mohr
an art and as a science. To further these Gaetano Gaudio Homer Scott
James Van Trees John F. Seitz
lofty aims and fittingly to chronicle the
prog- Daniel B. Clark
John W. Boyle
Fred W. Jackman
ress of cinematography the society’s publi-
cation, The American Cinematog'raphei ,
John Arnold
Charles Bell, St. Paul, Minn.
Georges Benoit. Paris, France
John W. Boyle, London. England
Ariel Varges, Tokyo, Japan
Charles W. Herbert, New York City
Lloyd Knechtel, London, England
John Dored, Vienna, Austria
Max B. DuPont, Papeete, Tahiti
Philip M. Chancellor
Reed N. Haythorne, Washington, D. C.
Paul Perry, Buenos Aires

George Folsey Ted Tetzlaff
Alfred Gilks

Elmer Dyer Frank B. Good
Charles B. Lang, Jr. Vernon Walker
Arthur Edeson

Ray June James Van Trees
Fred W. Jackman
Victor Milner, George A. Mitchell, Dr. Herbert GENERAL COUNSEL
Meyer, .Tohn Arnold, F’arciot Edouart,
Emery Huse Arthtir C. Webb
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 177

By George Blaisdell

T’S AN interesting highway, that boulevard there was a crowd around man set his friend to the sidewalk.
Boulevard Hollywood, especially some young man who seemed to be The gaping crowd parted. Proceeding
I after the sun has dropped behind standing on a barrel. For a moment west but swaying with a 45-degree
the ocean. From the world around there was a thought of the soapbox heel to the north and south the ant-
come the peoples of the earth to give come to Hollywood, a soapbo.x manned arctic bird started toward the
the more or less famous thoroughfare by an aspiring actor no longer able Egyptian, possibly to call on the
the onceover. And many of the to keep his feet on the ground. equatorial monks who live in the fore-

natives there are those who imagine It may have been an actor, but his court of that theatre.
a year’s residence qualifies for that eight or more feet of anatomy were
classification —
emerge then to do their planted firmly on the sidewalk. Be-
stuff. sidehim was a dwarf of maybe three Dr. Nagel Passes
That may be merely to parade the feetand a half of elevation. As the
highway to see and to be seen, and frank NAGEL, father of
possibly to be garbed as ordinary sane
and sound persons or maybe to be
garbed as eccentrics whose imagina-
two strolled down Vine street but
not arm in arm the crowd followed.
The dwarf may have been out of sight
to all except those on the inside of
D r.
Conrad, rare actor turned radio
master of ceremonies and picture
director, passed on during the last
tion has been touched by the sun of the throng, but the giant could be month. Dr. Nagel was a national au-

Hollywood just plain nuts. Others seen blocks away. thority on music. For many years he
may be good busines.s men, men who • was president of the Hollywood Opera
realize the commercial value of being
Ten minutes later on the south side
Reading Club, in which position he
sufficiently well known to the crowd contributed markedly to the knowl-
of the boulevard and moving west was
to be called by name. edge as well as the entertainment of
a young man exceedingly indifferent
In less than an hour on a recent
to the stares of the multitude. He many Hollywoodians. His illness in
evening three instances of sidewalk
carried a walking stick with a curved recent years has meant a distinct loss
entertainers crossed this writer’s
handle. Strutting and waddling out to the cultural life of the community.
path. It was around 11 o’clock and In the days of the beginning of
in front of him a half dozen feet, look-
must have been on a Friday night, ing neither to the right nor left and screen sound eight or nine years age
for the crowd was piling into the
keeping to the center of the sidewalk, this reporter, then a Variety mugg
boulevard from the Stadium fights. wrote an interview with the doctor
was a creature strange even to the
• eyes of blase Hollywood. Circling its in which the latter foretold with deep
A tall young man with two dogs well-rounded belly was a light strap. conviction the coming of the time
was putting his well trained pets Penguin it must have been. —
and not far removed when the screen
through He well may
their paces. The creature from the far south would bring famous operas to the
have believed he might attract the at- stopped at the Cahuenga curb, as sud- multitudes, finely reproduced vocally,
tention of a picture executive and for denly as an old man searching for a with the actors and backgrounds
that attention to be translated into an traffic signal. The custodian of the shown in color.
engagement. bird, if bird it was, reached down
Skeptics there were then, but we
It was an unusually interesting per- the crook in his walking stick, fast- know now the doctor was right.
formance, one feature of it being the ened it under the strap circling the T
ordering of one of the two black creature’s belly and nonchalantly
animals to stretch flat on the side- lifted his friend to the crook of his
Dr. L. E. Dodd, U.C.L.A.
walk. With the second dog the mas- left arm. Thus the two crossed Ca- N OUR April issue in the caption
ter then turned his back on the re- huenga. On the west side the young I topping a learned and informing
cumbent whining animal
and technical article from the hand
and strolled away. The mate of Dr. L. E. Dodd, professor in
of the detained pup seemed as THE EXTRA OF HOLLYWOOD charge of Geometrical Optics,
distressed as the other, unable Extras we’re called and such we are. Department of Physics, U.C.-
apparently to make up his But if left out you’ll get not far! L.A., omission was made of the
canine mind to which one of his We’re come from all the ends of earth particular institution of leaming
friends he would stick. As the To do our bit in making mirth. . . with which the doctor is affiliat-
crowds gathered the dog be- To cheer the dull, to soothe the ill. ed. The offense was aggravated
hind was forced to follow his And to the jaded bring a thrill; by the fact the said university
master’s motions in various To paint Mankind since dawn of Time was identified in the proof sub-
antics, audibly begging all the And show how steep has been the climb; mitted.
time for permission to rejoin Give Fancy rein to alter Fate; As usual in such cases while
the two. When the delayed To lift the low to high estate; the succeeding ignominy at-
signal finally came there were Impart to King the chance to see tached to the proceedings may
yelps of delight, from both How small he really proved to be. be shared by several, neverthe-
dogs, and indications of genu- Through us you’ll find the answer turns less it must be shouldered by
ine relief on the part of the
On that famed prayer of Bobby Burns: one. And here it is: Our apol-
sympathetic bystanders. The Screen’s the power the giftie gie us ogies to the doctor, who with
• To see oursel’s as ithers see us. cordiality and magnanimity re-
At the corner of Vine and the marks that otherwise the two
178 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

Now May Be Told could have been described as miscast.

pages accurately reflected his mes- It

sage. It may have been noted by he

Also plainly and verified by the se-
the general reader our April issue T
Herald-Express of Los Angeles
has been printing a story entitled

quence of events she has what it
appeared in a new dress.
may sound like an attempt-

“The First Movies True Stories of
When three agents declined to per-
Film Pioneer Days.” It is in series mit her to leave Manhattan without
ed alibi. Who would know ? form and undoubtedly has been syn- judicial determination as to where they
T dicated and sent over the country. It
respectively got off in the matter of
tells of Edward Muybridge and his
their ten percents Gypsy went to
Si Snyder Leaves Us early experiments under the employ- woik. In about three shakes, a ritual
ment of Governor Stanford, who inci- which seemingly is right down Rose’s
I SNYDER, former editor American dentally spent some four hundred
S Cinematographer, two-termer on thousand dollars to win a bet of
alley, she had the agents, their law-
yers and the judge in a huddle, with
International Photographer, has re- twenty-five thousand that a horse’s
signed from the latter publication. the agents this time doing the shak-
four feet came off the ground when And well they might. When it
He has left Hollywood, and
left it flat ing.
he broke into a gallop. was all over even the judge was smil-
left flat his host “Host”
of friends.
It may be of interest, historical
no figure of speech when talking ing. The agents could be pardoned if
of course, to note that among the
about this Snyder man, for better men they were not. They got their 10 per-
are not made.
early experiments or accomplishments
with multiple photographs was the

cent all right divided between the
He has gone back to Texas, arriv- three. Then Gypsy started for the
exposure and recording of a “strip
ing there simultaneously with the West Coast.
act,” now more commonly referred to
flowers of May, and with which he in polite circles as a “strip tease.” To
will divide the honors of welcome.
be sure, such exposure across the in-
In Waco, where he will make his quar- tervening sixty years always has “Strip Tease,” a story written by
ters for the present, he will undertake been sniffed at and looked upon by the Leston Huntley and Albert Barker,
important work. But major jobs are professionally discreet as entirely the has been bought by Republic Studio.
in his line. Just for example, when No, the studio is not a Hays affiliate.
act of a most common person.
a young man he conducted with en-
tire success the public relations de-

But times change and so, too, ap- Very likely, however, when the tale
parently do conventions. Where Muy- has been passed by the successors of
partment of the Jamestowm Exposi- bridge could have his strip photos what in other and more irreverent
tion. years were known not without some
bound and sold for $500, now less than
Si Snyder has been a resident of Lady
one-hundredth of that sum will secure measure of justification as the
Hollywood for many years. Natural- volumes the contents of which will Cancers not even a hurley house will
ly his leaving us was with deep re- it exciting enough to risk on it
make that Muybridge thing look like find
gret, for here he has many ties. That
a woman in a bathing suit of the any of its money. There may be some
regret is reciprocated by his friends, who will agree with the statement
early nineties.
whose heartiest good wishes will fol- that a good story requires no such
low him. sensational title to sell it to any one.
T And times change even more than
fast. In New York the Gotham, the
Ralph Ince Passes particular art of which has been de-
voted to the manifestations of bur- Why Belittle Good Picture?
hat tragic death of Ralph
was a
T —
lequew under the chaperonage of Abe mong
Ince, passing at fifty years
after a generation of work on stage
Minsky as manager has had its—
license revoked for the unthinkable
the pictures seen during
month was Universal’s
Live.” not a fad of
and screen. It was the close of three It is
period of a year. writer when emerging from a
of the four members of one family, a this
father and three sons, all of whom had • preview to look up the bowwow of a
devoted some of their lives to both di- studio perhaps pretty sure to be
visions of dramatic employment. The In discussing contempleted action standing in the lobby waiting for the
connection of the father with the seeking to upset the action of the comments of his friends, be they bou-
screen was brief, with the stage the courts Walter Winchell suggested it quets or brickbats. We did take the
length of a long life. John, like his seemed to be a case of peel and re- liberty of shaking the mitt of Charles
brothers, Tom and Ralph, also actor- peal. Rogers of U and suggest he had a
director, alone survives. There are Not in vain have some of these “pip.” We realized at the moment
a number of men and women now in sisters not always selected by an eye the professional reviewers would be-
Hollywood who worked with Ralph unerring in its detection of rhythm moan the absence of what they would
thirty years ago at the old Vitagraph and contour, nor of charm and general describe as b. o. (meaning “big names”
in Brooklyn. s. a., bared their overexposed but un- in the cast). Who after all really
His friends remember him as a diminished breasts to the chill mid- cares so long as it be a gripping story
stripling and they recall one contro- night winds of what once was known and splendidly done by actors as good
versy into which the youngster was as the Great White Way; not in vain as the best, with every department in
pitchforked when a nosey Coney have they turned their broad backs the picture at top quality and effi-
Island cop accused him of abusing a upon the tired b. m. of satiated Man- ciency ?
woman on the beach, declining to take —
hattan the action synchronized with Several times in the course of twen-
the word of the troupe he merely was a flip of what takes the place of skirts ty years we have taken the liberty
an actor in the pursuit of his job and of other years, a flip made famous by of quoting that remark of the veteran
the woman also was an actor. A the cancan artistes of Maxime’s also Daniel Frohman to the effect that “No
camera meant nothing in that cop’s in the early nineties —
but far removed great actor was ever made without
restricted life nor was he entirely cer- from the then bathing suit. a great play.”
tain it did in the lives of the boy and • After seeing “Let Them Live” there
girleither. But it did nevertheless, will be quite a number who will travel
and for many years thereafter even — Plainly Gypsy Rose Lee, who ar- a distance to see John Howard and
yet in the life of the girl, for years rived in Hollywood April 20 prepared several others in that cast. If they
a resident of Hollywood. to take on a contract with Fox, never were not before they are b. o. now.

May, 1937 o American Cinematographer 179

George Bernard Shaw, making debut as screen player, discusses with John Stumar, A.S.C., directing his first picture, the playwright’s
contribution of lines he personally will speak in “The Kings’ People.”


O BE ASSIGNED to direct your Greatest Living Writer alism to a far more generous spirit

T first
of any
is something
cameraman, even a
in the
Makes Debut in Screen
of commonwealth.
A Coronation Picture
veteran. To have handed you as a
member of your cast the name of Drama as A. S. C. Man The release of the picture was de-
George Bernard Shaw is a genuine signed to synchronize with the com-
the life of any director, even
thrill in Wields First Megaphone ing coronation in May. Its theme was
a veteran. Many directors have to be the highlights of the reigns of
dreamed of and prayed for such a to the sum of unusual circumstances the four monarchs from Victoria down
consummation of their career, the at- surrounding the making of the sub- who have preceded the present ruler.
tainment of such a peak, but aside ject the playwright wrote his own Incidentally the coming June will
from widely separated one or two lines. mark the centenary of the coming to
minute appearances in news weeklies “The Kings’ People” was the pic- the throne of Victoria.
— not over two or three at the most ture, described as“A British Epic by Sharing the honors and the appear-
no one previously has been able to John Drinkwater.” The author de- ances of G. B. S., others seen in this
tempt the caustic weaver of plays to clared his two objects to have been newer and later Cavalcade were Vis-
face the instrument that simultane- the showing of the staying power of countess (Lady to us) Astor, M. P.;
ously records image and sound. the British people through all man- the Right Honorable Austen Cham-
To John Stumar, A.S.C., during the ner of ordeals and also showing what berlain, K.G., P.C., M.P.; John Drink-
month of April returned from a seven he conceives to be the redeeming water and Violet Loraine, Mary Clare
months’ sojourn in England, fell the foundation of the whole British char- and Daisy Kennedy from the stage.
distinction of directing a picture in —
acter the sense of tolerance which The picture has been slated for show-
which George Bernard Shaw appeared has enabled the empire to pass from ing in this country.
as one of the actors. To contribute a somewhat narrow spirit of imperi- It seems a strange twist of fate
— —

180 Amfirican Cinematographer • May, 1937

that neither Chamberlain nor Drink- Brown the cameraman went immedi- many generations of English arti-
water lived to witness the showing- of ately into “Star Dust,” a musical. sanry.
the picture. Three Americans were in the cast The author remembered as
will be
It was Stumar’s success in photo- Wally Ford, Ben Lyon and Lupe the writer in 1919 of the popular play
graphing storm scenes at home that Velez. Larry Ceballos guided the “Abraham Lincoln,” successful in
caused an English producer to cable thirty-six girls and thirty-six boys England as well as in the United
him an attractive offer last summer. through their steps. States. In this country Frank Mc-
It was explained an English classic Glynn attained fame as the portrayer
was set to go, with a second picture “Intimate Relations” of the President. Drinkwater also later
slated to follow. The cameraman
learned it really was a classic “The
— The American’s third picture was wrote a biography of Carl Laemmle.
The film will be distributed by War-
“Intimate Relations,” a semi-musical,
Mill on the Floss,” by George Eliot ner Brothers Pictures Ltd. Its re-
directed by Clayton Hutton. Aside
and on August 21 he left Hollywood, lease in the United States was pend-
from June Clyde, the cast and per-
sailing on the Queen Mary five days ing in the middle of April.
Incidentally was a trip on sonnel were English. About five
later. it
weeks were devoted to the making. Praises Coworkers
which the blue ribbon was taken from
the Normandie for a fast run.
The subject had not been trade shown “Yes, I had a marvelous time in
when Stumar sailed for home. London,” declared Stumar to the edi-
All-English Staff “The Kings’ People,” as inevitably tor on the occasion of a visit to the
“The Mill on the Floss” was made was bound to be the case, was epi- new home of the A.S.C. on his arrival
sodic in nature. Stock shots were em- in Hollywood. “It takes no time at
and delivered in four weeks despite
the delay encountered in the making
ployed of historic scenes, some of all for any one blessed with even a

of daylight exteriors on account of these extending back into the era of minor sense of humor to discover that
the weather, necessitating booster Victoria. Woven in with them would if he will resign himself to circum-

lights, and the following handicaps be scenes of living participants. One stances as he finds them, to forget
imposed on the night storm scenes due of the most effective of these attended what he knows about the seeming ad-
to sudden and frequent shifts in the the appearance of G. B. S., to the au- vantages of home weather, to take
direction of the wind. But the A.S.C. dience there seemingly being some- things for granted and as matter of
man says the storm stuff was just thing uncanny about it. fact, that he can get along and do well
what the doctor ordered, with a cor- The stamp of John Drinkwater was and ha\-e a good time simultaneously.
responding high rating when the sub- prominently on the picture. Not only “The crews in the different studios
ject was trade shown. did he write the story. Also he played were 100 percent with me and seemed
With the exception of the camera- in it, as did the members of his family. to like the stranger’s way of doing
man the staff was all-English. The Much of it was staged in his own things. I certainly have got to hand

film is now running in England. home, in the midst of his great pot- it to them for making a man feel at
Under the direction of Melville tery and bottle collection, covering home.”

BLUE RIBBON FOR jealous soldier driving a ball out of

up in the “overmatter.” In the mean-
time it had come to the editor’s at-
R. K. O. To one who but a few weeks be- tention the picture has won out with

R KO-Radio is engaging in a bold fore had by his own fireside reread —

the multitude and in spite of its
experiment. In all respects it is a “Quality Street” in “Representative homespun atmosphere, its pre-Victo-
worthy one as well. By the time Plays,” by J. M. Barrie, there was a rian feminine viewpoint, its lack of the
this is printed Barrie’s “Quality play outside a play in following the blood-curdling, melodramatic bun-
Street” will be well on its way. Here reactions of the great audience in combe, it is registering boxoffice re-
is a stage play written thirty-five Pantages Hollvwood at the prev ew turns of 35 to 49 percent in excess ot
years ago by a man then forty-two In the beginning there was plainly the average picture. In it is a lesson
years old and around a small English an “Aw! Aw!” attitude on the part of for those who aim to give the best.
community between 1805 and 1815 the house, a seeming predicament of Our compliments to RKO.
the period marking the close of the indecision whether openly to snicker
Napoleonic era. at rather than with the (juaint char-

Quality Street is a highway where acters. Graduallv the great house If RKO’s “Quality
Street,” was an
women abound and the passing of a fell under the Barrie spell. Gone excellent portrayal of the beginning
Man is an event. Peering from be- was the jazz era, with its profanity of the nineteenth century, then its
hind the parted curtains that herald and bloodletting. Present was the day splendid “Shall We Dance?” re-
the appearance of a male person are of Napoleon; Victoria, the apostle of leased in April, will bring to its au-
no bad women. The cynic will sug- womankind, was not even yet born. diences a revelation of life as it is
gest there can be none' that there — Long before the curtain fell the at the moment. The two subjects
are no temptations. And that of house was won. And again Barrie, make an excellent contrast. We have
course will be unfair. master of the simple and the whole- the simple ways of rural England in
The experimental phase enters in some, also had won. 1805, a community where the women
the bringing of these ultra-conven- By the way, students of playwrit- are shy and retiring, against an at-
tional women of a hundred and thirty ing and the creating of scenarios will mosphere of the theater and the night
years ago, these women of the sim- find instruction as well as entertain- club, of Paris and New York, where
plest lives, of the most sheltered ex- ment in the reading of “Representa- the women not only are neither shy
istence, into the white light of life tive Plays,” by J. M. Barrie, Scrib- nor retiring but are ready to meet
in 1937 —
into a time of wealth loot- ners, with an introduction by William men on their own ground, with an
ing and bloodletting. Lyon Phelps. even chance of winning the honors
Here is a story where though sol- that go to the skilled in daring, in
diers march to the stirring roll of The foregoing was written in strategy and in finesse.
drums not a shot isfired, not a blow March. In the pressure of makeup To those who would look upon two
is —
struck if we except the blow of for the April issue it was cast to the rare and widely diverse examples of
a croquet mallet in the hands of a wolves. The item, however, bobbed .screen production here is a chance.
Scene photographed during jihning of Selznick Inter-
nationat's Technicolor production, “ Star is Horn";
an original story by If illiam A. ft ellman and Robert
('.arson, co-starring Janet Gaynor and Fredric 'ffarch.

David O. Selzmck .... Producer

William A. W eli.man . .Director

Howard Greene . . .Photographer


W Oettel
. . . Studio Chief Klectrician

A difficult barrier on the course to stardom is final screen test is the judgment of the theatre
the screen test. This scene from “A Star is going public. Carbon Arc Lighting has undergone
Born” shows Miss Gavnor, in her role as Esther this test. The verdict is unqualified approval of
Blodgett, getting her big chanee — the sereen test the improved quality of photographv which car-
which will determine her future eareer. 'Fhe bon arc lighting in the studio has made possible.


It is silent, cool and remarkably fast.

h h as the photographic qualities of daylight.


• It h as proved a necessity for color productions.
® It improves black and white photography.


Unit of Union Carbide QHi and Carbon Corporation
182 American Cinematographer • May, 1937


ollowing a general election by open meetings each month will go
F the members of the American So- far to increase our knowledge of what
ciety of Cinematographers early in is going on in our own industry, to

Apiil the new Board of Governors strengthen our bond of friendship, and
re-elected the following officers: so to solidify our fraternal foundation
President, John Arnold; first vice- as will still further make for the so-
president, Victor Milner; second vice- ciety’s security, prestige and perpetu-
president, Charles B. Lang, Jr.; third ity.
vice-president, James Van Trees; “If any member has any sugges-
treasurer, Fred W. Jackman; secre- tions for the improvement of the lot
tary, Frank B. Good. of cameramen I hope he will let us
The Board of Governors as now have the benefit of it.
composed is as follows: “I pledge every effort for myself,

John Arnold Fred W. Jackman and I know with entire certainty I

Elmer Dyer Ray June may do the same for my fellow-board
Arthur Edeson Charles B. Lang, Jr. members, to make the coming twelve-
George Folsey V'ictor Milner
Alfred Gilks Ted Tetzlaff month one of the more memorable in
Bert Glennon Joseph Walker the history of the society.
Frank B. Good James Van Trees
Vernon L. Walker “The A.S.C. will continue to keep
abreast of the times, to go forward
“I realize how difficult it is for me and never to lose step with those
to try to impress on my fellow-mem- forces that seek the maintenance of
bers and my
associates on the board amity with all of those wherever John Arnold, president of A.S.C., now
serving his seventh term.
my deep appreciation of the great found with whom its lot is cast.
honor done me by election to my “I have been asked how it seems
seventh term as head of this splendid to be elected for the seventh term. again I am sure that also I may speak
body,” declared President Arnold at Well, after being in harness for six on behalf of those who officially share
the board meeting following the elec- years, with abundant opportunity to —
these burdens with me there is a
tion. realize the growing responsibilities growing appreciation of the honor that
“In the life of the society, now ap- that inevitably accompany these of- has been conferred and a deepening
proaching a score of years, one of ficial duties, 1 do want to say — and determination to be worthy of it.”'
the dominating objectives of the mem-
bership has been the owner.-^hip of
a home of its own. It is a matter of
congratulation that in the past year
our objective has been attained.
“One of the first major fruits of
the acquisition of our beautiful club-
The Movie™Uncle Sam's
house is the action by the officers in
establishing a members’ night once a
month. That means more than just
a gathering for fraternizing and pass-
International Salesman
ing a pleasant evening. Rather it Prepared by Los Angeles Office of the B ureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
marks a definite step in the progress
of the society. It means an oppor- T WAS ONCE SAID that wherever found their way through our factories
tunity for keeping up with the ad- the white man had trodden some or fashion parade.
vance in all of the ramifications of I product of an American manufac- What does this far reaching pene-
motion picture photography and— turer could be found. Today the mo- tration mean to the motion picture
also its allied crafts. tion picture is no exception. It can industry ? It brings a conscious desire
“These monthly meetings have be seen on the boulevards of the capi- on the part of every native to possess
been in the minds of the officers for tals of the world or the most distant the luxury and comforts offered by
a long time. But in the way of mak- jungle outpost. Hollywood is the capi- the factories and farms of this coun-
ing that an actuality there has been tal of the United States to the native try. When one of our thousands of
under the former conditions a genuine humming the theme song of an Am- products comes in contact with our less
obstacle. It would be necessary we erican picture in the rice fields of worldly endowed neighbor, he asso-
go out and ‘hire a hall.’ It was be- China. The movie stars are better ciates it with having first seen it on
lieved, and I think rightly, the ma- known to the world than the founders the screen. Every showing of an
jority of the membership would not of our country, our great industrial- American film in foreign countries
respond to the call with any enthusi- ists or artists. creates a demand for the products of
asm. The motion picture unfolds to the our factories.
“Now what was iust a castle in the world our progress in industry, ad- The automobiles driven by the movie
air is a castle in the hand. vancement in standards of living, our stars eventually find their way to the
“In the past year the society has literature, styles and recreation. palatial residences on the Riviera or
progressed for good in all discover- Utopian scenes in some pictures have to the palace of a desert chief in the
able ways. T think the membership brought inquiries from distant coun- countries of the East. Clothes, sport-
will agree on this. And T am sure the tries for products that have not as yet Continued on page 224
WAKE UP AND LIVE Stafring Vi^ultev Witjchell utid Ben Bevtiie
. . .


DARRYI f. zanuck

A. S. C.

Chief Engineer:

Still by:

iack woods

Not much room for lighting Compactness is only one of many
equipment behind the band in this helpful qualities of G-E MAZDA
scene from "Wake Up and Live” lamps. And there is an amazingly
. . . but they needed light there to wide range of types and sizes to
produce the desired effect. provide light for every lighting
need . . . from set lighting to spe-
That’s where the compactness of equip-
cial effects.
ment using G-E MAZDA lamps comes
in handy. This feature makes possible Are you benefiting fully from this
1 lighting effects that are difficult or flexibility.^ General Electric Com-
i impossible with other illuminants. pany, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. G-48-2 K. W. Spotlight

184 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

subject with the Keller-Dorian color peaceful morn the party still was
process. going strong; notes with decibells to
• J. Burgi Contner, A.S.C., has pur- “What’s the matter? What’s the
• Don Malkames, A.S.C., of New chased the old Grantwood (N. J.) matter?” was demanded. And before
York, arrived in Hollywood April 10
studios, changing the property’s name the startled would-be worshippers
for a stay of a month. During that to Producers’ Service, Inc. The plant could determine the source of the im-
time he will be situated at the Gen- has been thoroughly overhauled and pious, irreverent disturbance the com-

eral Service Studios, where he will newly equipped with sound and cam- mand was repeated, with growing in-
photograph a number of two-reel sub- era apparatus and is all set to go. sistence.

jects sponsored by a large national

Now it is the tradition of the pul-
advertiser. The New Yorker is con- • Harry Fischbeck, A.S.C., is the pit to ignore such interruptions. But
owner of a macaw, a philosopher of that is something of which Mac had
nected with Audio Productions, sub-
sidiary of Western Electric. Gener- unusual keenness and ordinarily quiet no knowledge. How the how could —
ally the work of Audio is the produc-
and peaceful but garrulous to an ex- he ? Harry never had told him. And
treme when aroused or curious. At the minister in his shocked surprise
tion of industrials of the better sort,
least, Harry was the owner. He was forgot all about it. Wishing he were
the kind that not only are designed
the owner prior to Easter Sunday. still in bed, the clergyman turned.
to entertain an audience but to in-
struct as well.
The aforesaid philosophic macaw is The eyes of the congregation followed
always seeking the foundation of his.
The company’s range of activities
things, their origin, the lowdown if Suddenly realizing he was the cen-
covers all major industries. It does
you permit us to employ so ple-
will ter of something or other Mac got on
not seek to go into processes of manu-
beian a term when discussing any- his toes. When he noted several
facture. Rather it aims to dramatize
an industry, to symbolize what it thing pertaining to philosophy. Noth- strangely angry persons starting in
means to the world at large and to ing does he enjoy quite so much as his direction he spun the old top and

those who live in it. The company to examine what is taking place took off for the lower branches of a
recognizes the resentment that is around him from an elevated, even convenient tree, meantime and while
manifested by the customers in a an exalted, position. He dotes on yet in flight insisting on an answer
looking down on while looking into to his query.
theatre when it dawns upon them
some one is trying to sell them things. Even those fifty-two times a year
something. It tries to make an im- Furthermore, nothing quite so up- delinquent neighbors who as usual
pressionistic film which
will entertain sets his usually placid, unboisterous had planned to employ their Sunday
an audience and the same time
spirit asan unusual gathering or com- paper for an altar cloth changed their
make those out in front feel that motion of any kind, one to which he non-Sabbatarian minds and deserted
steel, for example, is a tremendous in-
may be unaccustomed or as to the their easy chairs to find out what the
dustry and bulks big in every one’s background of which he may be unin- riot was all about.
From his private parallel platform— Mac Demands Answer
The visiting A.S.C. man was look-
ing forward to meeting his fellow- to the uninitiated —
in the grounds ad-
As Mac sought increasing altitude
members during his stay on the West joining Harry’s Palm Springs villa
to evade the ever-threatening clutches

Coast and that sentiment was recip- on Easter Sunday morning Mac noted
with growing concern the assemblage
of his red-faced pursuers, whose ris-
rocated by them. ing and now somewhat unholy vocabu-
of what the neighbors quite well un- lary seemed peculiarly out of step
• Karl Freund, A.S.C., following the
derstood to be for an Easter Morning with what had been intended to be a
service, of the outdoor as well as of religious service, a hurry-up call went
arrival in China of prints of “The
Good Earth,” which he photographed, the open door variety. Harry knew
about it, but he was so excited about
in for the fire department —
the mem-
has been in receipt of urgent letters bers of which seemingly at the mo-
from many of the four hundred mil- getting out of bed early on a Sunday ment were the only persons in the
lion asking him, among many things, morning he forgot all about tipping town in bed.
how he obtained certain shots, what
off Mac.
But Mac just went from one oh, —
is the course to pursue in order to oh, that was a close one. You see,
‘Morning-After’ Sound
get a job as a cameraman in America, we were thinking about the language
and many other strange questions The large and colorful bird, though of those pursuers. Anyway, Mac just
such as only can be conceived by the most uneasy, remained also unvocal went from one tree to another.
uncounted multitude spread over the until the minister orally opened the Nevertheless, Mac still insisted on
face of the earth seized by a single service. Suddenly a clarion call shat- an answer. In despair the minister
obsession: tered the Sabbath calm, the rapidly gave it all up. The now really large
“How do you get a job as camera- developing reverent, cathedral atmos- crowd, far greater than the original
man in a Hollywood studio?” phere. congregation, larger in fact than any-
Only too intelligible were the rau- thing blase Palm Springs ever had
• Ix>o Lipp, A.S.C., has arrived in cous, guttural and suspiciously bibu- conceived to be possible at anv time
Hollywood from New York to super- —
lous notes the peculiarly undeniable in any year in that town, decided to
vise the making of a Grand National evidence that somewhere on that Continued on paffe 195
EASTMAN aiinoiinces two new super-

duplicating materials. ..Eastman Fine-

Grain Duplicating Negative and Positive

Films. They lead to duplicates actually in-

distinguishable from originals, and at last

provide the industry with the complete

answer to a highly important photographic

problem. Eastman Kodak Company,

Rochester, N. Y. (J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Dis-

tributors, Fort Lee, Chicago, Hollywood.)

EASTMAN Fine-Grain
186 American Cinematographer • May, 1937


W ITH THE Coronation of King
George VI and Queen Eliza-
beth almost upon us, it is in-
teresting to pause for a moment in
retrospect and study a photographic
By W. T. Crespinel

And now to the coronation. Realiz-

ing the historic importance of having
But let us consider the equipment
available in those days. Negative was
200 ft. rolls. There was no pan-
chromatic negative on the market and
so Kinemacolor had to panchromatize
the ceremonies recorded in color, the its own stock. This was done on two
picture of the coronation of the late
British Government allowed Charles hundred foot pin frames. These were
King George V and his Queen Mary
London in 1911 by Kinemacolor, Urban, president of Kinemacolor, brass frames with a series of brass
the first color process. The company many concessions in the matter of pins mounted in the frames. With
was just in its rompers at that time, vantage points for the five cameras the frame lying flat, the pins about
covering the ceremonies and other as- an inch and a half in length projected
being two years of age, but had creat-
sistance to help make the undertaking upward from the frame.
ed considerable interest because of
the simplicity of the process and ex-
a success. The orthochromatic negative was
cellence of its color values.
With such assured help Mr. Urban threaded upon the pins, celluloid side
To those of our readers who are not organized his various departments against the brass pins and then sub-
particularly informed on the subject to allow uninterrupted production mitted to the sensitizing operation.
we may mention that Kinemacolor throughout the plant both day and It was no simple matter to thread
was an additive process. The camera night. Cots were installed to allow these pin frames, since they were
was fitted with a revolving color the employes to snatch a few hours’ operated manually and of course in a
wheel, one-half having a transparent rest whenever opportunity allowed. room illuminated by weak light. The
orange-red filter, the other half a frame was placed upon a stand in
blue-green filter. front of the operator, the stand being
This filter was positioned behind constructed upon an angle of about 45
the lens and in front of the negative degrees.
in order that the light rays from the
Much Care Needed
lens passed through the filters to the
picture area. The camera was built to The operator then took a roll of
photograph at a speed double that of negative and first made a small loop
regular black and white, which was at the outer end, fastening the loop
then sixteen pictures a second. Thus with a pin. This loop was then placed
Kinemacolor photographed at a speed upon the first pin at the centre of the
of thirty-two pictures a second. frame and the negative threaded to
the next pin and so on. When the
Through Alternating Filters
frame was completely threaded the
In photographing, the first picture film resembled a multiplicity of
area received an image through the squares starting small in the center
red filter, the second through the blue and gradually becoming larger as it
filter and this continued throughout reached the outside of the frame,
the negative roll. So it needed two which was about 2 feet 6 inches
actual pictures to complete the color square.
cycle, accounting for the camera being- Two important points needed watch-
speeded to double normal. ing carefully, however. One was to
After the negative was developed, avoid getting a “lap” which meant
a normal positive was made in the that the film was threaded twice on
orthodox manner and the print con- the same pin, and which would result
tained no visible color values, but la- in a lack of sensitizing of the “lapped”
tent values. The projector functioned
W. T. Crespinel
negative at that point, and the sec-
in precisely the same manner as the ond was to avoid allowing the emul-
camera. The speed was thirty-two A caterer served adequate meals con- sion side to touch the head of any
pictures a second and it carried a re- tinuously, day and night. Not one brass pin.
volving transparent color filter wheel, employe left the Kinemacolor build- The pins were but 3/16 inches
positioned between the lamp house ing at 80-82 Wardour street for four apart, and one readily can understand
and film gate, and the positive was days. the possibility of this happening.
threaded through the projector with Prints were exhibited in London on Should this occur the rub would de-
the picture carrying the red color the evening of the day they were velop as a black mark. Experienced
values opposite the red filter. Thus photographed, and this, mind you, was operators could thread a 200 foot
one really saw on the screen a suc- twenty-six years ago. Not much of frame, without error, in about four
cession of positive images through al- an achievement, one might remark, minutes.
ternate red and green filters. Due to when considering the dispatch with After the sensitizing operation the
the persistence of vision the images which prints are exhibited today, hun- film was then transferred to a large
coalesced in the mind, and the effect dreds of miles from where events take drum for drying. Developing of the
was a picture in natural color. place, within a few hours. negative was accomplished in a like
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 187

manner. There were no developing Charles Urban, together with a staff and Queen as Emperor and Empress
machines in those days. Also the de- of photographers headed by Joseph of India.
veloping quality was a matter of eye De Frenes, now president of De In this instance a temporary lab
judgment as this was long before Frenes & Company, Philadelphia, and was fitted out at Delhi and all nega-
the days of .sensitometric control. including Alfred Gosden, well known tive developed there and sent to Lon-
Ed. ting Done by Negative Hollywood film technician, set sail don for editing and printing. Many
for India to photograph the Delhi people remember the Durbar more
Since it was possible to preserve Durbar or the crowning of the King distinctly than the ceremonies in Lon-
the sensitized negative for a period a don because of the greater richness of
large amount was available for the the events.
ceremonies. Knowledge of just what
was to be photographed on a cer- Elephants Decked
tain day allowed titles to be made Outstanding among the ceremonies
and held in readiness. Editing was were the elephant parades. There
done by the negative itself. A pro- elephants, bedecked in cloths of gold
jector, equipped with a Nertz lamp and silver, set with rubies, pearls and
and felt-covered gate shoes, was used. diamonds, were ridden by princes and
After the negative was whipped in- gaekwars. Some of the wealthiest
to shape it was rushed to the print- men in the world rode past the great
ing room. There was no cinex or throne, mounted high above the flat
similar light testing machines avail- plain, outside Delhi, in seemingly
able. In fact, the printers were manu- endless procession.
ally driven and the light changes COOKE LENSES To show future rulers of the em-
manually operated. Thus in printing pire the British Government has a
have earned world-widepref-
the operator first inspected the roll complete copy of both the coronation
erence among experienced
of negative over a white light to ac- cinematographers because and Delhi Durbar. Since a chuckle is
quaint himself with the general qual- they give superior results un- always a good tonic, the following
ity of each scene. der all conditions. Focal anecdote might be worth repeating.
Then, after the printer was thread- lengths for every need. Write The coronation pictures were being
ed, the operator printed by manually for descriptive circular. shown in New York at a theatre on
turning a large disk which operated Broadway. In one scene the King is
the mechanism, the disk having a BELL& HOWELL seen riding alone in state, in an open
handle and using his right hand while carriage.
with his left hand he operated the
COMPANY There came a slight pause in the
Exclusive World Distributors
light control, which was a Tungsten procession, and it so happened a
1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago
lamp mounted on a sliding arm and New York: 11 West 42d Street Kinemacolor camera was directly op-
could be brought toward the printing Hollywood: 716 N. LaBrea Ave. posite the royal carriage. Hearing
London: 13-14 Great Castle Street
aperture or retarded by turning the the click of the camera, the King
control lever left or right. turned and looked right into the lens.
As to the position of the lamp for Nodding slightly he smiled, and the
the correct printing density, the print- procession continued, the King pass-
er determined that by the first picture ing out of the picture frame.
of any scene which was visible at the
printer aperture. It is remarkable, but CALL The particular projectionist running
the films delighted, upon occasion, in
nevertheless a fact, that a printer AOUR SHOTS vocally affecting a cockney accent.
could make copy after copy with hard-
ly any visible variation.
make it for you process-

slow motion color

— —
While running the films one day a
thought occurred to him which he
The printing finished, the prints sound and silent INTERIOR — quickly put into effect. With his head
were sent to the developing room, and EXTERIOR AT PRICES — protruding through the opening in
where again they were threaded on TO MEET YOUR BUDGET. his projection booth he waited for the
the two-hundred foot pin frames and Every type of professional mentioned scene to appear. As the
were developed in ceramic tanks hold- equipment is on hand — 24 procession paused he shouted in ex-
ing ten gallons of solution. After the hour service. cellent cockney, “Hy, George!” and
films were dried they were spliced to- The finest cameramen and the King, as though acknowledging
gether in full reels, splices being technicians in the east will the salutation, turned his head, smiled
made by hand, as machines were not handle your assignments . . .
at the greatly amused audience, and
then on the market. Cable - Phone - Write drove on out of the picture.
Late King Also Invested
The first gala showing of the coro-
Ruby Film Co. The writer is indebted to Arthur G.
729 Seventh Avenue
nation pageantry was at the Scala New York Waddingham for his assistance in
Theatre in London. Special musical verifying dates and happenings re-
Coble Address RUBYCAM corded in this article.
accompaniment was afforded by a full
Established since 1910 T
orchestra hidden beneath a palm leaf
bower in the orchestra pit, the musi- NO PUBLIC EXHIBIT
cal numbers being particularly stir- During- the spring convention of the
ring. Included in the ceremonies was Society of Engineers all technical ses-
the investiture of the late abdicated sions will be held in the Blossom
Edward as Prince of Wales. Room of the Hollywood-Roosevelt
Shortly after the coronation, the and Ni^hf Hotel. There will be no public exhib-
newly crowned King ordered com- ir> Daylimv-Fv^ Scvnvs- it of apparatus in the hotel; al-
biffusvd Fwus. and many nHm- <Ff«vls
mand performances of the entire cere- With any Camera " In any Climat* though members registered in the
monies. So great were the enthusi- •'Gcorqo H. Scheibo hotel will of course be privileged to
asm and Dublic support of these films 1927 WEST 78T" ST. LOS ANGELES. CAL display any equipment they wish in
that, in November of the same year. their own rooms.
188 American Cinematoorapher • May, 1937


arry JONES, a spring plunger lock, by means of

method of applying
Howell camera a
a Hollywood cine
has developed a
to the Bell
which the head is shifted and locked
into place.
N’ew Door F'itted
focusing shift of the type generally A new door is fitted to the camera.
used, while at the same time retain- In this door is built the magnifying
ing the stamlard features of the system of a conventional focusing
camera. microscope. In use the camera head
In this system of modernization the is shifted to the right for focusing.
camera head undergoes a major oper- This brings the focusing microscope
ation at the start. The door is dis- into line with the aperture, permit-
carded and the camera box is cut ting the cameraman to focus in the
down to the rectangular box that usual manner on a ground glass
houses the movement; the shutter- screen. When the camera is returned
housing is removed almost entirely, to the photographing position the
only that pait behind the forward end microscope is ordinarily abutted
of the camera box remaining.
against a protecting block which is a
New Baseplate part of the upright portion of the new
An entirely new baseplate
is then base. Kear view of Bell & Howell camera showing
new focusing shift as fitted by Jones.
fitted. This carries the dovetailed In some special installations, how-
supporting rails upon which the whole ever, this block has been pierced to nates the errors introduced by rotat-
upper part of the assembly slides take a matched finder lens, permitting ing the lens in focusing.
from shooting to focusing positions the use of the microscope as a view- Camera Practically Unchanged
and the toothed rack by means of finder as well as for visual focusing.
The focusing control is a knurled
which the movement is effected. In this case the microscope can be
knob, conveniently placed at the lower
This in turn is fitted upon an L- fitted with the conventional finder
left hand side of the base. A small
shaped base. The horizontal member mattes to coordinate with the fields
lever slightly in front of this knob
serves as a base for the camera, while of lenses of varying foci.
locks the focus at any point.
the upright member forms a new The mechanics of the Jones focusing
Further than this the camera is un-
front board, carrying the lens turret, system is noteworthy. The lenses are
changed. The mechanism of the cam-
etc. A transverse shaft carries a mounted in a conventional four-lens
era itself, whether the standard pilot-
pinion which meshes with the rack on turret carried on a special frontboard
pin movement, the speed movement
the sub-base and moves the camera- in the upright part of the L-shaped
or any type of silenced movement be
head. The rear end of this shaft ter- base. The entire frontboard moves
u.sed, is unchanged by the conversion.
minates in a Tee-handle fitted with in and out for focusing. This elimi-
The basic features of the Bell and
Howell remain unchanged; only a
more modern, quick-action focusing
shift has been added.
The principles of design involved in
this type of focusing shift are now
understood to be in public domain, so
that this conversion may be applied
and used without infringement of pat-
ent rights previously extant.
With this change, however, the
standard Bell and Howell camera be-
comes adapted to the needs of present
day production, despite the many
changes that have occurred in the
twenty-seven years since the original
design was laid down.

A large number of interesting

papers are promised for the appara-
tus symposium at the engineer’s con-
vention in Hollywood, May 24.
The local papers committee, under
the chairmanship of William A. Muel-
ler and with Lawrence Aicholtz as
secretary, is collaborating closely with
the general papers committee in ar- ,

ranging the details of the program.

Other members of this committee are
C. N. Batsel. O. 0. Ceccarini. E. C.
Richardson, H. C. Silent, and H. G.
Side view of standard Bell & Howell camera adapted with focusing shift. Tasker.
May, 1937 « American Cinematographer 189


•"“TlHE T.WO YEARS just passed centers necessitate the use of an ex- beam is further flooded the difference
I have seen tremendous changes in cess of diffusion in an attempt at cor- in intensity between the center and
*" the equipment used to light mo-
rection, and often, too, the use of two edges often exceeds 300 per cent.
tion picture sets. Today’s mosc mod- or more lamps with beams diffused Moreover, since the projected beam
ern lamps are in appearance as unlike and overlapped to do the work of one comes from rays reflected by a mirror
those considered the last word in really efficient unit. behind the light source, any lays
lighting a few years ago as is a 1937 emitted from the front of that scurce
automobile compared to a 1917 model. Conventional Spotlights
become “spilled light.”
The (juestion is frequently asked, The conventional spotlighting units For many years the engineering
“How did these radically different were of two types: the condensing .staff Mole-Richardson, Inc., in
lighting units evolve?” lens spotlights and the various types common with most other studio light-
The answer can be summed up by of minor spotlights. Each showed ing engineers, had conducted experi-
the statement that these lamps were some advantages, but neither could ments aimed at overcoming these
developed to meet the conditions of be termed perfectly satisfactory for faults. Most of the results remedied
today’s cinematography. The differ- modern conditions. them only partially and proved little
ence in physical appearance is pure- The condensing lens spotlights pro- better than makeshifts.
ly incidental to fundamental changes jected a well controlled beam, but they
Partial Remedies Little Help
in the way the lamps work. were not efficient as regarded the in-
For the past five or six years film tensity of light projected. The haz- 'One of the most commonly u.-^ed
emulsions have been growing steadily ards of breakage due to the heat of methods of improving the bad distri-
more and more sensitive. Each in- the light source necessitated a lens of bution of light on the flooded beam
crease in speed has permitted a pro- relatively small aperture and long was to substitute a faceted mirror for
portionate reduction in the amount of focus, thereby wasting much of the the usual parabolic glass one. In
light needed to make an exposure. light produced by the source. Europe these were often glass mo-
At the same time, we have progressed The mirror spotlights, especially saics; in this country, where such
from the early talkie technii|ue of the 18-inch and 24-inch sizes, were construction would be prohibitively
multiple cameras to the more normal the standard spotlighting units for expensive, faceted metal mirrors,
use of a single camera. most purposes. When used to project chromium or rhodium plated, were
These two factors have combined to a tightly concentrated beam they are used. These somewhat improved the
motivate a trend to simpler, more nat- most efficient, but as soon as the beam light distribution, but at a consid-
ural lightings. At the same time is flooded even slightly inherent aber-
erable cost in efficiency.
they have demanded greater precision rations in the parabolic lens system The problem of “spilled light” was
in lighting from the cinematographers produce a shadowed center. As the most commonly met by fitting “spill
and in turn a more precise control of rings,” which simply blocked all light
light from the lighting units. rays from the front of the light source
save those parallel to the beam. Here
Decrease of “General” Lighting again good illuminating value was
This demand for more precise con- thrown away, and added obstruction
trol of illumination brings a marked was interposed within the field of light

decrease in the use of the so-called projected by the mirror.

“general lighting” units broadsides, Quite early in the development of
rifles, banks and overhead units and the studio incandescent spotlighting
an increase in the use of the more units we attempted to substitute a
controllable spotlighting units. condensing lens of one type or an-
This same trend makes further de- other for the spillring in the hope
mands upon the efficiency of the spot- that this would both control “spilled
lighting units. They must be con- light” and improve the beam distri-
trollable over a wide range of beam bution. Practical experience showed
spreads from a tight spot to as much that this was not an adequate solu-
as 45 degrees. They must keep all tion, however, as it proved difficult to
their light within the beam, for in coordinate the parabolic mirror and
modern precision lighting “spilled condensing lens optically and mechan-
light” cannot be tolerated. Light ically.Some “spilled light” remained
rays leaking unwantedly from the and the shadowed center was not suf-
beam of a lamp might not make a ficiently improved, so this idea was
noticeable impression on the slower abandoned.
emulsions of a few years ago, but on New Type Optics Needed
today’® ultra-sensitive emulsions they
Fromthese and many other similar
can be more than enough to spoil a
experiments covering a period of many
carefully planned lighting.
years it became clear that the prob-
Faulty distribution of light within
2000-watt Junior Solarspot which marked the lem could only be solved by the de-
the beam can be even more serious.
first step in the design of modern velopment of an entirely new optical
“Rings,” “hot spots” and shadowed lighting equipment. Continue<l on pajre 193
190 American Cinematographer • May, 1937


arry perry, hope this summary of my experi- camera carrying 100 feet of film for

a.s.c., on the
evening of April 20 addressed ence has not bored you. I will now shots where light weight is desired
the Associated Motion Picture say something that may be of help and where space for camera mount
Pilots. These men are the fliers who to some of you who have not had a is limited. Of course, for those en-
perform the air hazards for the screen. great deal of experience in this type gaging in heavier work the Eyemo
The session, which was a regular one, of work. This is not for you old provides magazines of 200 and 400
was held in the Knickerbocker Hotel. timers. You can just sit and pan me feet capacity.
if you want, but please do it to your-
Mr. Perry’s subject was “Airplane What Lenses Mean
Motion Picture Photography.’’ His selves.
talk was as follows: The different kinds of moving pic- Now
something about lenses and the
I would like to thank you fellows ture cameras generally used are the meaning of depth of focus. Sizes of
for the privilege of giving a little talk Mitchell, Bell and Howell, Akeley and most popular lenses are 25, 35 and 40
on airplane photography. I would Eyemo. mm., and 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 inch. The
like briefly to summarize my e.xperi- The Mitchell and Bell and Howell size of a lens denotes the distance
ence along this line. both aregood for set shots, back- of the image on the optical glass in
I have been a moving picture cam- grounds and follow shots of other the lens to the film. For example,
eraman for over eighteen years. Dur- planes where the action is not too fast. a two-inch lens means that it is that
ing the past fifteen years I have had The Akeley is for stunts and fast distance from the lens to the film.
well over a thousand hours of flying following shots. The advantage of The closer the lens is to the film,
in connection with moving pictures. the Mitchell and Bell and Howell over the wider the angle of the picture at
My first airplane picture was the first the Akeley where possible is that you a certain distance from the camera;
version of “The Broken Wing,” about have 400 and 1000 foot magazines also the depth of focus increases for
fifteen years ago. The pilots were for film and only 200-foot magazines the same reason.
Leo Nomis, I./Oop Murphy and Patter- on the Akeley, also the Mitchell and Therefore if you have a set camera
son (God keep them). Bell and Howell are better for shots shot on a plane placed back of the
My first flight was with Murphy in where steadiness of camera is re- cockpit so as to photograph the pilot
an old Jenny. The camera was fast- quired such as background shots for and also any plane or object he may
ened to a wooden saddle, which was studio transparencies. be flying towards, it is best to use
tied to the fuselage in back of the The Eymo is a small spring-driven a wide angle lens such as a 25 or 35
rear cockpit with leather .straps. We mm., as they will keep the pilot and
had no camera motors in those days, distance objects both in focus, which
and so the camera had to be cranked a narrow angle or long focus lens
by hand. would not do.
It is therefore impractical to use
Advice for Novice.s
a longer focus lens than a three-inch
Imagine my embarrassment when from an airplane as you would prob-
Loop throttled down the motor as we ably not be able to carry focus of both
were flying over the studios on the planes you are photographing and
way to location from Clover Field air- clouds behind them, which are neces-
port. He asked me if I thought T sary to a good shot. Besides, long
could turn the camera through a loop. focus lenses are much more likely to
Not knowing any better, I said “I’ll pick up vibration of the airplane mo-
try.” I knelt in the cockpit facing the tor.
tail and fastened the safety belt over On
the ground long focus lenses are
my legs. practical and necessary, and it is easy
Loop then put the ship through five to stop down the diaphragm on your
consecutive loops. I managed to crank lens to compensate for lack of depth
the camera in a way, and that was of focus.
my initiation to airplane photography. Wait For Clouds
Since that time I have worked on
many airplane pictures, having charge I would like to mention a few things
of the photography on “Wings” and to remember in doing aerial photog-
“Hell’s Angels.” I have made three raphy which might be helpful. Never
round trips by air to New York, have photograph planes in the air unless
photographed in color the Grand Can- there are clouds behind them as other-
yon, Bryce and Zion from a Fairchild, wise they will look as if they were
the Hawaiian Islands from a Sikorsky, standing still, sometimes even appear-
the Swiss Alps from a German ing to be going backward, much to
Fokker, London from an English the sorrow of a number of producers,
Hannibal and part of the Sahara Des- who have insisted on shooting scenes
ert in Noi’th Africa from a French under these conditions.
plane, the name of which I do not Putting clouds in by trick photog-
know. Harry Perry, A. S. C. raphy has never been successful

May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 191

either, so when
there are no clouds,
the only remedy is to wait for some,
as there must be something back of a
plane to give you sense of movement
on the screen, either clouds or ground
or other objects.
Also keep an eye on the film maga-
zine lids and see they are taped on.
Frank Clarke can back me up on this.
He had a camera set on his landing
gear out in the Valley one day and
he went up over the hills and made a
lot of spins and dives and came back
with the film all fiying out behind
him. The lid had worked loose and
came off.
and Accessories

It is
Counterbalance Camera
also impossible to get a pic-
ture with a handkerchief stuck in the
sunshade in front of lens as Howard
and Catling-room
Mitchell Cameras
Batt can testify, too, although the
laugh was on me. I put it there EQUIPMEiXT # Bell & Howell Cameras
when the motor was being warmed up
Make this office your # Panoram Dollies
to keep the dust off of the lens and
then forget to take it out before tak-
headquarters when # Special Effect Cameras

ing off. workinit in New' York % Moviolas % Tripods

Another precaution I advise is if # Blimps # Lights
you have a camera mounted out on
the end of a wing be sure to put a
and Bell & How-
camera servicing is a
# Lenses

counterbalance weight on the oppo- specialty of our experienced .Vcir and Used Equipment Alivays
site wing. Leo Nomis and I nearly technicions Available
crashed over Seventh and Broadway
years ago before we found this out.
We were taking some tight spins over
the center of the downtown district
for a Ruth Roland picture.
i60 O Broadtuay
Hetu York
' me
If I still have time I would like to r*vw
rv n? t'MTf

mention a few other things that have

caused me grief in the past.
Narrow Escape
In Texas on “Wings” we once tried
building a large windshield on a D.H.
camera ship. I think Frank Tomick
and Robbie Robinson will recall this.
We thought it would protect the cam- MITCHELLS — BELL-HOWELLS— BLIMPS— DOLLIES
era operator from the terrific propel-
ler blast,
was so large
but it was unsuccessful. It
it blanketed the rudder 1033 N. CAHUENCA
and the ship nearlv crashed HI. 4464 NITE MO. 13470
in taking
Another time in Texas we had a
camera set behind the cockpit operat-
ed by the pilot. He went up to about
2000 feet and did some diving and
shooting of machine guns at a column
of troops along a road. He had to
do this three times over on account
of a fiy being crushed against the
r Used
in Every Major Studio.
light intensity
proper printing

Illustrated Literature on request. OPTICAL PRINTERS
lens on the first two takeoffs from a MOVIOLA CO. and special machinery
meadow and the shots were no good. 1451 Cordon St. Hollywood, Calit.
Another job that caused me grief 6154 Santa Monica Blvd.

was working over the Valley one day Hollywood, Calif.

my ’chute ring got caught against the

side of the cockpit. While I was work-
ing the camera my chute started blow- The officers and members of the
ing out around the rudder. If you think Associated Motion Picture Pilots are UARIABLE AREA RECORDERS
it was easy pulling that bunch of silk Howard H. Batt, president; Frank PATENT NO. IW&St*. OTHERS PCN0M6

back into the cockpit you’re crazy. Tomick, vice president; Jerry Phillips, 3Smm to I6mfn

The pilot wasn’t having any fun, secretary; Earl H. Robinson, sergeant- 1^ REDUCTION SOUND PRINTER
either. I think it was Boots Boulatier at-arms; Frank Clarke, Paul Mautz, Fa sound EQUIPMENT

flying the ship. Clinton Herberger, Garland Lincoln, ^ CR. CaMe address CRSCO
Thank you very much for your at- Tex Rankin, Herb White and Tave 290 TURK STREET PHONE OROWAV «M9

tion. Wilson. San Francisco. Caltfomia U. S. A.

192 Amkrican Cinematographer ® May, 1937

clear up many misinterpretations of

the verbaldescriptions in most ex-
posure guides.
Instructions for developing, inten-
sifying and reducing cine-film and
miniature-camera negatives with Bur-
roughs Wellcome “Tabloid” products
are included. Certain of these are like-
wise applicable to doctoring ailing re-
versal-film cine shots.
Of unique value is the section de-
voted to tinting and toning reversal
and positive cine-films with “Tabloid”
toners and “Soloid” stains. These af-
ford the handiest method of securing
color effects on black-and-white film,
and offer as well an entirely new range
of effects for making color titles on
monochrome film for use in Koda-
chrome pictures. W. S.
Berndt-Maurer 16 mm. Sound-on-Film Recording camera in use at "Federal George Canty, for many years
Mine No. 1," Grant Town, W. Virginia, during the filming of the first synchro- American trade commissioner on films
in Europe, is lepoited by Variety to
nized 16 mm. sound picture to be photographed in a coal mine operating on
have been signed by Universal as gen-
regular full schedule . . . thus graphically demonstrating the ease of operation, eral manager of Universal in Plurope.
dependability and portability of B-M 16 mm. Sound-on-Film equipment. Com- The contract is said to be for five
years. Mi'. Canty lias been a most
plete information on latest Berndt-Maurer 16 mm. sound recording develop-
faithful seivant not only to his em-
ments available on request. ployer, the United States Government,
but also to the entire film industry.
He has kept film men and film trade
iNE BERnnT-mnuRER iorp papers fully informed as to what was
119 East 24th Streot • lleiu Vork City going on in Europe in a film way.
His successor will have plenty to do
in following the pace set by Canty.
The trade will join in wishing the
former trade commissioner a full
measure of success in his new field,
Fully Guaranteed Used 35mm Equipment his first film job in private employ-
Mitchell, Bell & Howell, Akeley, Holmes Projectors, Sound and Si- ment.
DeBrie, Universal, Pothe Cameras. lent. T
Portable Sound Recording Outfits. DeVry Cose Model Projectors.
Eymo and De Vry Spring Driven We sell and rent
buy, The San Francisco district office of
Cameras. anything Photographic. the Carbon Sales Division of National

Camera Supply Co. Carbon Company, Inc., formerly at

599 Eighth street, has moved into new-
1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. ly established quarters in the Adam
Cable Address: CAMERAS Grant Building. The address for this
office is now Room 524 Adam Grant
Building, 114 Sansome street, San
New Burroughs Wellcome traction as it was before the days of Francisco.
photoelectric light-measuring meters, The following products manufac-
Photographic Diary Out is none the less accurate. The tables tured by National Carbon Company
listing the normal and minimum-ex- are handled by this division of the
The little red-bound photographers’
posure speeds for virtually all of the company: Carbon brushes, welding
diary and handbook published annu-
world’s plates and films is valuable carbon products, chemical carbon
ally by Burroughs Wellcome & Com-
to anyone, especially in connection products, carbon and graphite special-
pany of lyondon and New York is defi-
with the accompanying table for con- ties, graphite powders, lighting car-
nitely a part of photographic tradi-
verting Wellcome speeds into equiva- bons and carbon arc lamps.
tion. Unlike many time-honored in-
lent Watkins, Wynne, Scheiner and The office is under the jurisdiction
stitutions, however, the Burroughs
Din ratings. of E. C. Friday, district manager.
Wellcome handbook keeps energeti-
It is to be regretted, however, the
cally up with the times.
.American edition does not substitute CRANE GOES WITH CHARNEY
Written primarily for the “still”
the more familiar Weston ratings for
photographers, the current edition George Crane, for years connected
none the less has much of value to one of the less-used European ones.
with Hollywood film laboratories,
the substandard cinematographer and The illustrations of typical subject- among others with Chester Bennett,
his kinsman, the miniature camera classes as mentioned in all written Consolidated and latterly with Colum-
user. exposing tables (including those en- bia as assistant to George Seid, has
The Wellcome exposure calculator, graved on most substandard cameras) joined C. King Charney Inc. He will
while not perhaps as great an at- are well worth while. They should be sales contact and representative.

May, 1937 ® American Cinematographer 193

Developing Lighting
Everything Photographic
Continued from pajje 189 for Professional and Amateur
system which would combine at least New and Used, bought, sold, rented and
repaired. Designers and manufac-
a major part of the power of the
turers of H. C. E. Combination
mirror lamp with the ideal beam dis-
lens shade and filter-holder
tribution of the condenser spotlight. for any size lens.
It was evident that these ends could
Hollywood Camera Exchange
best be achieved by some type of lens
1600 Cahuenga Blvd.,
spotlight. The lens would collect the Hollywood
light thrown forward by a globe, form- Tel. HO 3651

ing it into a beam and eliminating Cable Address: HOcamex

Send for Bargain Catalog
the “spilled light” problem. The
rearward rays could be collected very
satisfactorily by using a spherical
(not parabolic) mirror at a fixed dis-
tance behind the globe, reflecting an
image of the filament into place be-
tween the actual coils, and in a posi-
tion from which the lens could utilize Where The Promise Ms Performed!
this image forming its beam.
This much was logical enough. But The leading, largest and best equipped Motion Picture Mechanical
it did nothing to get around the basic Laboratories in the East.
weakness of the condensing lens spot- Designers and Manufacturers of Motion Picture Equipment.
light — the fact that the heat given off
by the globe demanded a lens of rela- ALL STANDARD MAKES OF CAMERAS
tively long focal length which could
collect only a small part of the light

Special Optical Construction NATiONAL CINE LABOHATORIES

20-22 West 22nd Street York, N. Y.
The solution was found in
the Fresnel or echelon type lens. This
can be made in a thin section, reduc-
ing transmission losses and breakage
hazards. By making the lens of Even so small a detail as the almost
heat-resistant glass a much shorter
imperceptible pattern on the rear sur-
focal length could be used and a • Experienced staff
face plays its part in creating a
greater effective aperture.
smooth beam of projected light.
Of course these results were not ob- The result, as shown in the Solar- • Newest equipment
tained as easily as the above state-
spot, is a beam of great power which
ments might indicate. They actually • Cinematographers are invited
at all divergences from the tightest
required many months of research on to use the services of our tech-
spot to a 45 degree flood is uniformly
the part of Mole-Richardson engineers nical personnel and up-to-date
distributed. There are no shadowed
and the staff of America’s leading
manufacturers of heat-resisting op-
areas, “hot spots” or “spilled light.” facilities — under the operative
There are now four sizes of these direction of Jack Guerin
tical products. Many different lenses new lamps available. The newest is
were designed, made, tested and dis- the Baby Solarspot, a 500-watt baby
carded. This type of lens had been
spotlight. It is built on the same
used hitherto as a fixed-focus objec-
tive, and the problems of using it as
principles as the larger Solarspots. International
Next is another new unit, this time a
a variable-focus light projector were
1000-watt Solarspot.
Cinema. Ine.
many and unexplored.
Third in line is the original Junior
The result, however, was the now
well known “Morinc” lens which, in
Solarspot, a 2000-watt unit, hundreds FILM LABORATORY
of which are in use throughout the
the equally familiar Solarspot, has
world, supplanting the 18-inch mirror
come into such widespread use lamp as the
6823 Santa Monica Boulevard
favorite all-around light-
throughout the world that it is receiv- Hollywood, California
ing tool. In at least one major studio
ing that sincerest form of flattery
it has been found feasible to utilize
Telephone — Hollywood 3961
these nominally 2000-watt units with
1000-watt globes while gaining more
Four Sizes of Solarspot
usable light and better lighting than
This lens, which is an exclusive was possible with “18s.” Finally there
feature of Solarspot lamps, is de- is the Senior Solarspot, a 5000-watt
signed specifically for the problems unit which has become one of the in- HAND BOOK AND REFERENCE GUIDE
of modem studio lighting. It is actu- dustry’s favorite high-powered incan- Price $2.00
ally a composite lens, for each portion descent lamps.
of the lens is calculated to precisely The evolution of these lamps has American Cinematographer
the proper curvature to bring the —
been a matter of pioneering a search 1782 No» Orange Drive
light passing through it into a perfect for new methods capable of meeting Hollywood, California
photographic beam at all spreads. new conditions.
194 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

no activity of his society in which he

did not play a large part; and always
his action was voluntarily veiled by
a screen of modesty which deserves
to be lifted. The services rendered
the society throughout those fifty
years were truly services to photog-
raphy as a whole.” There are too few
such men in this world.
The American Society of Cinema-
tographers joins the French Society of
Photography and Cinematography in
mourning the passing of its distin-
guished officer and extends its sin-
cerest sympathies.
Engineers Hold Hollywood
Meet on May 24 to 28

SOLARSPOTS T he spring convention of the

Society of Motion Picture Engi-
neers is slated to be held this year in
500 Watt - 1000 Watt - 2000 Watt - 5000 Watt Hollywood. The headquarters of the
society will be the Hollywood-Roose-
BY velt Hotel. The sessions will be from
May 24 to 28 inclusive.
The officers and committees in
charge are: W. C. Kunzmann, conven-
tion vice president; J. I. Crabtree,
editorial vice president; H. G. Tasker,

MOLE-RICH Alt DSOXo Inc. past president; G. F. Rackett, execu-

tive vice president; K. F. Morgan,
941 Xo. Sycamore Avenue chairman. Pacific Coast section; G. E.
Holly wood, Calif. Matthews, chairman, papers commit-
The local papers committee are:
W. A. Mueller, chairman; L. A. Aic-
Ernest Cousin, Cine Ex- holtz, secretary;C. N. Batsel, 0. 0.
Ceccarini, E. C. Richardson, H. C.
ecutive, Passes in Paris

Astro F 1.8

F 2.3
W ITH deep
regret we learn from
Fabry, president of the
French Society of Photography and
Silent,H. G. Tasker.
The banquet, which will be held on
the evening of May 26, will be under
the chairmanship of Emery Huse.

LENSES Cinematography, of the death on

March 29 of Ernest Cousin, for fifty Technical Sessions
years the secretary of that body. “The Hollywood meeting always of-
From his induction into that office fers our membership a rare oppor-
in 1887 to within a bare month of his tunity to become better acquainted
death, at the age of 76, Mr. Cousin with the studio technicians and pro-
played a notable part in the growth duction problems,” announces the so-
and advancement of French photog- ciety in a formal statement. “Accord-
raphy. He was largely responsible ingly, arrangements are being made
for organizing the research labora- to hold two evening sessions at two
tories of his society, for its fine edu- of the studios. The Monday evening
cational program, and for the estab- session will be devoted to a practical
lishment and conduct of its journal. demonstration on a studio set of the
The Bulletin of the French Society of function of the various personnel units
Photography and Cinematography. which contribute to making a picture.
for sole by
During the War Mr. Cousin served On Tuesday evening arrangements
as a Captain in the French Army, are being made to demonstrate out-
Mitchell C amera Corporation charged with developing and obtaining standing examples of sound recording
665 North Robertson Blvd. precision photographic methods and and color photography, special ef-
West Hollywood, California equipment for the Air Service. For fects, and picture quality. Also ten-
these services he was named Chevalier tatively scheduled for this evening is
of the Legion of Honor, and deco- a demonstration of stereophonic
rated with the Cross of Saint Anne of sound reproduction by Douglas
FEARLESS CAMERA CO Russia. Shearer.”
Velocilator Camera Dollies, Camera He was further honored as Officer The Academy of Motion Picture
Blimps, Camera Motors, artd com-
plete camera accessories and equip- of the French Academy, Officer of Arts and Sciences is arranging a ses-
ment. Public Instruction, and finally, in 1930, sion by leading Academy members,
8572 Santa Monica, Hollywood, Cal.
Eastern Representative, Motion Picture awarded the Janssen Medal. As and reports will also be made of the
Camera Supply Co., 723 7th Ave. N.Y.C. stated in his society’s official an- work of the various Academy com-
nouncement of his passing, “there was mittees.

May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 195

A. S. C. Members on
Continued from page 184

call it a (Jay and leave the field and SOUND-ON-FILM SERVICE RECORD
the belt to Mac. As the spreading
units of the throng scattered to their Because of the remarkable world-wide service record established by
several homes the last that was heard the B-M Model "E” High Fidelity Sound-On-Film Variable Area Record-
from the neighborhood of the villa ing Unit during the past thirty months, this unit, formerly supplied under
right up to the vocal fade-out was a one year guarantee, will now carry a TWO YEAR unconditional guar-
the insistent:
antee ageunst breakdown in service.
“What’s the matter? What’s the
matter?” This guarantee is made possible because of the ruggedness, depend-
In an effort to soften the outspoken abilityand trouble-free operation of the Model "E” unit, which contains
indignation of his women
neighbors no damping materials to alter the frequency characteristic through ageing
—the men grinningly insisting he al- or temperature variation; employs pre-focused exposure lamps which
ways was a great guy Harry offered — are replaced as easily as changing an automobile headlight bulb; and
a reward of $50 for the capture of
which offers a frequency response characteristic to meet the most
the bird.
discriminating requirements.
Strictly among themselves the men-
folks are awaiting with keen interest Compact design of the Model "E” Unit permits easy and convenient
the coming of next Easter. If Harry
installationon any 35 mm. sound camera or recorder. Write for complete
recovers the bird they’ll have a meas-
specifications and frequency response curve.
urable alibi to stay abed. Which may
explain the concern displayed by the
BERNDT-MAURER Model "E" High Fidelity
men as to whether Harry still has the
fifty —
a concern for which the women
Recording Golvonometer, frequency range
0 to 10,000 cycles $350. F. O. B.
of the neighborhood in tlieir huddles New York.
cannot account.

• John Stumar, A.S.C., who photo-

117 Eost 24th street • lleui Vorh (iiv 1 'I ^1 3| 4| 5| 6| 7]

graphed in England “The Mill on the

Floss, by reason of being back in
Hollywood missed the world premier
of that fine George Eliot classic. Na-
tional Provincial put it on at the Lon-
don Hippodrome in April. The guest
of honor was Queen Mary. What the
other side describes as the “takings” was not a good name for the movies,

• John
to charity.

W Boyle, A.S.C., during the

declared he was not guilty.
“That guy doesn’t know what he’s
talking about,” insisted Len. “Just to


past month was reported shooting prove to you that Smith is a good
“Jericho,” a Capitol Production, for name for the movies there are only
three in the A.S.C. who can say their
Walter Futter at Pinewood, England.
name is Smith. There are eighteen
in the same bunch who can’t like the


• George Folsey, kl

away to New York

A.S.C., slipped
for a brief vaca-
three of us tell of two others of the
same name. The best they can do
tion during the last month. to tell the world about just one other

by the same handle. Forget it!” DOLLIES
• Ray June, A.S.C., got a hurry home :
call from MGM when vacationing in • Paul Perry, A.S.C., left Hollywood
April 21 for Buenos Aires, where he
San Francisco. He had been summoned and
to pinch hit on “Broadwav Melody of will join the staff of Tom White, pro-
1938” for William Daniels, recuper- ducing in that city. Paul within the
ating from an operation. past two months has returned from an Exclusive Eastern
e.xtended tour of India and the Philip-

Representative for
• Gordon Jennings, A.S.C., injured MITCHELL CAMERA CORR
during the winter, was taken home T • FEARLESS PRODUCTS*
from the hospital during the month.
While he will be in bed some time DALLMEYER ISSUES BOOKLET ;

longer, nevertheless he is reported to
be doing as well as can be expected We have received from J. H. Dall- g ;


— and making progress steadily. meyer. Ltd., of London, “originator of '

J.Burgi Confner
large aperture and telephoto anastig-

• Leonard Smith, A.S.C., when told

mat lenses,” a copy of its 1937 gen-
eral catalogue. The booklet contains

of a newspaper story that a man
bearing his name had made applica-
particulars of the lenses manufactured

in the company’s Willesden works as Inc.
tion to the courts asking for permis- well as details of the cameras, pro- '

723 1-th aVE.

sion to call himself Leonard Clauson, jectors, meters, tripods and accesso- NEW YORK CITY
assigning as his reason that Smith oi-CNr CABLE
ries distributed by the concern. SRvant 9-T754 cinecamera (
196 American Cinematographer • May, 1937



REALLY WERE Film Tested Laboratory and
onceive a film 3975 feet long So und Recording Equipment
C and 12 feet wide —
with the ex-
ception (1) that instead of raw
stock which carries the image or im-
ages it is canvas; (2) that instead of
objects painted by means of a com-
Art Reeves
bination of light and photographic >IOTIO.\ PICTIRE EQUIPMEI^T
devices they are painted with brush
and oils.
645 North Martel Avenue
It is around this panorama of the
Mississippi River the Minnesota His-
torical Society has published “Making Cable Address ARTREEVES
a Motion Picture in 1848 Henry—
l ewis’ Journal of a Canoe Voyage
from the Falls of St. Anthony to St.
Louis." Bertha L. Heilbron has writ-
ten an introduction and copious notes.
The book, which contains 58 pages,
is illustrated with 17 reproductions During a run of twenty months at
of paintings, lithographs and sketches Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, more than
by Lewis. The period shown in the 600,000 Englishmen looked upon the
illustrations is from 1846 to 1848. It I’eproduction of the Father of Waters. All Kinds of Cameras
tells the story of the work for which It was taken to Windsor Castle and Mitchell, Be!! & Howell, Eyemo,
Lewis is famous among collectors of “unreeled" before Queen Victoria and DeBrie, Akeley and other mokes.
Americana. her household. After a tour of France Also all camera accessories, tri-
The panoramist was born in Wales and again among British cities the pods, lenses, motors, laboratory
in 1819 and lived 85 years. It was the panorama was returned to the United and cutting room equipment.
work that he and his contemporaries States in 1852. We Pay Highest
so patiently performed, that of creat- Other artists were Leon Pomarede, Cash PHces.
ing the panoramas of the forties and who with the assistance of Carl Wei- Get in touch with us at once.
fifties, that has been termed the “an- mar, a Missouri painter of Indian life, Camera Equipiiienl, Inc.
cestors of the modern motion pic- painted a panorama 1875 feet long; 1600 Broadway New York City
Cable Address: Cinequip
ture." one Stockwell was another who fin-
One of these fellow-panoramists was ished his work in 1849; and a pano-
John Banvard, who started in 1840 rama of the reported and amazing
to produce what he planned to be “the length of 2(),009 feet was credited to
largest painting in the world.” He one Hudson.
descended the Mississippi, sketching Lewis’ diary covers the trip of seven
as he went. Then he went to Louis- hundred odd miles from the falls of
ville, where in a specially constructed Anthony to St. Louis. He started
building he began to transfer his im-
June 14, 1848,and finished August 5. ---Cl AEX---
pressions in oils. Completed it was Nor was it smooth sailing. The
all — by
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. —


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May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 203




by Little

By Duncan MacD. Little 294

BEING Prepared Is Key to Luck

When on Safari 208

HERE’S the Answer
OF AMATEUR By A.S.C. Members 210


By William Stull 212

HOW TO Get Stills from Movie
John Arnold, President, A.S.C., Executive Frames 214
Director of Photography, M.G.M. Studios.

Karl Struss, A.S.C. ,

Director of Photog- SAN FRANCISCANS Hail Nelson’s
raphy, Paramount Studios, Academy Award “Trail Song” 215
Winner, 1928

Fred W. Jackman, Treas., American Society

THERE’S RIGHT Filter for Every
Film Type
of Cinematographers
By Ned Van Buren 216

Dan Clark, A.S.C., Director of Photog-

raphy, 20th Century-Fox
GETTING Professional Diffusion with
Amateur Movie Camera 218
David Abel, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy of Fred Astaire Productions, R.K.O.
Studios MOVIE Club News 221
204 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

Founder of Amateur Movie Party Sees That
Achievement in 1939 as Goal for Advanced
Amateur — Eighth Annual a Record Success

he international Amateur Cine Salon is on the way. Party but now seems to have attained

T Duncan MacD. Little, who has sponsored and fostered each suc-
ceeding- Annual Movie Party from the first to the eighth, so an-
the full-fledged dignity of an Annual


Cine Salon maybe by the tenth per-

nounces in the accompanying letter. While his modesty and his “Privately,” assured the editor
conservatism restrain him from declaring it an accomplished fact, where now he does so publicly, “I beg
to assure you of my belief that in
nevertheless his record for achievement and his genius for intelli-
your work you are doing something
gent preparation speak for themselves. really worth while in a large way.”
Mr. Little does not plan for the first international salon until 1939. Mr. Little complied with our request
That will allow sufficient time in which for the story of the party and of the
to lay the foundation for an organiza- tion which its preparation and exe- steps that had been taken in prepara-
tion which will survive the handicaps cution commanded. tion for it. On the face of it theie
that are bound to beset a new body. was abundant evidence the intent of
Dignity of Salon
Really, however, the International the writer had been to provide the
Amateur Movie Salon is merely an Photographs were asked for as well background for the editor’s version
extension, an expansion, of the An- as “particulars of the goings-on at in other words, what under the cir-
nual Movie Parties. The announce- this function which once might aptly cumstances inevitably would have
ment in itself that Mr. Little plans have been termed an Annual Movie been a lame and a tame interpreta-
to do this would seem to guarantee tion of the vital, pulsing and friendly
it and to insure its permanence. original.
The American Cinematographer The story that follows bears the
heartily favors the proposal and stamp and personality of the man
promises support in the furtherance himself. We believe it so will appeal
of Mr. Little’s plans. to the host of friends he has and to
The Duncan MacD. Littles’ Eighth another host it will bring into being.
Annual Movie Party was held as The writer has sought, in his own
scheduled in Salles des Artistes, New words, to interview himself for our
York, April 2. In attendance it topped readers’ benefit. Splendidly has he
by 509 percent and then some the succeeded. We submit to our readers
best previous record, that of 1936. his message which has the flavor and
In that year there were in attendance the intimacy and the charm of a din-
60 guests. This year provision had ner table chat.
been made for 225, but it was inad-
quate for the 335 who came and re-
mained to the enthusiastic close.
That enthusiasm was dimmed only By Duncan MacD. Little
by the absence through illness of Mrs. I wonder just how you want me to
Little. The assemblage lost no op- begin, and I must confess that I am
portunity, however, in paying tribute somewhat at a loss, for there is so
to the hostess of the early Movie
much to say, and most of it begins
Parties, manifesting its regard by
hearty applause on each screen ap-

with “I” and I was brought up to
be (somewhat) modest. Besides which
pearance of Mrs. Little. it seems to me that our Parties, while
The editor of this magazine was more or less unusual, in that we run
one of those honored by the Littles them by ourselves and for our friends,
with an invitation to attend the festiv- are not on a par with what could be
ities. Regretfully it was declined. done by any of several clubs.
In conveying that sentiment to the
As has been told already in The
founders of the Movie Parties it was American Cinematographer, these
intimated a story of the party would Parties began sort of on their own.
be very much appreciated. It was We had a “Travel Party” in June of
suggested the magazine desired to Mrs. Duncan MacD. Little, snapped in Quebec
at the canoe race last summer. 1929, before there was a depression,
pay to the occasion some of the atten- and then 1930 we invited
Photo by James I. Clarke in the fall of

May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 205

the same people, and some others, for ence is that they just won’t do it. and what reaction the “lay public” has
a joint screening. Too, we already have had a great to our elforts.
By then we had discovered that sev- number of complimentary letters, and Certainly our own parties have been
eral of our friends were “moviemak- nowadays few people use a pen just a proving ground for us whose film
ers” and each of them was invited to for fun. have been screened at them. There
biing a film by way of ticket. The is no doubt but that our results have
idea seemed to appeal to all of them, vastly improved. There is also no
Parties “Testing Ground”
so we planned another for the next doubt but that my own results will
fall, eventually holding it in January stand still more improvement.
of 1932, for the reason that at the time
Why do we do it ? That question is
frequently asked. Possibly Fred Ells
originally set I was in the South on
called the turn on that in his expla- International Salon
business. That makes an apparent
nation recently as to why he strives
skip of a year in the series.
with such diligence to make competi- Toward what are we aiming? That
Then gradually the date moved
tion films (and his films usually are is a difficult question to answer. Some-
until it has moie or less become set-
top-notchers in any competition). times we have aimed in one direction
tled in the first week of April, which
and sometimes in another, but we

seems pretty good and probably will
Ells says he thinks it is a mild and
excusable form of Exhibitionism. think a goal is now in sight, though
continue to be the date. This year,
Maybe that’s it. But even so there is it probably must be 1939 before we
though, 1937, it was not so good be-
much more to it. In the first place really shoot atit, on the occasion of
cause of the early Easter, so many of
it’s great fun to see the other fel- our Tenth Annual. (It is strange that
our friends having planned to be away
low’s films, and opportunities to do you should ha\e used the very words,
— Florida, Bermuda, etc.
so are rare. And in the second place, —
and suggested “ maybe by the tenth
Quality Steadily Mounts even the non-moviemakers like to see performance.”)
what we do, especially if our results We would like to have these
Our group cine-minded friends
of have any merit at all; and this is a develop into an “Interna-
has certainly widened with the years, way to show them what is being ac- tional Amateur Cine Salon”!
which is not unusual, for one naturally complished. We think they may do that, and
seeks and finds friends with hobbies Then there is a third reason, prob- now for some of our reasons.
similar to his own. In 1930 we in- ably a rather academic reason but — We are a charter member of the
vited nine “moviemakers” to contrib- the cinema is still in a “growing” Amateur Cinema League, having
ute films for the party, and six brought state, and the amateur cinema is free joined in the early fall of 1926.
films; while in 1937 we invited ninety to roam where it desires. These In 1935 we were invited to join the
to submit films to the committee and Parties of ours can act as a “testing Institute of Amateur Cinematograph-
received thirty-four. ground” to see how it is developing ers. of London, England, and in 1936
In the early days few of were asked to act for the
the films were really good, United States as “Liaison Of-
but in 1937 only one was not ficer” of that Institute, which
excellent, at least in some honor was duly accepted, and
respect; most were excellent pending the appointment of
in many respects. a similar officer for Canada
There were times through we have usurped Canada as
the years when we despaired part of our territory.
of being able to continue the The reasons for thus freely

Parties the cajolery neces- including such a vast terri-
sary to persuade some people tory are several, the main one
to films at all, and
make being that our summer ac-
sometimes even to persuade tivities while on holidays are
them to submit one already carried on in Nova Scotia and
made was considerable. But in Quebec, where we continue

we think that by not having the giving of small and large

prizes we have overcome part movie shows, in several com-
of the difficulty. We hope munities where no other
so, for it is all meant as movies ever have been shown.
grand fun, and with no Then too, we were the in-
awards there should be no stigator of the Cine Contest
heartburns. As has frequent- held last summer in Quebec
ly been stressed, the judging Province under the high
for the past two programs auspices of the Minister of
has not been for numerical —
Highways the Hon. Arthur
order of quality but for in- —
Bergeron the subject being
terest to the audience and the Annual Canoe Race (of
that the program have “bal- 125 miles) on the St. Maurice
ance.” River.
Maybe better films were re-
jected than were screened, Count on Aid From All
but the program on both oc-
casions has been interesting. The Institute of Amateur
Certainly had it not been so Cinematographers also asked
our large audience on April us to be a “station” (for the
2 —
three hundred and more U.S.A.) of its “World Tour
would not have sat (and of Amateur Films,” now in
.stood through the long even- progress; and in the course
ing, for our own experi- photo by Blackstone Studios of almost 60,900 miles that
206 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

three Canadian Provinces, and in

eight of our own states. Naturally
the majority went within the “metro-
politan district” of New York. -
This first notice was followed up
by two more, in letter form, and by
numerous personal letters to this and
that exhibitor; considerable
correspondence was involved.
Then came the sending of invita-
tions, and after receipt of “acceptance
letters” the sending of tickets to those
who were planning to come. All tick-
ets were numbered, and an attempt
was made to keep them as they were
turned in, so that we could check defi-
nitely who were present; and we did
check about 80 or so percent. This
will be helpful for next year, as we
think that most of them are interested
supporters of the endeavor.

Two Hundred Letters

When show arrived

the day of the
we had expended on postage a sum
indicating that besides invitations and
notices requesting films some two
these films are to travel, when they there are the makings of a mighty hundred or so individual letters were
do reach us, we plan to arrange that fine program. written (and more received).
they be shown not only here in New Now, we are optimistic about these One very interesting group of let-
York but also in Montreal, Trois- ambitions because of the support we ters and telegrams, resulting in a
Rivieres and Quebec City. have had from friends far and near. novel film being added to the program,
We are a member of the Metropoli- E. A. Reeves, of Bell and Howell Com-
was occasioned by an article in the
tan Motion Picture Club of New York pany; John Arnold, president, A.S.C.; March number of American Cinema-
City. And we are a charter member George Malthouse, editor of Amateur tographer.
of the Society of Amateur Cinema- Cine World, London; the chairman, Therein we read about “King of Al-
tographers, better known to you than president and secretary of the I.A.C., lah’s Garden” and promptly wired to
to me; but to be, I trust, a source of London; “The Reeler,” who writes of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Bean, asking
aid and advantage to all amateurs. the “Sploshbury Cine Club” monthly they submit their film; and they im-
In this effort to develop an “Inter- in Home Movies and Home Talkies,
mediately wired back that it was “on
national Salon” we count upon active London; Colonel Roy W. Winton, the way.” And then followed a grati-
help from the organizations named; director A.C.L.; Arthur L. Gale, editor fying exchange of letters culminating
from a few active cinema-minded of Movie Makers; C. J. VerHalen, in a charming offer for a “sturdier
friends and acquaintances scattered former editor of The American Cine- rung for the ladder of succes.sful
about the world; from the Montreal
Amateur Movie Club; newspapers in
matographer; Hon. Frank Carrel,
M.L.C., proprietor of the Quebec
Movie Parties, in 1938” signed in —
two hands (as were all) “Stanley and
Montreal, Trois-Rivieres, and Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph, and a keen ama- Mary Jane Bean.”
City; and from several metropolitan teur; J. L. Richard, editor of “Le Sol-
People with imagination, to so sign
dailies in New York City (but they iel,” Quebec; Harold D. Marwood, letters about a joint interest, are peo-
must be shown real news-value before president, and Walter Downs, vice-
ple worth knowing.
they can be interested). president of the Montreal Amateur The Eighth Party received better
Movie Club; Eileen Creelman, Dan than a dozen advance notices, two
Seek Unique Films
Anderson, and Charles R. McHendon, from London, and thus far we have
As we visualize the “Salon” for of the New York press; and George
received copies of four “write-ups,”
1939 we want outstanding films, se- Blaisdell, editor of The American the best being by Dan Anderson, of
lected by competent judges, from Eng- Cinematographer. the New York Sun, in his weekly
land, Scotland, Canada, Japan, Aus-
article “Your Camera and Mine.” (I
tralia and New Zealand, and of course Story of Eighth Annual
inclose a copy.)
from the U.S.A. All of these kind friends have helped
Then we want some unique and un- in past activities, and encouraged us
Over 300 Attend
usual item such as we have had be- to go on and attempt greater things,
fore. For example, this year we had and we are confident they will aid us You have noticed a big jump
the first “sound-on-Kodachrome,” — toward future successes. of “audience size” since last year.
and before that we had a Dufay- The messages of good will received Heretofore the Parties have all been

Color on the screen and titled all — (April 2) at our Eighth show were held in our home, where we were strict-
within a week of the film first going significant of interest and a desire to ly limited in numbersby the size of
on sale here in New York; African “lend a fellow a hand,” and we are our living room. This year we went
pygmies killing an elephant with very grateful end” and “hired a hall.”
“off the deep
spears only; the first amateur “sound- Now for a few words about the Many conjectures were made as to
on-film”; and a picture of the first Eighth Annual itself. whether or not we would fill it. It
sailing of the steamship Manhattan, In the latter part of January we bulged!
filmed at midnight in New York (by sent out the first “Requests to Sub- We had seats arranged for 225, and
aid of Army searchlights), etc. mit Films”; sent these to some ninety thought it ample. We had to put up
And we want a novice film. And friends, in seven foreign countries. 50 more, and at that a goodly num-
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 207

( ber —maybe —
60 or so had to stand, nounced that even then every film was ured. These requests involve some
and did, throughout the evening. rewound and ready for immediate quick work on our part here. We can
We were enabled to gratify another showing again. only hope they are not disappointed.
desire of long standing by having a Some of our guests came from great
real hall —
we could allow the exhibi- distances — the farthest being from
tors each to bring a certain number Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, the scene of
of their friends, and we were able to our contest last summer, whence came Eighth Annual
> give extra invitations to our judges Armour Landry.
and to our staff, which we think were From Washington, D. C., came John (From the OflFicial Program)
really appreciated. V. Hausen, as he has done each year Mr. and Mrs. Duncan MacD. Little
You will be interested to know since 1933, and the Stanley Beans
i —
about the hall the distance from pro- came about the same distance, from
1 jector to screen was 65 feet and, — Amesbury, Mass., Down East beyond THE AMATEUR CINEMA-
after masking, the screen was 12 feet Boston. Several groups came distances SUCCESSOR TO THE SNAPSHOT
wide! And at that, “ Consider the of a hundred miles or so, to say noth-
Lilies,” by Ells, had them gasping be- ing of the suburbanites who traveled Program
cause of its sheer beauty! We turned twenty, thirty, and even more miles.
the room around and used the little On top of the many messages wish- Overture
stage as “projection room,” with a ing success to the Party, received by The Story of Water
screen of beaver board and scantling letter and wire, from as far even as Frank H. Demarest
to hide the activities, with two pro- London, comes your letter and it is
The Nutcracker Suite
jection ports provided, and a viewing most gratifying —
the interest of you
Irving W. Lyon and
slit so that Miss Boemer might watch allhas made me happy, and I cannot
Edward K. Warren
the screen and know where her record begin to tell you how it has pleased
my sick wife, whose days are very dull Springtime Walter P. Domtis
changes came.
right now. The Rainbow Trail “Cinecoles”
Elfriede Boerner, Genius And now I hope I have not wearied The Evolution of a Deep-Sea
For a month before the show, and you. I decided to write thus, tell you Navigator Risdale Ellis
after the films were selected by the a lot, and leave it to you to cut your
judges, we worked at adding, by double —
own story from it I sought to inter- Intermission
(10 minutes)
turn-table phonogi’aph, musical back- view myself for your benefit.
grounds for all films except “Grand- One of the aftermaths of the party Grandfather’s Garden
father’s Garden” (the sound on color). is the receipt from several producers Russell Holslag
Herman Fuchs, music editor of Pathe of requests for musical scores. (accompanying music composed
News, was present at the Party and Naturally this pleased us much. Two by the producer)
was most complimentary in his com- groups, each entirely strange to the Sailing South (1 reel only)
ments, all of which were aimed at other, seek screening of the “Canoe
Russell Holslag
Elfriede Boerner, our “music libra- Race” film, for which The American
Cinematographer awarded honorable Consider the Lilies Fred C. Ells
rian,” who truly is a genius.
There was an overture march be- mention. Previously we had arranged Intermission
fore each of the three groups of films. for an exhibition with music for the (5 minutes)
The show ended with “The Star New York chapter of the Apoalachian King of Allah’s Garden (half)
Spangled Banner,” and there was Mountain Club dinner April 23.
Stanley and Mary Jane Bean
music during both of the two inter- Now comes the Montreal Movie
Club with an announcement of a spe- The Canoe Race on the St. Maurice
Mrs. Little was unable, because of cial screening April 26, in which the River Duncan MacD. Little
illness,to be present, and after the same “Canoe Race” films will be feat- Finale
Edward G. Rundouist made
first film,
some informal and very sincere re-
marks about her absence— most fitting
and appreciated, from him, for he has
assisted at every one of our shows,
large or small, since 1929, and he has
an attendance (and working) record
of 100 percent at the Annual Parties.

Audience Pays Tribute

Then later, when my own film, that
of the “St. Maurice River Canoe
Race” was on the screen, and Mrs.
Little’s image was seen, surrounded
by burly woodsmen, Indians and voy-

ageurs the applause was, to me,
wonderful and gratifying. Our parties
would never have been the successes
they have been without her genius
for organizing- and her most unusual
charm and graciousness as ho tess.
There was little doubt but that much
was lacking from the completeness of
the evening, for most of the audience,
without her presence.
When all was over Bert Delmhorst Projection room in the Littles’ New York home, taken during the Sixth Annual, showing Miss
(chief of projection) proudly an- Elfriede Boerner, the show’s “music librarian,’’ and Bert Delmhorst.
208 American Cinematographer • May, 1037

“May I inquiie, Mr. Pearson, if you

BEING PREPARED tlid not use a light meter all the way
through your picture?”
“1 certainly did,” was the response.

IS KEY TO LUCK “And may 1 further ask

not a Weston?”
There was a twinkle in the eye of
the man being interrogated. “I’ll be
if it was

WHEN ON SAFARI glad to answer your question if you

will tell me why you ask,” he replied.

Interests Mutual
So Learned the Pearsons “Certainly,” came back the stran-
ger. “I have never seen a picture come
When They Dropped Light out of
Africa that was so evenly

Meter in African Jungle “You’re interested in meters?”

“Rather. My name is Barbera and
I’m district manager of the Weston
uck plays a mighty hand in the And Mistake No. 3 was in the failure Electrical Instrument Corporation.”

L success or failure of the amateur

photographer when he sets forth
to take along two six-inch lenses.
In fact, the hunter-photographer
Pearson’s hand shot out and hearty
greetings were exchanged.
in the jungle in search of rare pic- declares perhaps the main result of On the other side of the picture the
tures of wild life and wild scenery, re- his experience with the camera away traveler is convinced that never again
marked Harry C. Pearson, African from civilization, the Preparedness will it be possible for him to secure
hunter, in a chat during the past Rule No. 1 he will impose upon him- several se(|uences that fell before his
month. The speaker will be recalled self if again he undertake a similar lenses on the trip in ciuestion. One
to readers of this magazine as the expedition, will be: of these is the snake dance.
retired business man whose adven- “Duplicate all equipment.” The filming of that stirring spec-
tures in the Dark Continent were de- Behind that duplication rule is an- tacle was made possible through the
scribed in our April issue. other story, to which we will leturn intercession of an official who chose
It may be assumed that chance al- in a moment. Getting back to the six- to accompany the Pearson safari and
so affects materially the success of inch lens, when the three big trucks remain in Africa rather than take
the professional cameraman. But the constituting the safari struck out in- advantage of his long leave of absence
hunter was referring to the advan- to the plains arrangements had been and allowance for all expenses and re-
tages that ride with the man who has made to forward for developing and turn to his homeland.
been through the mill, who has printing all negative to the George “You know. I’m a bug on poison-
learned by experience how best to Humphries laboratory in London. ous snakes and all sorts of repulsive
avoid some of the simpler oversights creatures,” he explained to his host.
Breaks Light Meter
which may have a major influence on “I’d like to go home, of course, and
the pictures he brings out of tbe wilds. The film was to be shipped by plane see my family, but after I’d been
“After all, that trip of Mrs. Pear- as the expedition found it possible to
there a couple of days and I began to
son and myself into Africa was a get in touch with a landing field. Too
talk about the only subject that’s on
late word was received from London
grand experience,” Pearson went on. my mind I’d see the heads begin to
“Of course, when you travel ten thous- that all shots made with the six-inch
shake and then they’d all walk out
lens were out of focus and that many
and miles to get to a country and on me. Oh, no. I’ll stay with my
then put in another eleven thousand of what had promised to be their big-
miles and seven months driving over close-ups were ruined.
So it was through the friendship of
the plains and around the mountains Apparently in the ten-thousand-mile this officialand his long acquaintance
you rather expect to encounter sev- journey from Los Angeles to Nairobi with Mariari, the snake doctor, that
eral kinds of luck. one of the elements of the lens had after two months of negotiation and
“We had a lot of good luck and a been loosened. The damage was not of search for the reptiles it was pos-
lot of bad luck. We left our hard- perceptible to the eye. sible to stage the dance.
ships in Africa and only brought home The situation was different, how- Upward of thirty men were sent out
ever, when a Weston light meter was
the holiday spirit.” to secure the snakes. They were tak-
dropped and broken. Had there been en from their native habitat and
Injury to Lens Hurts but one the accident would have never before had been handled. Prior
One of the misfortunes that beset ranked as a photographic tragedy in- to the dance the natives were inocu-
his expedition and which the amateur deed. There were, however, two in lated with a serum prepared by the
photographer that was believes will the eciuipment, and the pair on sever- snake doctor. Some of the cult as
not again happen to him arose from al occasions had been compared under
tbe result of the high temperature
the failure of the six-inch lens he had service conditions. The readings were produced by the inoculation and the
very thoughtfully secured for use in parallel. The only result following excitement of the dance went into
plain and jungle. The lens was fully from this mishap was the great care convulsions. It was estimated their
tested here in Los Angeles before leav- bestowed upon the surviving meter. temperature must have reached lOfi
ing and so far as known was carefully The hunter-photographer chuckled degrees.
packed. as he related an incident that took Nearly twoscore snakes were thrown
Mistake No. 1 was failure to rein- place following the showing of “Afri- on the cleared space where the dance
spect the lens in Nairobi before set- can Holiday,” the film story compiled was held. Not one of them was
ting out on safari. Mistake No. 2 from his trip, before a thousand mem- harmed by the natives, and following
was in not taking along a test develop- bers and guests of the Los Angeles the ceremonies all of them were re-
ing outfit which would immediately Country Club. As the members leased for return to the iungle.
have revealed the presence of the dis- crowded around the hunter one of the One of the most effective shots in
aster that had overtaken the lens. group addressed him: the picture is the sequence of Murchi-
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 209

son Falls. It is heie the old Nile 009 feet of Eastman Super-X negative far enough back to include in the
flows through a gorge and tumbles supplied through J. E. Bruiatour. field of his camera all of his objec-
down a grade where the walls are Then later an additional 10,000 feet tive. This, he believed, enhanced the
hardly more than eight feet apart. was shipped to him in the Soudan. composition and stimulated the in-
To those photographers who later Throughout the expedition not a foot terest of the person out in front of
see the film it will be of interest to of film was lost by reason of cli- the screen.
recall the entire 200 feet of film in matic conditions. “One of the grand things about that
the camera was shot oy hand ana On his arrival in Nairobi he had African country,” said Mr. Pearson,
minus the use of tripod, not another transferred the film to insulated boxes, “at least, as it appealed to me, is the
foot of film was exposed on the se- with spare ones to take care later continued consciousness of the fact
quence, and with one exception the of the exposed material. All of these that the things you see going on there
entire 200 feet appears on the screen boxes constantly were under close at- today are identical with the things
with original continuity undisturbed. tention. In the evening they would that were going on there ten thousand
The exception is that the cutter took be opened to admit the cool air, while years ago.
a few feet from the initial exposure at the coming of daylight they would “You are looking upon the same
in order more effectively to close the be tightly sealed. In this manner an kinds of animals. The natives you
sequence. even temperature was maintained. meet have not changed in their man-
The reporter suggested that many Asked as to his previous experience ner of living in untold centuries. You
persons following the picture might with 35mm the hunter said that prior realize the hand of man has not
wonder how so many shots were made to putting his foot on African soil altered the face of this country since
of animals at such close range. The with his two Eyemos he never had time began. You feel when riding and
answer was interesting. exposed as much as 100 feet of 35mm. tramping over these almost limitless
Gas Fumes Kill Scent
He had tried, he said, to avoid what areas you are as close to nature as
had impressed him as a rather com- a man can get. Everything definitely
“You know against the law to
it is mon error on the part of amateurs, is in the raw. And somehow I felt it
shoot an animal from an automobile,” that of keeping too close to the object wa.s a relief to get away from civiliza-
it was explained. “It is unsporty, of they planned to photograph. On the tion for a while and get back to the
course, to follow any other course, be- contrary, he had endeavored to keep raw.”
cause to an animal the fumes from
the gas kill the human scent That
rule does not apply to the person who
shoots an animal with a camera. Be-
cause of the gasoline fumes it is
possible to get within a surprisingly
short range of the big fellows.
“It is different, though, when
stalking a bull elephant. Then even
after your quarry is down he may not
be out. In fact, he may be sudden
death if your artillery is not at hand
and in good order.”
Those who may be contemplating
a big game rifle and camera hunt
may be interested in the Pearsons’
firearms equipment. At the head of
the list were two double-barreled Hol-
land and Holland express rifles with
a bore of .465. These weapons have
an impact or striking pres.sure of tw’o
and a half tons. In other words, when
the contents of both barrels are slid
into an elephant it means he has been
struck bv an energy of five tons.
In addition to these, which cost 150
pounds apiece in London, with an add-
ed import tax at New York of 65 per-
cent. there were two Snringfields of
30/06, one for each of the Pearsons.

The Timid Male

Referring to the Kipling suggestion
that “The female of the species is
deadlier than the male,” the amateur
cameraman said it was a striking fact
that in mixed
groups of animals
whenever appeared danger might
be threatening the fem.ale promptlv
would internose herself in front of
the male. Also, so far as he had been
able to observe, this seemed to be to
the entire satisfaction of the male.
When asked regarding the care of
bis in the trop’cs Mr. Pearson
Mr. and Mrs. Pearson at home in Los Angeles
said he bad left Hollywood with 15.- Copyright by Harry C. Pearson Photo by Albert L. Bresnik
210 American Cinematixjrapher • May, 1937



Generally speaking, use a normal the road jolts, by speeding up your

lens or even a wide-angle one. You camera —
running it at 24 or 32 frames
wouldn’t normally watch a parade a second (or even faster) rather than
through field-glasses if you had a good at 16.
viewpoint so why do the same thing If your tripod doesn’t stay properly
What the best camera-angle to with a telephoto lens for your pic- in place or if you feel it is adding to
ture? The one exception to this is the vibration you might follow pro-
use in filming parades? Should I
when some individual of outstanding fessional practice. Place an eyebolt
photograph the parade coming into
the picture, moving across it, or interest is in the parade —some one in the fioor of the car, directly under

going out of it? Should I shoot you’d want to look at through field- the center of the tripod. Run a stout
from the street level, or from a glasses. Both you and your audiences wire or chain from the tripod-head to
would be interested in a close-up of this, tightening it with a turnbuckle
higher viewpoint ? Should I use a
long-focus lens to get very close the President, the beauty queen of so that the camera and tripod are
shots, or should I use a normal lens the Rose Tournament or the Mardi anchored rigidly to the fioor of the
to give me more of a long-shot Gras, or some personal friend. Use car.

angle ? a long focus lens for this; for any- Several years ago J. A. Dubray,
EIGHT MM CLUB, thing else a normal lens is best. A.S.C., got some excellent running
Los Angeles, Calif. Don’t, as a rule, try to “follow” a shots with his Filmo and a very sim-
parade by panning your camera. ple gadget. He simply bought an ex-
The angle professional newsreel tra radiator cap for his car and
You’ll get a more natural and more
cameramen have found to give the trimmed the top off fiat. Then he
interesting shot by keeping the cam-
best results in photographing parades fixed a machine screw through this,
era steady and letting the parade pass
is from slightly above the parade,
through the picture. And don’t try to fit into the tripod bushing of the
shooting at a three-quarter angle such camera.
to photograph a parade going across
that the marchers or fioats come to- With the camera mounted this way
the picture on a downward incline. It
ward the camera into the picture, and set for a speed of 24 or 32 frames
looks on the screen as though the
move closer to the lens and across and a bit lower air pressure than nor-
marchers were reeling drunkenly past!
the field, passing from the picture mal in his front tires he got some
closer to the camera than when they
• excellent shots. He pointed the cam-
entered the picture, and at the op- era straight ahead, aiming it by aim-
posite side. MOVING SHOTS FROM AN AUTO ing the car. He released the shutter
Scenes in which the parade moves I have made several running- with one of Bell and Howell’s bulb-
directly across the field are generally
shots with my 16mm. camera on a and-tube remote control devices. This,
disappointing, as the relatively rapid tripod inside my car, but they were incidentally, had the added advantage
movement of the marchers’ feet, etc., not altogether satisfactory. I was of eliminating the reflections en-
straight across the picture, almost troubled by vibration and by jolting countered shooting through the glass
always gives a blurry, fiickery result. of the car, while the tripod did not of the windshield.
One of the biggest “Don’ts” in cover- always stay properly in place. Is WILLIAM STULL, A.S.C.
ing parades is never shoot the parade there any method of getting smooth,
going away from the camera the au-— steady shots of this type used by
dience isn’t interested in the backs
the professional cameramen with
of marchers or fioats.
their own 16mm. cameras ? I would like to know if the tables
If possible, always pick a vantage ALBERTS,
L. A. of camera set-ups, lens angles,
point that lets your lens look slightly Minneapolis, Minn. depth of focus and the hyperfocal
down on the parade. You’ll see more chart given in The American Cine-
that way. A second-story window is There are several things that can
done to help minimize vibration matographer Handbook and Refer-
good, and the projecting marquee be
ence Guide are applicable equally
over a theatre or hotel entrance is when shooting from a car. None of
to 16mm. and 35mm. camerawork?
even better, for you can get close to them will altogether eliminate it, nor
will they eliminate road shocks. But
the line of march, above it, and get
Mexico, D. F.
a perfect oncoming angle. Failing they help make such shots more pleas-
this, try for a top-row seat in a grand- ing. This book was compiled originally
stand, if such are put up for the pa- First, you can gain quite a bit of for the use of professional cinema-
rade. riding smoothness by reducing the tographers with 35mm. film. How-
The ideal viewpoint is a high posi- air pressure in your tires to cushion ever, while many of the specific tables
tion like that, at a point where the the road shocks. A little experimenting and charts apply only to 35mm. prac-
This way will show the smoothest speed at tice, there are many others the data
parade rounds a corner.
you can show the parade approaching which to drive the car over various of which being of a fundamental na-
till it practically fills the screen, and road surfaces: this varies with the ture, are equally applicable to 16mm.
then get a side view as the marchers car and the road —sometimes it is and 35mm. cinematography.
turn the corner and march out of your relatively slow, sometimes quite fast. The depth of focus tables and the
picture — and you get all this without Next you can smooth out quite a hyperfocal chart, for instance, should
having to “pan” the camera at all. lot of the vibration, and even some of Continued on page 220



ain icLuxc uau. l

Kodachrome Film, paratively little. Cine-Kodaks Eight start at

"'daylight" or Type A
for Photoflood light, $34.50. .. Kodascopes Piight even lower.
is priced at $4.75 f<»r
the 50-foot 16 mm. There's a new 10 mm. Cine-Kodak the —
roll. .$9 for the 100-
foot 16 mm. roll, $5 iNlodel E —
priced at only $48.50. And its
for the 50-foot 16
mni. magazine. .for
f'ine-Kodaks Kighl—
capable team mate —
Kodascope Eh] is only —
$5.75. All prices in-
$59.50, complete. Ask yonr Cine-Kodak dealer
clude processing.
to show you economical Eastman home
movie equipment and
I^OLOR j\d\ color — makes tlie i)ieture live,
typical reels of gor-
geous K odach ronie.
dray sky snaps into a vivid bine. Tanned
Eastman Kodak ('om-
faces pulse with ruddiness. Yellow sweater,
])any, Rochester, X. Y.
red tie, and ^Teen foliage make a gay scene
yet brighter.
Kighl our <lcalcr oflcrj* this k
The lifelike picture becomes life, itself! new, 10-cenl exposure guide for 'd?'-
8 mm. and 16 mm. cameras. It
Dependable equipment with which to take, tellsyou at a glance what **stop”
to use, <‘n<ls Ki>dachrome's few
and show, full-color Kodachrome costs com- outdoor exposure problems.

2l2i American Cinematographer • May, 1937


Top Sergeant Teorey Simplifies Creation of
Gadgets that Contribute Materially to Tone
of Home Subjects Without Burdensome Cost

rick titles are a worthwhile By William Stull, A.S.C. with the aid of some intricate and ex-

T addition to any film. Properly

used, they can add the finishing
tures show trick titles of surprising-
pensive accessory ordinarily unobtain-
In actuality the titles were made
touch of completeness to a home
ly professionalesque quality. with a standard Cine-Kodak 8 and a
movie production. All too frequently,
though, the average member of the Cine-Kodak Titler. The tricks were
Title Trickery
16 and 8 frateniity is likely to regard the result of combining these stand-
trick titles as too much of an addi- 'One of his pictures opens with a ard units with simple accessories
tion —
as something too complicated to double-exposed main title, the back- which can be made from the odds and
be made with ordinary, non-profes- ground of which shows the world re- ends that accumulate in any house-
sional cine equipment. volving merrily in a full-screen close- hold.
By way of disproving this fallacy, up. In another picture his titles come
World F'or a Nickel
let me give you First Sergeant Robert into and out of the picture by flop-
W. Teorey, U.S.M.C. As was related ping over vertically or horizontally. That main title which showed the
in these pages last month, Sergeant In other films his titles “zoom” toward world revolving merrily behind the
Teorey is the “top kicker” of the or away from the camera, and in yet a good example of the
title lettering is

U.S.S. Chester’s marine detail. Being others his titles spin amazingly into ingenuity of Teorey’s gadgeteering.
a top sergeant of marines doesn’t nec- place, sometimes (as in main titles) This was of course a double-exposure
essarily lessen his enthusiasm for using these whirls for transitions be- shot, and double exposure in 8mm. is
making good 8mm. movies — but it tween one title card and the next. not particularly difficult to the wise
certainly does cut down the amount On the screen these titles look as filmer who marks a starting point and
of time he can spend on his camera- though inevitably they must have makes his first exposure at the begin-
work and titlemaking. Yet his pic- been made either professionally or ning of a roll, counting his footage
But the matter of getting the globe
and having it revolve smoothly in the
shot, without showing what makes it
revolve, would puzzle most of us.
Teorey simply went to the ten-cent
store and bought one of those five-
cent pencil sharpeners made in the
form of a globe, with the hole for the
pencil at the south pole. Next, he
laid his Kodascope 8 projector on its
side and slipped the take-up spindle
into the hole in the globe. With the
projector running slowly the world re-
volved smoothly.

Title Transitions

The final question was getting the

camera lined up and focused properly
so as to make the desired close-up of
the revolving globe, which was only
an inch or so in diameter. The solu-
tion lay in his Cine-Kodak titler. This
focuses the lens on a small field
slightly over two and a half inches

square only a few inches in front
of the camera.
All he had to do was to fold the
title card easel of the titler out of the
way, line un the titler so that the re-
volving globe was in approximately
the same plane as the normal posi-
tion of the titlecard —
and shoot.
The same titler serves as the frame-
work for making all of Teorey’s trick
Upper, the spinning title gadget. Lower, making a “zoom” title. titles. A two-foot board, just enough

May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 213

Left, gadset for making titles that revolve vertically. Center, close-up of the “flipflop” gadget set for
horizontal turning. Right, the “roll-up” title drum.

smaller than the titler’s metal base from a wrecked alarm clock, and the Not one of the.se gadgets involved
to slide in it, isthe foundation of his crank which drives the gears is an- the outlay of more than 5 or 10 cents.
tiickery. At one end of this board is other creation of strip brass and a None of them required any material
an upright wooden easel, the center cast-off percolator knob. that can’t be found around any house-
of which is cut away much as is that “Zoom” titles, in which the title hold. —
But they do their tricks to
of the titler’s title card frame. Into moves toward or away from the lens, such advantage that they make pos-
this aperture fit a number of interest- can be very striking. Teorey makes sible trick effects no commercially ob-
ing gadgets. ’em with a couple of pieces of flat tainable devices permit. As Sergeant
A simple square of wood, slightly curtain rod. One piece is fixed to a Teorey has learned it is not neces-
smaller than the opening and fitted small block which is bolted behind sarily difficult to adorn your pictures
on one edge with a screw bushing his cutaway wooden easel. The other with trick titles —and it’s doubly fun

made by countersinking an ordinary slides inside this and carries at its to make them if you make them on
nut, permits turning either vertically end a plywood square which holds the a gadget you’ve created yourself!
or horizontally from one title card to title card. It can “zoom” in either di-
another. At one side of the frame a rection from the focal plane. T
small nail is slipped through holes in
Seafaring Film Editor
frame and block to act as a bearing. THIS CANDID CAMERA THING
At the other side a bent nail, threaded The same kind of flat curtain rod
nd so Loew’s State, in New York,
at one end to fit tightly into the
threaded socket in the block, is
screwed to act as a crank. When the
helps Teorey to conserve space in
stowing his film editing kit aboard
ship. As is usual he has a pair of re-
A is taking the joy out of sneaking a
candid camera shot of what goes on
titler’s easel is folded back out of the winds mounted on a wooden base. But in —
the theatre on the stage and on
way this supplementary easel and its most commercial rewind assemblies the screen. While flash lamps are
“flip-flop” board slide right up into the are either too close-coupled for con- rightfully barred in a contest of this
focal plane. venience or too widely spread out to kind, nevertheless this handicap is off-
For a revolving or spinning title stow away easily. set in large measure by the paying of

another block this time made to fit Teorey solved the problem by saw- cash prizes for the best shots. Front
solidly —is put into the supplemental ing through one end of the base and seats are reported worth a bonus.
easel. Behind this block is a crank making an extension with a couple Undoubtedly other managers will fol-
made from a bit of old brass and a of lengths of curtain rod. Telescoped, low the example of the metropolitan
wooden knob that looks suspiciously the outfit takes up very little space; house. It ought to be good for the
as if it came from a cupboard door or but by loosening a single wing nut it amateur industry.
coffee pot. Soldered to the crank is stretches out until there is ample Already the Paramount theater in
a short shaft made from a bolt. After working room between the rewinds. Los Angeles gave the new idea a try-
passing through the block and a tiny On the same base he has mounted out. The result was an attendance of
bit of old brass tubing, which acts as his splicer sockets to hold cans of more than 500 bearing cameras. It
a separating bushing, the shaft is at- film cement and water securely and a is expected to be a regular Monday

tached to a flat square of plywood. Cine-Kodak 8 film viewer. In many night affair.
The title card is placed on this. When installations the use of a film viewer And thereby hangs a tale. Daily
the crank is turned the card revolves. is not altogether convenient, for the Variety of April 17 told of two makes
film must be twisted dangerously as of 16mm cameras sold out on the Hol-
“Roll Up” Titles — For Nothing
it feeds from the nearer rewind Teo- lywood market. Inquiry of one of
Most cineamateurs have cast envi- rey simply added a dummy rewind the largest manufacturers brought
ous eyes at professionally made “roll- merely a spindle to hold the reel at — the answer there was a distinct short-
up” titles. Teorey “rolls his own.” the back corner of the board. age in that company’s 8 and 16 mm
The gadget for this cost him precisely This spindle is bent slightly up- cameras. One of the latter’s principal
nothing. A U-shaped block of wood ward, so that the film slants natural- competitors denied, also through its
fits snugly between the titler’s regu- ly into the viewer. The film runs principal representative, there was
lar easel and the supplementary safely from the spindle to the viewer any present shortage in equipment for
(wooden) easel. Between the up- and on to the reel on the right-hand amateurs. He admitted there had
rights of the U
is a revolving drum rewind. When it is necessary to wind been, but not in a couple of months.
to carry the title. It began life as the other way the reel may quickly It looks like a busy year for those
a nickel-size baking powder can. It be snapped from the dummy spindle interested in amateur equipment and
is revolved by two gears salvaged to the left rewind. goings-on.
214 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

HOW TO GET STILLS fiveminutes. The paper is waterproof

and the chemical operations are rapid.
With a good enlarger, the problems of
grain and definition should be mini-

FROM MOVIE FRAMES mized. Further, exponents of the proc-

ess are loud in their praises of the
better gradation secured, especially in
he last thing the average ply of a longish, pyramidal hood which the intermediate grays.

T cineamateur thinks of while shoot-

ing movies is getting companion
fitted on to the projector in place of
the lens.
On the other hand your exposure
in making a print by this method must
“still” pictures. Only later, when the In the small end of the pyramid be absolutely correct, as even its best
movies are shot, edited and (let us was a simple shutter mechanism. At friends admit the paper has almost
hope!) titled, does the matter of the the far end was a filmpack adapter no latitude. Likewise the process in-
usually missing “stills” come to mind. which took a standard 214 by 314 evitably reverses your picture as to
Then it is usually too late by sev- inch film-pack. The dark slide of the left and right, which can be extreme-
eral months anti often several hun- pack adapter was painted white on the lyembarrassing if there is any printed
dred miles to fare forth and make outside, and a flap in the upper sur- matter in the shot.
them. face of the hood opened so that you To a certain extent you can get
Grantetl good cinepictures, however, could focus and use the white slide as around this by putting your cinefilm
it is yet possible to get those “stills.” a screen. in the enlarger with the emulsion away
How ? By making them directly from from (rather than toward) the lens.
the cine-film! Minnecam Enlarging But this straightens your picture at
There are three principal methods In use, you simply ran your pro- some sacrifice of definition. And in
of getting such “stills.” Each is good; enlarging from so small an image as
jector slowly until you found the
which is best depends to a great e.\- scene and the frame you wanted. Then a 16 or 8 mm. frame definition is not
tent upon your individual skill, facili- lightly to be thrown away.
you stopped the projector and closed
ties available, and personal preference.
the copier’s shutter. Aftei- closing the
We may happen to prefer one way of inspection port you withdrew the slide
Copy-Negatives with a !Minnecam
doing the trick, while our neighbor Method number three, which is,
exactly as thoughwere on a camera.
it it
may prefer another. As long as both Then you made a snapshot exposure is admitted, a personal choice, is to
get good results, we’ve really nothing copy your 16mm. film with a minia-
with the copier’s shutter.
to argue about. ture camera. Both the Leica and the
When your filmpack was developed
The first method, and probably the Contax supply reproduction stands for
you had a “still” negative of your
oldest, is to use the reversal film in
frame, already enlarged to approxi-
some type of enlarger, to make an en-
mately 2 by 2% inches in size. Un-
larged negative. Quite early in the
fortunately, you had little control over
growth of 16mm. filming Bell & How-
your copying exposure. If ycur cinefilm
ell brought out an accessory for this
was underexposed your copy was like-
purpose, which was used with its Filmo
ly to be washed out; if the cine frame
projector. The gadget consisted sim-
was underexposed the copy was likely
to be dark. And there was sometimes
something to be desired as to defini-
A more modern version of this, and
a more controllable one, is to use a
really good miniature camera enlarg-
er, likethose made for use with Leica
or Contax negatives. Instead of en-
larging paper, use a sheet of cut
film, preferably some type such as a
Commercial or Commercial Ortho
emulsion. This way you have a more
complete control over your exposure,
and with a modern minnecam enlarger
you can get a negative that will per-
mit as much enlargement as the grain
size of your original cinepicture will
Method No. 2 is a variation of this
which gives a direct positive from
your reversal film’s positive image.
Instead of using an ordinary plate or
cut film for your enlargement, and
getting an enlarged negative, you
may use Eastman Direct Positive
naper, which is reversed into a posi-
This process is very simple, and has
definite points of superiority over the
Above, copied from Kodachrome 16inm. film
with a Contax. A 23-A filter used in copying ordinary enlarged-negative method.
to darken sky background. Below, print from
Those who use this method state Copied from 16inin. films by enlarging on
copy-negative made direct from black-and-
that your enlargement can be exposed, Direct Positive Paper. Upper, underexposed
white 16mm. frame. Note fiat result, due to copy. Center, overexposure. Bottom, correct
lack of control over copying exposure. processed, dried and ready for use in exposure. Photos by R. Lumley.
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 215

copying small objects. The Contax and down the tubular support, lock- practical advantage, since you can be
outfit, which the writer uses, consists ing into place according to this scale. fairly sure of getting one out of the
of a U-shaped base from which a Thin metal masks are supplied, fitting four with a satisfactory phase of mo-
tubular member extends upward to into the U-shaped base to “frame” tion.

support the camera. The camera itself the picture to be copied. This whole installation has been
is fitted into the device by removing The combination the writer uses in planned for copying ordinary photo-
the lens, and fitting the camera on to copying 16mm. frames is the one graphs, printing and the like, which
a member that fits on exactly as the which gives a 1:1 copying ratio. The can be photographed in the usual way,
lens does. mask used is exactly the size of a by reflected light. It is easy enough,
The camera-lens is then fitted to minnecam double frame picture. This though, to arrange the same set-up
this member with any combination of is rather too large for 16mm., but to copy your substandard scenes by
four extension tubes of various the slides are easily masked down to transmitted light, as is necessary.
lengths, which focus the lens at the 16mm. width with black tape or card- Simply set up your copying stand on
distances required to make copies of board strips. Lengthwise, you copy a fair-sized pane of ground glass,
various scales. The camera slides up about four 16mm. frames. This is a supported by a couple of tables, a
couple of kitchen chairs, or anything
T else that is handy, one at each end
of the pane. Underneath this glass

SAN FRANCISCANS HAIL place a Photoflood lamp in a clamp-

on reflector. And there you are!
You simply select your scene, line
NELSON'S "TRAIL SONG" the minnecam on it, and make your
exposure. The result is a copy-nega-
tive which can be enlarged very satis-


San Francisco Recreation Com-
mission the premiere of “The Trail
of the wt. sound projector with the com-
pany’s sound equipment and a booster
Quite good sized enlarge-
may be had from good 16mm.
frames, and prints up to 4 by 5 even
Song” was held on the evening of from indifferent 16mm.
Thursday, April 8, in the High School You have complete control over your
of Commerce Auditorium, San Fran- copying exposure, and an almost in-
cisco.The picture and Its excellence finite range of emulsions to use in the
were described in the April issue of copying. The tonal values are definite-
thismagazine under the caption “The ly superior.
Poet-Photographer.” The
direct ref- Copying Kodachrome
erence was to Clifford Nelson, direc- Lastly, this allows one to make real-
tor of visual recreation in the Bay ly pleasing copies from Kodachrome
City, responsible for this remarkable
film. Copying Kodachrome by any
Kodachrome record of a journey in other method often leaves quite a lot
the High Sierras and along the ocean be desired; for instance, making
front of the Northwest.
a copy on an ordinary positive-type
The picture was dedicated to Jose- copying emulsion, or on ortho cut-
phine D. Randall, “in appreciation of
film, will not give you an accurate
her ten years of loyal service as su- your
black-and-white rendition of
perintendent of the San Francisco
Kodachrome scene’s colors.
Recreation Commission.” The other
Copying by minnecam, on the other
members of the commission are Mayor
hand, gives you almost the same free-
Angelo J. Rossi, Mrs. Sigmund Stern,
dom and control you would have
president; Miss Alicia Mosgrove, the
photographing the scene direct. First
Rev. Leo W.
Fowleson, Charles F.
of all, you can use a panchromatic
Traung, William J. Raffette, John
film for making your copy negative.
McLaren and Joseph P. Nourse.
If that isn’t enough, you can filter
Fifteen hundred distinguished citi-
your copy exactly as you would in
zens of San Francisco, especially in-
vited, by their generous and even en-
making a direct photograph.
For instance, in copying a close-up
thusiastic applause attested their en-
shot of a person against an intense
joyment of the program presented by
blue sky, you can use a “G” or a
these members of the city’s recreation
23- A filter (depending on the kind of
film you are using for the copy-nega-
San Francisco girls’ choir, San
tive) and bring the sky down to a
Francisco boys’ choir. Junior Civic Sc«ne in Clifford Nelson’s Kodachrome feature
Symphony Orchestra, Ocean View the accompanying title of which is “A Burst dark gray or black that gives the same
of Molten Silver Born of Mountain Snow.” feeling the intense blue does in color.
Playground, Junior dance group.
Senior dance group and Hayes Valley In any type of copying from sub-
Cottage. The following constituted the even- standard film you will find the closer
ing’s program: shots generally make the most suc-
Evening’s Program Caliph of Bagdad, Junior Civic Sym- cessful copies. In longer shots, your
Since “The Trail Song” had been phony Orchestra; “San Francisco Rec- scene has to be unusually well defined
shown at the Bell and Howell audi- reation Activities,” a motion picture; — clearly set off in both line, mass and
torium the producer had added several “Aztec Metropolis,” Clifford Nelson; gradation —
if it is to make a copy

sequences to the subject. That there Military Overture, Junior Civic Sym- of any size.
might be no doubt that sound and phony Orchestra; Songs from “Robin But don’t let anyone fool you. Six-
dialogue would fill the unusually large Hood,” San Francisco Boys’ Choir; teen millimeter frames can be copied
auditorium in San Francisco Bell and Mexican and Hungarian dances, Play- —
successfully and it isn’t half the task
Howell sent from T^os Angeles a 1000 Continued on page 222 you’d expect!
216 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

amount of snap and contrast to your

Extreme overcorrection means play-

ing filters for all they’re worth pull-

FOR EVERY FILM TYPE ing the skies down to a jetty black
so that the clouds jump right out at
you, making night effects in the day-
time, and so on.
By Ned Van Buren Each of these effects calls for a
different type of filtering.
uring the course my The first thing to consider in pre-

D ten years as a photographic ami

filterconsultant for one of the
major film manufacturers a most
are you
a filter is, what elfect do you
get ? Next, what kind of film
using? Finally, what condi-
FilterFollows Film Type
By the same token, producing these
various effects on different types of
tions of light and subject govern your
film calls for different filters. For
amazing number of substandard film- instance, the cheapest ortho types of
ers have asked me (luestions about shot ?
film are very color blind; they “see”
filters and filtering. Like anyone else Only with the answers to all three
the violet, blue and perhaps some
I enjoy answering questions and tell-
of these (]uestions can anyone tell you
green, but their vision begins to peter
ing the other fellow what to do but — what filter to use.
out as we get into the yellow, and
it is really irritating to be constantly from there on they’re completely
Three Filter Type Effects
faced with the bare question “What blind. If you use a yellow filter on
filter should 1 use?” Let’s look at the first one. Profes- a film like this, you’ll get a very pro-
Nobody would walk up to a doctor sionally speaking, there are three gen- nounced result. With a K-2 all of
and ask him, “What pills should 1 eral types of filter effects: 1, normal the ultra-violet, violet and most of
take?” without giving him at least a “orthochromatic” correction; 2, a the blue will be cut out.
hint as to where he felt a pain and mild overcorrection; 3, extreme over- That leaves only a little bit of blue-
some particulars as to what kind of correction. green, green and yellow-green light
a pain it was. And not even the old- This normal correction means mak- to work on the film. First, you’ll have
fashioned family doctor whose fav- ing the film see things approximately to let a lot more light through (that
orite prescription was a dose of castor the same way your eyes do, but of is, give a larger exposure) to get a
oil would suggest a remedy without course in black and white. If a color picture at all. Second, you’ll get a
knowing what his pill was supposed is bright to the eye you want it light whale of an effect, with the sky quite
to remedy. on the screen, but you don’t want the noticeably darkened, since most of its
This business of prescribing filters film to lighten some color your eye blue light is eliminated, and the yel-
is a good deal the same as prescrib- regards as more or less neutral sim- lows and yellow-greens lightened.
ing pills. There are a lot of good ply because the film happens to have On the other hand, take a Superpan
filters, just as there are a lot of good a fondness for that color. In other type of film: This “sees” all colors, its
pills. But no filter ever made can words, you want your shot to look vision extending well up into the reds.
possibly prove a cure-all for all pho- —
natural so natural no one thinks of Put that same yellow K-2 filter on
tographic problems. And just as a asking “What filter did you use?” and you get virtually no effect. The
prescription of strychnine will cure Your “mild overcorrection,” on the same rays are stopped, of course, but
a person with one ailment and kill other hand, means something where the film has added sensitivity through-
some one with another trouble, so will you can be more conscious of filtering. out, and is moreover sensitive to
any given filter solve one set of pho- Generally speaking, it means darken- light of so many other colors (and

tographic troubles and just as sure- ing the sky enough so clouds stand very few things reflect light of a
ly ruin shots made under other cir- out more than ordinarily strong. pure color) that the filter has little
cumstances. Often, too, it means adding a certain or no effect.
The matter of light-conditions has
just as much influence on your results,
too. Suppose, for instance, you want
to make a strongly corrected shot of
some interesting clouds. On a good
day, when you have a clear blue sky,
this is easy, no matter what film you
use. Simply put on the filter that
will take out all or most of the blue
in that .sky, and you’ve got it.
Many Filters Listed

But suppose the day is one of
those hazy ones, with a dirty whitish
sky. Your filter would take out the
blue of the sky, but there isn’t any
to take out; instead, the sky is a
glare of whitish light which is made
up of a mixture of all colors. Most
of this will still get through your fil-
ter, so the result on the screen is a
pale-gray or whitish sky, against
which the white clouds are lost.
All of this sounds like no end of a
problem. Well, you can make it just
as complicated as you want to. You
Normal correction — Aero 2 filter on Super Sensitive film. can carry a filter-assortment so big
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 217

you’ll need a truck —the Eastman

company alone lists well over a hun-
dred different filters.
But you don’t need to!
After all, what you are after is
three basic types of filter effects
normal correction, mild overcorrection
and extreme overcorrection. If you
are a really sensible camerist, you
will stick pretty closely to one kind
of film. You’ll be quite long enough
learning how to use all its possibili-
ties fully! And you’ll learn to recog-
nize weather conditions when no filter
can possibly help your shot.
On the face of it it looks as though
you could cut your 97 possible filters
down to a sensible kit of three. Well,
so you can if you choose them correct-
ly and use them properly!
Just which filters you choose must
necessarily depend on what type of
film you generally use.
To begin with, suppose you use the
average Superpan reversal film. For
a normal correction, your best choice
is an Aero 2. For a mild overcorrec- This also used an Aero 2 filter and Super Sensitive film — but changred light conditions changed
the result.
tion and stronger contrast, probably
the best is the G. For the more ex-
erally quite a bit of unnoticed white ings of selected industrial and educa-
tieme overcorrection your own taste
light; and a full e.xposure permits tional films as examples of the best
had better dictate the choice. The
23-A is excellent if you don’t want some of this to work on the film, ef- current practice. These will be both
fectively counteracting the dark-sky silent and sound, 16 as well as 35mm.
things too extreme. Otherwise, you
effect you are after. films.
can u.se a heavier red filter like the F.
If you hit your exposure “right on Sessions will begin in the Webster
If you use ordinary Pan film you’d
the nose,” or are a trifle under, this Hotel, opposite the Francis W. Parker
better modify this one step down the
scale, and choose a yellow filter like
is not so likely to happen. In making School, 330 Webster Avenue, at 9
special filter effects on reversal film o’clock each morning and continue un-
the K-2 for a normal correction, use
it also is almost always necessary to 5 o’clock, with one hour for lunch.
the G for increased contrast and a til

moderate overcorrection, and a 23-A compensate in your exposure for the Evening sessions begin at 7:30.
for the heavier overcorrection. automatic processing control so often After the showings, advertising and
used, which tends to print your scene school men will discuss the films.
Exposure Important Factor for a normal effect rather than for the Discussion will include photographic
effect you aim at. and scenario technique, advertising,
Using the Plenachrome type of film In any event, h^lf the secret of get- sales or training values and education-
a K-1 will give you a mild correction, ting good filter effects is accurate ex- al values. As a rule representatives
an Aero 2 a moderately strong cor- posure. The other half is keeping of producers and sponsors will be
rection and the G is the absolute limit your filtering simple and knowing present and will lead the discussions.
for overcorrection. what filter to use to bring the effect It will be the one chance of the year
Most of the very cheap ultra-eco- you want. actually to see the largest collection
nomical types of film frankly admit T of worth-while non-theatrical films
they aren’t intended for use with fil- exhibited at any one place, anywhere.
ters. At the best, a simple yellow
At the seventh session of the Na- The dates, a week before the NEA
filter is you can use under
about all
at Detroit, will be found convenient for
any circumstances —and
even that is tional Conference on Visual Educa-
tion and Film Exhibition (De Vry
a week’s stopover in Chicago.
not especially to be recommended.
With any of these filters, on any Foundation), Chicago, June 21 to 24, T
type of reversal film, exnosure is a there will be almost continuous show- GERMAN CINE STATISTICS
highly important factor. Most of the The Reich Film Chamber has re-

factors published are for regu-
lar motion picture or still negative
emulsions, and are none too accurate
with reversal processing and emul-
It is a good idea to make a
few tests, using the published factor,
cently released statistics showing the
number and size of film theaters in
Germany as of December 31, 1936,
reports Trade Commissioner R. M.
Stephenson from
the Film Chamber’s compilation

and then successively overexposing there were at the end of the year
and underexposing several “takes” of 5,302 cinemas in Germany having a
the same scene, so you will have an combined seating capacity of 1,943,049.
accurate idea of how to modifv these Of these, 2,316 with 1,195,906 seats
factors to get the results you want were playing daily. As compared
with reversal film. with the last previous estimate,
Generally speaking, you will get CRAIG lUNIOR COMBINATION $8.50 (April 30, 1936) the statistics indi-
Junior Splicer with two geared rewinds
more pronounced effects if your expo- all mounted on 21" board. cate an increase of 29 in the number
sure is kept on the low side. In most CRAIG MOVIE SUPPLY CO. of cinemas and of 14,999 in seating
1053 So. Olive St. Los Angeles, Cal.
blue skies, for instance, there is gen- capacity.
218 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

Getting Professional Diffusion

With Amateur Movie Camera
ny discussion
A of dillusion
for either amateur or profes-
sional cinematography should be
prefaced by the statement that there
something of the kindly imperfection
of tlie eye.

All .Methods to Same End

the whole secret of diffusing artisti-
Through these various shots, how-
ever, we should use the same method
can be no best method of diffusing. Every method of diffusion seeks this of diffusing. If in our long shot we
Like buying clothes, diffusion is a same end. They all attain it by intro- use a diffuser which breaks the image
matter of personal taste. What suits ducing before the lens something up in one way, and in our close-up a
one may not please another. Thus in which slightly breaks up the rays of diffuser which breaks it up different-
the studio we find one outstanding light which form the image. The ly, weare going to get two different
cinematographer using Scheibe dif- extent of this breaking up determines effects in our successive shots: they
fusion screens, while on the next stage the amount of diffusion produced. The won’t match, even though the degree
some equally distinguished fellow- means used to do it govern the effect of diffusion in each is properly pro-
worker is getting ecjually pleasing on the screen. portioned.
results with Harrison’s diffusers, Here the key to a basic rule in
is Due to the much smaller frames in
gauze nets or diffusion discs. diffusion. If we can vary the extent IGmm. and 8mm. film, the writer has
With equally meritorious results to which the light rays are broken up found it as a rule wiser to use a con-
on the screen we cannot say one man we can vary the amount of diffusion siderabl.v lighter degree of diffusion
is right and the other wrong; each we get under given circumstances. for substandard filming than he would
has simply chosen the method the ef- use for the same shot in 35mm. Again,
fects of which appeal to him and the More Diffusion for Close Shots
no firm rule for this can be stated,
action of which suits his method of But suppose we move from a long for some lenses give a crisper, harsher
camerawork. shot to a close-up. Our image is big- picture than others, requiring heavier
There are, however, a few funda- ger on the film. The points of light diffusion for comparable effects, while
mental rules which should apply to which form it are bigger. Conse- individual ta.ste governs the selection
all types of diffusing media and to all quently a degree of breaking up which of any effect as desirable or other-
types of camerawork —substandard will diffuse the smaller image of a wise. The writer’s preference is for
quite as well as standard. long shot to a given extent won’t pro- an almost imperceptible diffusion
The fundamental reason for using duce nearly so much diffusion in our which softens the picture without be-
any type of diffusion is to produce a close-up. coming noticeable.
pleasing, natural softness. This soft- Therefore if we want to maintain
ness should never be confused with a consistently even effect of diffusion
Three Types of Diffuser
the exaggerated fuzziness which some- in our long shot and its related close- Professionally there are three main
times passes for diffusion among the ups we must use a heavier degree of types of diffusing media. There are
unskilled. If left to themselves our diffusion for the close-ups. Suppose the Scheibe and Harrison diffusing
highly corrected modern anastigmats
reproduce a scene in vastly more de-
we arbitrarily call our long shot dif-
fusion No. 1, we must use a heavier

screens glass squares like colorless
color filters, coated with an all but
tail than any eye can see it. — —
grade No. 2 to match the effect in invisible coating which serves slight-
our close-up. For a medium shot we ly to break up the light rays. There
Technical Result should use an intermediate grade, are the Eastman diffusion discs
As thisis written the writer can
which we might call No. 1V2. That is round pieces of optical glass in which
look through a window at a rose bush patterns of concentric circles or spider-
some two hundred feet away. The web tracery diffuse the image. Final-
eye notes the spots of color which are ly there are —
gauze nets simply
the blooms and the dull green masses frames of stout celluloid or metal
of leafage. But one is not conscious over which are tightly stretched one
of each individual petal and leaf. In or more thicknesses of fairly coarse
a photograph these details would be mesh gauze such as women once used
reproduced vfith microscopic accuracy. for veils.
The result would be technically ac- The first and last of these are
curate, but not truthful as regards readily available for amateur movie
reproducing what the normal eye use. The second, in a modified form,
actually saw. In the same way the is available in the form of the Kodak

f;64 anastigmat school of portraiture pictorial diffusion attachment made

will in a big-head close-up reproduce for cameras. (This should not be

every pore and blackhead in a way confused with the Kodak diffusion por-
that would delight a dermatologist, trait attachment, which embodies a
while you or I conversing with the supplementary lens to alter the focus
same person at equally close range of the camera lens.)
would ignore these details and “see” These attachments, however, are
only the personality. made primarily for cameras with
No diffusion used in this shot, made especially
In cinematography diffusion is larger lenses than fitted to most sub-
for The American Cinematographer
used to make the lens see things with by Paramount productions. standard cineboxes, and ?.s thev de-
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 219
pend for their effect upon the whole ly made
for mounting photographs; The normal position of professional
pattern in their glasses, while with the cardboard, being absorbent, re- diffusion devices is either on the lens
the smaller cine lenses only the cen- quired two coats. As soon as this was itself or quite close to it in a
ter of this pattern would be utilized,
growing “tacky” the frame was slipped box. The exact position does not seem
they would probably not be satis- into place on the board, and the to make too pronounced an effect,
factory for cine diffusion. gauze stretched tightly and smooth- though the diffuser is too lar for-

Diffusion Screens
ly over it, fastened on the other side ward it may
possibly cut the exposure
with more thumb tacks. Next, the ce- value, and in some cases give a les-
Both Scheibe and Harrison make ment was again applied to the edges sened degree of diffusion. Unlike color
excellent diffusion screens, in a wide of the frame through the gauze, filters, none of the diffusing
range of grades. They can be had in taking care not to smear cement on discussed here require any change in
any size that will fit your camera’s the central open part. the exposure.
filter-holder and either square or A
few moments later the cement
round shapes. was Out came the thumb tacks,
dry. Must Not Be Fuzzy
In both types the screens are num- and that remained was to trim the
all For normal 16mm. use, it is seldom
bered so that the lower the number diffuser from the large piece of fabric. necessary to diffuse long shots. The
the less diffusion is had. Making a double-layer net simply most valuable use of dufu.^ers is in
The Harrison diffusers begin with meant repeating the process, putting the closer shots of people. In these a
No. 1 and extend up to a No. 4. For first one layer of gauze and then a slight diffusion is a very real help,
16mm. use the No. 1 is probably the second on the frame. for it smooths out wrinkles and helps
most suitable for cine long shots and If you use a camera which, like the to conceal minor facial blemishes, and,
the No. 2 for close-ups. Cine Kodak Special, peiTnits focusing in a woid, makes your pictured ren-
George Scheibe, who originated ef- your full frame image on a ground dition more pleasing.
fect filters and screens, has been mak- glass screen, it is possible to use what But no matter what means you use
ing his excellent diffusers for studio the studios know as “burn outs.” to produce your diffusion effects,
use for more than twenty years. His These are gauze nets in the center never let the diffusion become obvious.
diffusers originally began with No. 1, of which a hole of any desired size or Any photographic trick overdone is
but as studio technique advanced he shape has been burned. A cigarette bad. You will never see a well photo-
has produced lighter and yet lighter is the most common tool for this.
graphed professional film in which
diffusers, until today the range ex-
diffusion is used to the point of being
tends to the all but imperceptible dif- Clear-Center Diffusers
obviously “fuzzy.”
fusion of the No. 1-128.
In a single net this will give a clear Some pictures, it is true, permit
For 16mm. filming the writer leans
center with diffused edges, while more diffusion than do others. A
strongly to Scheibe’s No. 1-64 for
long shots, the No. 1-32 for medium with a double net, one layer of which picture like “A Midsummer Night’s
shots and the No. 1-16 for close-ups. is burned out, you can get a light dif- Dream,” for example, allows even

demands far more diffusion than

For more pronounced diffusion, or for fusion in the center and heavier dif-
fusion elsewhere. Similarly, if you would be possible in a harsher story
extreme close-ups, the No. 1-8 is ex-
are filming two people together, and like “Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.” But
cellent. These screens do not distort
want one more diffused than the other, professional cinematographers learned
the image or produce halation, but
as might be the case when a man and long ago to diffuse so delicately that
they impart a very pleasing softness.
a woman are together (the woman the diffusion is felt, rather than seen.
Gauze nets are quite universally
usually gets the most diffusion), you If the amateur is to imitate the
used, and are very easily made. means used for diffusion by the pro-
Moreover, by varying the type of can burn out the gauze on the man’s
side of the picture, leaving whatever fessional, he should take care also to
mesh used, or by using more than a imitate the professional’s restraint in
is needed to soften the woman. It is
single layer of gauze, varying de-
also possible to use the bum out net using the device. This is doubly im-
grees of diffusion can be had. A portant in amateur films, since too
in combination with any other type
black fabric is almost always used. To
of diffuser. Naturally, too, any dif- many inept novices have already made
make a gauze net you begin by mak- audiences
fuser can be used in combination with unpleasantly aware of
ing a frame to hold the gauze. If
any desired color filter. mushy, out-of-focus shots as a sup-
you want to be stylish you can use a posedly “amateur” failing.
sheet of heavy celluloid or Kodaloid,
The really serious maker of ama-
with the center cut away to leave only
teur movies of course knows enough
a frame.
to avoid this elementary error: but
“ Making Gauzes exaggerated diffusion can create a
similar effect on the screen.
The writer, recently making up Diffusion, properly used, can do
some gauzes for his 16mm. filming, much make amateur
to films more
used a much more prosaic material pleasing’. But use diffusion re-
heavy cardboard. This was simply
cut from a box that originally held a

strainedly when in doubt, use less
than you think necessary, rather than
dozen cut films. To suit his filter too much.
holder the frames were two inches After all, the best diffusion for any'
square with a square opening about scene is that which gives a natural
1 11-16 inches in size cut in the cen- softness without creating a fuzziness

ter; theremaining frame, though less which is unnatural.
than 3-16 of an inch all around, was
quite adequate.

: Putting the gauze on the filter is A M TE U R S. ATTENTION

f simple. Simply fasten one end of the The attention of amateurs is called
I gauze to a board with thumb tacks. to the announcement on Page 223.
P Next coat your frame with some good The only change between this and the othei The American Cinematographer will
adhesive. The writer used a new photograph is in the use of a diffusion disc
P here. Note more pleasing quality of face, and award cash among other prizes in its
p transparent “rubber cement” special- how wrinkles in the hand are erased. 1937 contest.
220 American Cinematographer • May, 1937

Brooks Is Agent for

‘Night Photography’
T HAS always seemed an easy mat-
I ter in Germany to get an expert to
write an article, or even a book, on
almost any conceivable topic. The
German photographic press particu-
larly has been extremely prolific and
can count itself fortunate in having
in its ranks Dr. Walther Heering, a
photographer-writer of rare skill. Dr.
Heering is also a publisher of note.
The “Golden Book of the Rolleiflex”
is an example of his publishing
achievement familiar to all American
students of fine photography.
His recent book on photography at
night proved so popular that it was
translated into English. This has been
accomplished and. through the efforts
of Burleigh Brooks, New York, it is
already available in this country.
Although a book of but fifty-four
pages it is crammed with information
on all phases of the subject. The
author’s rapid comprehension and
practical solutions of the problems en-
w HY go through another summer . . . another day . . . constantly
countered by any photographer at- taking chances on exposure. Take a Weston. Use it every time you
tempting this fascinating subject is
The book is divided into
shoot. Get the eonsistently exact exposure results that a Weston
a pleasure.
five sections, covering, in turn, the alone can give. From the day you start using it, you’ll never know
problems of time exposure, snapshots
at night, fireworks, flashlight photos
any exposure problem exists. See both models at dealers, or write
at night, and a discussion of infra- for literature . . . Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation, 598
red photography which allows pseudo-
night effects in the daytime. Frelinghuysen Avenue, Newark, New Jersey.
“Night Photography” is finely
printed and beautifullv illustrated, in
keeping with the be.st traditions of the Model 819 — simplified Cine
Continental printers’ craft.
model, for use with all types
“N i g h t Photography.” bv Dr. of movie cameras, all film, in-
Walther Heering. 54 pages. 43 illus- cluding color.
trations. text in English, paner cov-
ered, price $1.
w Model 650 — for use with any
ENGINEERS ENTERTAIN type of camera— any film, in-
An especially attractive program cluding color.
for tha women attending the Societv
of Motion Piefnrp Engineers’ conven-
tion thismonth is beiocr arranged b^'
Mr«. K. F. Morfran and Mrs. P Mole,
hostesses, and their Ladies’ Commit-
tee. A suite will be nrovided in the
Roosevelt Hotel, where the women will
Weston<5c»osure Jl^efer
register and meet for the various
events upon their psogram. ture of lens and not upon the
the a 35mm. camera takes in a field 32 by
size of itsimage. 44 feet, while at the same distance
ARGENTINE 1937 RELEASES On the other hand, the tables on a 25mm. lens on a 16mm. camera
Trade papers renort that at least camera set-ups and lens angles apply covers a field of 28.9 by 38.6 feet.
thirty-two Argentine-made feature only to 35mm. film with the standard Thus it will be seen that while it is
films will be released during the year sound aperture, 0.631 inches by 0.868 not in this case absolutely accurate
1937, an estimate which probablv will inches. They can, however, be ap- to assume the figures given for a giv-
be increased during the course of the plied to give an approximate guide en lens on 35mm. may be applied to
year, reports Assistant Trade Com- for 16mm. work if the figures for any one of half its focal length on 16mm.,
missioner Joe D. Walstrom, at Buenos given lens on a 35mm. camera are the assumption may none the less be
Aires. considered as applying to a lens of utilized as a guide sufficiently ac-
T half that focal length on a 16mm. curate for many practical purposes.
camera. Such basic data as that relating to
Here’s the Answer filtering, make-up, compensation for
Continued froin Papre 210 The lens angles given for a 50mm.
be equally good whether the lens is lens on 35mm. film may be taken as changing shutter openings or camera
used on a 35mm. camera or a 16mm. a good practical guide to the angles speeds, developing times, formulae,
camera, for these factors are depen- of a 25mm. lens on a 16mm. camera: etc., are equally applicable to 35mm.

dent upon the focal length and aper- at 100 feet, the 50mm. lens used on or 16mm. practice.
— — ;

May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 221

Leitch kindly acted as subject for Mr. CINEMA CLUB E.XHIBITS
Phillippe in his presentation of regu- The Los Angeles Cinema Club cele-
lar panchromatic make-up as used in
brated its Apiil meeting by hold-
the studios. Much benefit was der.ved
ing on its regular meeting day a dis-
from Mr. Phillippe’s demonstration play of photographic equipment, a din-
LOS ANGELES 8MM and was enjoyed by all members. Mr.
ner for all and a bridge party follow-
Phillippe obligingly an.swered all ques-
ing for those who felt so disposed.
The regular meeting of the Los tions put to him regarding the make-
The gathering was held on the 6th at
Angeles 8mm Club was held in the up and its uses. the Arcady Hotel, downtown Los An-
Auditorium of Bell and Howell, 716 M. R. ARMSTRONG, Secretary geles. No attempt was made to con-
North La Brea Avenue, April 13. In duct a regular meeting in view of the
the absence of President Dr. F. R. general holiday mood.
Loscher, Vice President John E. Wal- The equipment display opened at 3
ter was acting president.

read and approved.

The min-
utes of the previous meeting were

Membership buttons were present-

ed to eight new members by Social
GOERZ in the afternoon. The attendance
was gratifying to the sponsors for
the exhibit, especially so in the even-
ing. Among the firms exhibiting their
wares were the Eastman Kodak Com-
Chairman Alexander Leitch. Buttons
were given to Mrs. Charlotte Arm-
PRECISION pany, Craig Movie Supply, Bell and
Howell, Victor Animatograph, Thal-
strong, Joseph P. Hughes, Clarence In every step of lens manufacture, hammer Company, Harrison and Har-
Gilley, Theodore H. McMurray, Ted Coerz Precision is evident. In the
rison, Home Movie, Hollywood Cam-
careful selection of the raw malerial,
Holzhausen, Art Zahn, Dr. John Mc- in the meticulous grinding and polish- era Exchange, American Cinematog-
Kibbin, and Joseph Lynn. Mrs. Char- ing, in the critical supervision of each rapher, Peterson’s Camera Exchange
detail, in the final, rigorous testing
lotte Armstrong was appointed corres-
ponding secretary to assist the secre-
this precision holds and affords to— and Balsley and Phillips, Inc.
users of Coerz Lenses an unequivocal Many of these were elaborate and
tary in his duties of the club. and unconditional guarantee of their
quality and performance. of unusual interest.
A lengthy discussion of the club
publication. Through the Filter, was Kino-Hypar f ,/2.7 and f -'3

Focal Lengths 15 to 100mm.

held, many members voicing their
opinions and suggestions. It was de- Cinegor High Speed Lenses PHILADELPHIA CINEMA
Ideal for Color Work. f '2
cided the name Through the Filter be and f '2.5; Focal Lengths 40 The meeting of the Philadelphia
continued. M. R. Armstrong was to 100mm. Cinema Club was held April 13 at the
elected to serve as editor, with E. J. Telestar —A lens of the tele- Hotel Adelphia, which will continue
Brouillette as his assistant for the re- photo type. f '4.5. Focal
Lengths 6 '4 1 to 15 1/2 until further notice to be the meeting
mainder of the club year. The editor inches. place of the club. The occasion wsa
was instructed to decide upon the Catalog B 4 on Request the first in the second year of the
number of issues to be printed during organization.
the year. C. P. GOERZ Frederick G. Beach, technical edi-
While all members are to consider tor,Amateur Cinema League, Inc.,
themselves reporters, special report- AMERICAN OPTICAL CO. was the speaker, his subject being
ers, Jane Gay, Mr. Brouillette, Mr. 317 East 34 Street New York “What Is Wrong with Our Movies.”
Svenson, and Mr. Niersbach were ap- Member Arthur J. Hurth presented
pointed as the staff. his 8mm film, “Motor Trip Through
The subject of the purchase of a White Mountains,” and member Hil-
mimeoscope was put before the club. bert B. Irwin presented a 16mm film,
After a short demonstration and dis- “Vacation Reflections.”
cussion it was agreed it was a neces-
sity in the editing of the club paper.
Mrs. Alva Cadarette, chairman of
Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory
16 Reduced
8 Dr. V. B. Sease, A.S.C., Director of
the DuPont Film Manufacturing Com-
pany’s Redpath Laboratory, Parlin,
the ladies activities, gave a report, Printing N. J. will be the speaker for the meet-
Special Motion Picture
introducing the new woman member. 1197 MERCHANDISE MART ing May 11. Dr. Sease is an out-
The usual ten-minute period devoted CHICAGO standing figure in the professional
to answering queries by the technical movie field. As a member of the New
committee was as popular as usual, Brunswick Camera Club he is in close
and many interesting problems and touch with the amateur’s problems.
subjects were discussed.
HUGO A. L. 0. RASCH, Secretary-Treas.
Several very interesting films were

shown for criticism one of the most MEYER r-
outstanding was a short entitled 5PEEDS */\5 TO f/5 5 SAN FRANCISCO CINEMA
Widow” by Robert W. Teorey.
Another interesting demonstration LENSES
The monthly meeting of the Cine-
ma Club of San Francisco was held
of make-up was given by Luis Phil-
lippe of Max Factors. Mrs. Alexander
W. 55 ST., NKW YORK April 27, the occasion being marked
222 American Cinematographer May, 1937

by a dinner, at the Woman’s City i*

Club. Member J. 0. Tucker talked on

“Titles,” and demonstrated several
methods of making them.
Member Harry Miller screened sev-
Kodachrome, among these
eral reels of
being “Death Valiev,” a desert view.
E. G. PETHERICK, President.
A rigid, 4-section tripod of weight-
PARA.MOUNT .MOVIE CLUB saving, duralumin construction. Provided with
monthly meeting of the
Tlie fourth 0 Pan-Tilting top. A scale, subdivided to every
Paramount Movie Club was held in 15 degrees, is etched on the round ponoroming
the studio’s projection room April 1. top for convenience in synchronizing the edges
While the members are employes of of 0 picture. A tilting lever, when pressed
the Paramount Studio they are not down, locks the ponoroming feature and the
connected with the camera department extending handle grip, when tightened, locks
— the are Simon Pure amateurs. the tilting feature. The tripod may be tilted
to o 90 degree angle, thus facilitating table-
The guest speaker of the evening
top photography and shots from above. It
was F. R. Abott of the Bausch and
opens in a jiffy. The first section extends by
Lomb Company, who talked on
“Lenses, Stops and Their Uses.” The
merely releasing a thumb-screw the other
three sections open automatically by means or

screen feature of the evening was pressure on the Triax spring locking device. t!il5.00
Bausch and Tomb’s “Eyes of Science.” The Triax can be shortened by simply folding
Other films shown were “Christmas
Eve at Home,” by Don Arlen, and
back one section. Beautifully made and easily
manipulated, durable and life-time lasting.
“Carnival of Winter Sports,” by Wil-
ton Carneal.
It extends to about 60

Weight about 3 Vz lbs.

inches (closed, 21") II R OO K S
T Literature on Request 127 W. 42 St., New York
At the regular meeting April 15 of
League’s Club Film Library. F. D.
the Staten Island Cinema Club the
Koehler, Jr. also will present a color
following program was presented:
film taken last summer.
Talk on “Making a Photoplay,” by
C. J. Carbonaro, vice president of the
GEORGE J. SMITH, President.
Metropolitan Motion Picture Club. Mr. T
Carbonaro has had wide experience San Franciscans Hail
both as an amateur and a profession-
al in making movies, and his talk
Nelson’s “Trail Song”
Continued from jiage 215
was interesting and instructive.
Four Ifimm. pictures were present- ground Children; Hungarian and
ed by Mr. Carbonaro to illustrate his
Spanish folk songs, San Francisco
1 OH can make Titles like this with
Girls’ Choir; Carnival, Playground
points. Snapshots were distributed in STAMP-O-TITLE
Children; “Merry Wives of Windsor,”
pairs, one showing what the movie
Overture, Junior Civic Symphony Or-
make 8 or
— Economically
I You can
plain or with back-
camera saw, and the other showing grounds in Black-and- White and Kodachrome.
the actual set-up. chestra; “The Trail Song,” Clifford A patented solution outlines the letters and
Other films projected were “Missis- Nelson. forms a base tor the Cold or Silver powder.
Producer Nelson has received an After use. a special fluid removes letters
sauga Canoe Trip,” by member F. D. from background, leaving them clean for
Koehler, Jr., and two IGmm. sound- urgent message from Atlantic City future titling.

on-film subjects. The first, “The asking him to show his pictures at the STAMP-O-TITLE consists of 1 Bottle
National Recreation Conference. Patented Fluid, 1 Bottle Eradicator, i

Haunted Ship,” is a reproduction from Vial each Cold and S^ver

a well-known animated cartoon, and Word received from San Francisco Cine Rubber Type, Type-Holder, with
at the end of the month indicated Handle, Tweezers, Inking Pad, 3 Com-
the other was taken on 16 and carries position Backgrounds.
the greetings of the president of the Mr. Nelson’s final acceptance of the $5.75
Australian Society of Radio Engineers invitation, with accompanying pres- Booklet AS on Request
It your dealer cannot supply you, send
to the annual convention of that pro- sure of work in preparation for the check or money order to:
fession in this country. Both were presentation to the conference of his
projected on an RCA-Victor 16mm. pictures.
sound projector. The visual recreation supervisor
Vice President E. W. Wilby, a radio will take along his typewriter. There
engineer, demonstrated 16mm sound is strong possibility that in the
equipment, including the RCA-Victor sound of the old Atlantic’s surf there
sound camera and projector. will be written a story that in the
The next regular meecing will be next month or two will deeply inter-
held on May 20. at which time Ed- est the readers of this magazine.
win Schwarz give a demonstra-
will T
tion of his titling methods, actually CORONATION IN 16MM.
composing, shooting, developing and England’s coronation will be avail-
projecting the titles during the even- able to amateurs in authentic 16mm. Super X 35mm Film
ing. There will also be shown “Ama- silent and sound film while it is still
2 Vz Cents a foot
teur Advance,” borrowed from the a subject of international interest.
postage paid anywhere in the
.Amateur Cinema League, showing the From its New York office in the
United States
progress in 16mm. movies since R.C.A. building, Pathegrams announces
they were first introduced. The film
has been made up from films in the
picture to dealers for release
May 24 in a variety of lengths.
6305 Sunset Blvd. — Hollywood, Calif.
May, 1937 • American Cinematographer 223

Make Plans Now for

1937 Contest
The American Cinematographer 1937 Amateur Competition is open
to 8mm or 16mm amateurs the world over.

Product of contestants not in this office by November 30 cannot be


There is no restriction as to the number or length of subjects.

Producers receiving professional help in the making of their pictures

cannot be permitted to compete. An exception is the inclusion of labora-
tory made titles.

The board of judges that will pass on the competing films will be com-

posed of members of the A.S.C.

In the 1937 contest there will be cash and

other awards. The particulars of these will be

announced in the June issue of this magazine.

The subject will be given classifications so that the competition may

be fair to all entrants. By this we mean that an entrant having a documen-
tary film will not compete with one based on a scenario. Of course, there
will be more classifications than these, which will be created according to
the pictures that are received.

224 American Cinematographer May, 1937

Uncle Sam’s Salesman

Continued from Page 182
cosmetics, home furnishing’s,
radios, devices
electrical and on Rates; Seven cents a word. Minimum charge, CONTAX II AND THE FOLLOWING LEN-
one dollar per insertion. SES: one Sonnar F:1.5, 59mm; one Son-
down the long list of our exports are FOR saleU^miscellaneous nar F:2, 85mm; one Tessar F:3.5, 50mm;
brought to the outside world by the one Sonnar F':4, 135mm; one Triotar F:4,
screen. W'ALL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND CAMERA 85mm; one Biotar F:2, 40mm; one Tele
with direct drive motor, new type move- Tessar F:6.3, 180mm ©ne Tele Tessar F:8,

The end is not yet in sight for the ment, variable area high fidelity galvanom- 300mm one Tessar F:8, 28mm also leather
; ;

eter,microphone, amplifier, lenses, tripod case, multiple view finder, filters, sun-
advance publicity given by this potent shades, etc., entire equipment new make
and accessories. Complete, ready for opera- ;

salesman! The screen brings to the tion. Rebuilt silenced and standard Bell & best offer, write Box 269 American Cinema-
world our architecture, transportation Howell 170 degree Cameras— Hi-speed gear tographer.
boxes. Bell & Howell Hi-speed shuttles
systems, roads, development of our Two late model Bell & Howell splicers ;
NEW MODEL 21 VICTOR 16mm Projectors
Bell & Howell sound printer: pair used in beautiful walnut case; 750 watt, for
cities,hospitals, schools, natural re-
Simplex portable sound projectors with 2000 1600 ft. reels, .$99.50 each. Write for cir-
sources, scenery, tourist playgrounds ft. magazines. Precision, DeBrie and Bell & cular and other bargains. Fromaders, Dav-
and, in fact, our entire social and Howell pan and tilt triixtds. Bell & Howell enport, Iowa.
1000 ft.. 400 ft. magazines. Motors, sun-
economic life. shades, finders, lenses and all accessories. PRESS CARDS — F'or the freelance photogra-
The United States supplies 70 per- Write, wire or cable. MOTION PICTURE pher, 25c. General News Box 25M, West
CAMERA SUPPLY. INC.. 723 SEVENTH F^arms Station, New York City.
cent of all the motion pictures shown
MITCHELL CAMERA, guaranteed condition.
in the theatres throughout the world,
and because of their superior quality
BELL & HOWELL 5- WAY SOUND PRINTER. Studio equipped. Write for description.
Generators, Panel Control Boards, Dup.ex $2750. & $3500.
are demanded by foreign audiences, Printers. Sound Moviolas, Developing Ma-
chines, Blimps, Dolly, B & H
splicers, Mit- BELL & HOWELL CAMERA, fully equipi>ed,
and, as superior revenue producers, chell and B & H Silent Cameras, Motors, original B & H Movement, $1150.
by the theatre owners in all countries. High Speed Gear Boxes. Light Testers,
Projection and Lighting Equipment. Guar- AKELEY CAMERA, 3 Lenses; 2"-3"-12". 4
From 30 to 40 percent of all anteed optically and mechanically perfect. Magazines, Akeley Tripod, Cases, etc. $800.
revenues received by American mo- Send for 19.37 Bargain Catalogue. Holly-
wood Camera Exchange. 1600 Cahuenga We buy and used equipment of
sell every
tion picture producers for their Blvd., Hollywood, California. description. Write us your needs.
Cable Ho-
products are derived from foreign camex.
WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSION- 1515 North Cahuenga Blvd.,
The increase in motion picture AL AND 16mm EQUIPMENT NEW' AND Hollywood, Calif.
theatres throughout the world indi- ALL LEADING MANUFACTURERS. SILENT BELL-HOWELL CAMERA equipped
cates the upward trend in modernizing RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 Sev- with F'earless Quick F'oeus Shift and silent
enth Ave., New York City. Establi.shed F'earless high speed movement 4 fast len- ;

when over half of the present num- since 1910-. ses 4-1000 ft. magazines, matte box, 2

ber are now wired for sound. During motors, friction head triiwd, etc. This
BELL AND HOWELL 170“ CAMERAS^high silent camera does not require blimp. Ideal
the year 1936 almost 4000 motion pic- —
speed shuttles high speed gear boxes for color. Price fully e(iuipped $1,500.00
ture houses were wired for sound but 400 and 1000 foot Bell & Howell maga- F’earless Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif.
zines Bell & Howell tripods motors.
leaving 50,000 that do not have sound AKELEY and DEBRIE CAMERAS. Akeley WANTED
equipment. In Latin America last motors. High speed motors. Sunshades,
lenses and finders. W'ANTED. We pay cash for everything pho-
year it was found that four out of W'rite or W’ire tographic. Send full information and low-
every five theatres are wired for CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC. est cash prices. Hollywood Camera Ex-
1600 Broadway New York City change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood,
sound. This trend not only opens up Tel.: BRyant 9 -4146 Cable: Cinequixi Calif.
a larger market for sound pictures, i>EW I'ULLY EQUIPPED FEARLESS 65MM
but is creating a wide market for the wide film camera. Ideal for color and ex-
perimental work. Extra 35mm high siteed
which handU
allied picture industries W'rite, wire or cable
movement. Price complete .?2,000.00. Ftar-
sound equipment and other supplies. less Camera Co., Holl ywood. Calif.
723 Seventh Avenue, New York City -

Great Space Buyer IIELL-HOWELL CAMERA SILENCED, adapt- Cable Address ; Cinecamera
ed for color, variable area, single system
What is the importance of the mo- sound. Complete outfit, like new, ready
All types of Cameras
tion picture production to Los An- to shoot. .?2750.00 Hollywood Camera E.x-
change. 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood.
We pay the highest cash prices for Mitchell,
geles ? Second in importance to California. Cable Hocamex.
B & H, Akeley, DeBrie, Eymo and other
Phone DOuglas 3917. makes of cameras and camera accessories.
petroleum refining, it stands out as W'e also want tripods, motors, magazines, cut-
one of the greatest users of the ma- X TYPE MITCHELL MOTOR, MITCHELL ting I'oom and laboratory equipment. Tell us
terials of other industries. The in- BABY TRIPOD. MOTOR ADAPTER. J. R. what vou have! Get our price offer!!
Lockwood. 523 N. Orange St.. Glendale. CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC.
dustry spends around 70 million dol- Phone DOuglas 3917 1600 Broadway New York City
lars in newspaper advertising each
year. The building industry, trans- picture industry would be in existence
portation, electrical supply trade, today.
printing, heating equipment, fuel and William H. Schroeder, chairman of
many others depend for a consider- the Los Angeles Chamber of Com- Volume 1

able poi’tion of their production on merce, of Foreign Trade Week, points

the growth and stability of the motion out in proclaiming the eleventh local
picture industry. and third national observance of this
This means jobs and stabilized w’eek, that the motion picture industry- The greotest work on Cinematog-
purchasing power throughout the en- takes our country to the far corners raphy os practiced in Hollywood
tire industrial system of Los An- of the w'orld and brings the rest of ever published.
geles. The motion picture industry the world to our doors.
The industry has been a pioneer in Now, $2.50
too, plays a definite part in world com-
merce depending upon the long staple bringing needed raw' materials from

cotton from Egypt, natural camphor other countries and has in turn created
from Japan, or synthetic camphor a market for our finished products.
from Germany and Italy. Consider The industry not only has created AMERICAN
the importance of rubber to the in- jobs and purchasing power, but has Cl NEMATOGRAPHER
dustry, supplied entirely from the out- revealed to the world the high stand- 1782 North Orange Drive
side world. Were it not for these ard of living that the American people
products it is doubtful if the motion have attained.

Junior Model. On roller, with separate neti-type Model F. In metal case with pivoted, ruhber-tipped Model B. Metal case protects screen when not in
spring wire support. 4 sizes at new low prices from feet. Has single collapsible support and non-sag top use, 12 sizes, 22^^x30^^ to 63^^x84'' inclusive. From
S2..50 to $6.00. 22"x30" to 52"-\72" incl.
slat. 6 sizes, From $12.00 up. $8.00 up.

f 1
Da -Lite Has


the Screen You Need
Look for this Mark when Here are a few of the many models in the
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world’s largest line of projection screens. Sur~
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Crawford Ave., Chicago, Illinois.

The Standard Challenger

can be set up anywhere. Check these
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screen adjustable in height to any of
three positions. 2. Square center rod on
tripod and rigid top slat to hold entire
screen in perfect alignment. .3. Handle
mounted on sturdy hand, encircling
30"x40” -New Reduced Price $15.00
Simplify project ion with a 36^^x48^'^ —
New Reduced Price S20.00
Challenger Screen and Da-l.ite 39''x52" —
New Reduced Price $25.0(>
Projector Stand! .>2^'x52^' —'(New Size) Price $30.00

The New Deal. The leading value in moderately priced box

screens. Single collapsible support. 10 sizes from 22"x30"
to 72"x%" incl. From $15.00 up.

DeLuxe Challenger. For larger pictures. Screen is raised

by crank and gear. Folds compactly, same as standard
model. 4 sizes, 45*^x60” to 70^^x9t^^ inclusive. From
$15.00 up.

Model C. for showings to large groups. Mounted on

spring roller on back board, equipped with brackets for
hanging on wall or on Da-Lite Super Tripods. 8 s^es.
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Mitchell Camera Corporation

Cable Address “MITCAMCO” Phone OXford 1051
CLAUD C. CARTER, Sydney, Australia BOMBAY RADIO CO., LTD., Bombay, India
D. NAGASE & CO., LTD., Osaka, Japan H. NASSIBIAN, Cairo, Egypt

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