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Megan Zhu

Vinton P1

Explain these terms’ and people’s significance.

Common law – It was the same in the entire nation, instead of just expressing the will of a
ruler or lawmaker. It influenced many later legal systems in other nations.
Magna Carta – It limited the monarch’s power, by making sure that he/she governed
according to the law. It made the monarch respect individual rights and liberties.
Due process of law – This means that the king cannot punish his subjects, and that the
accused has the right to a jury trial and protection of the law.
Parliament – Parliament is England’s national legislature, and helps pass laws and advise the
Divine right – Divine right is something some rulers claim to have – a right to rule as given
to them by God, meaning no one could object.
Glorious Revolution – This was a turning point in English constitutional history. When
William and Mary were crowned co-rulers of England in 1689, it proved Parliament had a
right to limit the monarch’s power and control succession to the throne.
Constitutional monarchy – This means that the powers of the ruler are restricted by the
constitution and the laws of the country.
Bill of rights – William and Mary accepted this summary of the rights and liberties of the
people in 1689. It set an example for the American colonists later, and contributed to the
development of democracy.


Henry II – ruled from 1154-1189. He developed the jury trial to administer royal justice.
Model Parliament – Edward I called together the Model Parliament, made up of lords,
knights, and burgesses, to consult them on ways he could raise money for another war with
“Power of the Purse” – This is Parliament’s right to approve certain expenses, giving it strong
influence in politics and governing.
Charles I – Son of James I. He accepted the Petition of Right in order to get permission to
raise taxes. Later, he dismissed Parliament, which led to the English Civil War and
eventually, his execution.
Charles II (Stuart) – Became monarch in 1660, when offered the position by a new
Oliver Cromwell – Puritan leader who won control of the government in the English Civil
War. He established the Commonwealth of England and replaced Parliament with the
Protectorate in 1653.
Protectorate – The government established by Cromwell in 1653.
Restoration – Period after Charles Stuart took the throne in 1660, named so because the
monarch was restored to the throne. Parliament kept all its previously earned powers.
James II – Took the throne when his bro, Charles II, died in 1685. Parliament withdrew its
support for him, offering it instead to his daughter Mary and William of Orange.