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Griffith, Francis Llewellyn


The inscriptions of siut
and Der Rif eh

;
i

m
PJ
1515
G7
1889
THE INSCRIPTIONS

OF

SItfT AND DEE BIFEH.

COLLECTED BY
& 'V^

FfLT*GRIFFITH,
OF THE BEITISH MUSEUM, LATB STUDENT OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

500539
u

LONDON :

TRUBNER AND CO., LUDGATE HILL.


1889.
HARRISON AND SONS,
PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY,
ST. MARTIN'S LANE, LONDON.
TO THE TWO FRIENDS,

WHOSE GENEROSITY ENABLED ME

TO ENJOY

THE PRIVILEGES OF A STUDENT OP THE

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,

I DEDICATE

THIS VOLUME OF INSCRIPTIONS.


If a small portion of the sums of money that, in the name of scientific research, have been spent in Egypt on

treasure-hunting for antiquities, on uncovering monuments and exposing them to destruction, on unwatched
excavations from which the limestone sculptures have gone straight to the kiln or the
village stone-mason if a small

portion of this had been utilised in securing systematically throughout the country accurate and exhaustive copies

of the inscriptions above ground and in danger, the most important


part of all the evidence of her past that Egypt has
handed down to our day would have been gathered intact, instead of mutilated beyond recovery.

If the remainder of those sums had been devoted to watching, and talcing proper measures to preserve, the
monuments of Egypt, the present century would not have been destined above all other periods to the maledictions
of
posterity on account of the searching and unrelenting damage of every kind done to these records, that had weathered
so many centuries with hardly an injury, and that should have delighted mankind for so many ages to come.

Each year a vast amount of damage is done, but there is still much that can be saved. The resources of

Egyptology are considerable for good as well as for evil, and there are perhaps signs to
encourage those who cannot
but take a gloomy view of the present state of things. Meanwhile heartiest wish is that the present publication
my
along with a hundred others equally imperfect will soon be superseded.

\
INTRODUCTION.

Considering their accessibility and importance, the tomb inscriptions of Siut have been strangely

neglected, and I have every reason to believe that the present publication will supply a much felt want.

My endeavour has been, in the first place, to obtain accuracy in the readings and completeness ; secondly,
to give a faithful transcript .of my own copy; thirdly, to add to it materials for future correction and

restoration. The task has entailed more labour than may be realised by the reader, who I hope will none
the less pardon the rudeness of my drawings.

The discovery of a mass of fresh material since the Plates were drawn, and consequent delays which

gave me further opportunities for revision, have resulted in burdening the texts with more notes than are
convenient. But until a fresh comparison with the original can be undertaken, I shall refuse to alter my
own copies or to omit annotations that may still lead to the true reading : and I believe that no Egypto-

logist will quarrel with this decision.

Gladly would I have placed at the head of this little memoir the names of the two friends to whom I

owe so much, but that privilege was refused me. Let me however here repeat my thanks, in the one case
to a connoisseur of art who, exercising a wise philanthropy, has given a start and encouragement to many
enterprises ;
in the other case to a dear relative to whom I am bound by acts of particular kindness.

I must also thank those who have assisted me in matters more closely connected with the present work,

namely : in England, the Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund, and especially Miss Amelia B. Edwards,
Mr. R. S. Poole, and Mr. Grueber ;
also Mr. Le Page Renouf, Professor Hayter Lewis, and the Rev. W. J. Loftie ;

in Egypt, Mr. Petrie, Count Riamo d' Hulst, Dr. Grant-Bey, and M. Ed. Naville : whilst I must draw special

attention to the fact that Professor Maspero of Paris and Professor Erman of Berlin have not only con-
tributed directly to the contents of the Plates, but have also subjected those numbered from I to XIX to

a close revision. Their cordial interest in the work has, I need hardly say, been the greatest possible

encouragement to me.
SIUT.

In two visits, December 31, 1886 January 1, 1887, ladders borrowed from Mr. Petrie enabled me to
-without ladders, and May 21-29, 1887, with clumsy closely examine the lofty walls, and catch the merest
native ladders, I copied and revised the inscriptions shadows of signs by holding a candle at every pos-
from Der Rifeh to Siut, with the exception of Tombs sible angle. For the sake of clearness, all the effaced
I andII at the latter place, [t is clear that the signs were inserted in red ink amongst the black ink
Siut hill was once rich in memorials of the Middle of my fair copy. One more such revision after a

Kingdom, but I could discover inscriptions in only thorough study of the texts should complete the
five tombs, the same that have long been known recovery of the inscriptions. Unfortunately my hiero-
to Egyptian travellers. Two of these, I and II, may glyphic vocabulary was then exceedingly limited,
be attributed to the Xllth dynasty, the other three to and even such a common word as was a total
^
the IXth or Xth. In England I added to these copies stranger to me : I had therefore to depend almost
all the texts published by Lepsius, Brugsch (Recueil), entirely on eyesight for the restorations, which how-
Mariette, De Rouge, Maspero, and Erman, together ever are in general fully confirmed.
with all their variations or suggestions, besides taking Since my return from Egypt I have collected s^mo
"
numerous notes from the "
Description de
1'Egypte ; new material. In Paris indeed (where I unhappily
moreover, Mr. Renouf lent me some good copies that losta note-book containing two inscriptions) the
lie had made. I also obtained permission from the MSS. of Nestor de 1'Hote furnished scarcely any
Committee of the Egypt Exploration Fund to be material for this memoir. From
Berlin, however, Pro-
absent for a fortnight from the excavations of the fessor Erman, most kindly forwarded for my use his
following season. collation of the MS. copies of Brugsch and Diimichen,
In 1888, from the 16th January to the 5th February, supplying several signs and groups that have become
I was engaged at Siut, and having already much illegible on the original. Above all, in London, last
exceeded the time agreed upon, was quite unable to October, after the Plates had been drawn, I had the
The Committee of the Exploration
proceed to Rifeh. good fortune to find some copies by Aruudale (1834?)
Fund was however well satisfied with what had been in the Hay MSS. of the British Museum. Made evi-
done, and furthermore, contrary to my expectation, dently with the help of a good ladder, they might
paid all the expenses of travelling and stay at Siut. long ago have solved many difficulties. Lastly, since
When preparing my note-books in England, in the commencing to work seriously on the philology of the
case of important assigned four vertical
inscriptions I inscriptions, Ihave found many passages quoted in
or horizontal lines to each line of the original, and so Brugsch's dictionary but very few of these are
:

had plenty of space for annotation. But the abun- accurate, though Herr Brugsch's copy is, I think, the
dance of false readings and other circumstances made most careful of any that I have yet seen, except
it necessary, after the first collation with the original, perhaps Arundale's, which still abounds in little
to make a fair copy, into which were introduced faults. The truth is that high ladders, with an
many improvements resulting from subsequent colla- infinite expenditure of time, trouble, and patience,
tions. I was anxious to obtain the original reading and candles in corresponding quantity, are necessary
of obscure and mutilated passages, which unfortu- for making good transcripts in such places.
nately abound, and this was only to be done by The Plates of Siut are drawn from the fair copy.
long-continued and repeated examination of the For the revision of 1 XIX I was exceedingly
parallel texts in the tombs. Some long and handy fortunate in obtaining help from MM. Maspero and
9

Erman. Many of the emendations of these


great South wall, PI. I and II, 5 bands of equal height,
scholars appear upon the Plates, while
in the notes the upper scene comprising 4.
the queries of Professor Erman have besides un- (l)-(4) at west end H. seated ;
above him
earthed several faults that I had committed in re- titles, 1. 20-25, Mariette, Mon. Div. 68Z>, MSS.
copyiug, and that I was able quietly to correct Brugsch and Diimichen in front, table of ;

without impairing genuineness of the text.


the offerings, 1. 65 (1) (2) names of offerings in
:

Where I found clear corroboration of a queried sign two rows, 1. 26-64 (3) priests performing :

in Arundale's copies, or a proof of some kind in my services, 6(5-71 bringing


1. :
(4) priests, etc.,
own, the word sic is inserted on the Plate; where offerings, 1. 72-73.
I still feel a doubt the suggestion has been placed headed by two
(5) family sons, 74-76, offering
1.

in a note. or statue on back


(to the defaced figure
I am not quite satisfied with the numbering of the wall).
lines. To combine logic with convenience is not North wall, PI. II and III, similar to south but
easy, andhave simply followed the numbers in my
I reversed.
note-book, proceeding in each tomb from the interior
(l)-(4) H. before table -*, receiving offerings,
to the facade. = Mariette,
1. 85-133 (1. 80-85 Mon. Div.,
All signs not in existence in January, 1887, are
68a, MS. Diimichen).
treated as restorations. Where no authority is
(5) family offering, 1. 134 (continued 1. 5-12 on
stated for a restored sign it is conjectural. For the
the back wall).
meaning of abbreviations etc., vide Plate XX. East wall (and entrance) now blasted away, PI. II,
In the following notes I use the word band in the now
scenes 1-8, destroyed, are from Descr. Ant.
sense of the French registre when describing scenes
IV, PI. 45. In the text they are said to have filled
superposed on the same wall and in connection ;
the spaces between the doorway and the side walls.
with doorways, the word framing denotes the lintel
Probably there were five bands, as on the side walls,
and jambs (which of course are cut in the solid
but perhaps only four : no space over the doorway ?.
rock), and thickness of wall is the part in which I have assigned the eight scenes in the Description
sculptures are seen to right and left in passing to the north and south according to direction of
through the door. A portion of scene 4 remains at the top of
figures.
XIlTH DYNASTY. the wall on the north.

Tombs I and II. The first is elaborate the scheme Walls of chamber surrounding shrine and passage
;

of the second seems not to have been completely formerly with paint on plaster?
carried out. GREAT HALL. on plaster with
Ceiling painted
TOMB I. basket and scroll-work, cornice painted CDtm and
H
blue on greenish-black line of titles (blue) down
I-X, and Plan, PI.
:

(See, PI. III.)


the centre from south to north, defaced.
The sculptures are raised about 6 feet above the
floor,over a plain band or dado. West wall, traces of painted scenes at south end.
t

SHRINE. Sculpture only, no painting. At top .


Central doorway, inscriptions incised and painted
Back (west) wall two bands green ;destroyed except 1. 150-155, which are very
(1) upper, 1. 1-4, MS. Diimichen. much damaged; 1. 1 5 5a insert
_J^ (copy): at end of
South half defaced, probably similar to 1. 154 I have omitted
(2) a. ^i (restored).
north, or else statue in the round ? South doorway, inscription incised and painted
b. North half, H. seated m>, in front 3 female green, framing 1. 160-163 thickness of wall on south,
;

relations standing holding lotus flowei'S 1. 170-174,


copy lost, from MS. Diimichen, corrected by
-, 1. 5-12, MSS. Brugsch and Diimi- notes and recollection. Top of 1. 173 very doubtful,
chen (continued smaller in 5th band, the rest almost certain. Thickness of wall north,
north wall); illegible.

also (3) below the 6 feet level, a, centre defaced lower North doorway incised only, framing 1. 180-185.
part of statue ? b, on south a false door,
,
South wall, defaced or blank.
1. 13-15, much defaced. North wall, traces of painted scenes.
10

East wall, south side of door, PL IV- V, scene having fallen off) is the only example in the tomb
painted in colours on plaster, inscription incised and with wig, beard, and divided skirt.
painted, 1. 210-249. A portion of the wall palimpsest, Thickness of wall, north, 1. 337-342. My copy
the early text from left to right t: inscription lost, and I have found no others.
much damaged and reading still uncertain in some
Framing 1.345-359. The upper lines are in bad
places. Arundale's complete copy shows the wall
condition. MSS. Brugsch, Diimichen, Nestor de
in almost the same state as now. I have improved
1'Hote.
my copy of the figure from it h e indicates the un- :

broken corner of the wall on the of the scene,


346a. Inserted only to show the width of the gap.
left
thus there are no lines missing. His drawing of Sola. Cf. 1. 340.

the figure explains my finding that the outline of it ENTRANCE PASSAGE. Roof arched with star pattern
had been marked with a lead pencil. painted blue on yellow? or dark green? Cornice
PL XXI. CDCD of various colours.
210, 211 v.
South Traces of scenes painted on plaster
side.
223. Not in Arundale : it should therefore be ;

at outer end remains of incised


inscription, 1. 370-3
omitted. ;

probably others preceded them. Originally each line


241a. yiit matu-f E. of same length as those on north side.
I. mh ab E. but Arundale as text. North side. Incised inscription. 1. 380-418, PL
North side of door, PL VI- VIII, incised and painted IX-X, on a palimpsest wall much altered and ;

corrected by the mason, and damaged


green. MSS. Arundale, Brugsch and Diimichen (MS. by incrusta-
Mariette partly collated by Prof. Maspero without tions, etc. Hoping to find other versions I did not

After subjecting the copy to every possible revise minutely, it


being the most difficult of all to
result).
test, I have detected two errors, 1. '209a and 324a. copy. M. Maspero quotes parallel pyramid texts,
1. 388-404 = Unas 269-294
Perhaps also 1. 295 sic ? .Q, B? where the sign seems (Rec. de trav., Ill, p. 214
to have been imperfect. Some parts of the text are ff.), and Horhotep, 148-166 (Mem. Miss. Arch. Franc.
very indistinct, especially at the base, and a portion Caire, II, p. 144 ff.).
is palimpsest. TOMB II.

262-4 v. PL XXL Single chamber, formerly with pillars and sculp-


270a. The restoration is almost certain. tured entrance, now destroyed. PL X and XX.

273a, 282a, insert 0=0 (copy).


West wall,two real doorways with traces of
291a. ci perhaps from the palimpsest. inscriptions (but no excavated passage beyond).
On lintel of southern doorway
inscription painted
317a. or green, 1. 1-2.

East wall, traces of inscription.


320. Top, Maspero, Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., restores
Entrance. Thickness of wall, south, 1. 3-10 from
Mariette, etc.
325. In my own copy only: the restoration was
north,!. 11-18 from
suggested by 1. 313, and confirmed by the faint traces
Rouge, etc.
on the wall.
12a, 13. I have mis-copied Rouge, who reads
ENTRANCE. Incised, not painted.

Thickness of wall on south, 1. 330-336. My copy


lost. Copy in PL IX worthless except for comparison Framing, 19-22, PL X and XX, from MSS. Nestor
with that in PL XX. The lower half of 1. 330-1 is de 1'Hote, Arundale; photograph Petrie. The portions
in the photograph are dotted, but all
destroyed. Arundale has two copies, (1) fol. 18 without is somewhat

ladder, (2) fol. 68 evidently with ladder, and ex- obscure and uncertain. Hieroglyphs curiously
cellent; the inscription is thus complete except ex- crowded.
treme base of 1. 330-1. The copy seems to be exact on south side of doorway, I. 23, visible on
excepting two or three very slight errors. The photograph.
figure of II. (alterations seen owing to the plaster north ruined anciently.
11

HERACLEOPOLITE. (Dyn. IX-X.) TOMB IV.

Tombs IV, V from south to north on one


III,
On a pillar remains of inscription, vide PI. XIV.

terrace, divided only by party walls. Large single South wall, east of pillars, scene of soldiers with
chambers, divided transversely by pillars and archi- large shields, in two rows, unfinished (perhaps for the
trave. Facades now destroyed. same reason as the inscription III, 16-40).
North wall, east of pillars, inscription incised and
TOMB III.
painted blue, 1. 1-40, PI. XIII and XX : authorities
No left, except on north wall,
traces of decoration for the destroyed portion, Description and Arundale.
viz., west of architrave traces of painted plaster, and
In Description, by confusion of 1. 3 with 1. 22, the
East of pillars, 1. 1-56, PI. XI-XII, as follows :
former has been repeated, and the first two lines
1. 1, incised and painted blue, heading the inscription misplaced. Their true position is almost certain.
(it also remained as the heading after the substitution L. beneath a from
41-44, inscription cornice,
of 1. 41-56 for 1. 2-40 one inscription in
16-40), 1.
Description, but its provenance is quite uncertain.
two sections, of which 1. 2-15 were incised and
Thickness of wall and framing of entrance (PI.
painted blue, but 1. 16-40 being offensive
were not
remained half incised, half XIV, 1. 45-87), the latter identified by name in 1. 76,
completed. These latter
and the former, 1. 45-60, corresponds in size, etc.,
sketched, and plaster was laid over them. On the
to the framing, and is associated with it in tho
plaster was painted a figure
of Tefaba, and behind
Description.
him a new inscription, 1. 41-5(5. This plaster fell off
from the upper part in ancient times, and the wall TOMB V.
was again covered with whitewash by Copts?. I Back wall, large false door in the centre, inscription
cleaned the earlier inscription with great care. incised and painted green, 1. 1-24 (MSS. Brugsch
There is no trace of the lower halves of
16-40; 1.
and Diimicheu). Damaged since my visit in 1887.
the signs in the upper portions are incised, but South wall, in the inner half (i.e., behind destroyed
roughly and not finished some have not yet been
;
architrave) fragment of long inscription incised,
begun but are traceable in the sketching.
1. 25-40 less than half of the height remains. There
;

1. 156. Insert WWA. were at least 24 lines.


16 should probably be a female ; cf. Champollion, Thickness of wall at entrance, 1. 41-48, from
Not., II, p. 145 = L.D., PI. 130. Description. The name is
**"~==
and there is no
o n
(1(1

Inscriptions in thickness of wall and framing of other tomb to which these can be assigned.
entrance, 1. 57-71. From the "Description de Add notes 12a, G. 1887, etc. ; 12b, G. 1887 ; 146,

1'Egypte," identified by the name ^_\. old copies, G. 1887 ; 15a, so M. \, in R.

DER R1FEH.
In the western cliffs about nine miles south of Siiit East wall, north of entrance, 1. 7-20, incised and
and seven miles from Shotb. The principal tombs painted ;
much damaged.
are on one terrace, the northern tombs are occupied North, west, and south walls, traces of scenes of
by the Copts. offerings, soldiers, figure of Nefer Khnum, and false
have had to depend entirely on my copies of
I door (west wall). All these painted only.
1887. Tombs I and VII were copied with special TOMB II (New Kingdom).
care, but the former was very difficult (a portion
of Tomb VII checked with a photograph taken by
Great hall, west side, south of the door, scene
with cartouches of Rameses III A. An inscription of
Count Eiamo d' Hulst).
many short lines, painted black, terminates with B.
TOMB I (Middle Kingdom). In a lower band gods with C. Over the entrance D
Entrance-framing and thickness of wall, north is the bark of Ra. The 'tomb was probably painted
side, inscription incised 1. 1-6. PI. XVI. throughout.
12

TOMB III (New Kingdom). The Coptic tablet in PL XVIII is fixed over the

Small entrance much


defaced. main gateway of the Der on the inside.
Occupied by Copts.
Incised inscriptions in the thickness of the wall
very TOMB VI (New Kingdom).
fragmentary. Cornice-lintel.

TOMB IV (New Kingdom). Occupied, very large and lofty, inscription incised.
PL XVIII.
Occupied very large and
:
lofty, inscriptions in-
cised. PL XVI, XVII, XVIII. Framing of entrance inscribed lintel illegible ; ;

Framing of entrance
scene and inscriptions. 1. 1-21. jamb mostly hidden by brick walls north
south ;

Thickness of wall, south side,


jamb destroyed. Interior partly explored, no in-
1. 22-29; north
scriptions.
L
.side, veiy fragmentary.
Entrance- passage, south north
TOMB VII (Middle Kingdom).
side, 1.
30-47;
side, 1. 48^65. Entrance two polygonal columns support the roof,
:

Interior partly explored. The framing of an inner terminating in eave with beams. Entrance hall (used
entrance, much encumbered with mud walls, has a as church), north side, inscription incised and painted
scene at the top, and 1. 66-71 at the sides. on plaster, much damaged, 1. 1-55. Count R. d' Hulst
The and I scaled off the Coptic plaster. One or more
Coptic marble slab in PL XVII is over a door-
in the village leading to the church. inner chambers, but no other inscriptions found.
way
TOMB V (New Kingdom). DER DRONKEH.
Occupied. Inscription incised: framing of entrance In western cliffs two miles north from Der Rifeh.
1.
1-11; interior not seen. Quarries, and Coptic epitaphs. PL XIX.

ERRATA.
PL VI, 1. 266. The letter b should be attached to PL XI, 1. 17 a. E. p refers , but?
b
the last sign L 22. Read
(l^?)- |-r^.
PL VI, 1. 282, top. ~~^ should perhaps be entirely PL XII, in title. For front wall read facade.
omitted. 1. 47. Omit a.

^
b
PL X, Tomb II, 1. 4. For ^=, read 1. 58, 62, 55. Read (without *__).
\
Omit the words 20a read
,.
., in note. For 64 read 63.
PL XI, 1. 1. For read "^ ^. PL XIII, 1. 27. Omit the letters a, b, c.
1. 12. Near base read fl\.
1. 28, near the top. Omit the letter b.

PL XIV, 1. 75 a. f?
x I

PL XV. For 28a read 26a.


39a 37a.
1. 14. read and
PL XX (Plate 13). For 28a read 28b.
PL XXI (Plate VIII). 304a is in PI. VI I.
(Plate IX). 354a. Omit the laxt part of
the note.

For corrections throughout, see Plate XX-XXf.

A Bibliography, etc., will appear in the Babylonian and Oriental Record, May, 1889, and following numbers.

HARBISON A.NU SONS, PBINTEBS IN OBUINABY TO ilKB MAJitiT, 61. XAMTIH** LANE.
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