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CLINICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Functional Recovery of Elderly Patients Hospitalized in Geriatric


and General Medicine Units. The PROgetto DImissioni in
GEriatria Study
Lorenzo Palleschi, MD, Walter De Alfieri, MD,w Bernardo Salani, MD,z Filippo Luca Fimognari, MD,§
Alberto Marsilii, MD, k Andrea Pierantozzi, PhD,# Luigi Di Cioccio, MD, and
Stefano Maria Zuccaro, MD#

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the characteristics of patients CONCLUSION: Although geriatric patients have overall
who regain function during hospitalization and the differ- worse functional outcomes, in-hospital functional recovery
ences in terms of functional outcomes between patients may be frequent even in geriatric units, particularly in patients
admitted to geriatric and general medicine units. with greater preadmission functional loss and high baseline
DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. level of function. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:193–199, 2011.
SETTING: Acute care geriatric and medical wards of five
Italian hospitals. Key words: hospital-related disability; frail elderly
PARTICIPANTS: One thousand forty-eight elderly patients
hospitalized for acute medical diseases.
MEASUREMENTS: Functional status 2 weeks before hos-
pital admission (baseline), at admission, and at discharge,
as measured using the Barthel Index (BI).
RESULTS: Geriatric patients were older (Po.001) and had
lower preadmission functional levels (Po.001) than med-
ical patients. Between baseline and discharge, 43.2% of
H ospitalization for acute medical illness is a crucial
event in the complex process of the functional decline
of elderly people.1 Poor nutrition, excessive bed rest, sleep
geriatric and 18.9% of medical patients declined in physical deprivation, and multiple drug treatment are all factors ex-
function. In the subpopulation of 464 patients who had plaining why hospitalization per se is a recognized risk fac-
declined before hospitalization (between baseline and ad- tor for loss of independence in elderly people.1 It is
mission), 59% improved during hospitalization (45% of calculated that approximately 30% to 35% of older adults
geriatric and 75% of medical patients), whereas only ap- are discharged from hospitals with new activity of daily
proximately 1% declined further. High baseline function living disabilities;2–6 this rate may increase to 50% in peo-
(odds ratio (OR) 5 1.03, 95% confidence interval ple aged 85 and older.3 Functional decline is a challenge for
(CI) 5 1.02–1.04, per point of BI) and greater functional
healthcare systems, because most patients who are dis-
decline before hospitalization (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–
charged with new disabilities cannot live alone and need
0.97, per % point of BI decline) were significant predictors
continuous assistance at home. In addition, patients with
of in-hospital functional improvement; type of hospital
hospital-related disabilities are more likely than those dis-
ward and age were not.
charged without new disabilities to experience long-term
adverse outcomes such as nursing home placement, sus-
tained functional decline, and death.7,8
From the Unit of Geriatrics, Azienda Ospedaliera S. Giovanni-Addolorata, Functional decline may occur a few days before hos-
Rome, Italy; wDepartment for the Care of Frail Elderly, Grosseto, Italy; pitalization as a consequence of the acute medical illness.3,9
z
Geriatric Agency Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, Florence, After hospital admission, some patients do not recover
Italy; §Unit of Geriatrics, Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza, Cosenza, Italy; to preadmission function, others may decline further in
k
Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence,
Italy; #Unit of Geriatrics, Ospedale Israelitico, Rome, Italy; and Unit of function, but approximately 20% experience significant
Geriatrics, Ospedale Santa Scolastica, Cassino (Frosinone), Italy. functional improvement during their hospital stay.3 This in-
Address correspondence to Dr. Filippo Luca Fimognari, Unità Operativa hospital improvement is expected to be a crucial determi-
Complessa di Geriatria, Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza, Via Felice Migliori, nant of the functional outcome caused by the combination
87100 Cosenza, Italy. E-mail: filippo.fimognari@virgilio.it of the acute disease and the hospital stay, because people
DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03239.x who recover may be discharged with baseline function

JAGS 59:193–199, 2011


r 2011, Copyright the Authors
Journal compilation r 2011, The American Geriatrics Society 0002-8614/11/$15.00
194 PALLESCHI ET AL. FEBRUARY 2011–VOL. 59, NO. 2 JAGS

despite the initial acute decline, but to the knowledge of the Demographic and social data were date of birth, edu-
authors of the current article, the distinctive features of cational level, marital status, and living alone or not. Data
patients who recover during hospital stay have never been regarding hospital stay were admission from ED, nursing
studied. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie a homes, home, or other acute care units from the same or
successful hospital recovery may help identify new health- other hospitals; length of stay; destination after discharge;
care strategies to save the function of older hospitalized discharge diagnoses (up to 6); and diagnostic and thera-
people. peutic procedures (up to 6) coded according to the Inter-
In many national health systems, elderly patients seen national Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical
in emergency departments (EDs) because of acute medical Modification (ICD9-CM).
problems are usually assigned to geriatric or general inter- One critical point of the study was the choice of the test
nal medicine wards, mostly on the basis of age and the to explore functional status. Although the Katz activity of
availability of beds,10 but the potential differences between daily living (ADL) scale13 is widely used to describe the
the functional trajectories of patients admitted to geriatric functional status of elderly patients, it was found that this
units and those hospitalized in medical wards have never scale was unable to recognize any meaningful change in
been investigated. This ‘‘real world’’ observation may be functional capacity between admission and discharge from
important, even in view of the recent dissemination of a hospital, so it was decided to use the Barthel Index (BI),
‘‘geriatric’’ approach to acutely ill older patients based on because it gives more information about ADLs and is sen-
an integrated comprehensive evaluation aimed at minimiz- sitive even to small changes in functional capacity.14
ing functional deterioration.4,6,11,12 The BI items can be divided into a group that is related
For these reasons, the Società Italiana Geriatri Ospe- to self-care (feeding, grooming, bathing, dressing, bowel
dalieri (SIGOs) performed a prospective cohort study of and bladder care, and toilet use) and a group pertaining to
geriatric and internal medicine units throughout Italy. The mobility (ambulation, transfers, and stair climbing). The
aims of this study were to identify factors underlying the maximum BI score is 100, indicating that the patient is fully
capacity to recover physical function during hospitalization independent in physical functioning. The lowest score is 0,
and to assess potential differences in terms of functional representing a totally dependent bedridden state. A 5-point
outcomes between geriatric and general medicine units. variation (increase or decrease) represents the minimum
change in at least one activity. BI items have previously
shown high correlations between self- and informant
METHODS ratings.15
Preadmission baseline BI (BIpre) was measured at ad-
Patients and Study Design mission by asking patients or caregivers (for patients who
The ‘‘Progetto Dimissioni in Geriatria’’ (Project Discharges were unable to respond, such as those with dementia) to
in Geriatrics, Pro.Di.Ge.) is an observational prospective report on the patient’s functional status as it had been ap-
cohort study of elderly patients hospitalized in three acute proximately 15 days before hospital admission. The study
geriatric units and two general medicine units of three Ital- physician also measured functional status directly at ad-
ian hospitals. The study enrolled patients aged 65 and older mission (BIadm) and the day before discharge (BIdis).
who were consecutively admitted to the five participating Comorbidity was assessed according to the number of
centers between November 2004 and January 2006 and diseases listed at discharge according to the ICD9-CM clas-
followed them until discharge from the hospital. All three sification. The diseases were grouped into the following
hospitals had a geriatric or a medical unit, but in one hos- seven major categories: cardiovascular, cerebrovascular,
pital the medical unit did not participate in the study. neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cancer, and
Not all patients were admitted to the hospital through other.
the ED, but the reason for hospitalization was always an Dementia as first or subsequent ICD9-CM diagnosis
acute medical disease. For patients hospitalized after eval- was also considered in the present study. The Ethical
uation in the ED, assignment to geriatrics or medicine was Committee of the Israelitico Hospital, Rome, approved the
not determined according to specific criteria, and the emer- study.
gency clinicians had to be blinded to the study. The study
protocol did not include any change in the model of care
that each unit usually provided to elderly patients. Analytical Approach and Statistic Analysis
The study initially recruited 1,476 patients, 95 of The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test normal dis-
whom died during hospitalization and were not included in tribution of continuous variables. The mean variation of BI
the present study. Another 333 subjects (246 geriatric and across the three time points (baseline, admission, discharge)
87 medical patients) were excluded because of missing data was analyzed in the geriatric and medical units (Friedman
on functional status, leaving a final study sample of 1,048 and Wilcoxon tests), as well as the differences in terms of
patients, corresponding to 76% of patients who survived. mean BI between the two units at each time points (Mann-
Whitney test). The proportions of patients declining from
baseline to discharge and from baseline to admission were
Measurements calculated in the geriatric and medical units, and the differ-
A trained study physician collected three sets of data, in- ences between the two groups were assessed using the chi-
cluding demographic and social data, data pertaining to square test.
hospitalization and comorbidity, and data describing func- The functional trajectories observed between admission
tional status. and discharge (complete recovery, incomplete recovery,
JAGS FEBRUARY 2011–VOL. 59, NO. 2 IN-HOSPITAL FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN OLDER ADULTS 195

no change, decline) were then described by calculating the Most patients were admitted after evaluation in the ED
proportions of patients performing each possible in-hospi- ( 45%, Table 1). Even though the assignment by the
tal trajectory. This analysis was mainly limited to the sub- emergency clinicians to geriatric or medical units was not
population of 464 patients who lost physical function determined according to specific criteria, patients admitted
between baseline and admission as a likely consequence of to geriatric units were significantly older and had lower
the acute illness that caused hospitalization. In this sub- BIpre than medical patients, indicating that this choice was
population, the rates of in-hospital functional recovery in based not merely on bed availability, but also on the clinical
geriatric and medical patients were compared using the chi- features of the patients. As expected, emergency clinicians
square test. The mean age of the group of patients who tended to admit frailer and older patients to geriatric wards
improved during hospitalization was also compared with much more than to medical units.
that of those who remained the same or worsened (unpaired Caregivers were needed for the evaluation of pread-
t-test). mission baseline functional status in 25% of all subjects.
A logistic regression analysis model was obtained to (No difference was observed between geriatric and medical
estimate the odds ratios of factors that may be indepen- patients, data not shown.)
dently associated with the group of patients who improved As shown in Figure 1, mean BI declined significantly
during hospitalization (dependent variable) in comparison from baseline to admission on the geriatric and medical
with those who did not improve (including people who units (Po.001 for both units) and increased significantly
worsened and those who remained the same). Improvement from admission to discharge (Po.001 for both units). At all
during hospitalization was defined as an increase in BI of at time points (baseline, admission, discharge), BI was lower
least 5 points from admission to discharge. Again, this in geriatric than in medical patients (Po.001 at all time
multivariate analysis was limited to the above-mentioned points). BIdis was lower compared to BIpre in the geriatric
subpopulation of patients with preadmission decline and medical groups (Po.001).
(n 5 464). Selected independent variables that may affect In the total study sample, 302 patients (28.8%) had a
the capacity to improve during hospitalization according to BIdis lower than their BIpre (i.e., they were discharged with
previous studies were included in this model:16–18 age; sex; new disabilities from the baseline level of 2 weeks before
length of stay; BIpre; number of ICD9-CM diseases; demen- hospitalization). This decline occurred in 185 geriatric
tia; and admission from ED, home, other hospital acute (43.2%) and 117 medical (18.9%) patients (Po.001).
care units, and nursing homes (the last was the reference In geriatric units, 252 patients (58.8%) had a BIadm
category). Admission to geriatric or medical units and ‘‘per- lower than their BIpre (i.e., they worsened in physical func-
centage decline BIpre–BIadm,’’ a negative continuous vari- tion before being hospitalized) as a likely result of the acute
able measuring loss of function before hospitalization and disease. The corresponding proportion in medical patients
calculated as [(BIadm  BIpre)/BIpre]  100, were also in- (212/620, 34.1%) was significantly lower (Po.001).
cluded as independent variables.
Po.05 was considered significant. Analyses were per-
formed using SPSS 13.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Functional Trajectories Between Admission and
Discharge (During Hospitalization) in Geriatric and
Medical Patients
RESULTS As described above, 464 patients (44.3% of the total pop-
ulation) declined between baseline and admission (252 ge-
Analysis of Missing Patients riatric and 212 medical patients). In this subpopulation,
BI was not measured at baseline in 223 of the 333 excluded 274 patients (59%) recovered some function during their
patients, at admission in 251, and at discharge in 253, al- hospital stay; of these 274 patients, 114 in geriatric units
though for the majority of such patients, the BI measure- improved (45.2% of the 252 geriatric patients with pread-
ment was lost for more than one time point (data not mission decline), and 160 in medical units improved
shown). For instance, 220 of the 251 patients (87.6%) (75.4% of the 212 medical patients with preadmission de-
without a BI at admission lacked a BI at discharge; con- cline, Po.001 compared with the rate of improvement in
versely, of the 1,130 patients with a BI at admission, only 33 geriatric units). Another 184 patients (39.7%) had un-
(2.9%) lacked a BI at discharge. This suggests that the loss changed function during hospitalization after the pread-
of patients mostly occurred at recruitment, rather than be- mission decline. There were also another 16 patients (3
tween admission and discharge. The 333 lost patients were geriatric and 13 medical patients) who improved their
significantly older (Po.001), more frequently admitted to function during hospitalization even though they had not
geriatric units (Po.001), and female (Po.001) than the declined before hospitalization.
final study population of 1,048 patients; they also had Only six geriatric and five medical patients declined
lower preadmission BI (Po.001), more ICD9-CM diseases during hospitalization. In three of the six geriatric patients,
(Po.001), and longer length of hospital stay (Po.001). the in-hospital decline followed a preadmission decline
(1.1% of the 252 geriatric patients with preadmission de-
cline; Figure 2), whereas the other three patients had been
Characteristics of the Study Population and Functional stable between baseline and admission. Of the five medical
Differences Between Geriatric and Medical Units patients with in-hospital decline, three had also declined
Table 1 shows the characteristics of all participants and between baseline and admission (1.4% of the 212 medical
according to whether they were admitted to geriatric or patients with preadmission decline; Figure 2), whereas the
general medicine units. remaining two had remained stable before admission and
196 PALLESCHI ET AL. FEBRUARY 2011–VOL. 59, NO. 2 JAGS

Table 1. Characteristics of Study Population


Characteristic Total N 5 1,048 Geriatric n 5 428 Medicine n 5 620 P-Value

Sex, n .09
Male 473 180 293
Female 575 248 327
Age, mean  SD 79.8  7.5 82  7.1 78.2  7.4 o.001
Age, %
65–74 24.9 15.9 31.1 o.001
75–84 48.0 47.4 48.4 .76
85 27.1 36.7 20.5 o.001
Widowed, % (N 5 939) 40.0 53.4 30.7 o.001
Living alone, % (N 5 941) 19.7 25.4 15.6 o.001
Admitted from, %
Emergency department 45.1 43.2 46.5 .30
Other hospital unit 19.6 5.6 29.4 o.001
Home 33.2 48.1 23.2 o.001
Nursing home 2.1 3.1 0.9 .01
Barthel Index 2 weeks before hospital admission (baseline), mean  SD 79.8  25.4 75  27.6 83.2  23.1 o.001
Length of stay, days, mean  SD 10.5  7.4 13.2  8.3 7.8  5.8 o.001
Number of International Classification of 3.1  1.7 3.9  1.4 2.5  1.6 o.001
Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, diseases, mean  SD
Dementia, % 5.7 8.8 3.5 o.001
First diagnosis, %
Cardiovascular 31.6 24.5 33.5 o.001
Cerebrovascular 10.1 10.0 9.2 .64
Neurological 4.9 8.9 1.8 o.001
Pulmonary 15.3 16.1 13.4 .21
Gastrointestinal 2.1 1.5 2.4 .24
Cancer 8.3 4.4 10.2 .001
Other 27.7 30.8 23.1 .005

SD 5 standard deviation.

deteriorated only during hospitalization. Figure 2 shows the function during hospitalization were significantly older
functional trajectories in the entire population. than those who remained the same or deteriorated
In the total group of 464 patients with preadmission (84.6  5.9 vs 82.2  6.9, P 5.003).
decline and the medical subgroup, there were no statisti- Table 2 shows the results of the logistic regression
cally significant differences in terms of age between persons analysis. A high BIpre (odds ratio (OR) 5 1.03, 95% con-
who did not recover or deteriorated further during hospi- fidence interval (CI) 5 1.02–1.04, per point of BI), the mag-
talization and those who improved their function (P 5.18), nitude of functional decline between baseline and
but in the geriatric subgroup, the patients who regained admission (OR 5 0.95, 95% CI 5 0.94–0.97, per percent-
age point of decline in BI), and a short length of stay
(OR 5 0.96, 95% CI 5 0.93–0.99) were significant predic-
85
tors of the capacity to improve during hospitalization
BARTHEL INDEX SCORE

MEDICAL UNITS (Table 2).


80

75
DISCUSSION
70 GERIATRIC UNITS
To the knowledge of the authors of the current study, this is
the first study specifically focused on the capacity to regain
65 function during a hospital stay, which is supposed to be an
important determinant of the overall functional outcome
60 of hospitalization. The main findings were that, in nonse-
BASELINE ADMISSION DISCHARGE
lected acutely ill older adults, the rate of in-hospital
Figure 1. Mean functional changes in geriatric and general functional recovery after preadmission loss is relevant;
medicine units. Mean changes in Barthel Index (BI) across the the magnitude of the preadmission acute loss, but also a
three time points (preadmission baseline, hospital admission, high preadmission level of function, predicts the capacity to
discharge). BI values are expressed as means  standard errors. recover function during hospitalization; and even though
JAGS FEBRUARY 2011–VOL. 59, NO. 2 IN-HOSPITAL FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN OLDER ADULTS 197

Figure 2. Possible functional trajectories from baseline to discharge. Possible functional trajectories across the three time points
(preadmission baseline, hospital admission, discharge). Functional decline or recovery is a decrease or increase in Barthel Index (BI)
score of at least 5 points. Complete recovery refers to return of BI to the baseline preadmission level or higher. No decline means stable
or improved function. Percentages refer to the absolute number of patients in the preceding box. The right side of figure depicts the
overall result (from baseline to discharge) of these functional trajectories, and these percentages (beyond the brackets) are thus
calculated on the entire population. G 5 geriatric patients; M 5 medical patients.

persons hospitalized in geriatric units tend to have worse of all patients improved during hospitalization, and 10% to
functional outcomes than medical patients, admission to 17% declined.3,9 The definition of functional improvement
geriatric wards may not be independently associated with used in the current study was a 5-point increase in BI,
failure to regain function in hospital. whereas most previous studies considered recovery from a
It was found that 59% of people who had experienced disabled ADL on the Katz scale, which is a high threshold.
preadmission deterioration regained some function during This higher sensitivity of the BI may account for the greater
subsequent hospitalization, whereas only approximately rate of in-hospital recovery in the current study. The most
1% worsened. Therefore, although previous studies have significant difference from previous observations was the
emphasized the risk of hospital-related functional deterio- low rate of in-hospital decline (1% vs 10–20%), and this
ration,1,5 the results of the current study suggest that the result was observed even though BI is more sensitive than
rate of hospital functional recovery in acutely ill elderly ADL in detecting small functional deterioration (only a 5-
patients may be substantial. point decrease against the loss of a full ADL). Thus, the
The in-hospital functional outcomes of this population better in-hospital functional outcome of the patients in the
were better than those obtained in most previous investi- current study appears to be a true result and confirms data
gations. In an observational study, of the patients with pre- from a recent Italian retrospective study in which the rate of
admission functional decline, only 46% improved in hospital recovery after preadmission loss was 66%.19 The
hospital.3 In a randomized controlled trial, 29% of all peo- reasons for such recent improved functional outcomes are
ple improved during their hospital stay, but another 18% hard to capture, but the ongoing worldwide diffusion of a
declined.6 In two observational studies, only 13% to 20% ‘‘geriatric culture’’ may have played some role.2

Table 2. Logistic Regression Analysis of Factors Associated with Improving Function from Admission to Discharge
After Preadmission Decline
Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) P-Value

Factor Total Population Geriatric Medicine

Age 1.01 (0.98–1.05) .37 1.04 (0.99–1.10) .10 0.98 (0.94–1.03) .55
Male 0.91 (0.57–1.45) .71 0.95 (0.47–1.94) .90 0.82 (0.43–1.58) .57
Number of diseases 1.05 (0.89–1.24) .51 1.12 (0.88–1.43) .33 0.93 (0.72–1.20) .59
Percentage decline from preadmission to admission BI 0.95 (0.94–0.97) o.001 0.96 (0.94–0.98) o.001 0.95 (0.93–0.97) o.001
Preadmission BI 1.03 (1.02–1.04) o.001 1.03 (1.01–1.04) o.001 1.03 (1.01–1.04) o.001
Absence of dementia 1.23 (0.56–2.70) .59 1.30 (0.45–3.73) .61 1.15 (0.34–3.87) .81
Admission to geriatrics 0.61 (0.34–1.08) .09
Admission from emergency department 2.70 (0.61–11.9) .18 3.48 (0.36–33.5) .27 1.22 (0.12–12.1) .86
Admission from other hospital unit 0.91 (0.19–4.42) .91 0.89 (0.07–11.2) .93 0.76 (0.07–8.32) .82
Admission from home 0.34 (0.07–1.66) .18 0.26 (0.02–2.66) .25 0.73 (0.05–9.77) .81
Length of hospital stay 0.96 (0.93–0.99) .04 0.98 (0.95–1.02) .55 0.91 (0.86–0.96) .001

This analysis was performed in the subpopulation of 464 patents who declined between baseline and admission. The dependent variable was the group of patients
who improved in function between admission and discharge (at least a 5-point increase in Barthel Index (BI)). The reference category was the group of patients
who remained the same or worsened between admission and discharge.

The reference category was admission to the hospital from a nursing home.
198 PALLESCHI ET AL. FEBRUARY 2011–VOL. 59, NO. 2 JAGS

There was a close association between preadmission and laboratory variables, which may contribute to change
functional loss and the capacity to regain function during a in functional status during hospitalization.
subsequent hospital stay, after adjusting for some important In conclusion, this study demonstrated that functional
confounders such as baseline level of independence. This recovery during hospitalization is relatively frequent even in
result was not foreseen, because the magnitude of pread- geriatric patients, particularly after a large preadmission
mission functional loss is supposed to be greater in frail functional loss and in the presence of a high premorbid level
peopleFit was of 59% of geriatric and 34% of medical of function. Further research is needed to better identify
patientsFwho theoretically are not expected to improve factors predicting the capacity of hospital functional recov-
during their hospital stay and are expected even to decline ery, as well as therapeutic strategies designed to prevent
further. Another feature of patients able to regain function hospital-related disability.
was a high preadmission level of function, probably indi-
cating good premorbid functional reserve.20 Hence, these
findings suggest a ‘‘resilient effect’’ in regaining function21 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
that may occur in patients with two seemingly opposite Pro.Di.Ge. Study. Participating centers: Unità Operativa di
features: a high preadmission level of function and a dra- Geriatria, Ospedale Israelitico di Roma, Dr. Stefano Maria
matic functional loss because of the acute illness. In this Zuccaro; Unità Operativa di Geriatria, Ospedale di Castel
regard, the hypothesis of a nonlinear relationship between del Piano, Azienda Sanitaria 9 Grosseto, Dr. Walter De
basic performance (e.g., walking) and physiological capac- Alfieri; Unità Operativa di Geriatria, Azienda Ospedaliera
ity (muscle strength) should be mentioned.22 Accordingly, Universitaria Careggi di Firenze, Dr. Leonetto Giglioli;
in functionally impaired older people, small gains in muscle Unità Operativa di Medicina Interna, Ospedale Israelitico
strength may produce large effects in increasing perfor- di Roma, Dr. Claudio Pitigliani; Unità Operativa di Medi-
mance, whereas even great improvements have little or no cina Interna, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi di
effect in persons with normal function.22 Thus, therapeutic Firenze, Dr. Alessandro Morettini.
interventionsFincluding administration of drugs, early The corresponding author has listed all authors of the
rehabilitation, hydration, and nutritionFmay provide the study and has obtained written consent from other con-
small increase in muscle strength that will allow frail older tributors who are not authors and are named in the list
adults to improve their functional performance dramati- above.
cally after the initial loss. Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest to
This study also provided novel insight into the differ- declare.
ences between geriatric and medical hospitalized patients. Author Contributions: Lorenzo Palleschi and Walter
Because of its observational nature, this study is not com- De Alfieri: study concept and design, acquisition of data,
parable with previous randomized trials that have suggested analysis and interpretation of data, preparation of manu-
the superiority of geriatric interventions over those pro- script. Bernardo Salani, Alberto Marsilii, Luigi Di Cioccio,
vided in standard medical units.2,4,6 In this nonrandomized, and Stefano Maria Zuccaro: study concept and design, ac-
‘‘real world’’ observation, the persons admitted to geriatric quisition of data. Filippo Luca Fimognari: analysis and in-
units were frailer than medical patients, and this could ex- terpretation of data, preparation of manuscript. Andrea
plain why they had worse functional outcomes than persons Pierantozzi: analysis and interpretation of data.
hospitalized in medical wards. Nevertheless, admission to Sponsor’s Role: No sponsor.
geriatric units did not significantly reduce the capacity to
recover during the hospital stay after adjustment for pos-
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