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has been only marginally tapped in our country.

The available potential yet to be tapped is nearly
3000 MW. The utilization of the extra power
Sugar Industry is one of the oldest industrial
generation capability of the sugar industries, can aid
sector of our country. The Indian sugar industry is
in partly mitigating the situation.
the second largest producer of sugar in the world,
manufacturing nearly 15 million tones of sugar
The associated auxiliary Distillery Industry
from cane. With the recent liberalization of sugar
has also seen equal if not higher growth over the
industry and the increasing demand for sugar, the
periods. However, as the industry has grown over
sugar industry is poised for tremendous growth. The
the years, there have been peculiar problems
state of Andhra Pradesh is blessed with highly
confronting the sugar and distillery units ranging
fertile lands and sugar cane is one of the key
from, availability and costs of sugar cane,
agricultural outputs. The availability of sugar cane
increasing energy cost, decrease in sugar prices,
has propelled individuals as well as institutions to
increasing cost towards pollution control etc. The
venture out into sugar manufacturing as early as
industries have been adopting different strategies to
1920’s. This has gradually led to establishment of
overcome these problems, like going in for energy
Sugar industries through out Andhra Pradesh and at
cost optimization, installation of co-generation
present there are about 40 units. The earlier vintage
plants, use of alternative fuels, lower dependence on
plants have also seen gradual expansions with a
grid, etc.
shift from conventional to modern technologies.

Hence, the present and future focus of the

The sugar industry by its inherent nature can
Governments and the Indian sugar and Distillery
generate surplus energy through in contrast to the
industries will be, towards developing infrastructure
other industries, which are only consumers of
for generating and utilizing this extra power
energy. With liberalization and increased
generation capabilities and energy savings. This
competition, the generation and selling of excess
bulletin highlights how to incorporate energy
power to the electricity board, offers an excellent
efficiency aspects at the design / project stage itself.
source of revenue generation to the sugar plants.
This is referred to as commercial cogeneration and


Sugar Units :

The sugar industry is a unique industry with the example illustrates the facts:
following characteristics:
• Heat content in steam at 42 Kg/cm2 &
• Highly energy intensive
400°C – 768 Kcal/Kg
• The by-product baggasse, is used as a
fuel for generation of steam and power.
• Heat content in steam at 65 Kg/cm2 &
• Depending on the system, excess power
can be generated and sold to the grid. 480°C – 805 Kcal/Kg

The sugar industry consumes both steam and With the exhaust steam conditions in the
power. Hence, the plant should take-up steam and turbo generates/turbine drives being the same, a
electricity saving projects together, to achieve greater amount of power can be drawn with the
maximum benefits. same amount of steam quantity however, with a
Distillery Units: marginal increase in the fuel consumption.

The distillery units have a good opportunity The boilers are also now a days being
with the availability of methane gas as a by-product designed to operate on other agricultural by
in the digesters. Methane gas is used as fuel in the products like rice husk, cane agricultural waste etc
boiler substituting commercial fuels. In some of the so that the precious baggasse can be put into
units, micro-turbines are used for meeting the power alternative value addition processes like paper
and process steam requirements. manufacturing.

ISSUES OF ENERGY SAVING IN SUGAR / Apart from these there are many other
DISTILLERY INDUSTRY opportunities available in the boilers viz. better
operational practices, excess air optimization,
Following are some of the Energy saving options: radiation losses control, blow down control etc. by
which good savings can be affected, which in turn
Steam Generation: Typically, most of the sugar promotes release of fuel (baggasse) for alternative
industries are installed with a battery of boilers of uses or stock piling of baggasse for the off-season
different ratings. The boilers are characteristically period.
designed to operate at 21 Kg/Cm2 & 300° C, 42
Kg/Cm2 & 400°C, 65 Kg/Cm2 & 480°C. The recent Turbo Generator/Turbine Drive: The erstwhile
sugar plants boilers are designed for even higher turbo-generator’s/turbine drives have been designed
pressure & temperature ratings i.e. 65 Kg/Cm2 & with lower input steam rating (i.e.) 21Kg/cm2 &
480°C to take advantage of the higher heat content 300°C with a high specific steam requirement for
generating unit power, 15-16 Kg/ KW (in extraction
in the steam, which can be effectively used in the mode). Whereas, the present day turbines compare
turbo generator / turbine drives. The following exceedingly well at 6-8 Kg/KW (extraction mode)
for a input steam rating of 65Kg/cm2 & 480°C.


Driven by this advantage, many of the sugar plants systems have been designed to suppress froth using
are looking into installing new turbo generator’s so very low quantities of water, which in turn helps
as to overcome their in-plant power shortages and reduce the steam requirement in the process.
also to export power to grid. In the off-season, when
the process steam requirement is negligible, these Juice Heaters: Two types of heaters are normally
turbines can be operated on condensing mode to found in the sugar plants, horizontal & vertical. The
generate power for probable supply to grid or sister horizontal juice heater has a high heat transfer
concerns. coefficient whereas in the case of vertical juice
heater maintenance is easier. The type of juice
PROCESS RELATED ISSUES heater used is unit specific.

Installing Fiberizer: By installing a fiberizer Multiple Effect Evaporators: The juice

before the mills the sugar plants have an concentration is gradually increased in multiple
opportunity to reduce the maceration water added in effect evaporators. Now a days multiple effect
the fourth or fifth stages of mill, as higher evaporators (quadruple and higher as well) are
percentage of juice is extracted in the first stage of available, which consume lower quantities of steam
mill. For example for evaporating the same amount of water in juice.

• Juice extraction at 1st mill without fiberizer Sulphurous Acid Preparation: For sulphitation of
– 43-44% the juice/syrup the sugar units are installed with
sulphurous acid preparation section wherein sulphur
• Juice extraction at 1st mill with fiberizer – is melted & burnt to emit sulphur dioxide gases and
49-50% subsequently form sulphurous acid. There exists
potential for improvement by adopting new
Any reduction in the maceration water leads technologies.
to an equal reduction of the steam required to
evaporate it later. Steam Supply to Equipment: Many of the process
equipments have duplicate/triplicate connections i.e.
Installing Tandem (Series) Mills: Few of sugar the same equipment is connected with
plants have 6 mills in tandem instead of the 5 mills
earlier. The advantage being extraction of • Exhaust steam lines
maximum amount of juice from the sugar cane. The
other benefit would be reduction in moisture • Vapour from Vapour Cell
content in the baggasse that would be subsequently
fired in the boiler; this leads to improving the • Live Steam lines
evaporation ratio of the boiler.
These multiple steam source provisions lead
Froth Suppression: As the juice is extracted to excessive steam lines & steam leaders etc,
causing higher heat losses, additional steam traps
sequentially in the mills, froth is formed for which require frequent maintenance. To the extent
suppression of which water is added. At present possible, equipments should be connected with only


one source of steam supply. • Increased Profits

Loading of Turbines: As sugar plant have a battery For the Nation:

of steam turbines, the number of turbines put into
operation depends upon the electrical load & • Reduced Energy Imports
process steam requirement. It would be a good
practice to operate the turbines at optimum loads, as
• Avoided costs which can in turn be used for
the specific steam consumption per unit power
poverty reduction
increases with decrease in load.

Thermal Insulation: The steam and condensate • Conservation of limited resources

distribution network should be properly insulated
and it has to be ensured that all the flanges & valves • Improved energy security
are insulated using collapsible form of material to
facilitate inspection & maintenance. For the Globe:

Ethanol manufacture: As ethanol is being allowed • Reduced GHG and other emissions
to be blended with petroleum products, sugar plants
are exploring the possibility of producing sugar/ • Maintain in a sustainable environment
ethanol based on the market conditions. As and
when the sugar prices are lower, they would Workshop on Energy Audit and Conservation in
produce ethanol and vice-versa. This gives them an Sugar and Distilleries
opportunity to control the market prices of sugar.
A workshop on “Energy Audit and
BENEFITS OF ENERGY AUDIT AND Conservation in Sugar and Distillery units” was
CONSERVATION IN SUGAR AND conducted by APPCB through National
DISTILLERIES Productivity Council, Hyderabad on 09.01.2004 at
Eluru, W.G.Dist. during the workshop, energy audit
For Industries: methodology and steps required for energy
conservation in Sugar & Distillery Units were
• Reduced Energy Bills discussed. At the end of the Workshop it was
opined that the energy efficiency is going to play a
• Increased Competitiveness key role in the survival of the sugar and distillery
units in the existing scenario and hence energy
conservation studies and demonstration projects
• Increased Productivity shall be encouraged.

• Improved Quality

For further information and assistance contact :

Mr. B.Madhusudhana Rao or

Mr. K.Ravi Kumar or Smt.Geeta Sapare.
Cleaner Production Cell, A.P.Pollution Control Board,
II Floor, HUDA Complex, Maitrivanam, S.R.Nagar Post, Hyderabad – 500 038.
Phone: 23752729, 23734043, 23731120,
23732132, 23731126 Fax: 040 23733261.