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The World of Middle Kingdom Egypt (2000-1550 BC)

Contributions on archaeology, art, religion, and written sources

Volume II

Edited by

Gianluca Miniaci, Wolfram Grajetzki

Middle Kingdom Studies 2


This title is published by
Golden House Publications

Copyright © by the authors if not otherwise stated

A catalogue record for this book is avaiable from


the British Library

Front cover: Model of a scribe from shaft 16L25/1C (2710/144) at Deir el-Bersheh, compare colour plate XIII

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be produced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
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UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without prior written permission from Golden House Publications.

Printed in the United Kingdom

by CPI, Anthony Rowe

London 2016

ISBN 978-1-906137-48-9

ii
Middle Kingdom Studies
Series

Editor-in-Chief
Gianluca Miniaci

Advisory Board

Bettina Bader, Marilina Betrò, Marleen De Meyer, Juan Carlos Moreno García,
Alexander Ilin-Tomich, Patricia Rigault, Stephen Quirke
Gloria Rosati, Danijela Stefanović, Pascal Vernus, Paul Whelan

v
Table of Contents

Introduction
Wolfram Grajetzki, Gianluca Miniaci ix

List of contributors xiii

List of Abbreviation xv

Tombs in transition: MIDAN.05 and windows in the early Eighteenth Dynasty


Marilina Betrò 1

Precious finds from an early Middle Kingdom tomb in Thebes: reconstructing connections
between the dead and their goods
Anna Consonni 13

Umm-Mawagir in Kharga Oasis: an Industrial Landscape


of the Late Middle Kingdom/Second Intermediate Period
John Coleman Darnell, Colleen Manassa Darnell 27

The tomb of a Governor of Elkab of the Second Intermediate Period


Vivian Davies 71

An Isolated Middle Kingdom Tomb At Dayr Al-Barsha


Marleen De Meyer 85

The Transmission of Offices in the Middle Kingdom


Nathalie Favry 117

The stela of the Thirteenth Dynasty treasurer Senebsumai, Turin Cat. S. 1303
Wolfram Grajetzki, Gianluca Miniaci 133

Some Remarks on the Relations between Egypt and the Levant during the late Middle Kingdom
and Second Intermediate Period
Karin Kopetzky 143

Female Burials in the Funerary Complexes of the Twelfth Dynasty: an Architectonic Approach
Ingrid Melandri 161
Diachronic questions of form and function: falcon-head utensils in Middle Kingdom contexts
Stephen Quirke 181

The Egg as a Metaphor for Isis: A Coffin Text Imagery


Mohammed Gamal Rashed 203

‘Writing-Board Stelae’ with Sokar-Formula: A Preliminary Account


with a note on the Archaeological Context of Tomb C 37, Asasif, by Gianluca Miniaci
Gloria Rosati 209

Two Blocks of Sobekhotep from Hawara


Ashraf Senussi, Said Abd Alhafeez Abd Allah Kheder 237

An Unpublished Scarab of Queen Tjan (Thirteenth Dynasty) from the Louvre Museum (AF 6755)
Julien Siesse 243

vii
Literary exploitation of a craftman’s device: the sandal-maker biting leather (Teaching of Chety, pSallier VIII, 12).
When philology, iconography and archaeology overlap
Pascal Vernus 249

Boundaries of Protection. Function and significance of the framing (lines) on Middle Kingdom apotropaia,
in particular magic wands
Fred Vink 257

On the Context and Conception of Two ‘Trademark’ Styles from Late Middle Kingdom Abydos
Paul Whelan 285

Colour plates 339

viii
Miniaci, Grajetzki (eds.), The World of Middle Kingdom
Egypt (2000-1550 BC) II, MKS 2, London 2016, 71-83

The tomb of a Governor of Elkab of the Second Intermediate Period

William Vivian Davies

Abstract
Report on a hitherto unpublished tomb (no. 73) at Elkab which is datable to the Second Intermediate Period. It is suggested on
architectural and inscriptional grounds that the monument belonged to a governor of Elkab, possibly Sobeknakht I, the father of
Sobeknakht II, whose well-known tomb (no. 66) is situated near-by, both tombs probably forming part of an extended family complex.

In addition to the published list of decorated rock-cut with ground-plans of the tombs, is shown in Fig. 1. Typ-
tombs at Elkab,1 the main cliff of the necropolis con- ical for an elite tomb at the site, the interior of the su-
tains a number of inscribed monuments which until re- perstructure of no. 73 consists of two rooms. The first
cently have remained largely unnoted. Among the more and largest, orientated north-south, is the chapel prop-
interesting of these is tomb no. 73 (Fig. 2),2 which bears er. The second, in this case a side-room to the east to-
inscriptions on its façade datable on stylistic and other wards the rear, contains the burial-shaft. It is very sim-
grounds to the Second Intermediate Period. The name ilar in form and size to the tomb of Sobeknakht II (no.
of the owner is lost but there are possible clues as to his 66), the difference in the location and orientation of the
identity. I present here a brief report on the tomb, which second rooms being simply a function of the nature of
is currently under study as part of a necropolis-wide pro- the space available in each case.
ject of documentation (Fig. 3). The façade is very damaged but the left end and part of
Tomb no. 73 is located in the upper range of rock-cut the right end of the lintel are still in place together with a
tombs in the main cliff (Fig. 2), a little to the west of the section of the left jamb (Pl. V). They bear the remnants of
tomb of the well-known Governor of Elkab, Sobeknakht funerary inscriptions in sunk relief, originally four hori-
II (no. 66), and that of his older relative, Commander of zontal registers on the lintel and probably two columns
the ruler’s crew, Renseneb (no. 64), both of the Sixteenth on the jamb (see further below). From a small courtyard,
Dynasty.3 A new map of this section of the necropolis, the tomb is entered through a doorway (originally about
1.85 cm in height, 1.14 m in width and 50 cm in depth),
the thicknesses rebated at the rear to accommodate a door.
1
PM V, 176-185. Unusually, it was fitted with a two-winged door, as is ev-
2
I utilise here the revised numbering system for the tombs of
ident from the two deep sockets for the door-posts cut
the necropolis established by the Belgium Mission to Elkab
some years ago as part of the creation of a new map of the site. into the corners at the base of the rebates and from the
I am grateful to Dr Dirk Huyge for providing me with a copy rectangular sunken area just inside the entrance, which
of the map. A section is included by Warmenbol, Hendrickx, allowed the wings to be opened inwards freely (Fig. 4).
in claes, De meulenaere, Hendrickx (eds.), Elkab and Be- The grooves running off each socket (the one on the east
yond, 75, n. 1, 77, fig. 1, in which tomb 73 is identified at the now largely eroded) were designed to enable the lower
top right. The other decorated tombs of relevance to this paper door-pivots to be slid easily into place.4
have the following new numbers: Sobeknakht II (66, old no.
10), Renseneb (64, old no. 9), Bebi (54, old no. 8bis), Sen- 280-94; GrajeTzki, Court Officials, 132; davies, in marée (ed.),
wosret (46, previously unnumbered), and Hormin (39, old no. The Second Intermediate Period, 223-40; Willems, in moreno
8; see n. 19, below). García (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Administration, 391-2.
3
PM V, 184-5, nos. 9-10; Tylor, Wall Drawings and Monu- 4
Cf. clarke, enGelbacH, Ancient Egyptian Masonry, 164-5,
ments of El Kab; kubiscH, Lebensbilder der 2. Zwischenzeit, fig. 190.
72
William ViVian DaVies

Fig. 1 – Elkab necropolis, plan of tombs, including nos. 73, 66 and 64 (Drawing: G. Heindl)
The Tomb of a Governor of elkab of The Second InTermedIaTe PerIod

Fig. 2 – Elkab necropolis, main cliff, major decorated tombs, upper range (Photo: J. Rossiter)

The chapel consists of a single rectangular chamber successive stages in the creation of the surfaces. The latter
with vaulted ceiling (about 6 m in length, 2.5 m in width were not worked to a completely smooth finish. Chisel
and about 2.10 m in maximum height) (Fig. 5).5 Cut into marks, of varying depth, particularly deep on the ceil-
the chamber’s back wall is a round-topped emplacement ing, were deliberately left in place to provide purchase
for a stela (74 cm in height, 39 cm in width, and origi- for the plaster. Some of the ceiling-plaster bears traces
nally about 11 cm in depth), the stela itself long gone. It of decoration in red and blue paint (Fig. 8).6
is located near to a doorway in the east wall (1.68 m in That the owner was a person of high standing - evident
height, 0.95 m in width), which gives access to a small- from the tomb’s architecture, the quality of its workman-
er rectangular room with a flat ceiling (the room, about ship and the nature and extent of its original decoration
3.08 m in length, 2.58 m in width, and 1.82 m in height), – is confirmed by the content of the façade inscriptions.
containing a burial shaft (about 2.5 m in length, 0.94 m The text on the lintel consisted of a long offering-formu-
in width, and at least 3.5 m in depth) (Fig. 6), its floor la in four lines, only parts of the beginnings and ends of
covered with debris. Masons’ ‘footholds’ are present in which now remain (Pls. VI-VII).7 The crucial surviving
its north and south sides. Through a small rectangular
doorway at the bottom of the shaft’s east wall (Fig. 7), 6
Painted ceiling decoration, consisting of a simulated wooden
it is possible to crawl into to a large roughly rectangular plank with borders and a pattern of quatrefoils, is present in
chamber with a low ceiling, measuring about 7.5 m-8 m the contemporary tombs of Sobeknakht II (clarke, in Tylor,
(north-south) and 5 m (east-west). The chamber, which Wall Drawings and Monuments of El Kab, pl. 12) and Horem-
connects with the substructures of other tombs and may khauef at Hierakonpolis (the latter with a hieroglyphic inscrip-
tion running along the plank; davies, in davies (ed.), Colour
originally have been smaller (perhaps around 5 m x 3
and Painting in Ancient Egypt, 118, colour pl. XLIII.3), mo-
m), is filled with rubble and has yet to be investigated
tifs probably derived from an exemplar to be found in the ear-
in detail. ly Twelfth Dynasty tomb of the governor Senwosret at Elkab
The first room was once decorated in paint. Fragments (no. 46) (pers. observation; see n. 24 below). The themes and
of mud plaster are present on all the walls and especially arrangement of the decorative programme in no. 46 appear to
the ceiling. As the plaster has mostly gone, it is possible have formed the model and inspiration for those adopted in the
to see clearly the masons’ chisel-marks and to follow the Second Intermediate Period tombs, markedly so in the case of
the tomb of Sobeknakht II.
5
The floor is currently cluttered with pottery not related to 7
The king’s formula at the beginning (Pl. VII), though now in-
the tomb but discarded from earlier excavations in the area. complete, was clearly written in the sequence nswt + di + Htp,

73
William ViVian DaVies

Of the inscription on the jamb below, which re-


quires further study, only a section of the left side
of the outermost column is preserved (Pl. VIII),
possibly representing the remains of epithets of
the god Osiris, among them perhaps ‘[ruler] of
etern[ity…]’.
Though the name of the tomb-owner is lost,
the surviving titles and the female name (assum-
ing it is complete as read) are potentially indica-
tive. In the context of the Elkab elite,10 these titles
are known to occur together in four sources, all
relating to governors of the town, two dating to
the late Thirteenth Dynasty and two to the Six-
teenth Dynasty. Of the latter, one is the tomb
of the Governor Sobeknakht II (no. 66), men-
tioned above, where they several times figure in
sequence as part of the governor’s titulary, as,
Fig. 3 – Elkab, Tomb 73, documentation by Günter Heindl and Kathrin
Gabler in process (Photo: W. V. Davies) for example, in the east frieze-inscription (Fig. 9,
top line).11 The other is the Juridical Stela (stèle
section is that on the left (Pl. VI). Preserved at the end juridique) from Karnak dating to Year 1 of Nebiryrau I
of the third line are two titles, xtmty-bity imy-r gs-pr, (which documents the change of ownership of the Elkab
‘[ro]yal sealer, overseer of the half-domain’,8 probably governorship),12 where they figure similarly in sequence
belonging to the tomb-owner’s titulary (or just possi- among the titles of Sobeknakht II’s father and predeces-
bly to that of a predecessor, as part of a filiation), while sor as governor, the titular prince Sobeknakht I (for ex-
the fourth line ends with a female name and epithet, ample, in line 27, Fig. 10, penultimate register).13 The
reading, as it stands, ‘… Nefru, true of voice’. The fe- two earlier sources consist of texts on fragmentary gra-
male in question will have been a close relative of the no-diorite statues, one (part of the pedestal of a stand-
owner, in such a context normally his mother or wife.9 ing figure) from Elkab (JE 87254; Figs. 11-13),14 the

which became the standard form on stelae, at least in the with that of his wife.
south of Egypt, from the late Thirteenth/Sixteenth Dynasty 10
On the use of the term ‘elite’, see kóTHay, in moreno García
onwards; see Franke, JEA 89, 54-5; kubiscH, Lebensbilder der (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Administration, 482, n. 16.
2. Zwischenzeit, 124-6; GrajeTzki, in marée (ed.), The Second 11
Cf. Tylor, Wall Drawings and Monuments of Elkab, pl. 8,
Intermediate Period, 310, n. 58; marée, in marée (ed.), The upper left; also davies, ASAE 80, 135, 141, fig. 6; davies, in
Second Intermediate Period, 249; ilin-TomicH, ZÄS 138, 22. marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, 229, n. 38,
Note that the offering-formulae in the tombs of Sobeknakht 233, fig. 6; GrajeTzki, in marée (ed.), The Second Interme-
II (66), Renseneb (64), Bebi (54) and Hormin (39; see n. 19, diate Period, 308-9.
below) are all of this same type; cf. ilin-TomicH, ZÄS 138, 12
davies, in marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period,
30, nos. 224-5. 224-5.
8
The rounded form and reversed writing of the gs-sign in gs- 13
Cf. lacau, Une stèle juridique de Karnak, 7, line 4, 24,
pr here are paralleled locally in the tomb of Renseneb (davies, line 13, 43, line 27; Helck, Historisch-Biographische Tex-
in marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, 227, fig. 3, te, 65, 67, 69.
lines 2 and 3); the reversed writing is found also in the same 14
From the Belgian (Capart) excavations of 1937-8, previous-
title on the two statues of Aya (see below). On the titles, see ly unpublished, but cited by vernus, BiOr 47, 340 (2.3.2);
most recently GrajeTzki, in marée (ed.), The Second Inter- cf. Franke, Das Heiligtum des Heqaib, 79, n. 268; GrajeTzki,
mediate Period, 308-9; marée, in marée (ed.), The Second Die höchsten Beamten der ägyptischen Zentralverwaltung, 28,
Intermediate Period, 274, with nn. 233-4; Franke, marée i, 31, c; Franke, marée (ed.), Egyptian Stelae in the British
(ed.), Egyptian Stelae in the British Museum, 76-8, with nn. Museum, 77, n. 7. The text appears to have been incomplete-
7-9; sHirley, in moreno García (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Ad- ly carved in parts and is now slightly damaged but the read-
ministration, 551, 553, 557-8; kubiscH, Franke, in FiscH- ing is clear: ‘(1) A gift which the king gives and Nekhbet, (2)
er-elFerT, Parkinson (eds.), Studies on the Middle Kingdom, mistress of Nekheb, that she may give (3) an invocation of-
148 (x+3); lanGe, in miniaci, GrajeTzki (eds.), The World of fering consisting of bread, beer, beef, fowl, alabaster, linen,
Middle Kingdom Egypt, 198-9. incense, oil, and all things good and pure (4) for the ka of the
9
Cf., for example, Tylor, Wall Drawings and Monuments of royal sealer, overseer of the half-domain, Aya (Iy), engendered
El Kab, pl. 7, upper left, frieze-inscriptions: the top line ends by Commander of the ruler’s crew (5) Iymer(u) (Iy-mr(w)),
with the name of Sobeknakht II’s mother, the line beneath born to Hereditary Princess Rediteneseni (Rdit.n.s- n.i), true

74
The Tomb of a Governor of elkab of The Second InTermedIaTe PerIod

other (the body of a dyad) from Elephantine,15 where cial [titles lost], Hormin (Figs. 2, 15),19 since the latter,
the same titles form the titulary of the official Aya, So- like the former, bears the ‘signature’ of the local artist
beknakht I’s grandfather and the first of the family to ‘[Scri]be of forms, Great one of ten[s of Upper Egypt],
be governor of Elkab (and later vizier).16 As for the fe- Sedjemnetjeru, repeating life’ (Pl. IX), attested also in the
male name on tomb 73’s lintel, it is known that ‘Nefru’ tomb of ‘Chief inspector of priests of Horus of Nekhen,
was the name of Sobeknakht I’s wife, the ‘hereditary Overseer of fields, Horemkhauef’, at Hierakonpolis.20
princess, Nefru’, a relationship recorded in several fili- Assignable to the same period, on grounds of iconog-
ations in the tomb of Sobeknakht II, the best preserved raphy, palaeography and phraseology, is tomb no. 54 of
being in the latter’s biographical stela on the east wall ‘Commander of the ruler’s crew, Bebi’ (Fig. 2),21 which
(Fig. 14).17 The inference from these correlations is also parallels the tomb of Sobeknakht II in having its
two-fold: that the owner of tomb 73 was a governor of entrance located well above ground-level and accessed
Elkab; and that the governor in question was probably by staircase (nos. 54 and 66 are the only tomb-chapels
Sobeknakht I, the father of Sobeknakht II, or at the very in the necropolis with elevated entrances and stairs).
least a near contemporary, an attribution consistent with Tomb no. 73 extends these connections and the known
the palaeographic data (the forms and groupings of the hi- gubernatorial presence. At the same time, it supports the
eroglyphs closely resembling those of the near-by tombs view that the upper section of the necropolis as currently
of Sobeknakht II and Renseneb). revealed (from no. 39 up to no. 73 and beyond) repre-
Earlier work in the necropolis has already estab- sents in large part a community and complex of related
lished a direct link between the tombs of Renseneb and tombs belonging to governors of Elkab, predominant-
Sobeknakht II, relatives-in-law, belonging to different
generations and to separate branches of the same fam- 19
PM V, 184, no. 8; davies, in marée (ed.), The Second Inter-
ily.18 In addition, there is a firm temporal link between mediate Period, 223, n. 6, where it is pointed out that traces of
the tomb of Sobeknakht II and tomb no. 39 of the offi- the owner’s name on the lintel are consistent with the reading
‘Hormin’. The publication of the tomb is under preparation.
20
davies, in davies (ed.), Colour and Painting in Ancient
of voice’. The names, titles and genealogy are paralleled on Egypt, 119-21; davies, EA 23, 4-5; davies, in marée (ed.), The
the Elephantine statue (see below, n. 15). Second Intermediate Period, 225; cf. kubiscH, Lebensbilder
15
kaiser et al., MDAIK 28, 188, fig. 111; Helck, GM 18, 25; der 2. Zwischenzeit, 15-6, 112, 310; GrajeTzki, Court Officials,
Helck, Historisch-Biographische Texte, 77, no. 111; Franke, 120-1; Quirke, in silverman, simPson, WeGner (eds.), Archa-
Personendaten, 48, Doss. no. 11; junGe, Elephantine XI, 14-5, ism and Innovation, 306 (4); krucHTen, delvaux, Elkab VIII,
pl. 3, c-d; cHevereau, RdE 43, 23, no. 414; Franke, Das Heil- 199, 202-3, 215-8, 254; bryan, in lloyd (ed.), A Companion
igtum des Heqaib, 78-9; GrajeTzki, Die höchsten Beamten der to Ancient Egypt, 1000-1; laboury, in kóTHay (ed.), Art and
ägyptischen Zentralverwaltung, 28, i, 31, a; verbovsek, Als Society, 201; Stefanović, in koTHáy (ed.), Art and Society,
Gunsterweis des Königs in den Tempel gegeben, 76-7, 157, 188, 190; Franke, Egyptian Stelae in the British Museum, 48,
164, 172, 345-6, ESa1; Stefanović, The Holders of Regular n. 20, 86-7, n. 12; darnell, manassa, in FiscHer-elFerT, Par-
Military Titles, 73, no. 401; THill, CRIPEL 29, 254-5, n. 12, kinson (eds.), Studies on the Middle Kingdom, 89, n. 159. On
278, nn. 154, 157. the much-discussed title ‘Great one of tens of Upper Egypt’,
16
For the family lineage from Aya downwards, see davies, in wr mdw Smaw, see, recently, Quirke, in silverman, simPson,
marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, 235, fig. 10; cf. WeGner (eds.), Archaism and Innovation, 305-16; GrajeTzki,
GrajeTzki, Court Officials, 40-1; sHirley, in moreno García in marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, 310; bazin,
(ed.), Ancient Egyptian Administration, 557-8; ilin-TomicH, el-enany, BIFAO 13, 7-8; THill, CRIPEL 29, 266; Franke,
JEgH 7, 159. It is possible that the statues date to the period marée (ed.), Egyptian Stelae in the British Museum, 86-7,
before Aya became governor (cf. Helck, GM 18, 25-7; Fran- with n. 12; GrajeTzki, in moreno García (ed.), Ancient Egyp-
ke, marée (ed.), Egyptian Stelae in the British Museum, 77, tian Administration, 236-7; sHirley, in moreno García (ed.),
n. 7) but the absence of the title HAty-a n Nxb from the titulary Ancient Egyptian Administration, 561; GrajeTzki, in miniaci,
is not necessarily diagnostic. Moreover, the statues are now GrajeTzki (eds.), The World of Middle Kingdom Egypt, 121-3;
incomplete and might originally have borne further inscrip- ilin-TomicH, JEgH 7, 153-4, 157 (the latter seeing the title
tions. In the context of such figures, see also THill, CRIPEL as part of ‘a specific local system of ranking or quasi-ranking
29, 273-82, pls. 1-2, for a fragmentary statue from Sai Island, titles’). On the epithet wHm anx, ‘repeating life, see kubiscH,
made of quartzite, inscribed for an official named Iy-mrw, Lebensbilder der 2. Zwischenzeit, 126-7.
possibly, it is suggested, to be related to the Elkab family. 21
PM V, 184, no. 8bis; kubiscH, Lebensbilder der 2. Zwischen-
17
davies, in marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, zeit, 57, n. 298, 59, 62, n. 323, 127, 205, 274-9, 292-3; davies,
230-1, 233, fig. 6, pl. 45; also Tylor, Wall Drawings and o’connell, BMSAES 14, 52, figs. 1-2; davies, o’connell,
Monuments of Elkab, pl. 7, top line, end; cf. GrajeTzki, Court BMSAES 16, 102, figs. 1-3; davies et al., ASAE 85, 35, pls.
Officials, 162. 3, b, 4, a; art. cit., 57, fig. 1, 66, pl. 1, a; kubiscH, Franke,
18
davies, in marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, in FiscHer-elFerT, Parkinson (eds.), Studies on the Middle
223, 235, fig. 10, pls. 38-9. Kingdom, 152 (x+14), 153 (x+16-18), n. 33.

75
William ViVian DaVies

ly of the late Thirteenth Dynasty/ Second Intermediate Bibliography


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clarke, S., R. enGelbacH, Ancient Egyptian Masonry. The
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Diorite Quarries”, in H.-W. FiscHer-elFerT, r.b. Parkinson
Acknowledgements (eds.), Studies on the Middle Kingdom in memory of Detlef
The documentation project at Elkab, supported in part by the Franke (Wiesbaden: Philippika 41, 2013), 55-92.
British Museum, is carried out with the permission of the davies, W.V., “The Dynastic Tombs at Hierakonpolis: the
Ministry of Antiquities of Egypt. I am grateful to colleagues Lower Group and the Artist Sedjemnetjeru”, in W.V.
in the Edfu inspectorate for their co-operation and help. The davies (ed.), Colour and Painting in Ancient Egypt (Lon-
documentation of the architecture of tomb no. 73 is the work don, 2001), 113-25.
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photographs are by James Rossiter; the epigraphic content EA 23 (2003), 3-6.
has been recorded by the present writer and Susanne Wood- davies, W.V., “British Museum Epigraphic Expedition Report
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has been provided by Dr. Renée Friedman. The images in- davies, W.V. “The Tomb of Ahmose Son-of-Ibana: document-
cluded here as Figures 10-13 are the work of Ahmed Amin of ing the family and other observations”, in W. claes, H. de
the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, and are published courtesy of meulenaere, S. Hendrickx (eds.), Elkab and Beyond. Stud-
the Ministry of Antiquities. Dr Hisham El-Heithy has kindly ies in Honour of Luc Limme (Leuven: OLA 191, 2009),
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22
It is possible that not all the Elkab governors were buried alogical Data”, in M. marée (ed.), The Second Intermedi-
here. Thus, for example, the two governors who became vi- ate Period (Thirteenth-Seventeenth Dynasties). Current Re-
ziers, Aya and Iymeru, might (or might not) have chosen to search, Future Prospects (Leuven: OLA 192, 2010), 223-
be buried near to the kings whom they served. 40.
23
Cf. here the concept of the ‘social house’ (nelson-HursT, davies, W.V., E.R. o’connell, J. bunbury, A. GraHam, “Brit-
in miniaci, GrajeTzki (eds.), The World of Middle Kingdom ish Museum Expedition Report on the 2008 Season”, ASAE
Egypt, 258-60). 85 (2011), 33-55.
24
The tomb of Renseneb (Fig. 1, no. 64) incorporates a tomb of davies, W.V., E.R. o’connell, j. bunbury, k. sTruTT, a.
the late Old Kingdom located immediately to the left as one en- GraHam, “British Museum Expedition 2009”, ASAE 85
ters (davies, ASAE 84, 131, 137, fig. 9, 141, fig. 15; davies, in (2011), 57-73.
davies, W.V., E.R. o’connell, “The British Museum Expe-
marée (ed.), The Second Intermediate Period, 224, fig. 1, 225,
dition to Elkab and Hagr Edfu, 2009”, BMSAES 14 (2009),
n. 20; for other Old Kingdom tombs in the vicinity, see limme, 51-72.
BMSAES 9, 20-4, figs. 15-25, 31-3). There must also have been davies, W.V., E.R. o’connell, “British Museum Expedition
Middle Kingdom tombs in the range, though only the unusurped to Elkab and Hagr Edfu, 2010”, BMSAES 16 (2010), 101-32.
tomb of Senwosret (Fig. 2, no. 46), a governor of Elkab of the davies, W.V., “A View from Elkab: The Tomb and Statues
early Twelfth Dynasty, has yet been certainly identified as such of Ahmose-Pennekhbet”, in J.M. Galán, B.M. bryan, P.F.
(PM V, 184; davies, o’connell, BMSAES 14, 52-3, figs. 3-5; dorman (eds.), Creativity and Innovation in the Reign of
davies, o’connell, BMSAES 16, 102-3, figs. 5-6; davies et al., Hatshepsut (Chicago: SAOC 69, 2014), 381-409.
ASAE 85, 35-6, fig. 4, pl. 4, b; art. cit., 57-8, fig. 2). davies, W.V., E.R. o’connell, “British Museum Expedition
25
For recent results, see davies, in claes, de meulenaere, to Elkab and Hagr Edfu, 2013”, BMSAES 22 (2014), 1-34.
Hendrickx (eds.), Elkab and Beyond, 139-75; davies, in doxey, D.M., “The Nomarch as Ruler: Provincial necropoleis
Galán, bryan, dorman (eds.), Creativity and Innovation, 381- of the Old and Middle Kingdoms”, in r. GundlacH, j.H.
Taylor (eds.), Egyptian Royal Residences. 4th Symposium
409; davies, o’connell, BMSAES 22, 1-2, 10-7, figs. 1-11.
on Egyptian Royal Ideology, London, June, 1st-5th 2004 (Wi-
26
davies, in Galán, bryan, dorman (eds.), Creativity and
esbaden: KSGFH 4/1, 2009), 1-11.
Innovation, 408-9, nn. 117, 118; cf. sHirley, JEgH 3, 105-7; Franke, D., Personendaten aus dem Mittleren Reich (20. –
viscHak, in HaWass, ricHards (eds.), The Archaeology and 16. Jahrhundert v. Chr.) Dossiers 1-796 (Wiesbaden: ÄA
Art of Ancient Egypt, 451-2; viscHak, Community and Iden- 41, 1984).
tity, 221-3; doxey, in GundlacH, Taylor (eds.), Egyptian Franke, D., Das Heiligtum des Heqaib auf Elephantine. Ge-
Royal Residences, 1-3.

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delberg: SAGA 9, 1994). and Provincial Elite Tombs in the Nile Delta: State and Per-
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Challenge”, JEA 89 (2003), 39-57. The World of Middle Kingdom Egypt (2000-1550 BC): Con-
Franke, D., M. marée (ed.), Egyptian Stelae in the British tributions on archaeology, art, religion, and written sources.
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Descriptions (London, 2013). limme, L. “Elkab, 1937-2007: seventy years of Belgian ar-
GrajeTzki, W., Die höchsten Beamten der ägyptischen Zen- chaeological research”, BMSAES 9 (2008), 15-50.
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raphie, Titel und Titelreihen (Berlin: Achet A2, 2000). Sixteenth or early Seventeenth Dynasty”, in M. marée
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77
William ViVian DaVies

Fig. 4 – Elkab, Tomb 73, doorway from inside, detail (Photo: J. Rossiter)

Fig. 5 – Elkab, Tomb 73, interior, first room (Photo: W. V. Davies)

78
The Tomb of a Governor of elkab of The Second InTermedIaTe PerIod

Fig. 6 – Elkab, Tomb 73, interior, second room, top of burial shaft (Photo: W. V. Davies)

Fig. 7 – (left) Elkab, Tomb 73, interior, burial shaft, with entrance
to burial chamber (Photo: K. Gabler)
Fig. 8 – (above) Elkab, Tomb 73, interior, first room, ceiling with
fragments of painted plaster (Photo: W. V. Davies)

79
William ViVian DaVies

Fig. 9 – Elkab, Tomb 66, east wall, frieze-inscriptions, detail (Photo: J. Rossiter)

Fig. 10 – Juridical Stela (Cairo JE 52453), detail (Photo: Ahmed Amin, courtesy Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

80
The Tomb of a Governor of elkab of The Second InTermedIaTe PerIod

Fig. 11 – Elkab, statue Cairo JE 87254, frontal view (Photo: Ahmed Amin, courtesy Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

Fig. 12 – Elkab, statue Cairo JE 87254, view from above (Photo: Ahmed Amin, courtesy Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

81
Fig. 13 – Elkab, statue Cairo JE 87254, detail of inscription (Photo: Ahmed Amin, courtesy Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities)

82
William ViVian DaVies

Fig. 14 – Elkab, Tomb 66, east wall, biographical stela, detail (Photo: J. Rossiter)
The Tomb of a Governor of elkab of The Second InTermedIaTe PerIod

Fig. 15 – Elkab, Tomb 39, façade (Photo: W. V. Davies)

83
Davies

Pl. V Elkab, Tomb 73, façade

Pl. VI Elkab, Tomb 73, façade, lintel, left end Pl. VII Elkab, Tomb 73, façade, lintel, right end

Elkab,
Tomb 73,
façade,
section of
left jamb
(Pl. VIII)

Elkab,
Tomb 39,
façade,
right
jamb,
detail
(Pl. IX)

Pl. VIII Pl. IX (All photos: W.V. Davies)

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