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EDSA T2K Design Master

`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

1.0 Scope of a Short Circuit Analysis

a. Evaluate and verify the interrupting capacity of existing protection equipment.


b. Calculate and implement adequate system protective device settings.
c. Evaluate the effect of fault currents on power system components.
(Thermal/Mechanical Stress and Withstand Capability)
d. Evaluate the system-wide voltage profile during a localized fault.
e. Fine tune the network design to minimize the effect of system faults.

2.0 Types of Faults


The most common faults are termed “SHUNT FAULTS”, and include the following types:

a. Three Phase Fault (with or without Ground involvement).


b. Single Line to Ground Fault
c. Line to Line Fault
d. Line to Line to Ground Fault

Generally speaking, the Three-Phase fault leads to the highest current levels available in a system,
consequently it is the one commonly used to evaluate the most severe conditions. There are cases,
however, in which this may not hold true. Some circumstances can lead to single phase fault currents
exceeding the levels of three phase fault currents. Such cases include faults that occur close to the
following types of equipment:

a. The wye side of a grounded delta-wye auto-transformer.


b. The wye-wye grounded side of a three winding transformer with a delta tertiary winding.
c. A synchronous machine solidly connected to ground.
d. The wye side of a grounded delta-wye transformer with a three leg design core.

In circumstances such as the ones listed above, is highly recommended that a single line to ground
fault analysis and perhaps even a line to line fault analysis be conducted. It is important to keep in
mind that even though a line to ground fault can experience a higher fault current (Amps) with respect
to the three phase fault, the latter still contains more power (MVA) since it is receiving contribution
from all three phases.

Notes:

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Page SC.1
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

3.0 ANSI & IEEE Standards


The standards addressing fault calculations for medium and high voltage systems are:

a. IEEE Std. C37.010-1979


b. IEEE Std. C37.5-1979
c. IEEE Std. 141-1993
d. IEEE Std. 241-1990
e. IEEE Std. 242-1986

The standards addressing fault calculations for low voltage systems (<1kV) are:

a. IEEE Std. C37.13-1990


b. IEEE Std. 141-1993
c. IEEE Std. 241-1990
d. IEEE Std. 242-1986

4.0 ANSI/IEEE Time-Based Analysis of Faults


There are three key time-based terms used to analyze faults:

a. First Cycle currents:

These are also referred to as “Momentary” and/or “Close and Latch” currents. First Cycle currents
are the fault magnitudes displayed ½ cycles after the inception of the fault. These currents relate
to a breaker’s capability (duty) to sustain this current in the closed position (hence the term “Close
and Latch”). They are calculated based on the following premises:

- They take into account the DC offset.


- No AC decrement from the contributing sources is taking place.

Important: Low voltage breakers are considered to be capable of operating within the first cycle of
a fault; therefore their interrupting duties are compared to the first-cycle currents.

Notes:

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Page SC.2
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

b. Interrupting currents:

These are also referred to as “Contact-Parting” currents. They take place 3–5 cycles after the
inception of the fault. It is deemed that the quickest response time of medium and high voltage
circuit breakers will typically be delayed by 3-5 cycles before reacting to the fault. These currents
are calculated based on the following premises:

- They are asymmetrical (contain a DC offset).


- AC decrement of contributing sources is taken into account.

c. Time delayed currents:

These are currents yielded by the system beyond 6 cycles (up to 30 cycles) from the inception of
the fault. They are used for evaluating settings of time-delayed o/c relays. These currents are
calculated based on the following premises:

- They contain no DC offset.


- Contribution from motors (induction and synchronous) has subsided (neglected).
- Generators are assumed to be in the transient or higher reactance condition.

5.0 The IEC 909 Standard / IEC 60909 (1988)


This standard recognizes the following time-based duty types:

- Initial Short Circuit Current I”K


- Peak Short Circuit Current IP
- Breaking Short Circuit Current Ib
- Steady-State Fault Current IK

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Page SC.3
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

6.0 Topology of Fault (No AC Decay)

Notes:

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Page SC.4
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.0 Conducting a 3-Phase Short Circuit Study (File: EDM5.axd)

Step 1.
Proceed to open the
file “EDM5.axd”.

Step 2.
Run a “Short Circuit Connectivity Error
Check”, and correct any problems as
required.

Notes:

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Page SC.5
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.0.1 Important Notes on EDSA Generator modeling for


Short Circuit Purposes.

When “Kva” is selected, the generator reactance


values must be entered as a percentage with respect
to the Generator kVA base rating.

Notes:

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Page SC.6
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

When “Per Unit” is selected, the generator


reactance & resistance values must be entered
as “Per Unit” values with respect to the System
Base kVA specified in the Master File Editor.

Notes:

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Page SC.7
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Step 3. Step 3.1


Invoke the “AC Short Circuit” Invoke the “AC Short Circuit” program
program by clicking here, or by by selecting “Analysis - Short Circuit -
using the command shown in AC IEEE/ANSI/IEC909”
step 3.1 of this page.

Notes:

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Page SC.8
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.1 The “Calculation” Menu


Select the desired scenario
from the Actrix Screen.
Select the “Calculation”
tab and define the desired
options. The “Update Answer File” saves
the results of the analysis and
makes them available for other
programs that rely on them.

“Print Style” defines the


dimensional format of the
output report.

Select this option for faults at


all busses. This option builds
the answer file.

Select this option for faults at


The “Output to Text File” saves the individual busses as well as
results of the analysis in a text file. specifying high impedance
This allows the user to re-access the faults if required. This option
results of the analysis without does NOT build the answer
having to re-run the calculations. file.
Select “Browse” to save the text file
in a folder of your choice.

Notes:

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Page SC.9
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.2 The “Reports” Menu

Step 2. Step 1.
Select the “Input Select the “Reports”
Data” sub-tab. tab.

Step 4.
Select the “Sequence
Results” sub-tab.

Step 3.
Select the input data
items to be displayed in
the report.

Notes:

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Page SC.10
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Step 6.
Select the “Fault Result” sub-tab.

Step 5.
Select the desired Bus, Branch and
Voltage sequence components
required for the report.

Step 8.
Move on to the “Controls” menu.

Step 7.
Select the desired fault results along
with its categories and units.
Important Note: Voltage results and
Fault Summary Reports are only
displayed when “Detailed Fault at a
Bus” is selected @ the “Calculation”
menu.

Notes:

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Page SC.11
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.3 The “Controls” Menu

Step 2. Step 3.
Select the analysis “Methodology”. Select the “Pre-Fault” voltages. “System
Voltage” refer to the nominal voltages defined
in the job file. “Load Flow” refers to the
Step 1. voltages that result from a load flow analysis
Select the “Controls” tab. under the current load conditions. In order to
use the load flow voltages, the user must run
a load flow analysis and save the answer file.

Step 4.
Select the “Base Voltage” to
be used in the calculations.

“Apply Phase Shift”


calculates the fault
current phase angles.

Notes:

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Page SC.12
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Step 5.
Select the Bus, Branch and
Voltage “Fault Components”

Notes:

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Page SC.13
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

ANSI & IEC Settings

Step 6.
Finally define the “ANSI/IEEE
Calculation Controls”, “Report Units”,
and for IEC projects define the “IEC
909 Calculation Controls”.

Notes:

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Page SC.14
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Step 8.
Report section. Select “Done”
Step 7. to exit.
Select “Run” and
view the results.

Select “Configure/Save As Defaults” in


order to save all the fault-related
calculation preferences.

Notes:

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Page SC.15
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.4 Detailed Fault at a Single Bus (File: EDM5.axd)

Step 3. Step 2.
Select “Run” to initiate From the pick-list, select the
the analysis. desired bus (J#1020).

Step 1.
Select “Detailed Fault at Bus”.

Notes:

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Page SC.16
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

3-phase and 1-phase


short circuit current
report section.

Post fault voltage report


3-phase section.

Select “Done”
to exit.

Notes:

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Page SC.17
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

7.5 Back Annotation of Short Circuit Results (File: EDM5.axd)

Step 1.
Click here to select the “Back
Annotation” tool.

Step 2.
Select “ON”.

Step 3.
Select the desired
components from the AC
Short Circuit Section.

Step 4.
Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.18
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Short Circuit Back Annotation.

Notes:

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Page SC.19
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.0 ANSI/IEC Breaker De-rating Reports (File: EDM5.axd)

Step 1.
Conduct a Short Circuit Analysis on the network
under study. Make sure that the option “Fault at
All Busses” and “Update Answer File” are selected
in the “Calculation” menu (section 7.1).

Step 3.
Invoke the “AC ANSI/IEC 909 Reporting”
program, as indicated here.

Step 2.
Ensure that the network under study is loaded into
the ACTRIX screen. If the network is not loaded, it
can still be opened from the “AC ANSI/IEC 909
Reporting” program. Section 8.1 will explain how
this can be accomplished.

Notes:

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Page SC.20
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Step 4.
In cases where the “AC ANSI/IEC 909 Reporting”
program has been invoked without the subject file
loaded into the ACTRIX screen, the subject file can be
opened by selecting “File/Open”.

Step 5.
Once the “Open” browser
appears, select the required file
and press “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.21
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.1 Evaluation of First Cycle Faults

Step 6.
“Select “OK”.
Step 1.
Select “First Cycle Faults”

Step 2. Step 3. Step 4.


Select the “Breaker Type” Select the “Fusing” type. Press “Select”.

Step 5.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.22
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Calculated Symmetrical AC Current.

First Cycle Multiplying Factor.

First Cycle Fault.

Notes:

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Page SC.23
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.2 Evaluation of Interrupting Faults


Step 6.
“Select “OK”.

Step 1.
Select “Interrupting Faults”.

Step 2. Step 3. Step 4.


Select the “Fault Location”. Select the “Contact Parting Time”. Press “Select”.

Step 5.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.24
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Symmetrical Current @ Contact Parting Time.

Interrupting Multiplying Factor.

Interrupting Total. Interrupting Symmetrical.

Notes:

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Page SC.25
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.3 Evaluation of Minimum Faults

Step 4.
Step 1.
“Select “OK”.
Select “Minimum Faults”.

Step 2.
Press “Select”.

Step 3.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.26
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Minimum Fault at the Bus.

Notes:

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Page SC.27
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.4 Evaluation of Node & Branch Withstand Capability

Step 5.
Step 1. “Select “OK”.
Select “Node Withstand”.

Step 2.
Type the required “Withstand” Step 3.
capability in Amps. Press “Select”.

Step 4.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.28
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Pass/Fail report based on


selected withstand capability.

Branch “withstand” calculations follow


the same procedure illustrated in this
section. The only difference is that
branch short circuit currents are used
instead of the bus short circuit currents.

½ cycle symmetrical Bus currents.

Notes:

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Page SC.29
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.5 Evaluation of Node & Branch Mechanical Stress Capability


Step 8.
Step 1. “Select “OK”.
Select “Node Stress”.

Step 2.
Type the bus “Spacing”
in inches.

Step 3.
Select the “Stress Factor” from
the pick-list

Step 4.
Type the “Calculation Constant”. Step 6.
Press “Select”.
Step 5.
Specify the “Stress Limit” in lbs/ft.

Step 7.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.30
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Pass/Fail report based on


selected stress capability.

Branch “stress” calculations follow the


same procedure illustrated in this
section. The only difference is that
branch short circuit currents are used
instead of the bus short circuit currents.

Notes:

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Page SC.31
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.6 Arcing Fault Analysis

Step 1.
Select “Arcing Faults”. Step 4.
“Select “OK”.

Step 2.
Press “Select”.

Step 3.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.32
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Notes:

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Page SC.33
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.7 Line-Line & Line-Ground Fault Reports

Step 4.
Step 1.
“Select “OK”.
Select “L-G Faults”.

Step 2.
Press “Select”.

Step 3.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.34
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Select “Done” to exit.

Line-Line fault reports follow the same


procedure illustrated in this section.
The only difference is that Line-Line
short circuit currents are used instead
of Line-Ground short circuit currents.

Notes:

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Page SC.35
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.8 Peak Fault Reports

Step 6.
“Select “OK”.
Step 1.
Select “Peak Faults”.

Step 2.
Select the “Equipment Type”.
Verify and correct as necessary
the test “PF%” and “X/R”. Step 4.
Step 3.
Press “Select”.
Select the required “Report(s)”.

Step 5.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.36
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Notes:

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Page SC.37
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.9 IEC 909 Reports

Step 1. Step 2.
Select “IEC Select the “Break Time” in cycles.
Reports/IEC909”. Step 4.
Select “OK”.

Step 3.
Select the “Print Style” and the
network section to be evaluated,
based on the appropriate “Voltage”
category. Select “OK”.

Step 4.
Review the report. Select “Done” to
exit”

Notes:

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Page SC.38
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.10 Temperature De-Rating of Circuit Breakers

Step 1.
Select “Temperature CB Derating”.

Step 2.
Enter all the pertinent
breaker and environmental
data.

Step 3.
Enter the”Rated Continuous
Current” of the breaker and
press the “Tab” key.

Step 4.
The De-Rated value is
shown here. Press “Done”
to exit.

Notes:

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Page SC.39
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.11 Altitude De-Rating of Circuit Breakers

Step 1.
Select “Altitude CB Derating”.

Step 2.
Enter the “Altitude” in feet
or meters.

Step 3.
Enter the “Rated Voltage”
of the breaker and press
the “Tab” key.

Step 4.
Enter the “Continuous
Rated Current” of the
breaker and press the
“Tab” key.

Step 5.
The De-Rated values are
shown here. Press “Done”
to exit.

Notes:

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Page SC.40
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

8.12 Reactor Sizing

Step 1.
Select “Reactor Sizing”.

Step 2.
Select the “Node ID” at
which the line reactor will
be placed.

Step 3.
For an existing file, this
data is automatically
displayed by the program.

Step 4.
Enter the reduced “Desired
Fault” level, and press the
“Tab” key.

Step 5.
The required “Line Reactor”
rating is shown here. Press
“Done” to exit.

Notes:

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Page SC.41
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

9.0 Single Phase Short Circuit Analysis / Building the job-file

Step 2.
Select Electrical One Line
Single-Phase.axd”, and press
“OK”.

Step 1.
Click here to create a
new job-file.

Step 3.
Name the file, and
select “Open”. Step 4.
De-select the password
requirement, and press
“OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.42
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Single-Phase Element catalog. This


catalog contains both, single-phase
busses and branches.

Master Job-File Editor settings.

Step 1.
Following the same guidelines outlined in the
“Main User Interface” section of this manual,
proceed to build the required single-phase
network.

Notes:

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Page SC.43
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

9.1 Conducting a Single-Phase Short Circuit Analysis (File: EDM6.axd)

Step 3.
Invoke the Single-Phase
short circuit program as
indicated here.

Step 2.
Run a short-circuit
connectivity error check.

Step 1.
Proceed to open the
single-phase file named
“EDM6.axd”.

Notes:

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Page SC.44
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

Step 1.
Select “Options”.

Step 6.
Select “Run”.

Step 2.
Select the “Report Options”,
“Fault Components”, “Scenarios”,
“Units”, and “Calc. Ctrl”.

Step 5.
Select “OK”.

Step 4.
Select the “Report Units”,
and select “OK”.

Step 3.
Define the ANSI/IEEE
calculation control, and
select “OK”.

Notes:

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Page SC.45
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

The “Options” allows the


user to re-access the
previously set options
menu.

Step 1.
Specify the “Print Style”
and the “Lines/Page”.

Step 2.
Select “Update Answer File” to
ensure that the results are saved and
made available to other EDSA
applications.

Step 3.
Review the single-phase
short circuit report.

Notes:

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Page SC.46
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.
EDSA T2K Design Master
`~å~Ç~= AC Short Circuit Analysis

10.0 Practical Exercise (File: EDM5.axd)


Using file EDM5.axd, complete the following questionnaire. Assume the following calculation
preferences:

Methodology: ANSI/IEEE
Pre-Fault Voltages: Standard
Motor Contribution: Active & Inactive Motors

1. 3-phase ½ cycle short circuit current at bus J#1015: _______________ Amps

2. Line-Line ½ cycle short circuit current at bus J#1020: ________________Amps

3. Line-Ground steady-state short circuit current at bus J#1066: ________________Amps

4. ½ cycle post-fault voltage at the following busses when a fault occurs at bus J#1057:

Bus J#1015: ________________Volts

Bus J#1006: ________________Volts

Bus J#1020: ________________Volts

5. Line-Line ½ cycle “Phase B” bus current at bus J#1102: ________________Amps

6. Line-Ground ½ cycle “Phase C” bus current at bus J#1006: ________________Amps

7. Interrupting Rating for breakers connected to bus J#1066: ________________Amps

8. “Close and Latch” Rating for breakers connected to bus J#1020: ________________Amps

9. Interrupting Rating for breakers connected to bus J#1015. Assume a 5 Cycle breaker and a
“Remote” fault condition.

Interrupting Rating: ________________Amps

10. Size a Line Reactor that will reduce the short circuit current at bus J#1006 down to 20kA.

Reactor Size: ________________Ohms

Notes:

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Page SC.47
©2002 EDSA Micro Corp. / PQ Logic Corp.