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RESEARCH AND THEORY

RESEARCH-
According to Oxford enclyclopedic English dictionary
a) the systematic investigation into the study of materials, sources etc.in order
to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
b) An endeavour to discover new or collect old facts etc.by scientific study of
a subject or by a course of critical investigation.

( D K Lal Das, 2008) “Any study to create new knowledge or aims to increase
existing fund of- may it be through observation or by some other methods is
called as research, if it takes into account the baiss”.
Kerlinger piointed out in a technical way, research is systematic, contolled,
empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about
presumed relations among natural phenomenon”.

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH ( Williman,2009,page11)

1) Gaining experience is an ucontrolled and hazard activity, while research is


systematic and controlled.
2) Resoning can operate in an abstact world, divorced from reality, while
research is empirical and turns to experience and the world around us for
validation.
3) Unlike experience and reason, reaearch aims to be self correcting. The
process of research involves rigorously teting and results obtained, and
methods and results are open to public scrutiny and criticism.

TYPES OF RESERCH( Williman page 112)

a) Comparative
b) Descriptive
c) Correlation
d) Experimental
e) Evaluation
f) Action
g) Ethnogenic
h) Feminist
i) And Cultural

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THEORY
A very hyped term, there is little agreement among social scientist on what thery is ( D K
Lal 2008) “ a theory refers to the relationship between facts or the ordering of them in
same meaningful ways”.

According to Kerlinger “a theory is a set of interrelated constructs, definitions and


propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specific by specific
relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the
phenomenon”.

By taking the above two definitions we could conclude that a theory is a systematic
explanation for the observed facts and their interrelations.

The relation between research and theory can be stated

I. The initial task for a researcher is the search for theory. Theory
development relies on research and research relies on theory. The
relationship is a dialatic.

II. Theory determines what data should be collected and the research finding
challenges to the acceptance of the theory.

III. Research is the method used to collect data needed for the theory.

IV. If the purpose is theory testing, the theory dictates the data to be collected.

V. Theories are generally classified and as descriptive, correlational, and


experimental. The research designs that generate and test these types of
theories are generate and tested by the research design.

VI. Descriptive theories describe or classify specific dimensions or


characteristics of individuals, groups, situations, or events by summarizing
the commonalities found in discrete observations, and descriptive research
may or may not use an empirical method. Non-empirical methods include
philosophic and historic inquiries.

VII. Empirical descriptive research encompasses case studies, surveys, grounded


theory, ethnographies, and phenomenologic studies.

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VIII. Relational theories specify relations between dimensions or characteristics
of individuals, groups, situations, or events and these Relational theories are
developed by co-relational research.

IX. Explanatory theories move beyond relational statements to the prediction of


precise relationships between dimensions or characteristics of a
phenomenon or differences between groups. This type of theory addresses
cause and effect, the “why” of changes in a phenomenon. Explanatory
theories are generated and tested by experimental research.

X. The choice of a research design depends on the question asked and the
current state of theory development. If little is known about the
phenomenon to be investigated, descriptive theory-generating research is
needed.