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B r s A A B r s P r P r P ∈ r

B

B r s A A B r s P r P r P ∈ r P
r s A
r
s
A

A B r s

P r P r P r

P r P / r P r

A r

B / r

B r s P r P r P ∈ r P r P ∈ / r

B r s P r P r P ∈ r P r P ∈ / r

A B r r = ←→ AB r B A A r A B C

A B r

r =

←→

AB

r B A
r
B
A

A r

A B C r

A

AB

AC r

−→

−→

−→

−→

AB

AC

−→
−→

AB A

A B r AB

r A B AB AB

AB AC −→ AB A A B r AB r A B AB AB AB AB

AB

AB > CD

←→

CD

B

A

D C
D
C

A B

1.

−→

CD

CE = AB

C

E

AB = CE CD

AB CD

EF GH EF = AB + CD GH = 3 AB

C

B A D
B
A
D

r

B 1 . −→ CD CE = AB C E AB = CE CD AB CD
B 1 . −→ CD CE = AB C E AB = CE CD AB CD
B 1 . −→ CD CE = AB C E AB = CE CD AB CD

B 1 . −→ CD CE = AB C E AB = CE CD AB CD

r X AB r EX EX = AB CD r X F XF = CD

r X

AB r EX EX = AB

CD r X

F

XF =

CD X EF

GH

3 AB = AB + AB + AB

A B

d(A, B) AB AB

d(A, B) = AB.

O r > 0 O r

P r O OP = r

O r P r O OP = r O r P O r O r O
O r P
O
r
P

O r

O r O r O r P

O r

OP < r

P O r OP > r P r O O r Γ Γ( O ;

P

O r OP > r

P r O
P
r
O

O r

Γ Γ(O; r) Γ O r Γ O r O OA, OB OP Γ Γ Γ AB CD Γ AB

C D Γ O B A r P
C
D
Γ
O
B
A
r
P

Γ

OA, OB OP Γ Γ Γ AB CD Γ AB C D Γ O B A

CD Γ CD CP D CD O A B AB l A O l O

CD

Γ

CD

CP D

CD

O A B AB l A O l
O
A B
AB l
A
O
l

O O A

A l

B

CD Γ CD CP D CD O A B AB l A O l O O

R A, B ∈ R AB ⊂ R R A B A B R A,

R A, B ∈ R AB ⊂ R R

R A, B ∈ R AB ⊂ R R

A B
A
B
A B
A
B

R A, B ∈ R AB R r r A B

r AB r

=

A B r
A
B
r

 

−→

−→

OA

OB

 

−→

−→

   

O

OA

OB

 

−→

−→

OA

OB

  −→ −→     O OA OB   −→ −→ OA OB

O B A B O A −→ −→ Γ O 360 X Y 360 ∠

O

B

O B A B O A −→ −→ Γ O 360 X Y 360 ∠ XOY

A

B O
B
O

A

−→

−→

Γ O 360 X Y 360 XOY 1 1

OB AOB

OA

X OY = 1 ◦ . Y X O Γ
X OY = 1 ◦ .
Y
X
O
Γ

Σ O 360 X OY 1

XOY 1 1 ◦ OB ∠ AOB OA X OY = 1 ◦ . Y X

A ′ B ′ A B O Γ Σ Γ Σ O A, B ∈

A ′ B ′ A B O Γ Σ
A ′
B ′
A
B
O
Γ
Σ

Γ Σ O A, B Γ

A B

Γ

Σ

Σ Γ O 1

360 AOB Γ O

A B Γ

A B

Γ

OB AOB

A B

−→

OA

−→

OB Σ AB

−→

OA

−→

A OB AOB 360

B B ′ O A ′ Γ
B
B ′
O
A ′
Γ

A

AOB

B −→ OA −→ OB Σ AB −→ OA −→ A OB ∠ AOB 360 ◦

∠ AOB A B 6 1 Γ A OB = 1 6 · 360 ◦

AOB

A B

6 1 Γ

A OB =

1

6

·

360 = 60 .

A OB = θ AOB θ

O r α
O
r α
α
α
r O ′
r
O ′

R

X Y

π

= 1 6 · 360 ◦ = 60 ◦ . A OB = θ ∠ AOB

R O Y r X R O XY Y ∠ X O Y α −→

R O Y r

X R O

XY Y

X O Y

α

−→

−→

OB

A O B O AB A OB = 180

180

AOB

OA

B

O ∈ AB A OB = 180 ◦ 180 ◦ ∠ AOB OA B O A

O

A

180

180 AOB AOB AOB 0 < A OB 180 AOB 0 < A OB < 90 A OB = 90 90 < A OB < 180

O

B θ < 90 ◦
B
θ < 90 ◦
B θ = 90 ◦ A O
B
θ = 90 ◦
A O

B

θ > 90 ◦ A A O
θ > 90 ◦
A
A
O

90

90 ◦ < A OB < 180 ◦ O B θ < 90 ◦ B θ

α β α + β = 90 ◦ α β 25 ◦ 65 ◦ 25

α β α + β = 90 α β 25 65 25 + 65 = 90 30 90 30 = 60

 

AOB COD O

 

D

γ β α O
γ
β
α
O

A

C

B

 

 

AOB

COD

 

 

−→

−→

−→

−→

 

OA

OC

OB

OD

 
OA OC OB OD   −→ −→ OB OD α + γ = 180 ◦ β
OA OC OB OD   −→ −→ OB OD α + γ = 180 ◦ β
OA OC OB OD   −→ −→ OB OD α + γ = 180 ◦ β

−→

−→

OB OD

α + γ = 180 β + γ = 180

α = 180 γ = β.

  −→ −→ OB OD α + γ = 180 ◦ β + γ = 180

1

 

←→ AB A B C A B C A B C C C A B

←→

AB

A B C A B C

A B C C

C

AB A B C A B C A B C C C A B r A
AB A B C A B C A B C C C A B r A
AB A B C A B C A B C C C A B r A

A

B

r

A B C A B C ABC ABC A B C

A

b a c B
b
a
c B

C

ABC A B C

ABC AB AC BC

AB = c AC = b BC = a ABC 2p p

BC = a ABC 2 p p p = a + b + c . 2

p = a + b + c

.

2

A = BAC B = ABC C = ACB

A = B AC

B = A BC C = A CB

ABC (a) AB = AC = BC (b) AB, AC, BC ( c ) AB

ABC (a) AB = AC = BC (b) AB, AC, BC ( c ) AB
ABC (a) AB = AC = BC (b) AB, AC, BC
ABC
(a)
AB = AC = BC
(b)
AB, AC, BC

(c)

AB

= AC

=

= BC

( c ) AB = AC = = BC AB

AB

B

A

AB, AC, BC ( c ) AB = AC = = BC AB B A C

C

A

AC, BC ( c ) AB = AC = = BC AB B A C A

B

C

B

A

AC, BC ( c ) AB = AC = = BC AB B A C A

C

ABC

AB = AC

=

BC

ABC AB = AC BC

AC, BC ( c ) AB = AC = = BC AB B A C A

  n ≥ 3 A 1 , A 2 , , A n    

 

n

3

A 1 , A 2 ,

, A n

     

A 1 A 2

A n

1 i n

 

←→

A i A i+1 A j

A 0 = A n A n+1 = A 1 A n+2 = A 2

A 1

A 4 A 5 A 2
A 4
A 5
A 2

A 3

, A n A 1 A 2

A 2 A 3 A n1 A n A n A 1

A 1 , A 2 ,

A 1 A 2 A 1 A 2 A 2 A 3

A n

A n1 A n A n A 1

A 1

A 4 A 5 A 2
A 4
A 5
A 2

A 3

A i A j

A 5

A 1 A 3 A 1 A 4 A 2 A 4 A 2 A 5 A 3 A 5

A 1 A 2

2 A 3 A i A j A 5 A 1 A 3 A 1 A

n n ( n − 3) 2 ∠ A i − 1 A i A

n

n(n3)

2

A i1 A i A i+1 A i 1 i n n n

A 1 A 2

A n

A 1 A 1 A 2

A n A 1 A n A 1

A 5

A n

A 1 A 2 A 1 A 1 A 2 n 1

A 5 A 1 A 2

A 4 A 5 A 2 A 1
A 4
A 5
A 2
A 1

A 3

A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 1

A n n

n n = 4 n = 5 n = 6 n = 7 n = 8 n = 10 ABCD AB BC CD DA

n

A 1 A 2

n = 8 n = 10 ABCD AB BC CD DA n − A 1 A

n − n ( n − 3 ) 2 n = 3 n − 1

n − n ( n − 3 ) 2 n = 3 n − 1
n − n ( n − 3 ) 2 n = 3 n − 1
n − n ( n − 3 ) 2 n = 3 n − 1

n n(n3)

2

n = 3

n 1 A 2 ,

A 1 A 2 A 1 A n n 3 A 1 A 3 A 1 A n1

, A n n 1

= 0 n = 3 n 4 A 1

n(n3)

2

A n−1 A n A 3 A A 2 1
A
n−1
A n
A 3
A
A 2
1

n A 1

n 3

n(n 3) n 3 n A i A j A i A j 2

n(n 3) n(n3)

2

A i A j A i A j 2 n ( n − 3) n (

A 1 A 2 k + 1 A 1 A k A k A k

A 1 A 2

k + 1 A 1 A k

A k

A k A k+1 A 1 A k

A k A i A k+1 2 i k 1

A 1 A k A k+1 k A 1 A 2

A k A k+1

A 1 A 2 A 1 A 2

133 n n + 1 n + 2 n

A k + 1 A 1 A 2 A 1 A 2 133 n n +

1

 

 

ABC l l A l A A l B l B B l C ABC

ABC l
ABC
l

l

A

l A A l

B

l B

B

l

C ABC l

ABC l l A l A A l B l B B l C ABC l

ABC A B C ABC A B C B ←→ B ; A ←→ A

ABC A B C ABC A B C

B ←→ B ;

A ←→ A ;

C ←→ C .

B

A

C B ←→ B ; A ←→ A ; C ←→ C . B A C

C

A

C

; A ←→ A ; C ←→ C . B A C A ′ C ′

B

A = A ;

B

= B ;

C

= C

AB = A B ;

AC = A C ;

BC = B C

.

. B A C A ′ C ′ B ′ A = A ; B =

ABC DEF DEF ABC ABC DEF ABC DEF DEF ABC ABC DEF DEF

ABC DEF DEF ABC ABC DEF ABC DEF DEF ABC

ABC DEF DEF GHI ABC GHI ABC GHI ABC DEF GHI

ABC A B C

ABC A B C

A ←→ A ;

B ←→ B ;

C ←→ C .

A B C A ←→ A ; B ←→ B ; C ←→ C . ABC

ABC BC = a

AC = b C = γ

a

b γ
b
γ

C C −→ CX X CY −→ CY C = γ C −→ −→ A

C C

−→

CX

X CY

−→

CY

C

=

γ

C

−→

−→

A

CX

CY

BC = a

AC = b

B

C XCY ABC

A CX CY BC = a AC = b B C ∠ XCY ABC B A

B

A

CX CY BC = a AC = b B C ∠ XCY ABC B A C

C

A

C

= b B C ∠ XCY ABC B A C A ′ C ′ B ′

B

ABC A B C

AB = A B

AC = A C A = A

=ABC A B C ,

′ B ′ ABC A B C AB = A B AC = A C A

A ↔ A B ↔ B C ↔ C B = B , C =

A A B B C C

B

= B ,

C

= C

BC = B C .

ABC BC = a B = β C = γ

ABC BC = a B = β C = γ

a

γ β
γ
β

r

BC = a

B

C

−→

BX C BX = β

r X B CY = γ

−→

CY

A

−→

BX

−→

CY

BC BC = a ABC B C

BX = β r X B CY = γ −→ CY A −→ BX −→ CY

 

B

A

  B A C A ′ C ′ B ′ ABC A B C A B

C

A

C

  B A C A ′ C ′ B ′ ABC A B C A B

B

ABC A B C

A

B

= A = B

AB = A B

=ABC A B C ,

A A B B C C

C

= C ,

AC = A C

e

BC = B C .

ABC AB = c

AC = b

BC = a

B ↔ B C ↔ C C = C , AC = A C e BC
B ↔ B C ↔ C C = C , AC = A C e BC
B ↔ B C ↔ C C = C , AC = A C e BC

a

c b
c
b

r B C BC = a B c C b   A BC BC =

r

B

C

BC = a

B c